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TIERE
Englisch, Deutsch

J a g u a rM
ja g u a r

C arnivorous m a m m al o f C entral
a n d S o u th A m e rica w ith s p o tte d
fur; it is an e xce lle n t s w im m e r
a n d h un ts a t night.
Bildwörterbuch
TIERE

Je a n -C la u d e Corbeil
A riane Archambault

PONS GmbH
Stuttgart
INHALTSVERZEICHNIS

8 ENTWICKLUNG DES LEBENS 60 FISCHE


Evolution of life Fishes
8 Entstehung und Entwicklung der Arten 60 Knorpelfisch
62 Knochenfisch
10 EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND ECHINODERMEN
Simple organisms and echinoderms 66 AMPHIBIEN

10 Tierische Zelle Amphibians


12 Einzeller 66 Frosch
14 Schwamm 73 Beispiele für Amphibien
15 Echinodermen
74 REPTILIEN
18 INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE Reptiles
Insects and arachnids 74 Dinosaurier
18 Schmetterling 76 Schlange
24 Honigbiene 78 Schildkröte
35 Beispiele für Insekten 81 Beispiele für Reptilien
39 Beispiele für Spinnentiere
40 Spinne 84 VÖGEL
Birds
44 WEICHTIERE
84 Vogel
Molluscs 97 Unterschiedliche Vogeltypen
44 Schnecke
48 Einschalige Muschel 106 INSEKTENFRESSER
49 Zweischalige Muschel
Insectivorous mammals
52 Tintenfisch
106 Maulwurf
108 Beispiele für Insektenfresser
56 KREBSE
Crustaceans
56 Hummer
109 NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE 156 PRIMATEN
Rodents and lagomorphs Primate mammals
109 Nagetier 156 Gorilla
112 Beispiele für Nagetiere 158 Beispiele für Primaten
114 Nagetierkiefer und Hasentierkiefer
116 Beispiele für Hasentiere 160 BEUTELTIERE
Marsupial mammals
117 HUFTIERE_______________________
160 Känguru
Ungulate mammals 163 Beispiele für Beuteltiere
117 Pferd
127 Beispiele für Hufe 164 FLEDERTIERE
128 Beispiele für Huftiere
Flying mammals
164 Fledermaus
133 RAUBTIERE______________________
168 Beispiele für Fledertiere
Carnivorous mammals
133 Hund 169 REGISTER
138 Hunderassen
140 Katze
143 Katzenrassen
144 Beispiele für Raubtiere

149 MEERESSÄUGETIERE_____________
Marine mammals
149 Beispiele für Meeressäugetiere
152 Delphin
ENTWICKLUNG DES L E B E N S

Entstehung [und Entwicklung^ der ArtenF I origin and evolution of s,


Since its formation some 4.6 billion years ago, the earth has witnessed the genesis of continents and oceans
and the appearance of animals and vegetation.

Cyanobakterium^
cyanobacteria Präkambrium N
Blue-green algae, among the first living Precambrian
microscopic organisms to appear on The oldest and longest geological era,
earth. marked by the formation of continents
and the appearance of ocean life.

FarneM
ferns
Archaeognathaf These plants developed by the water’s
archaeognatha edge. Consisting of roots, a stem and
The oldest known insect fossil; it was leaves, they could reach the height of
wingless and had long antennae. present-day trees.

Ordovizium^ Karbon N
Ordovician Carboniferous
Geological period marked by the appearance of Geological period marked by the
the first vertebrates and new marine appearance of reptiles and winged
invertebrates. Corals, sponges and molluscs insects. Plants (ferns, cereals) continued
were especially abundant. evolving.

Kambrium N Silurw DevonN


Cambrian Silurian Devonian
Geological period marked by the evolution of Geological period marked by the Geological period marked by the
animals (appearance of molluscs, appearance of fish with jaws and the appearance of amphibians, insects and the
crustaceans) and the extinction of half of the first land plants. first land animals. This period saw the
marine invertebrates. proliferation o ffish and plants.
ENTWICKLUNG DES LEBENS

Entstehungf und Entwicklungf der ArtenF

Blütenpflanzen F
flowering plants
Appearing at the end of the Jurassic
period, these plant species diversified
widely over time; today, they form the
largest group of plants on earth.
Megazostrodon^
megazostrodon
About the size of a mouse and one of Homo sapiens sapiens^
the first mammals to appear on earth; a ProconsulM homo sapiens sapiens
m ainly nocturnal insectivore. proconsul The representative of the first modern
Large primate fossil, thought to be the man appeared about 100,000 years
Archaeopteryx^ ancestor of the chimpanzee. ago.
archaeopteryx
Animal fossil capable of flight; it had
certain characteristics of a reptile (claws,
teeth, long bony tail) and others of a bird
(wings, feathers).

Quartär^
Quaternary
The most recent geological period in
the earth’s history; it is marked by
glaciations and the appearance of
modern humans.

Tertiär^
Tertiary
Period marked by the diversification and
dominance of mammals (appearance of
horses, whales and others). First primates
\ also appeared.

Trias'v Juraw KreideF


Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous
Geological period marked by the breaking Geological period during which the This period was marked by the
apart of the great protocontinent, the dinosaurs ruled the world. The Atlantic extinction of 75% of plant and animal
formation of today’s continents and the Ocean was formed at this time, species, including the dinosaurs.
appearance of mammals.

Permw
Permian
Geological period marked by the
predominance of reptiles and amphibians. The
continental mass now formed into a great
protocontinent: Pangea.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND ECHINODERMEN

tierische ZelleFI animal cell


Smallest living structure and constituent unit of all animals, including human beings; its size and shape vary
according to function.

Kernmembran F
nuclear membrane
Envelope formed of two layers surrounding
the nucleus and pierced with small holes,
which allow exchanges between the
cytoplasm and the nucleus

Zellkern M
nucleus
Organelle containing a cell’s genes and
controlling its activities.
NukleolusM
nucleolus
Small, spherical body located inside the
nucleus, within which the ribosomes, or
protein-synthesizing structures, are
produced.

Chromatin N
chromatin
Mass of very fine filaments of DNA, the
genetic material of the cell; it is
compressed into chromosomes during
cell division.

Mikrotubulusw
microtubule
Cylindrical structure supporting the
cell and allowing organelles and
substances inside the cell to move
about.

Mitochondrium^
mitochondrion
Ovoid organelle that produces the
energy necessary for cell activity.

Peroxysom^
peroxisome
Organelle containing enzymes that
neutralize the cell’s toxic substances.

Zentrioiw
centriole
Structure consisting of small rods that
play a major role in cell division. Each
cell usually contains two.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND ECHINODERMEN

tierische Zellef

Ribosom N
ribosome
Organelle, free or attached to the
Lysosom^
endoplasmic reticulum, producing
lysosome
proteins essential to the constitution and
functioning of living beings. Small, spheroid organ containing enzymes
that break down food, spent cell
components and other harmful substances
that have been absorbed.

Golgi-ApparatM
Golgi apparatus
Organelle composed of a series of pockets that
receive proteins produced by the ribosomes
and either transport them outside the cell or to
other organelles.

endoplasmatisches Retikulum N
endoplasmic reticulum
Organelle formed of walls to which the
ribosomes are attached.

Mikrofilament^
microfilament
Rod-shaped structure supporting the
cell and giving it its shape.

Zytoplasma w
cytoplasm
Clear gelatinous substance
surrounding the various cellular
structures.

Vakuole f
vacuole
Spherical cavity containing water,
waste and various substances required
by the cell.

Zytoplasmamembran F
cell membrane
The cell’s flexible outer casing; it separates the
cell from the surrounding environment and
works as a filter to control the entry and exit of
certain substances.

Wimped
cilium
Filament-like extension of the
cytoplasmic membrane allowing the
cell and certain substances on its
surface to move about.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND ECHINODERMEN

Einzeller" I unicellulars
Single-cell organisms living in freshwater or salt water, in humid soil or as parasites of other organisms (plants
or animals).

Amöbe F
amoeba
Variably shaped, single-cell organism, found in
freshwater or salt water, in humid soil or,
sometimes, as a parasite of animals. It moves
about and feeds with the help of pseudopodia.

Plasmamembran F
plasma membrane
The cell’s flexible outer casing; it separates
the cell from the surrounding environment
pulsierende Vakuole F and works as a filter to control the entry
contractile vacuole and exit of certain substances.
Spheroid cavity acting as a pump to
evacuate excess water and waste from
the cell.

Pseudopodium N
pseudopod
Nahrungsvakuole F Extension of the cytoplasmic
food vacuole nucleus membrane and cytoplasm allowing the
Spheroid cavity in which the amoeba Organelle containing a cell’s genes and amoeba to move about and to trap its
traps its prey to digest it. controlling its activities. prey.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND E C H I N O D E R M E N

Einzeller'1*

Paramecium^
paramecium
Ovoid-shaped, single-cell organism
generally found in freshwater and covered
with cilia, which allow it to move about and to
feed, mainly on bacteria.

WimperF
cilia
Filament-like extension of the
cytoplasmic membrane allowing the
Nahrungsvakuole F
cell and certain substances on its
food vacuole
surface to move about.
Spheroid cavity in which food particles
from the cytopharynx are digested.
PlasmamembranF
plasma membrane
The cell’s flexible outer casing; it separates the
Mikronukleus^
cell from the surrounding environment and
micronucleus
works as a filter to control the entry and exit of
Small nucleus ensuring cell
certain substances.
reproduction.

Peristomw
peristome
Depression lined with cilia, which
undulate to direct food particles
towards the cytostome.

Zytostomw
Makronukleus M cytostome
macronucleus Opening corresponding to the mouth
Large nucleus controlling cellular and allowing ingestion of food and
activities. rejection of undesirable elements.

Zytopharynxw
cytopharynx
Zytoplasma N Fold of the plasma membrane; food
cytoplasm particles originating in the cytostome
Clear gelatinous substance are directed towards it.
surrounding the various cellular
structures.
heranwachsende Nahrungsvakuole F
forming food vacuole
The paramecium continually produces food vacuoles out
of cytoplasm ic membrane. Each food vacuole traps food
particles accumulated in the bottom of the cytopharynx.
pulsierende
contractile vacuole
Spheroid cavity acting as a pump to
evacuate excess water and waste from the
cytoproct
cell.
Orifice corresponding to the anus; the
food vacuole opens into it, allowing
waste to be eliminated.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND ECHINODERMEN

Schwamm" I sponge
Porous, multicell organism, mostly marine (currently about 5,000 species); it anchors itself to a support and
filters water to take in food particles.
Kalkschwam m w
calcareous sponge
Marine sponge with a skeleton
composed of small calcareous needles
(spicules).

Anatomie^eines Schwamms ''


Osculum w
anatomy of a sponge
osculum
Large opening protected by spicules,
through which the sponge discharges
water from the gastric cavity.
Pinakocyte^
pinacocyte
Flat, ectodermal cell form ing the outer
covering of the sponge. Wasserfluß w
water flow
Choanocyte flagella allow water to
move inside the sponge, carrying
and food particles to it.
Mesogloea^
mesohyl
Porenzelle f
Gelatinous substance, rich in water,
incurrent pore
located between the ectoderm and the
Opening into the gastric cavity,
endoderm.
through which water enters the
sponge.
Choanocyte f
choanocyte
Inner cell having a filament (flagellum), Entoderm N
which allows water to circulate and endoderm
food particles to be caught and Inner layer of the sponge formed of
digested. cells (choanocytes) whose role is
mainly to feed the organism.
Spongozöl^
spongocoel Ektoderm N
Hollow portion of the sponge covered ectoderm
with choanocytes, in which water Outer layer of the sponge formed of
circulates before exiting through the cells (pinacocytes) whose role is
osculum. mainly to protect the organism.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND E C H I N O D E R M E N

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Echinodermen" I
Marine invertebrates (currently more than 6,000 species) covered with calcareous plates; an ambulacral ossicle runs
along the body, helping the organism to move, anchor itself to a support and capture its prey.
äußere Merkmale weines Seesterns^
morphology of a starfish
Starfish: carnivorous echinoderm found in the
ocean depths; it generally has five arms, which
allow it to crawl slowly along surfaces.

StachelM
spine
More or less movable outgrowths of
calcareous plates forming the skeleton
and enabling the starfish to ward off its
predators.

Armw
arm
Movable appendage radiating around the
central disk; it has a mainly tactile and
olfactory function. The starfish can
regenerate an amputated arm.
ZentralscheibeF
central disk
Central region of the body; the
starfish’s arms are attached to it

Madreporenplattef
madreporite
Porous dorsal plate that allows water to
enter the body; it connects the ambulacral
ossicle to the outside world, and thus
ensures locomotion.

eyespot
Small, light-sensitive structure located
at the terminal end of each arm,
allowing it to locate surfaces and prey. Ambulakralfüßchen^
tube foot
Small flexible tube extending and retracting with
the action of the ampulla; it mainly allows the
organism to move about, anchor itself to a
support and capture its prey.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND E C H IN 0 DERMEN

Echinodermen"

I Anatomie deines SeesternsM


anatomy of a starfish
blinder Enddarm^
rectal caecum
Lateral duct of the terminal part of the
digestive tract, where waste is stored
before being expelled through the
anus.

AfterM
anus
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
allowing waste to be ejected; most of the
undigested food is regurgitated rather than
expelled through the anus.

Genitalporusw
Darmblindschlauch M
genital pore
intestine Dorsal opening through which
Section of the digestive tract between the gametes (spermatozoids and ovules)
stomach and the anus where absorption
are expelled into the water to be
of nutrients is carried out and waste is
fertilized.
transformed into fecal matter.

Magen M
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tract
preceding the intestine; it receives food
to be digested.

Ösophagus^
oesophagus
Muscular, membranous channel of the
anterior section of the digestive tract; it
allows food to reach the stomach.

RadiärkanalM-
radial canal
Canal running the length of the arm; it
receives water from the annular canal,
which then passed into the tube feet.

mouth
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
located on the ventral surface that
allows food to be ingested.
EINFACHE ORGANISMEN UND ECHINODERMEN

Echinodermen"

DarmblindsackM Seeigel ^
pyloric caecum sea urchin
Radiated duct of the digestive tract Echinoderm found in the ocean depths and
producing digestive enzymes and also usually covered with movable quills; it has
allowing digested food to be stored. teeth that help it to graze on (rake) algae.

Ampulle^
ampulla
Bulb that contracts to let water enter the
tube foot, allowing it to extend; when it
dilates, the foot retracts.

' GonadeF
gonad
Each of the two glands located in each
arm, producing gametes (spermatozoids
or ovules) depending on the sex of the
starfish.

RingkanalM
ring canal
Circular canal in which filtered water
enters through the madreporite and
branches out into the radiated canals.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Schmetterling^ I butterfly_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Adult insect having two pairs of wings and three pairs of legs; it emerges after the first three stages of
metamorphosis: the egg, the caterpillar and the chrysalis.

äußere M erkm ale^eines Schmetterlings^


morphology of a butterfly
Thorax ^
thorax
Portion of the butterfly’s body divided
into three segments; it contains the
m otor appendages, such as the legs
and wings.

KopfM
head
Anterior portion of the butterfly’s body
containing the sensory organs and the
brain.

Facettenauge N
compound eye
Organ of vision made up of thousands
Antenne F of facets that perceive shapes, colours,
antenna motion and distance.
Sensory organ made up of several
segments and having mainly tactile and Lippentaster^
olfactory functions.

RüsselM
proboscis
M outh-like part allowing the butterfly
to feed through aspiration; the
proboscis folds back onto itself to
avoid interfering with flight.
Vorderbein N
foreleg
Articulated member attached to the first
Mittelbein N
segment of the thorax and having
powerful sensory organs. middle leg
Large, articulated member attached to
the central segment of the thorax and
having powerful sensory organs.

Hinterbein N
hindleg
Large, articulated member attached to
the terminal segment of the thorax and
having powerful sensory organs.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Schmetterling"

ZelleF
cell
Constituent element of a butterfly’s
wing contained between the wing
veins.

VorderflügelM
Hinterbein^
forewing
hind leg
Appendage of flight attached to the
Large, articulated member attached to
central segment of the thorax.
the terminal segment of the thorax and
having powerful sensory organs.
FlügeladerF
wing vein HüfteF—
Protruding line that gives the wing its coxa
rigidity and enables the blood to Anterior segment of the leg articulating
circulate. with the thorax and the trochanter.

Hinterflügel m
hind wing Schenkelring M
Appendage of flight attached to the trochanter
terminal segment of the thorax. Segment of the leg between the hip and
the femur.

SchenkelM /
femur
Segment of the leg between the
trochanter and the tibia.

Schiene^"
tibia
Segment of the leg between the femur
and the tarsus.

FußM "
tarsus
Terminal segment of the leg, divided
into five parts and having two claws.

Stigmaw Klaue F
spiracle claw
Respiratory orifice located on the Pointy, fang-shaped structure attached
lateral portion of the thorax and to the tarsus and enabling the butterfly
abdomen; the butterfly has some to cling to things and feed itself.
HinterleibM
10 pairs.
abdomen
Posterior portion of the butterfly’s body made
up of 10 segments and containing the major
vital organs, such as the heart, the intestines
and the genital organs.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Schmetterling"

Anatomie/ eines weiblichen


Schmetterlings^
anatomy of a female butterfly

Herz/v
heart
Ösophagusw Muscular organ helping blood to
oesophagus circulate.
Canal in the anterior part of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
crop.
dorsales Blutgefäß N
dorsal blood vessel
Canal through which the blood
circulates; it is located on the central
line of the back of the insect.

Speicheldrüse F
salivary gland
Organ located in the buccal cavity; it
secretes saliva and enables the
digestion of food.

Large bulge at the back of the


oesophagus; it can dilate to receive
food.

Darmw
intestine
tract extending
crop to the anus.
INSEKTEN UND S P I N N E N T I ER E

Schmetterling**

Malpighi-Gefäßew
Malpighian tubules
Fine tubes appended to the intestine
and helping in the excretion process.

Ovarium N Begattungstasche F
ovary copuiatory bursa
Female genital gland producing the Pouch in which sperm accumulates
eggs. before entering the seminal receptacle.

Spermatheka/7
seminal receptacle
Pouch where sperm is stored for
fertilizing the eggs.

Kolon N
colon
Portion of the intestine in front of the
rectum.

Eileiter^
oviduct
Canal through which the eggs are
expelled from the ovaries.

Öffnung^der Begattungskammer/7 Rektum N


opening of copuiatory bursa rectum
Opening allowing copulation by the Terminal part of the intestine located
male butterfly and entry of sperm into between the colon and the anus.
the copuiatory bursa.

AfterM
anus
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
enabling ejection of fecal matter.
INSEKTEN UND S P I N N E N T I E R E

Schmetterling"

!
Puppef
chrysalis
Intermediary stage between the
caterpillar and the butterfly; the limbs
and internal organs develop during
this stage.

Kremasterw
cremaster
Affixing element having one or more
hooks; it is located at the posterior
terminal end of the chrysalis’s body.

Stigmaw
Hinterleib^ spiracle
abdomen Respiratory orifice located on the
Posterior portion of the chrysalis’s lateral portion of the thorax and the
body. abdomen.

FlügelM
wing
Embryo that w ill become the organ of
flight; it is attached to the thorax.

Antenne F
Metathorax w
antenna
metathorax
Embryo that w ill become the sensory
Embryo that w ill become the terminal organ; it has several segments and its
segment of the thorax; the legs and functions are mainly tactile and olfactory.
rear wings are attached to it.

MesothoraxM
mesothorax
Embryo that w ill become the central
segment of the thorax; the middle legs
and front wings are attached to it.

Prothorax w
prothorax
Embryo that w ill become the first
segment of the thorax; the front legs
are attached to it, but not the wings.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

SchmetterlingM
Raupef
caterpillar
Kopf** Butterfly larva having a long body and
head 10 feet; the intermediary stage between
Anterior portion of the body of the the egg and the chrysalis.
caterpillar containing the main sensory
organs.
Punktauge^
simple eye
Organ of vision formed of a single facet
that captures variations in lum inosity
and allows the caterpillar to orient
itself.

UnterkieferM
mandible
" M outh-like part enabling the insect to
grasp and grind its food.

- Thorax w
thorax
Part of the caterpillar’s body divided
into three segments; the walking legs
are attached to it.

Hinterleibssegment^
Lauf bei nN abdominal segment
walking leg Ring form ing the caterpillar’s
Articulated member having a motor abdomen.
function; it remains in the adult stage.
The caterpillar has three pairs.

Bauchfuß M /
proleg
Adhesive disk located below the
abdomen that disappears in the adult
stage; the caterpillar usually has five Analfuß M
pairs, including the anal claspers. anal proleg
Last of five pairs of prolegs; it is
located at the terminal part of the
caterpillar’s body.
INSEKTEN UND S P I N N E N T I E R E

HonigbieneF I honeybee_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Insect living in a highly complex social order; it instinctively produces honey as a food reserve.

äußere Merkmale^ einer Honigbiene F\ Arbeiterin^


morphology of a honeybee: worker

Flügelw
wing
Organ of flight attached to the thorax.
In the bee, the front and rear wings on
each side are attached and beat
together.

Hinterleib M
abdomen
Segmented, posterior portion of a
bee’s body containing the major vital
organs.

Pollenkörbchen N-
pollen basket
Hollow bordered by long curved hairs
and located on the outer side of the
tibia; it is used to transport pollen.
StachelM
sting
Pointed, retractable organ located at Hinterbein N-
the terminal end of the abdomen; hindleg
venom flows through it from the venom Highly specialized, articulated member
sac. attached to the terminal segment of the
thorax; it has a motor function and is
used to collect and transport pollen.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene^

Thorax^
thorax
Portion of a bee’s body divided into
three segments housing the motor
appendages, such as the legs and
wings.

Facettenaugew
compound eye
Organ of vision made up of thousands of
facets that perceive shapes, colours,
m otion and distance.

Mundwerkzeuge N
mouthparts
Appendages used for grasping and
ingesting food; adapted to the
collection of nectar.

Antenne^
antenna
Sensory organ made up of several
segments and having mainly tactile
and olfactory functions.

Vorderbein N
Mittelbein N foreleg
middle leg Articulated member attached to the first
Non-specialized, articulated member segment of the thorax; it has a motor
attached to the central segment of the function and is used to clean the eyes
thorax; it has a motor function and is and the antennae.
used to clean the thorax and the wings.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene'
Hinterbein N(Innenseite 0
hind leg (inner surface)
Highly specialized, articulated member attached to the
terminal segment of the thorax; it has a motor function
and is used to collect and transport pollen.

Pollenkamm M
pecten
Row of stiff hairs located at the tibia
articulation of the worker bee; it is used
to press pollen into the pollen basket.

Pollenzange F
pollen press
Articulation where the tibia and the tarsus meet;
it is used to compress the pollen before
M ittelbein/v(Außenseite 0
moving it to the pollen basket. -
middle leg (outer surface)
Pollenschieberw Non-specialized articulated member attached to
auricle the central segment of the thorax; it has a motor
Row of hairs located at the upper terminal end function and is used to clean the thorax and the
of the worker bee’s metatarsus; it is used to wings.
move the pollen to the pollen packer, where it
is compressed.
Pollenbürste F
pollen brush
Row of hairs located on the metatarsus
of the worker bee; it is used to collect
pollen.

Sporn M

Movable appendage located on the tibia and used to release the


pollen from the legs.

PollenbürsteF
pollen brush
Row of hairs located on the metatarsus-
of the worker bee; it is used to collect
pollen.

Klaue F
claw
Pointy, hook-shaped structure attached
to the tarsus and allowing the bee to
grab hold of things. FußM
tarsus
Terminal segment of the leg; it is
divided into five parts and has two
claws.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene'
Vorderbein w(Außenseite 0 1
foreleg (outer surface) I
Articulated member attached to the first
Hüfte^ segment of the thorax; it has a motor function
coxa and is used to clean the eyes and the antennae.
Anterior segment of the leg articulating
with the thorax and the trochanter.

First segment of the tarsus attached to


the tibia; it is much larger than the
other segments.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene^
KopfM
head
Anterior portion of the body containing Punktaugew
the sensory organs and the brain. simple eye
Organ of vision formed of a single facet
that captures variations in lum inosity
and allows the bee to orient itself. Facettenauge w
compound eye
Organ of vision made up of thousands of
facets that perceive shapes, colours,
motion and distance.

Antenne F
antenna
Sensory organ made up of several
segments and having mainly tactile
and olfactory functions.

Oberlippe^ M

upper lip mandible


External mouthpart located above the Hard, corneous mouthpart serving as a
m andibles and form ing the roof of the pincer to grasp food; it also serves to
buccal cavity. shape the wax used to build cells.

OberkieferM
maxilla
LippentasterM Moveable mouthpart with a palp; it is
labial palp located beneath the mandibles and is
Sensory organ of the mouth having used to masticate food.
m ainly olfactory and gustatory
functions.
'Zunge^
tongue
Long hairy movable mouthpart that
helps to collect nectar.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene^
KastenF
castes 1
The three types of bees in a hive are
classified according to their function:
the queen, the drones and the workers.

Königin^
queen
The only reproductive female in the
colony, whose sole function is to lay
eggs; it is fertilized by five to
10 drones.

Arbeiterin^ Drohnef
worker drone
Sterile female who does various tasks, Stingless male bee; its only function is
such as searching for food, building to reproduce.
cells and defending the colony.
INSEKTEN UND S P I N N E NT I E R E

HonigbieneF

Anatomie/ einer Honigbiene


Herz/v
anatomy of a honeybee
heart
Muscular organ helping blood to
circulate.

Malpighi-Gefäßw
Malpighian tubule
Fine tube appended to the intestine and
helping in the excretion process.

Rektum^
rectum
Terminal end of the intestine preceding
the anus.

GiftdrüseF
venom sac
Receptacle joined to the venom gland
and containing the poisons it
produces.

Mitteldarm M
mid-gut crop
Portion of the digestive tract behind the Large bulge in the digestive tract
crop where food is converted. located behind the oesophagus, used
to store honey.
Rückengefäß N
dorsal aorta
Main artery running along the back
and connecting to the heart; it allows
blood to circulate throughout the body.

Nervensystem N
nerve cord
Main element of the nervous system
extending throughout the body.

GehirnN
brain
Main organ of the nervous system; it is
located in the head.

Pharynx^
pharynx
Portion of the digestive tract between
the mouth and the oesophagus.

SpeichelkanalM
salivary duct
oesophagus Duct joined to the salivary gland
Canal in the anterior part of the carrying saliva to the mouth.
digestive tract; it carries food to the
crop.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene'1
Bienenstock^
hive
Shelter constructed to house a bee
colony that produces honey and
pollinates fruit trees.

Ausflugloch N
exit cone
Opening through which bees exit the
hive, but never enter it.

roof section
Movable outer covering of the hive,
form ing its roof and frame.

Honigraum M
super
Removable container used to collect
the surplus honey reserves.

Rähmchen N
frame
Wax-coated, removable wooden frame;
it is used as a foundation for building
combs.

Flugbrettchen^
alighting board
Edge of the hive allowing the bees to
land and take off.

Einflugloch N
entrance
Opening of the hive allowing the bees
to enter and exit.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene'

Dach^
roof
Top of the hive providing protection.

Wabef
honeycomb
Cake of wax made by bees in the hive
made up of cells placed side by side and
filled with honey or used as brood
chambers for embryos.

ZelleF
cell
Hexagonal cavity contained within
walls of wax, the constituent unit of
honeycombs.

Absperrgitter^
queen excluder
Wire frame separating the brood chamber
from the super; it prevents the queen from
entering while allowing the worker bees to
pass through.

BrutraumM
brood chamber
Part of the hive formed of combs; its
cells house the queen, eggs, larvae,
chrysalis and reserves of pollen and
honey.

Gehäuse^
hive body
Main portion of the hive enclosing the
brood chamber.

FluglochschieberM
entrance slide
Movable wooden slat for decreasing or
enlarging the size of the entrance, mainly to
prevent small animals from entering the hive.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Honigbiene'

WabenausschnittM
honeycomb section Honigzelle^
honey cell
Cell in which workers store the honey
they produced as larva food and winter
reserves.

PuppeF
chrysalis LarveF Pollenzellef
Intermediary stage between the larva larva pollen cell
and the adult bee, lasting between four Intermediary stage between the egg Cell in which workers store the pollen
and 10 days. and the chrysalis. used to feed the colony.

verdeckelte ZelleF
sealed cell
Reproductive method of certain animals: Sealed with a wax cover, it might
living cell with a casing and a food contain a chrysalis, honey or pollen.
reserve, laid by the queen bee.

WeiselwiegeF
queen cell
Large cell for the egg that w ill become
the new queen.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Beispielewfür Insekten" I examples of insects


Insects: invertebrates with bodies divided into three parts; they usually have three pairs of legs, two pairs of
wings and antennae. |

Tsetsefliege F Termite F
tsetse fly termite
Stinging African insect; a parasite of Social insect that lives in hill colonies;
mammals, birds and humans; it is best it eats away at wood with its crushing
known for transmitting sleeping mouthparts.
sickness.

m
F lohM Lau sF Moskito M
flea louse mosquito
Extremely small, wingless leaping insect, Small, wingless insect, a parasite of Insect with two wings and long
a parasite of certain mammals, birds and humans, mammals, birds and certain antennae; the female stings humans
humans; it stings them to feed off their plants. and animals to feed off their blood.
blood.

Fliege^ Ameise^ Bockkäfer^


fly ant furniture beetle
Stocky insect of drab or metallic Small, social insect living in a highly complex Small insect, common throughout
colouring and having a proboscis, two colony; it has developed jaws and m ight or Europe; its larva feeds on lumber and
wings and short antennae; there are might not have wings. It consumes mainly dead wood.
numerous species. insect pests.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Beispiele^für Insekten"

Totengräber^ M arienkäfer^ Schildw anzeF


sexton beetle ladybird shield bug
Insect that lays its eggs on dead animals Brightly coloured round-bodied insect Small, flat-bodied land insect that stings
or decomposing matter, which it buries; that preys on aphids and mealy bugs. and sucks, a parasite of humans, animals
the egg cache gives off a strong musky and plants: it releases an unpleasant odour
smell. as a defence.

Bremse^ Hornisse F W espef


cleg hornet wasp
Large fly found in warm countries; the Large wasp with a painful and Social insect; the female has a
female stings animals and occasionally dangerous sting; it feeds mainly on venomous sting that is painful.
humans to feed off their blood. insects and fruit.

Hum m ed orientalische Schabe^


bumblebee oriental cockroach
Plump, hairy insect related to the bee; Scurrying, flat-bodied nocturnal insect that is
it lives in colonies and produces w idely dispersed; some species live in
honey. human dwellings, feeding on waste matter. It
emits an unpleasant odour.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Beispiele"für Insekten*

Zikade^ Maikäfer^
cicada cockchafer
Large, sap-sucking insect; the male Common garden insect with fringed
produces a shrill monotone sound in antennae; it eats leaves and tree roots.
hot weather. Infestations of this pest can cause
serious damage.

W asserkäferw Nachtigall F-Grashüpferw


water bug bow-winged grasshopper
Large, carnivorous insect with a lean Hopping insect with short antennae
flat body; it is widely dispersed and and powerful hind legs; it lives
lives in aquatic environments. especially in hot climates and emits an
intense lively song.

Laubheuschrecke F Gottesanbeterin F
great green bush-cricket mantid
Carnivorous, leaping insect with long Long-bodied, carnivorous insect found in
antennae, growing to 3 to 4 cm in tropical regions and blending in with its
length; the male produces a shrill surroundings; its pincer-shaped front legs
sound. have spines.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIE

Beispiele"für Insekten*

Monarchfalterw
monarch butterfly
Large, diurnal, m igratory butterfly with spotted wings;
its caterpillar feeds exclusively on a wild plant called the
butterfly bush.

Birkenspanner^
peppered moth
Large butterfly with delicate wings,
active at night or at dawn; its caterpillar
lives in birch trees, causing major
damage.

Libelle^
dragonfly
Long-bodied, carnivorous insect found
near water, having four rigid wings and the
largest compound eyes of any insect.

Wasserläufer^
water strider
Widespread, carnivorous insect with a
long thin body and six legs, of which the
four longest help it to move across water.

Atlasspinner^
atlas moth
Large, nocturnal butterfly with coloured
wings and a wingspan that can reach more
than 30 cm; it is found mainly in Southeast
Asia.

I
38
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Beispielewfür Spinnentiere" I examples of arachnids


Arachnids: invertebrates usually with four pairs of legs and two pairs of appendages attached to their heads.

Krabbenspinne^
crab spider
Widespread, small arachnid that
moves sideways and has powerful
front legs; it changes colour to catch
its prey.

Gartenkreuzspinne M
garden spider
Arachnid with a bulging stomach that W asserspinnef
weaves large webs and is com monly found water spider
in fields and gardens; its various species Aquatic arachnid found in Eurasia; to live
can be found around the world. in the water, it weaves a kind of bell that it
fills with air and carries along on the hairs
of its abdomen.

Zecke F
tick
Extremely small arachnid; parasite of
animals and occasionally humans;
can transmit infectious diseases.

Skorpion M Mexikanische Rotknievogelspinne^


scorpion red-kneed tarantula
Relatively large, carnivorous arachnid with Large, hairy arachnid found in Mexico, having a
spines, usually found on land; it has painful but usually innocuous bite; it lives
pincers and its abdomen ends in a tail underground in a closed compartment or cocoon.
with a poisonous sting.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Spinne*7 1 spider
Articulated arachnid with fangs and silk-producing glands; it ranges in size from a fraction of a millimetre to
about 20 cm.

äußere Merkmale deiner Spinne^


morphology of a spider

Hinterleib M
abdomen
Cephalothoraxw Posterior portion of the body of a SpinnwarzeF
cephalothorax spider containing the main vital spinneret
Meeting point of the head and the organs, including the heart, the Appendage located near the anus,
thorax forming the anterior portion of intestines and the genital organs. where the silk glands end; the spider
the spider’s body. generally has three pairs.

Laufbein^
walking leg
Articulated member supporting the
body and allowing the spider to move;
a spider usually has eight.

eye
Organ of vision joined to the brain by a
nerve; the spider usually has four pairs
of sim ple eyes.

KiefertasterM Giftklaue^
pedipalp fang
Member sim ilar to a walking leg and Curved part below the eyes and
having a tactile and prehensile attached to the venom gland; it allows
function; a spider has two. the spider to catch its prey and to inject
it with venom.
Spinnennetz^
spider web
Network of silk threads woven by a
spider; it solidifies in the air.
VerankerungspunktM
anchor point Tragfadenw
Place where the spider affixes the web’s support thread
support threads. Terminal end of a radial thread between
the last spiral and the anchor point.

NabeF Speiche F Klebfadenw


hub radial thread spiral thread
Silk thread form ing circles around the Each of the threads that join one Silk thread form ing circles and joining
centre and acting as the juncture point anchor point to the centre of the web. the radial threads to strengthen them.
of the radii to strengthen the web.
INSEKTEN UND SPINNENTIERE

Spinnef

Anatomie einer w eiblichen SpinneF


anatomy of a female spider

Saugmagen^
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tract
Auge^ preceding the intestine; it receives food
eye to be digested.
Organ of vision joined to the brain by a
nerve; the spider usually has four pairs
of sim ple eyes.
GiftdrüseF
poison gland
Organ producing an acidic secretion
made of venom;.it is attached to the
fa n g .*.

GehirnA/- " "


brain
Main organ of the nervous system; it is
located in the cephalothorax.

Giftklaue^ Coxaldriisef
fang coxal gland
Curved part below the eyes and Organ appended to the hip and
attached to the venom gland; it allows producing a secretion that contributes
the spider to catch its prey and to inject to excretion.
it with venom.

ÖsophagusM
oesophagus
Canal of the anterior portion of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
stomach.
Mitteldarm M
intestine
Section of the digestive tract between the
stomach and the anus where nutrients are
absorbed and waste is turned into fecal
Herz^ matter. Mitteldarmdrüsen F
heart digestive glands
Muscular organ helping blood to Organs producing secretions that
circulate. contribute to digestion.
Ovidukt^
oviduct
Canal through which the eggs are
expelled from the ovaries. Ovarium N
ovary
Female genital gland producing the
eggs.

Kloake f
cloaca
Orifice common to the intestine and the
genital and urinary tracts; it is located
at the terminal end of the digestive
,-tract.

AfterM
anus
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
-enabling ejection of fecal matter.

FächerlungeF Vagina^ Spinnwarzef


book lung vagina spinneret
Respiratory organ that helps to oxygenate Female organ of copulation located on Appendage located near the anus,
the blood; the respiratory system has one the ventral face of the abdomen. where the silk glands end; the spider
or two pairs, depending on the type of generally has three pairs.
spider.

HllnddarmM Spermathekaf Spinndrüsen F


coca seminal receptacle silk glands
I literal canal located in the anterior Pouch where sperm is stored for Silk-secreting organs located in the
portion of the intestine where a part of fertilizing the eggs. abdomen and ending in the spinneret.
digestion and fermentation take place.

43
WEICHTIERE

Schnecke^ I snail
Hermaphrodite herbivore land mollusc having a spiral shell; some species of snails are edible.

äußere Merkm ale^einer Schnecke^


morphology of a snail

Apexw

Crown from which the shell grows.

Windung^

Each of the swirls around the apex;


they increase in diameter and form the
shell.

FußM
foot
Large, elongated muscular organ
forming the lower portion of the snail
and containing the head; it allows the
snail to crawl.

44
WEICHTIERE

Schnecke^

Gehäuse^
shell
Calcareous, spiral casing formed of
three successive layers that protect the
organs; the snail can withdraw into its
/S hell.

Zuwachsstreifen M
growth line
Thin, irregular protuberance of the
whorl of the shell, corresponding to its Auge^
successive growths. eye
Organ of vision located at the terminal
end of the eyestalk; the snail has poor
eyesight.

Augenträgerw
eyestalk
Large, muscular appendage, elongated
and retractable, bearing an eye at its
terminal end.

kleiner TentakelM
mouth tentacle
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract Small, muscular appendage, long and
having a jaw and a rough tongue retractable, having a tactile role.
(radula) to graze on plants.
WEICHTIERE

Schneckef

Anatom iefeiner Schnecke^


anatomy of a snail
NiereF Herz/v
kidney heart
Organ secreting urine; it eliminates Muscular organ helping blood to
toxic substances from the body. circulate.
\ Darmw
ZwitterdrüseF \ \ intestine
Zwittergang M ovotestis \ \ Section of the digestive tract between the
hermaphroditic duct Genital gland located at the apex of the shell \ stomach and the anus where absorption of
Channel into which the ovotestis and ensuring production of sperm and eggs; the \ nutrients is carried out and waste is
albumen gland open; it separates into a snail has both male and female organs. \ transformed into fecal matter.
sperm duct and an egg duct that remain,
nonetheless, conjoined.

EiweißdrüseF
albumen gland
Organ opening into the hermaphroditic duct
and secreting a viscous substance, which
surrounds the fertilized ovum and contributes
to the development of the egg.........

Befruchtungstasche f
copuiatory bursa
Sac where sperm accumulate before........
entering the spermatheca.

Spermathekaf
spermatheca
Pouch discharging into the vagina and-
housing the sperm used to fertilize the
eggs.

Ureter^
ureter
Long canal originating in the kidney-
and carrying urine to the excretory
orifice.

Magen M
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tra c t-''
preceding the intestine; it receives food
to be digested.

Flagellumw " ' ''


flagellum
Movable filament appended to the . .. /
penis allowing sperm to move about Harnleitermündung After
during copulation. excretory pore anus
Terminal opening of the ureter allowing Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
urine to be evacuated. enabling ejection of fecal matter.
WEICHTIERE

Schnecke*"

LungeF
hing
Pouch formed of a network of blood
vessels inside the shell; it ensures
inspiration and communicates with the
outside through an orifice.

Kropff SpeicheldrüseF
crop salivary gland
Large sac located beyond the Organ located in the buccal cavity; it Pfeilsackw
oesophagus, where food isheld before secretes saliva and enables the dart sac
being digested in the stomach. digestion of food. Calcareous part located inside the
vagina containing the dart with which
. F snails sting one another to achieve
V agm a ^arousal before copulation.
vagina
Female organ of copulation located on
the ventral surface of the foot, lateral to Ösophagus M
the penis. oesophagus
' Canal in the anterior part of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
..--crop.

x "' , x '' FußdrüseF


xx pedal gland
, x '' Organ of the foot located near the
, x ''' mouth; it secretes an adhesive
, x '' substance that allows the snail to
, x '' , x crawl.
RadulaF
radula
Tongue bearing numerous small
% L """ , ................ corneous teeth allowing the snail to
ab..,. grasp and tear up food before ingesting

m 3 * ....
y ..... MundM
......................... mouth
%.'............................" " ......... Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
having a jaw and a rough tongue
(radula) to graze on plants.

Genitalöffnung f
, x genital pore
Bimenleiter^ x Penis M Opening common to the penis and the
spermatheca! duct penis vagina and located at the side of the head;
Male genital duct carrying sperm Male organ of copulation, internal it allows copulation and entry of the sperm
towards the penis. when at rest; it is located on the ventral into the copuiatory bursa,
face of the foot, lateral to the vagina.
WE I C H T I E R E

einschalige MuscheK I univale_shil_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Land or aquatic mollusc having a foot and head, which retract into a spiral shell made of a single piece.

äußere Merkmale'''einer einschaligen Muschel'7


morphology of a univalve shell

Spindel'7
columella
Solid axis of the shell that can be solid
or hollow; the whorls turn around it.
ApexM
apex
Crown from which the shell grows.
Naht'7
suture
Embryonalgewinde Line marking the successive whorls of
nuclear whorl the shell.
First complete turn of the shell formed
at the larval stage. Mündung'7
aperture
Orifice of the last complete turn
allowing the head and foot of the
Windung^ m ollusc to exit; it also withdraws into
whorl its shell through this opening.
Each of the swirls around the apex,
except the last; they increase in
diameter and form the shell.

Axialrippe^
axial rib
Protruding line on the whorl of the
shell parallel to the columella.

Spiralskulptur'7
spiral rib
Protruding line on the whorl of the '''''AußenlippeF
shell parallel to the suture line. outer lip
Outer wall of the opening made by the
last complete turn of the shell,
opposite the inner lip.

Innenlippe'7
inner lip
Inner wall of the opening made by the
last complete turn of the shell,
opposite the outer lip.

SiphonalkanalM Spindelfaltef
siphonal canal columella fold
Tubular extension of the opening of the Small protuberance located along the
last complete turn allowing water to columella.
circulate.
WE I C H T I E R E

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ zweischalige M uschelF I
Aquatic mollusc without a defined head but having a foot, which retracts into a shell formed of two inter­
articulated parts.

äußere Merkmaleweiner zweischaligen Muschel'7


morphology of a bivalve shell

vorderes Ende/'/ -
anteriorend
Front terminal end of the shell located
opposite the posterior lip; it allows the Lunula'7
foot to exit. lunule
Dorsal depression of the two valves in front
of the umbones; its surface is smooth, unlike
the rest of the shell.

WirbelM
umbo
Protuberance at the terminal end of the
valve, from which the shell grows.

Schloßband N
ligament Schildchen N
Corneous structure located behind the escutcheon
umbones and joining both valves of Dorsal depression of the two valves
the shell; its elasticity allows them to behind the umbones, through which the
pull apart. ligament extends; its surface is smooth,
unlike the rest of the shell.
Zuwachsstreifen M
growth line
Small, irregular protuberance on the
valves of the shell indicating the stages hinteres Ende'''
of growth. posterior end
Rear terminal end of the shell, opposite
the anterior lip, through which water
■enters and exits.

KlappeF
valve
Each of the two parts of a bivalve shell,
joined by a ligament.
WEICHTIERE

zweischalige Muschel'

Anatomier einer zweischaligen MuschelF SchaleF


anatomy of a bivalve shell shell Herz'v
Calcareous casing produced by the heart
mantle; it has three layers and protects Muscular organ helping blood to
the main organs of the mollusc. circulate.

Schloßband N
ligament
Corneous structure located behind the
umbones and joining both valves of
the shell; its elasticity allows them to
pull apart.

hinterer SchließmuskelM
posterior adductor muscle
Powerful muscle attached to both
inside surfaces of the valves; it
contracts to open or close them
quickly.

Afterw
anus
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
enabling ejection of fecal matter.

Eingeweideganglion N
visceral ganglion
Small sac located near the posterior
abductor muscle; the nervous system is
made up of three pairs of ganglia
(cerebropleural, visceral and pedal).

Nieref
kidney
Organ secreting urine; it eliminates
toxic substances from the body.

Kiemen F
gills
Respiratory organs located between the
foot and the mantle, formed of two layers
of ciliated filaments, which filter water
and retain food particles. mantle
Thick fold of tissue form ing two lateral
Darm'w
lobes; it envelops the organic mass of
intestine
the m ollusc and secretes its shell.
Section of the digestive tract between the
stomach and the anus where absorption of
nutrients is carried out and waste is
transformed into fecal matter.
WEICHTIERE

zweischalige Muschel'

Wirbelw
umbo
Protuberance at the terminal end of the
valve, from which the shell grows.

Mitteldarmdrüse F
digestive gland
Organ producing a secretion that
contributes to digestion.

Magen M
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tract
preceding the intestine; it receives food
to be digested.

- Kopfganglion N
cerebropleural ganglion
Small sac located near the anterior
abductor muscle; the nervous system is
made up of three pairs of ganglia
(cerebropleural, visceral and pedal).

vorderer SchließmuskelM
anterior adductor muscle
Muscle attached to both inside surfaces of
the valves that contracts to open or close
them quickly; it is less powerful than the
posterior abductor muscle.

LippentasterM

Mouthpart that grasps food particles


deposited on the gills and carries them
to the mouth.

Mundöffnung F
mouth
GonadeF Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
gonad surrounded by four palps, which
Genital gland producing spermatozoa enable food particles to enter.
(sperm) or ova (eggs), depending on
the sex of the mollusc.

FußM
foot
Short, flat, movable, muscular organ
located on the ventral surface; it allows the
snail to move or to attach itself to a support
using elastic filaments.
WE I C H T I E R E

Tintenfisch M
_ I octopus_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Carnivorous marine mollusc with a head bearing eight powerful arms covered with suckers; the octopus can
change colour to camouflage itself. Certain species are edible.

äußere Merkmale^eines TintenfischsM


morphology of an octopus

TentakelM
tentacle
Long, powerful muscular appendage
located around the mouth and used for
locomotion and grasping.

Saugnapf
sucker
Adhesive disk surrounded by a flexible
ring located on the ventral surface of
the tentacle and used for suction and
anchoring.
WEICHTIERE

Tintenfisch"
WEICHTIERE

Tintenfisch"

Anatomie^ eines TintenfischsM


anatomy of an octopus
SchädelM
skull
Bony structure enclosing and
Gehirn^ protecting the brain.
brain
Main organ of the nervous system; it is
located in the head.-,v

Kiefer^
beak
Corneous formation consisting of a
jaw capable of crushing, and allowing
the octopus to catch its prey and inject
it with venom.

Giftdrüse F-
poison gland
Organ producing an acidic secretion
that forms the venom, which the
octopus injects into its prey through its
beak.

Mitteldarmdrüse F /
digestive gland
Organ producing a secretion that
contributes to digestion.

TintenbeutelM
ink sac
Reservoir containing an ink-producing
gland; when threatened, the octopus
releases the ink through the siphon into
the water to hide its flight.
WEICHTIERE

Tintenfisch"

Mantelmuskeln M
mantle muscles
Muscles contracting to force water out of
Ihe dorsal mantle cavity through the siphon
Kropfw
mid allowing the octopus to propel itself
crop
through the water.
Large sac located beyond the
oesophagus, where food is held before
■being digested in the stomach.

MantelhöhleF
dorsal mantle cavity Magen M
Chamber formed of folds of the mantle; stomach
it contains the main organs, especially Dilated section of the digestive tract
„ ..- th e gills, and connects to the outside. preceding the intestine; it receives food
.-to be digested.

SchaleF
Shell
-S m a ll, internal calcareous structure
produced by the mantle; certain
species do not have shells.

-Blinddarm^
caecum
Lateral canal located in the anterior
portion of the intestine where
especially a part of digestion and
fermentation take place.

-Herz^
heart
Muscular organ helping blood to
circulate.

'"'Nieref -Gonade^
kidney gonad
Organ secreting urine; it eliminates Genital gland producing spermatozoa
toxic substances from the body. (sperm) or ova (eggs), depending on
the sex of the mollusc.

KlemeF ' AfterM


gill anus
Respiratory organ located in the dorsal Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
mantle cavity and covered with ciliated enabling ejection of fecal matter.
cells; muscles help to circulate water
through the gills.
KREBSE

HummerM I lobster
Large marine crustacean having a carapace and five large pairs of legs, the first of which bears powerful claws;
its meat is highly prized.

äußere MerkmaleNeines Hummers^


morphology of a lobster

Brustbeine^ Kopfbruststiick^
thoracic legs cephalothorax
Articulated limbs attached to the cephalothorax Meeting of the head and the thorax that forms
“and having a prehensile and motor function; the the anterior portion of the body of the lobster.
first three legs bear pincer claws while the last
two bear claws.

Hinterleib^
abdomen
Posterior portion of the body formed of six
segments and bearing the pleopods, articulated
appendages used for swimming, circulating water Telsonw
over the gills and holding the eggs. telson
Terminal end of the body having no
appendages; the anus is located on its
ventral surface. It comprises the central
part of the tail.

SchwanzM
tail
Swimming organ formed of the telson and the Schwanzfächerw
two uropods. uropod
Articulated appendage attached to the
last abdominal segment before the
telson; it is formed of two lobes and
helps the lobster to swim.*
KREBSE

Hummer"

Antenne^
antenna
Long sensory organ having a tactile
function.

Antennula^
antennule
Very short, sensory organ covered with
fine hairs and located in front of the
head; it has an olfactory function.

SchereF
claw
Articulate appendage located at the
terminal end of the first three pairs of
legs; it has a prehensile, defensive and,
more rarely, motor function.

Auge^
eye
Organ of sight made up of several
individual eyes positioned on a movable
axis; adapted to low light conditions, it
serves mainly to detect motion.

Carapaxw
carapace
Hard covering produced by folds of
tissue from the back segments of the
head; it protects the body of the lobster.

Klaue F
claw
Pointy, hook-shaped structure attached
to the terminal end of the two last pairs
of thoracic legs.
KREBSE

Hummer"

I
A natom iefeines Hummers^
anatomy ot a lobster

MagenmundM
cardiac stomach
Anterior chamber of the stomach; its
calcareous parts grind food into fine
particles so they can be digested in the
pyloric stomach.
Gehirn N
brain
Main organ of the nervous system; it is
located in the cephalothorax. -

Nephridium^
green gland
Organ producing a secretion that allows
toxic substances to be eliminated fro m ”
the body; its opening is located at the
base of the antennae.

M u n d ^ ''
mouth
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
located on the lower surface of the
cephalothorax; it lets food enter.
KREBSE

Hummer"

Magenpförtner^
pyloric stomach Herzw
Posterior chamber of the stomach; heart
food particles from the cardiac Muscular organ helping blood to
stomac gested here. circulate.

Abdomenarterie F
HodenM dorsal abdominal artery
testis Canal circulating blood from the heart
Male genital glands producing through the posterior dorsal portion of
spermatozoa (sperm). the lobster.

D arm M
intestine
Section of the digestive tract from the
pyloric stomach to the anus.

ventraler Nervenstrang M
ventral nerve cord
Main element of the nervous system
extending over the entire ventral
portion of the body.

Sternalarterief
sternal artery
Canal circulating blood from the heart
to the ventral artery of the lobster. Baucharterie f
ventral artery
Canal circulating blood from the heart
through the posterior ventral portion of
LMitteldarmdrüse F the lobster.
dine,
digestive gland
Organ producing a secretion that
contributes to digestion.

AfterMy
anus
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
enabling ejection of fecal matter.
FISCHE

KnorpelfischMI cartilaginous fish


Fish whose skeleton is made of cartilage rather than bone; its skin is covered in hard scales called denticles.
There are currently 700 species.
äußere Merkmale^eines Haisw
morphology of a shark
Shark: large cartilaginous carnivorous fish with a tapered body and
extremely powerful toothed jaws; it rarely attacks humans.

Maul*
snout
Pointy anterior protruding portion of
the head located above the mouth and
bearing the nostrils on each side.

Zahnw
tooth
Hard organ arranged in several rows
along the jaws and continually renewing
itself; the teeth are used to catch prey
and tear it apart.

N asef Kiemenspalten F BrustflosseF


nostril gill openings pectoral fin
External orifice of the nasal cavity Respiratory organs (five pairs) shaped like Swim m ing appendage made of firm
located above the mouth with a highly long narrow channels between the buccal cartilage that ensures stability,
developed olfactory function. cavity and the outside of the body; the shark orientation, stopping and
uses them to circulate water. thermoregulation.
FISCHE

Knorpelfisch*

erste Rückenflosse F Schwanzflosse F


first dorsal fin caudal fin
Swimming appendage, also called a Powerful swim m ing appendage with two
flipper, made of firm cartilage located lobes formed of firm cartilage located
midway between the head and the tail; vertically at the posterior terminal part of the
it provides stability. body; its function is propulsion.

zweite Rückenflosse f
second dorsal fin CarinaF
Swimming appendage formed of firm carina
cartilage located on the middle Protruding median line of the posterior
posterior dorsal portion of the body; it side portion of the body that reinforces
provides stability. the base of the caudal fin.

Bauchflosse F
pelvic fin
Swimming appendage formed of firm
cartilage located on the ventral surface of
the body; it helps especially in
m aintaining equilibrium .

Afterflosse F
anal fin
Swimming appendage formed of firm
cartilage located on the middle ventral
portion of the body behind the anus; it
provides stability.
FISCHE

Knochenfisch" 1 bony fish


1 Fish with a rigid skeleton and smooth flat scales; the 20,000 present-day species make up the largest group of
" fish.
äußere Merkmale deines FlußbarschsM
morphology of a perch
Perch: bony, carnivorous freshwater fish with an oval body and a spiny dorsal fin; its flesh
is highly prized.

KiemendeckelM
operculum
Nasenöffnung F
Thin, bony plate of skin covering the
nostril
gills and having a posterior valvular
External orifice of the nasal cavity opening, the hearing organ.
located above the mouth with a highly
developed olfactory function.

vorderer Oberkiefer^
premaxilla
Bone form ing the anterior portion of
the upper jaw.

Unterkiefer
mandible
Toothed bone form ing the lower jaw.

Oberkiefer^ Brustflosse
maxilla pectoral fin
Toothed bone forming, with the Swimming appendage made of bone
premaxilla, the upper jaw. that ensures stability, orientation,
stopping and thermoregulation.

Bauchflosse f
pelvic fin
Swimming appendage formed of a
membrane and rays located on the ventral
surface of the body; it helps especially in
maintaining equilibrium .
FISCHE

Knochenfisch"

FlossenstrahlM
spiny ray
Hard, sharp part supporting the WeichstrahlM
membrane of the first dorsal fin. soft ray
Long, Y-shaped flexible part
supporting the membrane of the
second dorsal fin.

Seitenlinie^
lateral line
Subcutaneous canal protruding from the
body and head formed of organs that are
sensitive to vibrations in the water; it detects
and locates objects and animals.

Schwanzflosse F
caudal fin
Powerful swim m ing appendage with two lobes
formed of a membrane and rays located
SchuppeF
vertically at the posterior terminal part of the
scale
body; its function is propulsion.
Each of the small, thin, hard plates
overlapping one another to cover the
fish’s body. AfterflosseF
anal fin
Swimming appendage formed of a
membrane and rays located on the
middle ventral portion of the body
behind the anus; it provides stability.
FISCHE

Knochenfisch"

A n a to m ie ^ e in e s F lu ß b a rs c h s M
anatomy of a perch
SchädelM
skull
Bony structure enclosing and
protecting the brain.
Gehirn N
OtolithM brain
otolith Main organ of the nervous system that
Small, calcareous structure of the inner is made up of nerve centres; it is located
ear ensuring the fish’s equilibrium in in the upper portion of the head and is
the water. protected by the skull.

Riechnerv^
olfactory nerve
Cranial cord connecting the brain to
the olfactory bulb.

RiechkapselF
olfactory bulb
Enlargement of the anterior terminal
end of the olfactory nerve where its
roots come together.

KiemenF
gills
Respiratory and excretory organs (four pairs) each
formed of two layers of filaments; they enable
water to exchange oxygen and ammonium as it
circulates over the gills.
ZungeF
tongue
Elongated movable mouthpart having a
gustatory function; it allows the fish to
swallow its food.

ventrale Aortaf
ventral aorta
Canal circulating the blood from the
heart to the gills, then on through the
head and the rest of the body.
M\\zF
spleen
SpeiseröhreF Organ of the circulatory system where
oesophagus impurities in the blood are destroyed.
Canal of the anterior portion of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
stomach.
Magen M
liver stomach
Viscera that secretes bile, among other Dilated section of the digestive tract
substances; bile helps digestion. preceding the intestine; it receives food
to be digested.
FISCHE

Knochenfisch"
M(ickenmarkw
nplnal cord Schwimmblase f Neuralfortsatzw
Component of the nervous system air bladder neural spine
made up of a soft fatty substance and Flexible, air-filled sac located above the Bony stem of the nervous system
forming a cylindrical stem inside the viscera; it allows the fish to remain buoyant connected to the spinal column and
vtirlebral column. at a specific depth. form ing the skeleton.

WirbelsäuleF
spinal column
Movable, bony axis made up of various
parts articulating with each other
(vertebrae); it supports the skeleton and
contains the spinal cord.

Muskelblockw
muscle segment
Muscular segment of the posterior
portion of the body; its zigzag
arrangement contributes to efficient
motion.

Harnblase^
urinary bladder
Reservoir in which urine from the
kidneys collects before being
evacuated through the urogenital
aperture.

Urogenital-Öffnungf
AfterM urogenital aperture
eggs anus Opening common to the genital and
In fish, the female produces eggs in the ovaries Terminal orifice of the digestive tract urinary tracts allowing the evacuation
and the male produces soft roe in the testicles; enabling ejection of fecal matter. of gametes and urine.
the eggs and roe are expelled into the water,
where fertilization occurs.

Darm^
Intestine
Unction of the digestive tract between the
nlnmach and the anus where absorption of
nutrients is carried out and waste is
Inmsformed into fecal matter.
AMPHIBIEN

Frosch _MI frog_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Cold-blooded, freshwater amphibian with smooth moist skin and powerful back legs for hopping and
swimming.

äußere M erkm ale^eines Froschsw


morphology of a frog
RumpfM
trunk
Bony portion of the body to which the
head and limbs are attached.

Hinterbein N
hind limb
Long, powerful, articulated member
attached to the terminal end of the trunk;
it has five webbed toes used for walking,
jum ping and swimming.

SchwimmfußM
webbed foot
Each of the digits of the foot,
connected by membranes; when
spread, they make swimming easier.

Schwimmhautf-
web
Fine membrane of skin connecting the
digits of the foot; it stretches when the
frog swims.
AMPHIBIEN

Frosch"

oberes Augenlid N
upper eyelid Nasenloch N
Thick, fixed membrane. nostril
External orifice of the nasal cavity
located above the mouth and having
olfactory and respiratory functions.

Schnauzef
snout
Anterior, round protruding portion of
the head that forms the mouth and the
nostrils.

MundM
mouth
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
located on the ventral surface that
allows food to be ingested.

AugapfelM
eyeball
Protruding organ of sight contained in the
bony cavity at the top of the head used to
perceive light intensity, motion and
shapes.

unteres Augenlid ^
tympanum lower eyelid
Thin, strong, elastic membrane Thin, muscular membrane that is
connected to the inner ear to capture translucent and movable; it rises from
acoustic vibrations. the lower edge of the eye to protect and
cleanse it.

Fingerw
Vorderbein N digit
forelimb Terminal end of the limbs formed of
Short articulated member located various articulated bones; it has
behind the head; it has four digits and neither nails nor claws.
Is used for walking.
Anatom ier eines männlichen FroschsM
anatomy of a male trog

HodenM
testis
Male genital gland producing
NiereF spermatozoa (sperm).
kidney
Organ secreting urine; it eliminates
toxic substances from the body.

Organ of the circulatory system where


impurities in the blood are destroyed.

Kloakef
cloaca
Orifice common to the intestine and the
genital and urinary tracts; it is located
at the terminal end of the digestive
tract.

HarnblaseF
urinary bladder
Reservoir where urine from the kidneys
collects before being evacuated by the
cloaca.

DickdarmM
large intestine
Short, wide portion of the digestive
tract preceding the cloaca in which a
small part of digestion and elim ination Dünndarm^
of waste take place. small intestine
Long, thin portion of the digestive tract
behind the stomach in which most of
the digestion and food absorption take
LungeF Rückenmark^ Gehirn^
lung spinal cord brain
Respiratory organ made of an extensible Component of the nervous system Main organ of the nervous system
tissue; it forms a sac into which air inhaled made up of a soft fatty substance and consisting of nerve centres; it is
through the nostrils is carried. A frog also form ing a cylindrical stem inside the located in the upper portion of the
breathes through its skin. head.

ÖsophagusM
oesophagus
Canal of the anterior portion of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
stomach.

Zungef
tongue
Movable mouthpart having gustatory
and prehensile functions.

Herz^
heart
Muscular organ helping blood to
circulate.

Gallenblase F
gallbladder
Small reservoir in which bile secreted
by the liver collects before being
discharged into the intestine during
digestion.

Leberf
liver
Gland secreting mostly a substance
(bile) that contributes to digestion.

Magen M
stomach pancreas
I Hlated section of the digestive tract Digestive gland connected to the
preceding the intestine; it receives food intestine that produces secretions and
Id be digested. hormones.
AMPHIBIEN

Frosch“

! Skelett^ eines Froschsw Sternum N


skeleton of a frog Sakralwirbel^
sternum
Long, flat bone located in the m id- sacral vertebra
ventral portion of the body; the clavicle Short vertebra located in the posterior
and the coracoid, in particular, are portion of the central bony axis and ,
articulating with the ilium .
attached to it.

Ilium'v
ilium
Large, flat bone articulating backwards
Urostyl^ with the sacral vertebra; the juncture of
urostyle the ilium and the ischium is where the
Long bone of the posterior portion of hind limb is attached.
the central bony axis; it is formed by
several fused vertebrae.

Ischium^
ischium
Bone situated behind the ilium .

OberschenkelM
femur
Long bone of the hind limb articulating
with the ilium and the tibiofibula.

Tibia^und Fibula^
tibiofibula
Located between the femur and the ■
tarsus, the tibia and the fibula fuse to
form one long bone.

Tarsus M
tarsus
Part of the hind lim b formed of several
short bones; it is located between the
tibiofibula and the metatarsus.

Metatarsus M
metatarsus
Part of the hind limb formed of five
long parallel bones; it connects the
tarsus with the first phalanges of the
digits.
Phalangen
phalanges
Bones articulating to form the skeleton
of the digits.
AMPHIBIEN

Frosch"

Korakoid^
WirbelM coracoid
mtebrae Schulterblatt^ Ventral bone articulating with the
tihort, bony parts of the dorsal area of scapula sternum; the juncture of the scapula,
ilm body forming the central bony axis. Large, flat, back bone. clavicle and coracoid is the point where
the hind limb is attached.

Frontoparietal
frontoparietal
Large, flat bone of the upper anterior
portion of the cranial box.

Oberkiefer^
maxilla
Toothed bone com prising the upper
jaw.

Unterkiefer^
Klavikula^ mandible
clavicle Smooth, curved, movable bone
Long bone located between the com prising the lower jaw.
sternum and the scapula.

Oberarmknochen M
humerus
Long bone of the forelimb articulating
with the scapula and the radio-ulna.

liwIlusM-Ulnaf
ndlo-ulna
I limited between the humerus and the
milacarpus, the radius and the ulna
limn to form one long bone.
Metacarpus w Phalangen F
metacarpus phalanges
Part of the forelim b formed of four long Bones articulating to form the skeleton
bones; it connects the radio-ulna to the of the digits,
first phalanges of the digits.
AMPHIBIEN

Frosch”
LebenszyklusMdes Frosches^
1 life cycle of the frog
' The stages of development are the egg, the tadpole
and the adult; each stage usually lasts several
weeks, but can last up to two years in some
species.

Kaulquappe F
Eier^ tadpole
eggs Aquatic larva of the frog having a large
Embryonic stage of the frog resulting head and a slender body ending in a
when the egg is fertilized by the sperm. tail; it breathes through gills.

äußere Kiemen F
external gills
Respiratory organs that filter water and
take in food particles; they are later
replaced by internal gills.

Hinterbein w
hind limb
The hind limbs appear after the gills.

KiemendeckelM
operculum Vorderbein N
Thin, bony plate of skin covering the forelimb
gills and having a posterior valvular The forelim bs appear during the last
opening, the hearing organ. stage of the tadpole’s metamorphosis.
AMPHIBIEN

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Beispiele^für AmphibienF I examples of amphibians


liiere are about 4,000 species of amphibians divided into three main groups, depending on whether or not they
have a tail and limbs.

MolchM
newt
Amphibian with a flat tail found mainly
in freshwater and usually feeding on
insects. Waldfrosch w
wood frog
Tailless amphibian found mostly in the
woods of North America; it feeds on
various small animals.

Laubfrosch M
tree frog
Small, tailless, usually insectivorous
amphibian found mostly in trees near
water; its digits are fitted with suction
cups.
gemeine Erdkröte^
common toad Wasserfrosch M
Tailless, nocturnal insectivorous common frog
amphibian usually found on land and not Squat, tailless amphibian usually
very adept at jum ping; its body is covered found on land, mostly in Europe; it
with small outgrowths. feeds on various small animals.

HaftscheibeF
adhesive disc
Adhesive disc surrounded by a ring; it
is located at the terminal end of the
limbs and used for anchoring.

Leopardfrosch M Salamander^
northern leopard frog salamander
Tailless, mostly nocturnal amphibian Nocturnal amphibian, mainly
with a spotted body that is covered insectivorous, with a tail; there are land
with ridges; it lives mainly in North and aquatic species.
America.
REPTILIEN

Dinosaurier“ I dinosaurs
I Large reptiles that lived during the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous ages. They became extinct about 65
" m illion years ago.
TriceratopsM
triceratops
Herbivorous quadruped measuring about
8 m. It had a bony cervical collarette and
three horns, the two side ones being more Ankylosaurus^
than 1 m long. ankylosaurus
Herbivorous quadruped measuring about
8 m. It was covered with thick bony plates
for protection against predators.
REPTILIEN

Dinosaurier"

SpinosaurusM Stegosaurus^
spinosaurus stegosaurus
Carnivorous (and probably piscivore) biped Herbivorous quadruped from 7 to 9 m long;
that had spines sticking up from its back. It the bony protuberances on its back may
measured about 15 m in length and about have had a thermoregulatory function.
5 m in height.

Tyrannosaurus^
tyrannosaurus
Carnivorous quadruped that measured
about 15 m in length. A ferocious predator,
Diplodocusw it had powerful jaws and teeth almost
diplodocus 20 cm long.
Herbivorous quadruped whose total length
could reach up to about 30 m, making it
one of the largest terrestrial animals known.
REPTILIEN

Schlange^ I snake_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Legless reptile with a very long cylindrical body and tail, moving by undulation; there are about 2,700 species.

A natom iefeiner GiftschlangeF DarmM


anatomy of a venomous snake Magen M intestine
stomach Section of the digestive tract between the
Dilated section of the digestive tract stomach and the anus where absorption of
preceding the intestine; it receives food nutrients is carried out and waste is
to be digested. transformed into fecal matter.

Bauchschuppef
belly scale
Each of the short wide fine scales that
are set in a single row and cover the
snake’s belly.

Speiseröhre
oesophagus rattle
Canal of the anterior portion of the Pieces of scale at the end of the tail; the
digestive tract; it carries food to the snake shakes them to scare away its
stomach. enemies.

Lungef Nieref
lung kidney tail
Respiratory organ made up of an Organ secreting urine; it eliminates Thin, elongated terminal end of the
extensible tissue and form ing a sac; air toxic substances from the body. body.
enters through the mouth and nostrils
and flows into the lung.

Herzw Leberf
heart liver
Muscular organ helping blood to Gland secreting mostly a substance
circulate, (bile) thatcontributes to digestion.
REPTILIEN

Schlange^
äußere M erkm aleNeiner Giftschlange F\ Kopf ^
morphology of a venomous snake: head
Nasenloch N Venomous snake; it defends itself by injecting often deadly venom;
nostril there are about 400 species.
External orifice of the nasal cavity
located above the mouth and having
olfactory and respiratory functions.
GrubenorganN
pit
Sensory organ form ing a cavity between
the eye and the nostril; it allows the
snake to sense variations in temperature
and to locate its prey.
Augew
eye
Organ of sight covered with a transparent
scale; it has a wide field of vision and
mainly perceives motion and colours.

GiftzahnM

Large, curved tooth located on the


maxilla and connected to the venom
gland; it allows the snake to grab its
prey to inject it with venom.
Gi
venom gland
Organ producing an acidic secretion
made of venom; it is attached to the
fang.

Schuppe^
scale
Each of the overlapping small, hard,
thin plates covering the snake’s body.

GlottisF
glottis
Opening in the respiratory system
located in the lower portion of the
buccal cavity, through which air
circulates.
ZahnM
tooth
gespaltene Zunge F Hard, pointy structure that curves backwards and
forked tongue is fixed to the jaws; it grows continually and is
Elongated, movable, forked mouthpart used to immobilize prey but not to chew,
having olfactory, tactile and gustatory
functions; it is not used to ingest food.
REPTILIEN

Schildkröte*7 I turtle_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Squat land or aquatic reptile with short legs and bearing a carapace into which it retracts; there are about 250
species.

äußere M erkm ale^einer SchildkröteF


morphology of a turtle
Vertebralschild M
vertebral shield
Large, corneous scales set in a row on
the middle portion of the back s hell.'.

Augenlid^
eyelid
Each of the three movable muscular
membranes protecting the anterior
surface of the eye.

Auge^
eye
Organ of sight located on the head and
having poor vision; it can make out
motion and colours.

HornschnabelM Hals^
horny beak neck
Thick, cutaneous formation covering Long, flexible portion of the body
toothless jaws; its sharp edges allow covered in small scales; the turtle folds
the turtle to feed. it back to retract its head into the
carapace.

Schuppe
scale claw
Each of the small, hard, thin Slightly curved, rigid, pointy structure;
overlapping plates covering the body the forelegs have five while the hind
of the turtle. legs have four.
REPTILIEN

Schildkröte'

Riickenpanzer^
CostalschildM carapace
costal shield Bony casing in the shape of a rounded
i .nun, corneous scales set in a row on hump; it protects the back and Pygalschildw
each side of the backshell. connects to the plastron. pygal shield
Very small, corneous scale located on
the posterior portion of the back shell,
above the tail.

SchwanzM
tail
Small terminal appendage of the body
that retracts into the carapace.

Marginalschild M Beinw
marginal shield leg
Small, corneous scales set in a row Short, thick articulated limb bearing
around the back shell. claws and used for walking or
swimming, depending on the species.
Bauchpanzer^
plastron
Relatively flat, bony casing protecting
the belly and cut away on the sides to
allow the legs to move.
REPTILIEN

Schildkröte^

Anatomie^einer Schildkröter
anatomy of a turtle

ÖsophagusM
oesophagus
Canal of the anterior portion of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
leberF stomach.
liver
Viscera that secretes bile, among other
substances; bile helps digestion. Magen M
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tract
preceding the intestine; it receives food
to be digested.

Organ of the circulatory system where


impurities in the blood are destroyed.
Dünndarm M
small intestine
Long, thin portion of the digestive tract
behind the stomach in which most of the
digestion and food absorption take place.
Kolon N-
colon
Portion of the intestine in front of the
Harnblase F
rectum.
bladder
Reservoir where urine from the kidneys
collects before being evacuated by the
cloaca.

Rektum N
rectum
Terminal part of the intestine located
between the colon and the anus.
M

oviduct
Canal through which the eggs are
Kloake F
expelled from the ovaries.
anus cloaca
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract Orifice common to the intestine and the
enabling ejection of fecal matter. genital and urinary tracts; it is located
at the terminal end of the digestive
tract.
REPTILIEN

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B e is p ie le "^ Reptilien" I examples of reptiles


Reptiles: cold-blooded vertebrates covered in scales (about 6,000 species) having limbs that are sometimes
atrophied or absent.

V ip e rf
viper
Venomous snake found in hot, arid
regions of Eurasia and Africa with a flat
triangular head and short tail; its bite
can be fatal.

Kobra F
cobra
Venomous snake found in tropical
regions of Asia and Africa; it inflates its
neck when threatened.

Ringelnatter^
garter snake
Widespread, non-venomous snake
with a slightly flat oval head; its tail is
longer than that of the viper.

Klapperschlange^
rattlesnake
Venomous land snake of the Americas;
Boaf it rattles its scaly tail to warn off
boa enemies.
Medium-sized, non-venomous snake
found in hot regions of the Americas; it
lives mainly in trees or in the water and
kills its prey by strangulation.
REPTILIEN

Betspiele"für Reptilien"

Python M
python
Large, nocturnal, non-venomous snake
I found in hot regions of Asia, Africa and
Australia; it lives mainly in trees and kills
K orallennatterf its prey by strangulation.
coral snake
Slender, venomous snake of the
Americas living under rocks or hidden
in the ground; its bite can be fatal.

Chamäleon^
chameleon
Insectivorous lizard of Africa and India
Eidechse^ with a prehensile tail; it lives in trees
lizard and can change colour to hide itself.
Widespread diurnal and mainly
insectivorous land reptile with a long
brittle tail.

Leguanw WaranM
iguana monitor lizard
Giant lizard found in tropical regions of Large, diurnal, carnivorous lizard with
the Americas and the Pacific islands an elongated head found in hot regions
and having a spiny dorsal crest; it lives of Africa, Asia and Australia; there are
m ainly in trees. land and aquatic species.
REPTILIEN

Beispiele^für Reptilien"

Krokodil ^
crocodile

83
VÖGEL

VogelM I bird_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Vertebrate with a feather-covered body and a toothless bill; its forelimbs (wings) are usually adapted for flight.

FlügelM
wing
äußere Merkmale " eines Vogels m Flight appendage made of hollow bones R ücken w
morphology of a bird and feathers, and com prising the back
forelim b; in some species, it is not Upper posterior portion of the body
adapted for flight. between the head and the tail.

Oberschwanzdecken F BürzelM
upper tail covert rump
Short feather covering the upper portion of the Posterior portion of the body formed
base of the tail; it maintains the body’s internal by the last vertebrae and bearing the
temperature. tail feathers.

SchwanzfederF
tail feather
Long, stiff tail feather carried on the rump;
it controls direction during flight.

UnterschwanzdeckenF
under tail covert
Short feather covering the lower portion of the
base of the tail; it maintains the body’s
internal temperature. Flanke F
flank
Lateral portion of the body between the
wing and the abdomen.

SchenkelM
thigh
Long bone fused to the fibula between
the femur and the tarsus.

Laufw
tarsus
Portion of the lim b formed of long
bones and covered in scales; it
connects the tibia to the toes.

Hinterzehe F
hind toe
First articulated toe of the foot, usually
made of a single phalange and
pointing towards the back; it is also
called the thumb.
VÖGEL

NackenM
nape
l'ostörior portion of the neck below the
head. SchnabelM
bill
Corneous formation covering toothless
jaws; the bird uses it to feed.

Kinn w
chin
Portion of the head below the
mandible.

Kehle f
throat
Anterior lateral portion of the neck
between the chin and the breast.

DeckfederF
wing covert
Short feather covering the upper
portion of the base of the wing; it
maintains internal body temperature.

Brustf
breast
Anterior portion of the body between
the throat and the abdomen bearing the
wings.

BauchM
abdomen
zweite Zehe^ Ventral portion of the body between the
inner toe dritte ZeheF breast and the tail.
Second articulated toe of the foot, middle toe
usually consisting of two phalanges. Third articulated toe of the foot; it is
long and usually consists of three
phalanges.

KralleF
claw
Pointy, hook-shaped structure attached
to the terminal end of the toes; it allows
the bird to anchor itself.

vierte ZeheF
outer toe
Fourth articulated bone of the foot,
usually consisting of four phalanges.
VOGEL

Vogel“
Kopf ^
head
Anterior portion of the body containing
the main sensory organs and the brain.

Stirn F ZügelM
AugenstreifM forehead lore
eyebrow stripe Upper front part of the head, between Space between the base of the beak and
Band of small feathers above the eye. the bill and the crown. the eye.

Nasenloch N
ScheitelM nostril
crown External orifice of the nasal cavity
Top part of the skull, behind the located at the base of the upper portion
of the bill having a poorly developed
olfactory function.

OberschnabelM
upper mandible
Bone form ing the upper portion of the bill.

Ohrdecken UnterschnabelM
auriculars lower mandible
Lateral portion of the head in back of Bone forming the lower portion of the
the malar region at the level of the eye. bill.

Bartregion F Augenring M
malar region eye ring
Lateral portion of the head below the Ring of tiny feathers surrounding the
eye extending from the base of the bill eye.
to the auriculars.
VÖGEL

Vogel4*
K o n tu rfe d e r' 1
contour feather 1
Large, rigid feather of the wings and
tail enabling flight.

SchaftM
rachis
Solid, corneous upper portion of the
shaft of the contour feather; it is an
extension of the calamus and the barbs
are attached to it.

FahneF
vane
All the interconnected barbs on the
same side of the rachis forming a
waterproof surface.'

barb
Each of the self-adhering filaments
implanted on each side of the rachis.

oberer Nabel ',f


J m f superior umbilicus
..........................Opening of the shaft located at the
Afterfederf ' ' .............. ................................. juncture of the calamus and the rachis.
afterfeather 1
Small, soft, light feathers usually / « . F
located at the base of the main feathers / p.
on the abdomen; they help to insulate / calamus
thp hnriv / ...................................... ................ Hollow, corneous, anterior portion of
/ / ..... ................................... the shaft of the contour feather
fY extending through the rachis.

unterer NabelM
inferior umbilicus
Opening of the shaft located at the
lower portion of the calamus; it is
implanted in the skin.
VÖGEL

VogelM
Flügel ^
wing
Appendage of flight formed of hollow
bones and feathers, and com prising the
forelimb; in certain species, the wing is
not adapted for flight.
mittlere Armdecken F
middle covert
Covert feather at the base of the wing; it
is protected by the lesser coverts when
the wing is folded back.
große HanddeckenF
primary covert Daumenfittich M
Short feather covering the base of the alula kleine ArmdeckenF
primaries; it maintains the body’s All the short wing feathers inserted into lesser covert
internal temperature and allows air to the thumb; they provide stability Covert feather at the base of the wing
during slow flight. arranged in rows and highly exposed
to wind action.

Handschwingen F
primaries
Rigid feather of flight inserted into the
outer portion of the wing; it provides
propulsion.

mittlere Handdecken
middle primary covert secondaries
Short feather covering the base of the Rigid feather of flight inserted into the
secondaries; it maintains the body’s central portion of the wing; it protects
internal temperature and allows air to the primaries when the wing is folded.
glide over the wing.

große Armdecken F
greater covert
Covert feather at the base of the wing SchulterfederF
protected by the middle coverts when scapular
the wing is folded. Shoulder feather inserted into the edge
of the back.

tertial
Rigid feather of flight inserted into the
inner portion of the wing; it helps to
decrease air turbulence.
VÖGEL

VogelM
Ei N
egg
Reproductive method of certain animal
species: a living cell with a casing and a
food reserve, produced by the female.

Schalenhaur
Keimscheibe F S c h a le F shell membrane
blastodisc shell Flexible, porous tissue made of two
Evidence of fertilization of the egg on Hard, porous calcareous casing of the superimposed layers covering the inside of
the surface of the vitelline membrane; egg; it provides protection, fights the shell; it contributes to respiration and
the embryo grows from it. bacteria and helps respiration. fights bacteria.

Dotterhautw
vitelline membrane
Thin, flexible transparent tissue
enveloping the yolk.

HagelschnurF
chalaza
Luftkammerf Spiral filament of albumen maintaining
airspace the yolk in the centre of the egg.
Pocket of air contained between the
two layers of the shell membrane at the
Eigelb^
base of the egg; it form s once the egg
yolk EiweißN
has cooled after being laid.
The embryo’s food reserve located in albumen
the centre of the egg. Viscous liquid substance, popularly
known as egg white, surrounding the yolk
and containing water and the proteins the
embryo requires.
VÖGEL

Vogel“

I Skelett^ eines Vogels w


skeleton of a bird
Schulterblatt^
scapula
Large, flat, back bone. The juncture
point of the scapula, clavicle and
coracoid; the wing is attached to it.

Synsakrum^
synsacrum
Long bone resulting from the fusion of
numerous vertebrae of the spinal
column, preceding the pygostyle.
RippeF

Thin, curved bone articulating with the Pygostyiw


vertebral column and the sternum.
pygostyle
Bone of the terminal end of the spinal
column resulting from the fusion of
Korakoid^ several vertebrae.
coracoid
Ventral bone connecting the scapula to
the sternum.

Kielbein^

Bony ridge of the ventral surface of the


sternum providing a solid support for
the flight muscles.

Ischium^
Brustbein N
ischium
sternum
Bone behind the ilium ; the ilium,
Bone located at the ventral portion of
ischium and pubis fuse together to
the body and bearing the keel; the ribs
form a single bone to which the leg is
are attached to it.
attached.
Oberschenkelknochen M
femur pubis
Long bone articulating especially with Ventral bone posterior to the ilium.
thetibiotarsus.

TibiotarsusM
tibiotarsus ilium
Separate at the crown, the tibia and Large, flat, back bone fused mainly to
fibula fuse into a single bone to form the synsacrum.
thetibiotarsus.
I________ J

Digiti ^ Tarsometatarsusw
digits tarsometatarsus
Each of the four terminal ends of the Bone formed by the fusion of the
legs formed of different articulated anterior portion of the tarsus and the
bones called phalanges; most birds metatarsus; the digits articulate with it.
have four digits. It is also called the tarsus.
VÖGEL

Phalangen/7
Kopf^und Flüg e lM
SchädelM phalanges
head and wing
skull Portion of the wing formed of
Bony structure enclosing and articulated bones bearing the
protecting the brain. primaries.

Metacarpus M
Oberkiefer^ metacarpus
maxilla Portion of the wing formed of three
hiinn forming the upper portion of the long bones; it connects the carpus to
bill. the first phalanges of the digits.

Carpus M
carpus
Portion of the wing formed of two short
bones; it is located between the radius,
the ulna and the metacarpus.

Elle/7
UnterkieferM ulna
mandible Long, sturdy bone located between the
Hone forming the lower portion of the humerus and the carpus bearing the
bill. secondaries.

Speiche/7
radius
Augenhöhle^ Long wing bone located between the
orbit humerus and the carpus.
Bony cavity of the upper lateral portion
of the head containing the eye.

Oberarmknochen M
humerus
Long wing bone articulating especially
Schlüsselbein N
with the radius and the ulna and
clavicle
bearing the tertials.
Long bone located in the anterior
ventral portion of the body; the two
clavicles fuse to form the furcula.

Gabelbein/v-
furcula
Bone resulting from the fusion of the
lower portion of the two clavicles
enabling the wings to spread.
VÖGEL

Vogel“

Anatomie^eines Vogels^
anatomy of a bird

Mundhöhle f
buccal cavity
Anterior portion of the digestive tract-
containing the tongue and the salivary
glands.

Ösophagus^
oesophagus
Canal in the anterior part of the—
digestive tract; it carries food to the
crop.

Luftröhre^-'
trachea
Muscular, cartilaginous canal carrying LungeF
air from the buccal cavity to the lungs. lung
Respiratory organ made up of an
extensible tissue and form ing a sac; air
from the buccal cavity flows into it.

Herz^
heart
Muscular organ helping blood to
circulate.

Kropfw
crop
Large bulge at the back of the
oesophagus; it can dilate to receive
food.

Drüsenmagen M/
proventriculus
Portion of the digestive tract opening Leberf
out into the gizzard and secreting liver
substances that help digestion. Gland secreting mostly a substance
(bile) that contributes to digestion.

. 3
C M

92
Muskelmagen k
Miittoular pouch behind the proventriculus Niere F
In which food is ground with the help of kidney
Monos swallowed by the bird before being Organ secreting urine; it eliminates
digested. toxic substances from the body.

Pankreas w
pancreas
Digestive gland connected to the
duodenum and producing digestive
enzymes and hormones. UreterM
ureter
Long canal originating in the kidney
.'and carrying urine to the cloaca.

Dünndarm M
small intestine
Long, narrow portion of the digestive
tract behind the duodenum where part
of digestion and food absorption takes
.-place.

KloakeF
cloaca
Orifice common to the intestine and the
genital and urinary tracts; it is located
at the terminal end of the digestive
-tract.

Rektum N
rectum
Terminal end of the intestine before the
cloaca.

l)nodenumw Blindsackw
duodenum caecum
[A n te r io r portion of the small intestine Lateral canal located in the anterior
min which secretions from the liver portion of the intestine where, most
nnrlpancreas empty. significantly, a part of digestion and
fermentation take place.
VÖGEL

Vogel1"
Beispiele^für Vogelfüße^

I examples of feet
The feet of birds are adapted to their lifestyle.
They usually have four toes: one posterior (the
hind toe) and three anterior.

Raubvogel^ Hornschuppef
bird of prey scale
Poorly adapted to locomotion, these Each of the small, hard, thin scales
sturdy powerful legs have talons to covering the toes in layers.
grip prey, im m obilizing and killing it.

talon
Very curved and pointy corneous
structure allowing the bird to seize its
prey.

Baumvogelw
perching bird
The four toes end in a nail, which
wraps around a support when the bird
is resting; the hind toe provides
equilibrium .

I
ZeheF
toe
The terminal end of the legs formed of
articulated bones allowing the bird to
perch or walk.

HinterzeheF
hind toe
First toe of the foot, facing backwards
and providing equilibrium .
VÖGEL

Vogel
W asservogel M
aquatic bird
Bird with webbed feet for ease of
swimming.

Schwimmhautzeh M
webbed toe
Each of the digits of the foot,
connected by membranes; when
spread, they make swimming easier.

W asservogel M
aquatic bird
Bird with lobed toes for ease of
swimming.

SchwimmlappenzehM
lobate toe
Each of the flat toes surrounding the LappenM
lobes; they provide propulsion in the lobe
water and prevent slipping out of the Each of the round, cutaneous divisions
water. encircling the toes that allow the bird
to swim.
Beispiele^für Vogelschnäbel^
examples of bills
A b ill’s shape is characteristic of the lifestyle of the
bird species. Its main function is to allow the bird to
feed, to construct its nest and to defend itself.

KörnerfresserM
granivorous bird
Raubvogel^ The short, sturdy, conical bill is used to hull
bird of prey seeds: the sharp lower mandible cracks the
The short, sturdy, hooked bill tears seed, which the tongue holds in place on the
apart large prey. upper maxilla.

W atvogelw
wading bird
The long, curved bill allows the bird to
extract small animals and plants buried
deep in the ground, in mud and in
marshes.

W asservogelM Insektenfresser^
aquatic bird insectivorous bird
The large, flat bill with corneous lateral The long, thin, pointed bill allows the
plates filters water and mud to extract bird to catch insects in flight.
food.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypen^ I examples of birds


There are more than 9,000 species of birds scattered around the world.

Kolibri ^ FinkM
hummingbird finch
Tiny, brightly coloured bird with a Widespread bird with a melodious
long, thin bill found on the North song.
American continent; it can hover and
fly backwards.

Sperling ^ Rotkehlchen w Eisvogel M


sparrow European robin kingfisher
Bird that feeds mainly on seeds and European perching bird found in woods and Colourful, fish-eating bird that spends
Insects; it is widespread in cities and in gardens characterized by a bright red throat most of its time perched by the water’s
the countryside. and chest and emitting a fairly loud, lively
melodious song.

Schw albe'7 Goldzeisig ^


swallow American goldfinch
Widespread in the northern Brightly plumed songbird feeding
hemisphere and found in highly m ainly on the seeds of the thistle.
diverse habitats; it usually feeds on
insects caught in flight.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypen M

Elster/7 Star m
magpie starling
Noisy omnivore found in trees and Straight-billed, omnivorous bird with
bushes in temperate regions of the dark plumage; it lives in trees.
northern hemisphere.

Mauersegler^
swift
Widespread and very swift insectivore;
it is usually airborne since its toes
make it difficult to perch.

Austernfischer^ Rabew
oystercatcher raven
Swift, long-billed bird found in Strong-billed scavenger usually with
Eurasia; it feeds mainly on shellfish. black plumage; it sometimes damages
crops.
V ÖG EL

unterschiedliche VogeltypenM

Nachtigall^ Eichelhäher^
nightingale jay
Bird with a m elodious song that feeds Usually noisy, brightly coloured bird
on insects and fruit; it is found in the found in forests; it feeds mainly on fruit
bushes of forests and parks. and insects.

Seeschwalbe^ Kiebitz^
tern lapwing
Widespread web-footed aquatic bird M ainly insectivorous bird found in the
with long wings and a forked tail; it wetlands and marshes of Eurasia and
dives for the fish it feeds on. Africa; it has a tuft of upright feathers
on its head.
VOGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypen*

P\auM
peacock
Omnivorous bird originally from Asia;
during the mating season, the male
lifts and spreads its colourful tail
feathers to attract females.

Albatros^ Tukan M Reiherw


albatross toucan heron
Web-footed, aquatic bird of the south Large, yet gentle bird found in the Widespread wading bird found in
seas; its wingspan can reach 3 metres, forests of the Americas; its dentate bill shallow waters and marshes, mostly
allowing it to glide for hours. allows it to feed especially on fruits piscivorous, with a neck that folds into
and insects. an S when it is at rest.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypenw

Pinguin^
penguin
Piscivorous marine bird living in
colonies in the southern hemisphere;
has webbed feet and wings that have
evolved into fins.

Pelikan^
pelican
Web-footed bird with a lower jaw
featuring an extensible pouch for
catching fish.

Strauß ^ Storch M Flamingo^


ostrich stork flamingo
Flightless bird of Africa reaching over Wading bird found in marshes and Bird with webbed feet and usually pink
2 metres in height, with powerful two­ fields; two species are threatened with plumage living in colonies in brackish
toed legs; it is raised for its feathers extinction. or salt water; it feeds by filtering water
and meat. through its bill.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypen M

Kondor^ Geier^ A d le rM
condor vulture
Diurnal scavenger of the Americas, Diurnal raptor of the Americas and W idely prevalent raptor with piercing
with a bald head and neck; one Eurasia, mainly a scavenger, with a eyes, a hooked beak and sharp talons
Californian species is facing bald head and neck, powerful beak and allowing it to catch live prey.
extinction. weak talons.

FalkeM
falcon
Diurnal bird of prey with piercing eyes
and powerful talons and beak; it
captures its prey in flight and is
sometimes trained to hunt.

U huM Perlhuhn ^
great horned owl guinea fowl
Nocturnal raptor found in the forests of W ild, terrestrial bird with a bald head
North America, with a protruding tuft of and horned comb originally from
feathers on each side of its head. Africa and domesticated in Europe for
its meat.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypen"

Kiiken'v
chick
Newly hatched bird covered in down.

Hahnw
rooster
Domestic bird (male of the hen) with a
large, serrated comb and a long-
plumed tail.

Huhnw Truthahn^
hen turkey
Domestic fowl (female of the rooster) Bird originating in the Americas with a
with a small, serrated comb raised in bald head and neck covered with
captivity for its eggs and meat. outgrowths; it is raised in captivity for
its meat.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche VogeltypenM

Fasane TaubeF
pheasant pigeon
Bird originally from Asia and Generally grain-eating bird prized for
characterized by its long tail; its meat is its meat and its keen sense of direction
highly prized. Certain pheasants are (carrier pigeon).
raised solely for hunting.

W achtel F
quail
Bird found in fields and meadows and
much prized as game; certain species
are domesticated.

GansF E n te f
goose duck
Web-footed bird of the northern Web-footed, aquatic bird spending
hemisphere better adapted to land than most of its time on water; the domestic
water; certain species are raised mainly duck is raised for its meat and for the
for the production of foie gras. production of foie gras.
VÖGEL

unterschiedliche Vogeltypen"

Gimpel^ Kardinal^ Rebhuhnw


bullfinch cardinal partridge
Red-breasted bird found in the woods Brightly coloured bird with a tuft of Land-based bird that flies with
and parks of Eurasia and the Americas; upright feathers on its head; it is found difficulty; it is the most hunted game
It feeds mainly on seeds and insects. mostly in North American woods and bird.
gardens.

Kakadu M Spechtw A ra M
cockatoo woodpecker macaw
Noisy, perching bird with drab plumage and Widespread insectivore that pecks at Noisy, brightly coloured perching bird
,i tuft nt upright feathers on its head, found the bark of trees to find food and to found in the tropical forests of the
mainly in Australia; it can m im ic human nest. Americas; it feeds mainly on seeds and
speech. fruit.
INSEKTENFRESSER

Maulwurf** I mole_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Insectivorous mammal (about 20 species) found in Eurasia and the Americas; it digs underground tunnels with
its front limbs to reach its food.

äußere M erkm ale'''eines M aulw urfs^


morphology of a mole

Schnauze'
snout
Elongated front portion of the head
covered with many sensory hairs,
BehaarungF which have a highly developed tactile
fur and olfactory function.
Hair covering the body, mainly for
Auge'v
maintaining internal body temperature
eye
and providing protection from insect
Organ of sight covered with hairs that
bites. ra n nprrpivp variation«: in Iinht

Schwanz ^
tail
Terminal appendage of the body having
tactile hairs that detect obstacles.

Hinterextremität Vorderextremität'7
hind limb palm forelimb
Articulated limb with sharp claws that Portion of the hand facing outward to Wide, powerful, articulated limb
supports the mole while it digs in the make digging easier and to push the ending in a scoop-shaped paw
earth. earth aside more efficiently. allowing the mole to dig in the earth.

Klaue F
claw
Somewhat curved, sharp, pointy
structure at the terminal end of the
digits for digging in the earth.
INSEKTENFRESSER

M aulwurf"

Skelett eines Maulwurfs w


skeleton of a mole

Wirbelsäule F
spine
Movable bony axis made up of various E\\eF
parts articulating with each other ulna
(vertebrae); it supports the skeleton and Long bone form ing the inner limb
contains the spinal cord. between the humerus and the paw.

Beckenw Ripped Schulterblatt^


pelvis rib scapula
(tuny girdle to which the hind lim bs are Thin, curved bone articulating with the Large, flat, thin, back bone articulating
attached. spine and the sternum. with the humerus.

Brustbein N
sternum Oberarmknochen
Elongated, flat bone to which the ribs humerus
in particular are attached and bearing a Bone of the forelimb articulating with
crest on its ventral surface. the scapula, as well as with the radius
and the ulna; it provides a large base
for the muscles.

Scharrknochen
falciform sesamoid bone radius
Small, curved bone located near the Long bone form ing the outer part of the
thumb reinforcing the paw and forming lim b between the humerus and the
a cutting inner edge. paw.
INSEKTENFRESSER

Beispiele^für Insektenfresser“ I examples of insectivorous mammals

Insectivorous mammal (about 20 species)


found in Eurasia and the Americas; it digs
underground tunnels with its front lim bs to
reach its food.

Ig e lM
hedgehog
Insectivorous mammal of Eurasia (about
10 species) with a body usually covered
with stiff hairs or barbs, which stand on
end when it rolls itself into a ball for
protection.

Spitzmaus^
shrew
Widespread insectivorous mammal (about
200 species); it occasionally digs tunnels
and emits a fetid secretion for protection.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

Nagetier" I rodent
Herbivorous or omnivorous vertebrate (over 2,000 species) with four limbs, a body covered in hair and sharp
incisors that grow constantly.
äußere M erkm ale^einer RatteF
morphology of a rat
Rat: omnivorous gnawing mammal
with a long tail; it is extremely
voracious and prolific.

Ohrmuschel BehaarungF
pinna fur
Sinushaar^ External part of the ear made of Hair covering the entire body, except
vibrissa cartilaginous lobes that capture the nose; its main function is to
Long, tactile hair located around the sounds. maintain body temperature.
nose and mouth used to detect
obstacles during nocturnal forays.

NaseF Klaue ^ Schwanz ^


nose claw tail
Middle protuberance of the head with Somewhat curved, sharp, pointy Terminal appendage of the body
Iwo orifices located above the mouth structure used especially for digging covered with scales and containing
mid having an olfactory and respiratory and defence. blood vessels: it is used mainly for
function. equilibrium .

Digitus M
digit
Terminal end of the lim bs formed of
various articulated bones bearing a
claw and used mainly to feed and move
about.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

Nagetier"

Skelett* einer Ratte - Schulterblatt« Rippe'


skeleton of a rat
rib
Large, thin, flat shoulder bone Thin, curved bone articulating with the
articulating with the humerus. spinal column and the sternum

HalswirbelM
Oberkiefer^ cervical vertebrae BrustwirbelM
maxilla Bony parts of the neck com prising the thoracic vertebrae
Toothed bone forming, with the upper terminal end of the spinal Bony parts supporting the ribs between
premaxilla, the upper jaw. column. the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.

mandible
Toothed bone form ing the lower jaw.

First cervical vertebra supporting the


head and supported by the axis.

ulna
Long bone partly fused with the radius
Axis and forming the inner lim b between the
humerus and the carpus.
Second cervical vertebra supporting
the atlas; it allows the head to rotate.

Oberarmknochen
humerus Phalangen F Speiche'7
Bone of the forelim b articulating with phalanges radius
the scapula, as well as with the radius Bones articulating to form the skeleton Long bone partly fused with the ulna
and the ulna; it provides a large base of the digits. and form ing the outer lim b between the
for the muscles. humerus and the carpus.

metacarpus carpus
Portion of the forelimb formed of Portion of the foreleg formed of short
several long bones; it connects the bones between the radius, the ulna and
carpus to the first phalanges of the the metacarpus,
digits.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

Nagetier*

Darmbein N Oberschenkelknochen M KreuzbeinwirbelM


ilium femur sacral vertebrae
Large, flat, back bone articulating Long bone of the hind lim b articulating Partly fused bony parts between the
with the sacral vertebrae. especially with the patella. lumbar and caudal vertebrae.

Wadenbein N
Lendenwirbel m fibula
lumbar vertebrae Long bone partly fused to the tibia and
lit my parts of the back located between form ing the outer lim b between the
the thoracic and sacral vertebrae. femur and the tarsus.
Hüftbein N
ischium
Bone behind the ilium ; the ilium ,
* ischium and pubis fuse together to
form a single bone to which the leg is
attached.

Schambein^
pubis
Ventral bone posterior to the ilium .

FußwurzelF
tarsus
Part of the hind lim b formed of several
small bones at the juncture of the tibia
and the metatarsus.

i
SchwanzwirbelM Schienbein N MittelfußM
caudal vertebrae tibia metatarsus
Bony parts com prising the skeleton of Long bone partly fused to the fibula Part of the hind lim b formed of several
the tail located at the terminal end of and forming the inner lim b between the long bones; it connects the tarsus to
the spinal column. femur and the tarsus. the first phalanges of the digits.

111
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

B e is p ie le n Nagetiere" I examples of rodents

Backenhörnchen^
chipmunk
Hamster^ Small, mainly vegetarian, North
hamster American rodent found in hardwood
Rodent of the Eurasian steppes forests and bushes.
sometimes domesticated and used for
laboratory experiments; it stores its food
in its cheek pouches.

Wiistenspringmaus^
jerboa
Rodent found in the deserts of Asia and
Africa adapted for hopping and able to
survive w ithout drinking water.

Meerschweinchen w Feldmaus^
guinea pig field mouse
Rodent originating in South America, Rodent found in woods and fields; it
sometimes domesticated but mainly moves about by hopping and can
used in laboratory experiments. cause serious crop damage.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

_______ Beispiele"für Nagetiere"

Ratte F
rat
Omnivorous rodent characterized by its
intelligence; it can transmit certain
viruses and bacteria to humans. Some
species are domesticated.
Eichhörnchen^
squirrel
M ostly vegetarian rodent found in woods
and forests around the world, except in
Australia; some squirrels move about by
gliding from tree to tree.

WaldmurmeltierW
groundhog
Rodent of the northern hemisphere prized
for its fur; it hibernates six months a year
and emits a high-pitched whistle when in

BiberM Stachelschwein^
beaver porcupine
Amphibious rodent found in Eurasia and Rodent found on land and in trees in warm
North America prized for its fur; it uses and temperate regions; its body is covered
branches to build lodges and dams in with long sharp quills, which it raises to
streams. defend itself.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

Nagetierkiefer** und Hasentierkiefer** I rodent’s and lagomorph’s jaws_ _ _ _ _ _


Unlike a rodent’s jaws, those of a lagomorph have a second pair of (non-functional) incisors on the maxilla.

Nagetierkiefer M: Ratte F
rodent’s jaw: rat

SchneidezahnA/
molar incisor
Large tooth with several roots; it is Flat, constantly growing tooth with a
located at the back of the jaw behind single root; it is located in the front of the
the premolars and is used to grind jaw and used for cutting up plants.
food.

PrämolarM LadenM
premolar diastema
Tooth usually with a single root; it is Large space between the incisors and
located behind the diastema and used the premolars due to the absence of
for grinding. canines.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

Nagetierkiefer" und Hasentierkiefer"

HasentierkieferA7: Kaninchen^
lagomorph’s jaw: rabbit

Gaumenbein N
palatine
Fine bone of the maxilla; the horizontal
portion forms the roof of the mouth.

VorbackenzahnM
premolar
Tooth usually with a single root; it is
located behind the diastema and used
for grinding.

Oberkiefer^
maxilla
Toothed bone forming, with the
premaxilla, the upper jaw.

Backenzahn
molar
Large tooth with several roots; it is
located at the back of the jaw behind
the premolars and is used to grind

Unterkiefer Diastema w Prämaxillaf


mandible diastema premaxilla
Toothed bone form ing the lower jaw. Space between the incisors and the Bone forming the anterior portion of
premolars due to the absence of the upper jaw.
canines.

NagezahnM
incisor
Flat, constantly growing tooth with a
single root; it is located in the front of the
jaw and used for cutting up plants.
NAGETIERE UND HASENTIERE

Beispiele"für Hasentiere" I examples of lagomorphs_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Lagomorphs: small four-legged herbivorous vertebrates (about 60 species) with dense fur, a short or absent tail
and three pairs of incisors.

Pfeifhase^
pika
Tailless lagomorph living in the w ild in
the mountains of Central Asia and
North America.

Kaninchen^
rabbit
Widespread and extremely prolific
lagomorph living in the w ild in
burrows; it is also raised for its meat
and fur.

H asew
hare
Widespread lagomorph with strong hind
lim bs adapted for swift running; it lives in
the wild and is valued especially for its
meat.
HUFTIERE

Pferd" I horse
Maned ungulate mammal domesticated for riding and for use as a draught animal.

H ufM
hoof
Thick, corneous casing covering and
protecting the terminal end of the limb; it
rests on the ground while the horse is
walking and absorbs shocks.

Saumrand^
coronet
Bulge from which the wall of the hoof
grows; it secretes a varnish to protect
the hoof from hum idity and dryness.

Ballen M

Corneous eminence ending at the frog Zehenwand F


and joining with the heel. toe
Front part of the wall of the hoof
between the side walls and opposite
Trachtenwand F
the heel.
quarter
Side part of the wall of the hoof
between the heel and the side wall.

Trachte F

Rear portion of the wall of the hoof


between the quarters and opposite the
toe.

Seitenwand
side wall
Side part of the wall of the hoof Hufeisen N Zehenaufzug M
between the toe and the quarter. horseshoe toe clip
Curved, metal band nailed under the Triangular iron clip mounted on the toe
wall of the hoof to protect it against of the hoof to protect the corneous
wear, to absorb shocks and to provide material and to hold the horseshoe in
better traction on the ground. place.

117
HUFTIERE

Pferd"_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Unterseite^ des HufsM
plantar surface of the hoof
TrachteF
Corneous lower surface of the hoof in contact
heel
with the ground.
Rear portion of the wall of the hoof
between the quarters and opposite the
toe.

Ballen M mittlere StrahlgrubeF


bulb median groove
Corneous eminence ending at the frog Deep, natural groove through the
EckstrebeF
and joining with the heel. centre of the frog.
bar
Terminal part of the wall of the hoof
running along the edge of the frog.
seitliche StrahlgrubeF
lateral groove
Natural groove separating the frog
Trachtenwand F
from the bars and the sole.
quarter
Side part of the wall of the hoof
between the heel and the side wall

side wall
Side part of the wall of the hoof
Hornwand between the toe and the quarter.
wall
Corneous material making up the
perimeter of the hoof; it is produced by
the coronet and grows from 1 to 2 cm a HornstrahIM
month. frog
Part of the hoof made of soft but strong
Hornsohle corneous material located in the notch of
sole the sole; it is used to absorb shocks and
Strong, thin, corneous plate sense the terrain.
com prising the lower portion of the
hoof and resting on the ground. weiße Linie^ Zehenwand F
white line toe
Line of dense, compact corneous Front part of the wall of the hoof
material bringing together the sole and between the side walls and opposite
the inner edge of the wall of the hoof. the heel.

118
HUFTIERE

Pferd"
Hufeisen- I
horseshoe 1
Curved, metal band nailed under the wall
of the hoof to protect it against wear, to
absorb shocks and to provide better
traction on the ground.

TrachteF
heel
Terminal end of each branch of a
horseshoe; it is rounded and
bevelled to prevent injury.N

Trachtenwand F
quarter
Curt of the horseshoe under the quarter
of the hoof.

NagelM
nail
SchenkelM
I'ointy metal pin; its head lodges in the- branch
nail hole to attach the horseshoe to the Each of the two parts of the*
hoof.
horseshoe starting at the toe and
ending at the heel.

Seitenwand F
side wall
Part of the horseshoe under the side
wall of the hoof.

äußerer RandM
outer edge
Outer contour of the horseshoe.

innerer Rand m Nagelloch N


inner edge nail hole
Inner contour of the horseshoe. Rectangular opening made in the iron
to hold the head of a nail; there are
ZehM
usually six to eight nail holes.
toe
Part of the horseshoe under the toe of
the hoof.

119
HUFTIERE

LendeF
loin
äußere M erkm aleNeines Pferdes^ Upper portion of the body between the Rücken M
morphology of a horse back and the croup; it transmits back
forward the propulsion from the hind Upper portion of the trunk opposite thfl
limbs, belly between the withers and the loin

Schwanz w KruppeF
tail croup
Terminal appendage of the body with Rear portion of the body between the
long hairs; the horse whips its tail to loin and the base of the tail; it provides
chase away insects.

SchenkelM
thigh
Upper portion of the hind limb having
large powerful muscles.

KniescheibeF
stifle
Articulation of the hind lim b between
the thigh and the leg formed of the
patella and the skin that covers it.

HoseF
gaskin
Portion of the hind limb between the
stifle and hock.

Sprunggelenk^
BauchM
Articulation of the hind limb; it belly
contributes to movement and absorbs Lower portion of the trunk opposite Iht
shocks. back.

Mittelfuß M
cannon Kötengelenk^
Portion of the hind lim b between the fetlock joint
hock and the fetlock joint supporting Articulation of the lim bs between the
the horse’s weight. cannon and the pastern form ing a
protuberance and acting as a shock
K ö te f absorber.
fetlock
Tuft of hair located behind the fetlock joint.

FesselF Krone f
pastern hoof coronet
Portion of the limbs between the Thick, corneous casing covering and Part of the lim bs covering the upper
fetlock joint and the coronet, protecting the terminal end of the limb; it edge of the hoof and corresponding to
corresponding to the first phalange of rests on the ground while the horse is the second phalange of the finger,
the finger. walking and absorbs shocks.
HUFTIERE

Pferd"
Stirnschopf ^
MähneF forelock
mane Tuft of long, stiff hairs (horsehair) on
lung, stiff hairs (horsehair) covering the upper terminal end of the mane and
llm neck used mainly to chase away falling onto the forehead between the
insects. ears.

Nasef
nose
Front portion of the head extending
from the base of the eyes to the
nostrils.

NüsterF
nostril
Each of the orifices of the nose having
a respiratory and olfactory function.

Lipped
lip
cheek Each of two movable muscular folds
Protruding side of the head behind the forming the contour of the mouth and
upper jaw. having a tactile function.

Halsw
neck
Portion of the body supporting the
head and attached to the withers, the
shoulders and the chest.

withers
Portion of the body extending the neck
and form ing a protuberance above the
shoulder.

chest shoulder
Front portion of the body located Upper portion of the forelimb attached
between the neck and the limbs. to the trunk.

knee
Articulation of the forelim b located below the
elbow between the arm and the cannon; it
contributes to movement and acts as a shock
absorber.
A n a to m ie d e in e s P f e r d e s '7
anatomy of a horse

Nieref Leboi1
kidney //||f
Blinddarm M
Organ secreting urine; it eliminates Viscera that secretes bile, among olhii
caecum
toxic substances from the body. substances; bile helps digestion
Lateral canal located in the anterior
portion of the intestine where
especially a part of digestion and
fermentation take place.

Rektum N
rectum
Terminal portion of the intestine,
behind the colon allowing fecal matter
to be ejected.

Kolon N-
colon
Intestinal part of the body between the
small intestine and the rectum in which
waste collects before being expelled in
the form of excrement. MilzF
spleen
Dünndarm^-' Organ of the circulatory system where
small intestine impurities in the blood are destroyed.
Long, thin portion of the digestive tract
behind the stomach in which most of the
digestion and food absorption take place.
M a g e n '’
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tun i
preceding the intestine; it receives foml
to be digeslml
HUFTIERE

Pferd"

M
oesophagus
Canal of the anterior portion of the
digestive tract; it carries food to the
stomach.

LuftröhreF
trachea
M uscular cartilaginous canal carrying
air from the nasal cavity to the lungs.

LungeF
lung
Respiratory organ made up of an
extensible tissue and forming a sac; air
from the buccal cavity flows into it.

Herz^
heart
Muscular organ helping blood to
circulate.

123
HUFTIERE

Pferd"

Skelettweines Pferdes^
skeleton of a horse

R ipp«'
rib
Darmbein N Thin, curved bone articulating with Ihn
p e l v jS spinal column and the sternum
Bony girdle transmitting propulsion
forward.

OberschenkelM
femur
Long bone of the hind limb articulating
with the pelvis, the tibia and the fibula.

Griffelbein N

Bone fused to the tibia and form ing the


outer limb between the femur and the
tarsus.

UnterschenkelM
Kniescheibe F
Long bone fused to the fibula and patella
forming the inner limb between the Slightly bulging, small, flat, triangular
femur and the tarsus. bone located on the front surface of thn
stifle and articulating especially with
the femur.
Fersenbeinhöcker^
calcaneus
Posterior bone of the tarsus
articulating with the tibia and forming
Fesselbein N
the protuberance of the hock.
phalanx prima
First bone of the digit corresponding to
FußwurzelF the pastern.
tarsus
Part of the hind limb formed of short Kronbein ^
bones located between the tibia, the phalanx secunda
fibula and the metatarsus; it acts as a Second bone of the digit
shock absorber. corresponding to the coronet.
Mittelfußknochen M
metatarsus
Hufbein^
Part of the hind lim b formed of several
phalanx tertia
long bones; it connects the tarsus to
Last phalange of the digit having a
the first phalange of the digit.
thick corneous covering upon which
the horse rests.
HUF T I ER E

Pferd"

AtlasM
Atlas SchädelM
First cervical vertebra supporting the Skull
head. Bony structure enclosing and
protecting the brain.
Schulterblatt^
scapula
Urge, thin, flat bone connected to the
i f trunk by numerous muscles and
1 ligaments; it has a wide range of
motion.
Unterkiefer^
—- mandible
Toothed bone form ing the lower jaw.

Oberarmbein N
humerus
Long bone of the forelimb whose E lle/7
articulation with the scapula allows ulna
shocks to be absorbed when the horse B °ne fused to the radius and forming
the inner limb between the humerus
and the carpus.

Speiche^
radius
Long bone fused to the ulna and
forming the outer portion of the limb
between the humerus and the carpus.

Vorderfußwurzel/7
carpus
Portion of the foreleg formed of short
bones between the radius and the
metacarpus.

Röhrbein^
metacarpus
Part of the forelimb formed of several
long bones; it connects the carpus to
the first phalange.

Sesambein N
proximal sesamoid
One of two bones between the carpus
(forelim b) or the tarsus (hind lim b) and the
first phalange forming the fetlock joint.

Strahlbein N
distal sesamoid
Small, elongated bone of the third phalange of
the digit allowing the lower part of the limb to
move.

125
Gangarten^
gaits
Natural or acquired means of locomotion used by a horse,
based on limb movements. There are four principal gaits.

Schritt^
walk
Natural walking gait in four equal
movements: each leg lifts and touches
down diagonally in succession. This is a
horse’s slowest gait.

Trabw
trot
Natural jum ping gait between a walk and a
gallop in two movements: both pairs of
diagonal legs alternate in touching down,
with a pause in between.

Passgang^
amble
Acquired jum ping gait in two
movements, extremely comfortable
and faster than the trot; both pairs of
lateral legs alternate in lifting.

Galopp ^
gallop
Natural gait performed in three unequal
movements: both diagonal legs work
together, while the other two work separately,
with a pause in between.
HUFTIERE

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ BeispieleA/fürHufeM I examples of hoofs


Ungulate mammals can have an odd or even number of toes (from one to five); the number can vary for the
forelimbs and the hind limbs.

Zwei-ZehenhufM
two-toed hoot
The deer, giraffe, bull, sheep and camel
are the principal animals with this kind
of hoof.

Ein-Zehenhuf^
one-toe hoof
The horse, zebra and ass, for example,
have one-toed hooves.

Vier-ZehenhufM
four-toed hoof
The pig, w ild boar, hippopotamus and
elephant are the principal animals with
this kind of hoof.

Drei-ZehenhufM
three-toed hoof
The rhinoceros, for example, has this
kind of hoof.

127
HUFTIERE

Beispiele'7für Huftiere" I ^M e mammals_ _ _


exampleh
o
s_
There are many species of ungulate mammals; some are wild, some are domesticated and some are both.

Nabelschwein N Wildschwein^ Schwein^


peccary wild boar pig
W ild ungulate found in the forests of W ild ungulate found in forests and Domestic, om nivorous ungulate raised
the Americas having a dorsal gland marshes with sharp canines that it uses mainly for its meat and its hide.
that emits a nauseous secretion; it is to defend itself; it is hunted for its hide.
prized for its hide.

S ch a ft Antilope/7
sheep antelope
Ruminant ungulate covered with a Ruminant ungulate with hollow horns
thick w oolly coat domesticated for its found throughout Africa and Asia; it
milk, meat and wool. runs very fast and is prized for its meal
and hide.

Mufflon m Esel m Maultier^/


mouflon ass mule
Extremely agile ruminant ungulate W ild maned ungulate originally from Sterile male, a cross between an ass
found in the wild in mountainous Africa domesticated as a pack animal. and a mare (female of the horse); it is
regions. very hardy and can carry heavy loads.
HUFTIERE

Beispiele"für Huftiere"

Ochse M K u h /7
ox cow
Castrated bovine (male of the cow) Ruminant ungulate with horns (female
domesticated for its meat and of the bull); it is raised for its milk and
sometimes used as a draught animal. meat, and for reproduction.

Z ie g e f
goat
Ruminant ungulate with hollow horns male or female, up to the
able to jum p and climb; it is year; raised for its meat.
domesticated for its m ilk and meat.

Zebraw Pferdw
zebra horse
Maned ungulate that runs very fast; it Maned ungulate mammal
is found in herds in the forests and domesticated for riding and for use as
steppes of Africa. a draught animal.

129
HUFTIERE

Beispiele"für Huftiere*

Rentier^ R ehN Wapitihirsch w


reindeer white-tailed deer Canadian elk
Ruminant ungulate found in cold regions of W ild ruminant ungulate of North America; it W ild ruminant ungulate of Canada; a
the northern hemisphere; it is raised in runs very fast and is highly prized as game. good swimmer and runner, it is prized
captivity by some peoples for its meat, hide for its meat and antlers and is
and milk, and as a draught animal. sometimes raised in captivity.

Büffel m
buffalo
Ruminant ungulate found in the tropical
regions of Africa and Asia; it is wild or
raised in captivity for its meat and milk,
and as a draught animal.

Lama^ O kapiw
llama okapi
Ruminant ungulate found in the Ruminant ungulate of Africa with an
mountains of South America; it can be extensible and prehensile tongue; only
w ild or domesticated and is highly the male has small horns.
prized for its wool.
HUFTIERE

Beispiele*für Huftiere*

Dromedar^ Kamel^
dromedary camel
Single-humped ruminant ungulate of Two-humped ruminant ungulate of Asia
Africa adapted to arid climates; it is adapted to arid climates; it is
used especially as a pack animal and domesticated especially for its meat, milk
for riding. and hide, and as a pack animal.

Bison^
bison
Ruminant ungulate of North America
and Europe; usually wild, but
sometimes raised for its meat.

YakM Elchw
yak elk
Ruminant ungulate of Central Asia Ruminant ungulate found in the cold regions of
domesticated in Tibet for its m ilk and the northern hemisphere with wide hooves that
its hide, and as a pack animal. allow it to wade through marshes and ponds.
HUFTIERE

Beispiele"für Huftiere"

Nashorn^
rhinoceros
Ungulate found in the savannahs and
marshy areas of Africa and Asia with a
one-horned or two-horned muzzle; it is
threatened with extinction.

Giraffe F
giraffe
Ruminant ungulate found in African
savannahs that can reach 7 metres in
height; it has a prehensile tongue and
small horns.

Nilpferd^
hippopotamus
Am phibious ungulate of Africa that can
weigh up to 5 metric tons; it defends
itself with its canine teeth, which grow
constantly.

ElefantM
elephant
The largest land mammal today, found
in the forests and savannahs of Africa
and Asia; it is hunted for its ivory
tusks.
RAUBTIERE

Hundw I dog
Carnivorous mammal with an excellent sense of smell; it has been domesticated since prehistoric times and
trained to perform a number of tasks: guarding and protecting, detecting, carrying and hunting.
Vorderpfote Fdes Hundes^
dog’s forepaw
Kralle F Articulated limb ending in four toes
claw allowing the dog to move about, dig
Non-retractable, corneous structure and scratch.
that is not very sharp; the dog digs
with it and it provides stability and
grip.

ZehM
toe
Zehenballen M- Terminal end of the limb supporting
digital pad the body; it is formed of various
Thick, cutaneous bulge, elastic and articulated bones and ends in a claw.
fiRlstant to wear upon which the toe rests;
II contributes to locomotion and absorbs
shocks.

Afterkralle F
dewclaw
Pointy, corneous appendage, the
remnant of a thumb; it does not touch
the ground and is often absent on the Sohlenballen M
hind limb. palmar pad
Thick, cutaneous bulge, elastic and
resistant to wear supporting the
metacarpus; the dog uses it to move about
and it absorbs shocks.

Afterkrallenballen
dew pad
Thick, elastic, cutaneous bulge located at the
base of the dewclaw; it does not touch the
ground. Karpalballenw
carpal pad
Thick, cutaneous bulge, elastic and
resistant to wear; it does not touch the
ground but prevents the dog from sliding
as it lands after a jump.
RAUBTIERE

Hund"

I äußere M erkm ale^eines Hundes^ Backe/7


morphology ota dog cheek
Side part of the head between the
muzzle and the ear, below the eye.

Schnauze/7
muzzle
Elongated front part of the head usually
covered with sensory hairs (moustaches)
that have a highly developed tactile and
olfactory function.

Stop
stop
Part between the top of the head and
the muzzle.
Lefzen/7
flews
Movable muscular folds form ing the
contour of the mouth and having a
tactile function.

Widerrist^
withers
Part of the body that is an extension of
the neck and forms a protuberance
above the shoulder.

Schulter^
shoulder
Upper part of the forelimb attached to
the trunk and forming a very mobile
articulation.

Ellbogen^
elbow
Articulation of the forelim b between the
upper arm and the forearm above the
knee.

Unterarm M>'
forearm
Portion of the forelim b located between
the elbow and the wrist.

Fußgelenk/v-
wrist
Articulation of the forelimb to which
the toes are attached.
RAUBTIERE

HundM

RückenM
back
Upper portion of the trunk opposite the
belly between the withers and the loin.

Keule f
thigh
Upper part of the hind limb; its
muscles provide strong momentum.

Schwanz w
tail
Terminal appendage of the body; the
dog uses it mainly to show its
-reactions.

knee
Thigh joint (femur) articulating with the
lower section of the leg (tibia).

ZehM
Sprunggelenk^
toe
Terminal end of the lim b supporting
Articulation of the hind limb; it
the body; it is formed of various
contributes to movement and absorbs
bones and ends in a claw.

135
RAUBTIERE

Skelett^ eines Hunds M


skeleton of a dog Scheitelbein N Hinterhauptbein N HalswirbelM
parietal bone occipital bone cervical vertebrae
Flat bone of the upper side of the skull Flat bone of the lower back part Bony parts of the neck comprising Ihn
articulating with the frontal and of the skull articulating with the upper terminal end of the spinal
occipital bones. parietal bone and the atlas. column.

Stirnbein N
frontal bone
Flat skull bone forming the forehead
and top of the eye sockets, and
articulating especially with the parietal.
BrustwirbelM
Augenhöhle/7 thoracic vertebrae
orbit Bony parts supporting the ribs between
Bony cavity of the upper lateral portion the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
of the head containing the eye.

Oberkiefer^
maxilla
Toothed bone com prising the upper
jaw.

First cervical vertebra supporting the


head and supported by the axis.
mandible
Toothed bone form ing the lower jaw.

Rippe/7
rib
Thin, curved bone articulating with the
vertebral column and the sternum.

Oberarmknochen M
humerus
Long bone of the forelimb articulating
with the scapula to form the shoulder.
Speiche/7
radius
Long bone form ing the outer limb
between the humerus and the carpus. Brustbein N
sternum
Elle/7 Flat, elongated and sometimes
ulna segmented bone to which the ribs am
Long bone form ing the inner limb Handwurzel/7
attached.
between the humerus and the carpus. carpus
Portion of the forepaw formed of short
bones between the radius, the ulna and
the metacarpus.

Mittelhand/7
metacarpus
Portion of the forelimb formed of
several long bones; it connects the
carpus to the first phalange of the toe.
RAUBTIERE

Hund"

lundonwirbel^ KreuzbeinwirbelM
lumbar vertebrae sacral vertebrae
(tuny parts of the back located between Bony parts fused together located between
IN thoracic and sacral vertebrae. the lumbar and caudal vertebrae.

Oberschenkelknochen M
femur
Long bone of the hind lim b articulating
with the pelvis, the tibia and the fibula.

Kniescheibe F
patella
Small, slightly bulging, triangular bone
located on the front surface of the leg
and articulating especially with the
femur.

SchwanzwirbelM
caudal vertebrae
Bony parts com prising the skeleton of
the tail located at the terminal end of
the spinal column.

Wadenbein N
fibula
Long bone form ing the outer limb
between the femur and the tarsus.

Schienbein N
tibia
Long bone form ing the inner limb
between the femur and the tarsus.
FußwurzelF
tarsus
I '.ir! of the hind limb formed of short
hones located between the tibia, the
MittelfußM
llbula and the metatarsus; it acts as a
metatarsus
shock absorber.
Part of the hind lim b formed of several
long bones; it connects the tarsus to
the first phalange of the toe.

Zehengliederw
phalanges
Articulated bones form ing the skeleton
of the toes.
RAUBTIERE

HunderassenF I s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
d
re
b
g
o
There are about 350 breeds of dog, classified into 10 groups according to their morphology and use.

Bulldogge*7 Schnauzer^
Schnauzer
Pud elw
Extremely affectionate and playful pet with a Strong, energetic dog originally from
poodle
muscular body; it becomes aggressive when Germany, used as a guard dog and
The most common pet in the world,
its owner is attacked. also as a pet.
usually very faithful and very fond of
water; poodles are also used as circus
performers.

Chow-Choww
C ollie^ Chow Chow
Pet originally from China, independent
collie
and reserved, it is also used as a guard
Scottish sheep dog and an affectionate
dog.
and highly valued pet; the long-haired
variety is more common than the short-
haired variety.

Deutscher Schäferhund w
German shepherd
The most common multipurpose dog in
the world: sheep dog, guard dog, police
dog (detection and search), guide dog for
the blind and pet.
138
RAUBTIERE

Hunderassenf

Bernhardiner^
Saint Bernard
Large, very muscular dog mainly used
Windhund^ in mountain rescues.
greyhound
Muscular, streamlined dog; it is very
swift and is used mainly for hunting
and sports competitions.

Dänische Dogge*7 Dalmatiner^


Great Dane Dalmatian
Very tall pet and guard dog, originally Energetic and quite independent pet
from Germany; it is affectionate and valued for its elegance; it also makes a
well behaved. good guard dog.
RAUBTIERE

Katzef I cat
Carnivorous mammal with a supple muscular body and paws ending in retractable claws; it is a very common
pet.
Kopf^der Katze^
cat’s head
Anterior portion of the body containing Pupille^ Wimpern F
the main sensory organs and the brain. pupil
Central opening of the eye where light Hairs implanted on the free edge of the
enters; it is particularly well adapted to eyelid preventing dust and other
the dark. particles from landing on the eye.

Schnurrhaare^
whiskers
Highly sensitive, long, stiff hairs
located above the eyes and having a
tactile function.

oberes Augenlid N
upper eyelid
Thin, muscular membrane lowering
from the upper edge of the eye to
protect and clean it.

unteres Augenlid ^
lower eyelid
Thin, muscular membrane that is
translucent and movable; it rises from
the lower edge of the eye to protect and
cleanse it.

Nickhautf
nictitating membrane
Thin, muscular membrane extending
sideways from the inside corner of the
eye to protect and moisten it.

Schnurrhaarew
whiskers
Extremely sensitive, long, stiff hairs
(vibrissae) located on the muzzle
having a tactile function.

NasenspiegelM
nose leather
Terminal end of the muzzle bearing the
nostrils made of strong damp tissue; it
has an olfactory and respiratory
function.
SchnauzeF
muzzle
Short, round, front part of the head
Lippe^
with whiskers; it has a highly
lip
developed tactile and olfactory
Movable, muscular part form ing the
function.
contour of the mouth; a cat has two
upper lips lined with whiskers.

1 40
RAUBTIERE

KatzeF

äußere M erkm ale*einer KatzeF


morphology of a cat

Auge* Ohr*
eye ear
Organ of sight especially adapted to H ighly mobile organ of hearing, also
darkness; it mainly perceives light contributing to equilibrium ; cats have a
Intensity, m otion and certain colours. highly developed sense of hearing.

Schwanz w
tail
Terminal appendage of the body
providing equilibrium when the cat
jum ps.'

Fell*
fur
Hair covering the body, mainly for
maintaining internal body temperature
and providing protection from insect
bites.

141
RAUBTIERE

Katzef
e in g e zo g e n e K r a lle ^
I retracted claw
When a cat walks, its claws retract into
Mittelglied^
metacarpus
Sehne^
tendon
a cutaneous fold (sheath) and it moves Portion of the forelimb formed of Fibrous tissue connecting the muscle
on its pads. several long bones; it connects the to the bone; relaxing the tendon causes
carpus to the first phalange of the toe. the claw to retract.

Kralle f
claw
Curved, pointy, retractable corneous
structure allowing the cat to climb,
catch its prey and defend itself.

Krallenbein N
distal phalanx
Bone of the lower terminal end of the"
toe bearing the claw.

Kronbeinw Fesselbein N
middle phalanx proximal phalanx
Bone of the central part of the toe Bone of the upper terminal end of the
between the proximal and distal toe connected to the metacarpus.
phalanges.

ausgestreckte K ra lle F
elastisches Ligament^
extended claw
elastic ligament
A cat uses its claws only when Strong and elastic fibrous tissue
necessary, mainly for clim bing or located on the back of the distal and
killing its prey. median phalanges allowing the claw to
retract into the sheath.

Zehenballen M Sohlenballenw Sehnef


digital pad plantar pad tendon
Thick, cutaneous bulge, elastic and Thick, cutaneous bulge, elastic and Fibrous tissue connecting the muscle to
resistant to wear upon which the toe rests; resistant to wear, supporting the the bone; the tendon’s traction causes
it contributes to locom otion and absorbs metacarpus; the cat uses it to move about the claws to extend,
shocks. and it absorbs shocks.
RAUBTIERE

Katzenrassen I cat breeds


there are more than 30 officially recognized breeds of domestic cat, classified into three groups according to the
length of their hair (short, medium-long or long).

Siamkatze* Abessinierkatze*
Siamese Abyssinian
Slender cat originally from Thailand, Svelte cat originally from Egypt or
playful and affectionate; it has a loud Ethiopia, docile and energetic; it has a
raucous meow. melodious meow.


Maine Coon*
Maine Coon Manxkatze*
Sturdy cat; calm and affectionate, with Manx
a melodious meow; very popular in the Tailless cat with hind limbs longer than
U.S. but less common in Europe. its forelimbs.

Amerikanische Kurzhaarkatze* Perserkatze*


American shorthair Persian
Energetic and resilient cat that is in Highly-prized cat with silky fur, calm
great demand in the U.S. and Japan. and affectionate; there are many
varieties differentiated by the colour of
the fur and the eyes.
RAUBTIERE

Beispiele17für Raubtiere" I examples of carnivorous mammals_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Carnivorous mammals (about 270 species) that have strong canines (fangs) and sharp molars (carnassials)
adapted for eating flesh.

NerzM Steinmarder^
mink stone marten
Carnivorous, am phibious and mostly nocturnal M ostly nocturnal, carnivorous mammal of
mammal with webbed feet found in Eurasia and Eurasia; it is a good swimmer and climber
W ie se l" the Americas; it is hunted and raised in captivity and often catches fowl, domestic rabbits and
weasel for its highly prized fur. rats.
Very agile, carnivorous mammal
common in Eurasia; it is capable of
attacking large prey (rats, voles, rabbits)
in spite of its size.

Fuchs^
fox
Very common carnivorous mammal
living in a den and hunting at night
(m ostly rodents); its fur is highly prized.

Wüstenfuchs M
fennec mongoose
Nocturnal, carnivorous mammal found in Very agile, carnivorous mammal of
the deserts of Arabia and North Africa; it is Africa and Asia; it is easily tamed and
easily tamed and capable of going without is used to destroy harmful pests
water for long periods. (snakes, rats).
RAUBTIERE

Beispiele"für Raubtiere"

D achst Marder^
badger marten
M ostly nocturnal, carnivorous mammal of M ostly nocturnal, agile, carnivorous
the northern hemisphere digging complex mammal of Eurasia and North America
tunnels; its hairs are used to make prized for its silky fur; it is a good
hairbrushes and paintbrushes. climber.

SeeotterM
river otter
Widespread carnivorous, am phibious
and usually nocturnal mammal with
webbed feet; feeding mainly on fish and
prized for its fur.

Waschbär^ Stinktier^
raccoon skunk
M ostly nocturnal, carnivorous Carnivorous mammal of the Americas,
mammal of the Americas. whose fur is prized; when threatened, it
releases a nauseous and irritating
secretion from its anal glands.
RAUBTIERE

Beispiele"für Raubtiere"

HyäneF Luchsw
hyena lynx
Carnivorous scavenger of Africa and Very agile and powerful carnivorous mammal
Asia; it is the only animal that w ill attack found in the forests of the northern hemisphere;
a lion to steal its food. it is a night hunter with piercing eyes and its fur
is highly prized.

Puma^
puma
Carnivorous mammal of the Americas
living in various habitats (mountains,
forests); it hunts only at night and is
famed for its ability to leap.

Löw ew
lion
Large, carnivorous mammal common
in Africa; it lives in groups called
prides; only the male has a mane.
RAUBTIERE

Beispielewfür Raubtiere'*

Gepard^
cheetah
Carnivorous mammal of Africa and the
M iddle East with non-retractable claws; it
is the fastest of the land mammals,
reaching speeds of 100 km/h.

Leopard^
leopard
Carnivorous mammal of Africa and Asia
with yellow fur and black spots; it
m ostly lives in trees and usually hunts
at night.

Jaguar^ Tig erw


jaguar tiger
Carnivorous mammal of Central and Large and very powerful carnivorous
South America with spotted fur; it is an mammal of Asia; it hunts at night.
excellent swimmer and hunts at night.
RAUBTIERE

Beispiele"für Raubtiere"

Wolf M SchwarzbärM
wolf black bear
Nocturnal, carnivorous mammal of M ostly nocturnal, carnivorous mammal of
Eurasia and North America; it lives in North America; it is a good swimmer, an
packs and hunts large mammals excellent clim ber and feeds mainly on fruit
(deer). and nuts.

polar bear
Carnivorous mammal of arctic regions; a
good swimmer, it feeds mainly on seals
and fish, and is the largest carnivorous
land mammal.
MEERESSÄUGETIERE

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Beispiele^für Meeressäugetiere" I examples of marine mammals


Marine mammals: many actively hunted species (more than 110 out of 116) are protected or are subject to
hunting restrictions.

Schw ertw alM


killer whale
Widespread, swift aggressive marine
mammal reaching up to 9 metres in
length; it attacks mainly young whales
and dolphins.

W a lM
whale
Marine mammal that can reach 30 metres in
length and with a mouth lined with corneous
plates (baleen); it is hunted especially for its oil
and meat.

Pottw al M
sperm whale
Mammal found in tropical and subtropical
waters reaching up to 20 metres in length;
hunted mainly for its meat and blubber, it is
now a protected species.
MEERESSÄUGETIERE

Beispiele"für Meeressäugetiere"

Seelöw ew Walroß^
sea lion walrus
Am phibious marine mammal with Am phibious marine mammal of arctic
external ear flaps that moves about on regions; it is hunted for its hide,
land with the help of its four limbs; it is blubber and ivory tusks.
hunted mainly for its fur.

Buckelwal^
rorqual
Widespread marine mammal with a
mouth lined with corneous plates
(baleen) and numerous longitudinal
grooves on its throat.

Seehund^
seal
Short-haired, am phibious marine mammal
lacking external ear flaps that moves about on
land by dragging its body; it is hunted for its
meat, blubber and fur.

150
MEERESSÄUGETIERE

Beispiele"für Meeressäugetiere"

Tüm m lerM
porpoise
Mammal found in cold and temperate
waters whose flesh is highly prized; it
is a protected species.

Delphin^
dolphin
Mammal of warm and temperate waters
famed for its intelligence; it is a swift
swimmer (about 45 km/h).

N arw alM
narwhal
Mammal of arctic waters; the male,
whose spiralled tusk can reach 3
metres in length, is hunted for its ivory.

Marine mammal of the polar and


subarctic regions em itting various
whistles to communicate, hence its
nickname “sea canary” .
MEERESSÄUGETIERE

_ I dolplm_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Delphin M
Marine mammal without hind limbs; it uses echoes ot the sounds it emits (sonar) to orient itself and detect its
prey.

äußere M erkm ale^eines Delphins^


morphology of a dolphin

SpritzlocM
blowhole
Opening in the nasal cavity located on
the top of the head allowing
respiration.

M a u l^
mouth
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
formed by the maxilla and the
mandible allowing ingestion of food.

Swimming appendage made of bone


that ensures stability, orientation,
stopping and thermoregulation.
MEERESSÄUGETIERE

Delphin"

- Rückenflosse F
dorsal fin
Swimming appendage made of dense fibrous tissue
located in the middle of the back and providing
stability and thermoregulation; some marine
mammals do not have a dorsal fin.

Schwanz M
tail
Terminal part of the body whose vertical
movements propel the dolphin; the tail is
controlled by powerful muscles inserted in
the spinal column.

Schwanzflosse F "
caudal fin
Powerful swim ming appendage with two lobes
formed of dense fibrous tissue located
vertically at the posterior terminal part of the
body; its function is propulsion.
MEERESSÄUGETIERE

Delphin"

f Skelett^eines Delphins^
skeleton of a dolphin Schulterblatt^
scapula
Large, thin, flat bone connected to the
SchädelM spinal column and allowing the
skull pectoral fin to move.
Bony structure enclosing and
protecting the brain.

BrustwirbelM
HalswirbelM thoracic vertebrae
Oberkiefer^ cervical vertebrae Bony parts supporting the ribs between
maxilla Bony parts of the neck com prising the the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
Toothed bone com prising the upper upper terminal end of the spinal
jaw. column.

mandible orbit
Toothed bone forming the lower jaw. Bony cavity of the upper lateral portion
of the head containing the eye.

Oberarmknochen M
humerus
Short bone of the pectoral fin articulating
with the scapula, the radius and the ulna.

Speiche^ Phalangen F
radius phalanges
Short bone of the pectoral fin between Fixed bones form ing the skeleton ol
the humerus and the carpus. the digits.

Handwurzel MittelhandF
ulna carpus metacarpus
Short bone of the pectoralfin between Portion of the pectoral fin formed of Part of the pectoral fin formed of
the humerus and the carpus, short bones between the radius,the several long bones; it connects the
ulna and the metacarpus. carpus to the first phalange.

154
Delphin”

LendenwirbelM
lumbar vertebrae WirbelM
Bony parts of the back between the vertebra
thoracic vertebrae and the caudal Bony part of the dorsal portion of the
vertebrae. body mainly supporting the ribs; all the
vertebrae together form the spinal
column.

SchwanzwirbelM
caudal vertebrae
Bony parts com prising the skeleton of
the tail located at the terminal end of
Rippe^
the spinal column.
rib
Thin, curved bone articulating with the
vertebral column and the sternum. rudimentäres BeckenN
vestigial pelvis
Rudimentary bone resulting from the
reduction of the pelvis and posterior
limbs located in the muscle mass.
PRIMATEN

Gorilla** I gorilla_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Mainly terrestrial, vegetarian primate of the equatorial forests of Africa; the largest of the primates, it can reach 2
metres in height.

äußere M erkm ale^eines Gorillas'^ Gesicht^


morphology of a gorilla face
Front portion of the head comprising
especially the orifices of the sense
organs.

BehaarungF Armw
fur arm
Hair covering the body, with the main Powerful, muscular upper lim b mainly
exceptions of the face, palms of the supporting the body while walking.
hands and soles of the feet; it maintains
body temperature.

opponierbarer Daumen M Bein'v


opposable thumb leg
Short, sturdy first digit of the hand Powerful, muscular lower limb
facing the other digits and used for supporting the body in an upright
grasping and using tools; it is also position.
used to hang from objects.

H I H!ll III IIIHI HandF Fuß^


prehensile digit hand foot
Articulated limb ending in a nail; along Terminal part of the upper limb having a Terminal end of the leg bearing five
with the thumb, it is used to grasp food tactile and prehensile function, with a digits; it rests on the ground and has a
and to cling to objects. thumb opposable to the other fingers. prehensile and m otor function.
PRIMATEN

G orilla"

HalswirbelM Skelett^eines Gorillas^ 1


SchädelM cervical vertebrae skeleton of a gorilla
skull Bony parts of the neck com prising the
Bony structure enclosing and upper terminal end of the spinal
protecting the brain. * column.

Schulterblatt^
scapula
Large, flat, thin back bone articulating
with the humerus.

BrustwirbelM
RippeF thoracic vertebrae
rib Bony parts supporting the ribs between
Thin, curved bone articulating with the the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
spinal column and the sternum.

Oberarmknochen M
humerus LendenwirbelM
Long arm bone articulating with the lumbar vertebrae
scapula to form the shoulder, and with Bony parts of the back between the
the radius and the ulna to form the dorsal vertebrae and the sacrum.
elbow.
BeckenN
pelvis
Bony girdle to which the legs are
SpeicheF attached; the elongated shape of the
radius pelvis prevents the gorilla from
I long bone making up the outer section remaining upright for very long.
of the forearm; it is connected
especially to the carpal bones to form Kreuzbein N
the wrist joint. sacrum
Bone resulting from the fusion of several
vertebrae and located between the lumbar
and caudal vertebrae; the pelvis
Long bone form ing the inner arm articulates with it.
between the humerus and the carpus.
Oberschenkelknochen M
femur
Long bone of the hind limb articulating
with the pelvis, the tibia and the fibula.

Wadenbein N
fibula
Long bone form ing the outer portion of
the leg located between the femur and
Schienbein^ the tarsus (foot bone).

Long bone form ing the inner portion of


the leg located between the femur and
the tarsus (foot bone).
PRIMATEN

Beispiele'7für PrimatenM I examples of primates_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Many species are protected, especially because of deforestation (destruction of their habitat) and hunting.

Tam arind
tamarin
Small, hopping primate of South
America with elongated claws instead
of nails that allow it to move about and
to feed.

Pavian m
baboon
M ainly terrestrial, African primate with
coloured ischial callosities and large
cheek pouches in which it stores food.

Orang-UtanM
orangutan M akakw
Primate found in Sumatra and Borneo macaque
with long powerful arms; it moves slowly Common primate of Asia with a non-
and carefully between the trees in which prehensile tail living on the ground and
it lives. in trees; it is often used for laboratory
experiments.
PRIMATEN

Beispiele"für Primaten*

Pinseläffchen w
marmoset
Small, South American primate with
strong claws instead of nails that it
uses to cling to the trees it lives in.

Lemure^
lemur
Tree-dwelling, agile primate of
Madagascar with a long tail; it is mainly
nocturnal and feeds on insects and fruit.

Schimpanse^
chimpanzee
Primate of equatorial Africa whose
genetic makeup is very close to that of
humans; it is used mainly in medical
research.

Gibbon^
gibbon
Tailless, tree-dwelling primate of Asia; i
swings from branch to branch with
agility, using its hands as hooks.
BEUTELTIERE

Känguru" I kangaroo
Herbivorous marsupial with a highly developed tail; it lives in groups in Australia and Tasmania and moves
rapidly by leaping.

äußere M erkm ale^eines Kängurus '


morphology of a kangaroo

OhrmuschelF
pinna
Movable outer portion of the ear made
of cartilage and located on the side of
the head to capture sounds.

SchnauzeF
snout
Long, front portion of the head having
mainly a highly developed olfactory
function.

VorderextremitätF
forelimb
Poorly-developed articulated limb ending
in five clawed digits; the kangaroo uses it
to feed and to defend itself.

Klaue f
claw
Pointy, sharp, corneous structure used
especially to scratch and claw
adversaries during combat.-

FußM~-
foot
Powerful terminal end of the limb
bearing four digits; it supports the
body and has a motor function.

Digitus M-
digit
Articulated limb at the end of the foot. The
kangaroo does not usually have a thumb. The
2nd and 3rd digits are fused, while the 4th
digit ends in a strong sharp claw.
BEUTELTIERE

Känguru"

BehaarungF
für
Hair covering the body, mainly for
maintaining body temperature; the fur
insulates against cold and heat.

OberschenkelM
thigh
Upper portion of the hind limb; its
muscles provide the kangaroo with
strong propulsion.

BeutelM
pouch
Located on the female’s belly and having
nipples; the newborn continues to develop
inside it. In.some species, the pouch is
dorsal or absent.

Schwanz^
tail
Very muscular terminal appendage; it
helps maintain equilibrium while
jum ping and, with the back legs,
supports the body at rest.

Hinterextremitätf
hind limb
Extremely muscular, articulated limb
ending in four digits allowing the
kangaroo to move swiftly by powerful
bounds and to strike its enemies.
BEUTELTIERE

Känguru"

Skelett eines Kängurus^


skeleton of a kangaroo

SchädelM
skull
Bony structure enclosing and Unterkiefer^
protecting the brain. mandible
Toothed bone form ing the lower jaw.

Oberarmknochen M
humerus Schlüsselbein N
Long bone of the forelim b articulating clavicle
with the scapula to form the shoulder. Long bone located between the
sternum and the scapula.
Brustbein N
sternum Schulterblatt^
Elongated, flat bone to which the ribs scapula
are attached and bearing a carina on its ■Large, thin, flat bone of the back; with
front surface. the clavicle, it serves as an attachment
point for the forelimb.

SpeicheF
radius
RippeF
Long bone form ing the outer limb
rib
between the humerus and the carpus.
’’ Thin, curved bone articulating with the
spinal column and the sternum.
ElleF
ulna
Long bone form ing the inner limb
between the humerus and the carpus. BeckenN
pelvis
Bony girdle to which the legs are attached;
two bones extending from it support the
pouch and thigh muscles.
Oberschenkelknochen M
femur
Long bone of the hind limb articulating
with the pelvis, the tibia and the fibula.

Wadenbein N

Long bone form ing the outer limb


between the femur and the tarsus.

Schienbein^
tibia
Long bone form ing the inner limb
between the femur and the tarsus.
BEUTELTIERE

Beispiele"für Beuteltiere" I
The 260 or so species live on land or in trees in Oceania and the Americas.

Opossum^
Tasmanischer TeufelM
opossum
Tasmanian devil
Omnivorous, nocturnal marsupial of
Carnivorous, scavenging, nocturnal
the Americas and Australia without a
marsupial with powerful jaws that allow
pouch; its fur is highly prized.
it to devour its prey whole (flesh, bones,
fur, feathers).

Känguru w
kangaroo
Herbivorous marsupial with a highly
developed tail; it lives in groups in
Australia and Tasmania and moves
rapidly by leaping.

Wallaby^
wallaby
Marsupial closely related to the
kangaroo and living in Australia,
Tasmania and New Guinea; certain
species are prized for their fur.

K oa la w
koala
Tailless, nocturnal marsupial of
Australia; this solitary, tree-dweller lives
in eucalyptus forests and feeds on the
tree’s leaves.
FLEDERTIERE

Fledermaus^ I bat_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Usually insectivorous, nocturnal flying mammal using echoes of the sounds it produces to orient itself
(echolocation) and to find its prey.

KlaueF
äußere M erkm ale^einer Flederm ausF DaumenM claw
morphology of a bat thumb Stiff, pointy, corneous structure mainly
First digit of the wing; it is short and enabling the bat to attach itself to an
bears a claw. object.

2. FingerM
2nd metacarpal
3. Finger^
Long wing bone connecting the carpus to
3rd metacarpal the first phalange of the 2nd finger and
Long wing bone connecting the carpus
supporting the wing membrane.
to the first phalange of the 3rd finger
and supporting the wing membrane.

Handgelenk^
wrist
Articulation of the wing to which the
digits are attached.

4. Fingerw
4th metacarpal
Long wing bone connecting the carpus
to the first phalange of the 4th finger
and supporting the wing membrane.

5. Finger^
5th metacarpal
Long wing bone connecting the carpus
to the first phalange of the 5th finger
and supporting the wing membrane.

Ellbogen^
elbow
Articulation allowing flexion and
extension of the wing.

Organ of hearing that receives echoes


of the sounds the bat emits to locate
obstacles and prey.

UnterschenkelM

Long and powerful leg bone especially foot


supporting the interfemoral Terminal end of the foot having five toes
membrane. pointing towards the back and ending in
powerful claws; the bat uses it to hang upside
down when at rest.
FLEDERTIERE

Fledermaus^

BlutgefäßeN
blood vessels
Channels in which blood circulates;
they regulate the body’s temperature.

Flughaut^
wing membrane
Smooth fold of skin stretching between
the digits of the wings and extending to
the feet; it is used mainly for flight and
thermoregulation.

Unterarm M
radius
Long and powerful wing bone
supporting the wing membrane.

KopfM
head
Anterior portion of the body containing
the main sensory organs and the brain.

Nasenblatt^
nose leaf
External opening of the nasal cavity
located above the mouth and having a
highly developed olfactory function in
particular.

Sporn M
calcar
Cartilaginous structure attached to the
tarsus and supporting the interfemoral
membrane.

SchwanzflughautF
interfemoral membrane
Fold of smooth skin between the legs
and the tail; it provides stability when
the bat is in flight and capturing prey. Flügel ^
wings
Schwanz w Appendages of flight comprised of a cutaneous
tail membrane supported by four very long fingers
Terminal appendage of the body (only the thumb remains free); the bat folds its
especially supporting the interfemoral wings when resting.
membrane.
FLEDERTIERE

Fledermaus'"

Skelettweiner Fledermaus^ SchädelM


Schulterblatt^
skeleton of a bat skull
scapula
Large, thin, flat bone; with the clavicle, Bony structure enclosing and
it serves as an attachment point for the protecting the brain.
w ing.v

Rippef
rib
Thin, curved bone articulating with the
spinal column and the sternum. -

Brustbein N
sternum
Long flat bone to which certain ribs are—
attached; powerful flight muscles are
inserted into its crest.

Elle'7— / '
ulna
Wing bone between the humerus and f
the carpus. V

Kreuzbein N
sacrum
Bone resulting from the fusion of several
vertebrae and located between the lumbar
and caudal vertebrae; the pelvis articulates
with it.

Oberschenkelknochen M-
femur
Long bone of the hind limb articulating
with the pelvis, the tibia and the fibula.

Fußwurzelf
tarsus Phalangen F / Beckenw
Portion of the foot formed of short phalanges pelvis
bones between the tibia, the fibula and Articulated bones forming the skeleton Bony girdle serving as an attachment
the metatarsus. of the fingers and supporting the point for the legs.
interfemoral membrane.

166
FLEDERTIERE

Fledermaus"

Handwurzel
carpus
Portion of the wing formed of two short
Oberarmknochen M bones; it is located between the radius,
humerus -th e ulna and the metacarpus.
Long wing bone articulating with the
scapula to form the shoulder.

Daumen M
thumb
First digit of the wing; it is short and
bears a claw.

- SpeicheF
radius
Long and powerful wing bone
supporting the wing membrane.

Schienbein N
tibia
Long bone form ing the inner limb
between the femur and the tarsus.

Wadenbein N
fibula
Long bone form ing the outer limb
-be tw e e n the femur and the tarsus.

Mittelfuß M
metatarsus
Portion of the foot formed of several
„ „ . , , , long bones and connecting the tarsus
Cartilaginous structure attached to the t0 ,he firs, phalange 0( the d igit
larsus and supporting the interfemoral
membrane.
FLEDERTIERE

Beispiele" für Fledertiere" I examples of flying mammals


Very widespread, some 900 species of bats live mainly in colonies, in trees or in caves.

V a m p ir ^
vampire bat
Tailless, flying mammal of Central and
South America; it feeds off the blood of
animals and birds.

S p ie ß b la ttn a s e
spear-nosed bat
Omnivorous, short-tailed, flying mammal of
Central and South America; it is one of the
F lu g fu c h s ^ largest bats of the Americas (with a
black flying fox wingspan of almost 50 cm).
One of the largest bats in the world, it
lives in Australia, feeds on fruit and has a
rudimentary tail; its wingspan can reach
1.5 metres.

168
DEUTSCHES REGISTER

J ringer 164 Antilope 128 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Insektenfresser □
1 linger 164 Aorta, ventrale 64 Froschs 66 108 Dach 3 2,33
4 1Inger 164 Apex 44, 48 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Dachs 145
5 linger 164 Ara 105 Gorillas 156 Meeressäugetiere 149 Dalmatiner 139
Arbeiterin 29 äußere Merkmale eines Hais Beispiele für Nagetiere 112 Dänische Dogge 139
----------------------------- Archaeognatha 8 60 Beispiele für Primaten 158 Darm 20,46, 50, 59, 65, 76
Alulomenarterie 59 Archaeopteryx 9 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Raubtiere 144 Darmbein 111,124
Alinssinierkatze 143 Arm 15,156 Hummers 56 Beispiele für Reptilien 81 Darmblindsack 17
Ali’iperrgitter33 Armdecken, große 88 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Spinnentiere 39 Darmblindschlauch 16
Aillnr 102 Armdecken, kleine 88 Hundes 134 Beispiele für Vogelfüße 94 Daumen 164, 167
Allar 16, 21, 43,46, 50, 55, Armdecken, mittlere 88 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Vogelschnäbel Daumen, opponierbarer 156
m , 65,80 Armschwingen 88 Kängurus 160 96 Daumenfittich 88
Aii«rfeder 87 Arten, Entstehung und äußere Merkmale eines Deckfeder 85
Bernhardiner 139
Aflnrflosse 61, 63 Entwicklung 8 Maulwurfs 106 Delphin 151,152
Beutel 161
AHnrklaue 167 Ast 87 äußere Merkmale eines Delphin, äußere Merkmale
Beuteltiere 160
Allorkralle 133 Atlas 110,125,136 Pferdes 120 152
Beuteltiere, Beispiele 163
Afturkrallenballen 133 Atlasspinner 38 Delphin, Skelett 154
äußere Merkmale eines Biber 113
Albatros 100 Augapfel 67 Deutscher Schäferhund 138
Schmetterlings 18 Bienenstock 32
Alligator 83 Auge 40, 42, 45, 53, 57, 77, Devon 8
äußere Merkmale eines Birkenspanner 38 Diastema 115
Allimaurus 74 78, 106, 141,152 Seesterns 15 Bison 131 Dickdarm 68
Ambulakralfüßchen 15 Auge, einfaches 15 äußere Merkmale eines Blinddarm 43, 55,122 Digiti 90
Ameise 35 Augenhöhle 9 1,136,154 Tintenfischs 52 blinder Enddarm 16 Digitus 109,160
Amerikanische Kurzhaarkatze Augenlid 78 äußere Merkmale eines Blindsack 93 Dinosaurier 74
143 Augenlid, oberes 67,140 Vogels 84 Blütenpflanzen 9 Diplodocus 75
Amöbe 12 Augenlid, unteres 67,140 äußerer Rand 119 Blutgefäß, dorsales 20 Dogge, Dänische 139
Amphibien 66 Augenring 86 Axialrippe 48 Blutgefäße 165 dorsales Blutgefäß 20
Amphibien, Beispiele 73 Augenstreif 86 Axis 110 Dotterhaut 89
Boa 81
Ampulle 17 Augenträger 45 Drei-Zehenhuf 127
B Bockkäfer 35
Aimlfuß 23 Ausflugloch 32 dritte Zehe 85
Brachiosaurus 74
Anatomie einer Giftschlange ausgestreckte Kralle 142 Backe 134 Drohne 29
Bremse 36
m Austernfischer 98 Backenhörnchen 112 Dromedar 131
Brust 85,121
Anatomie einer Honigbiene Außenlippe 48 Backenzahn 115 Drüsenmagen 92
30 äußere Kiemen 72 Brustbein 90,107,136,162,
Ballen 117,118 Dünndarm 68, 80, 93,122
Anatomie einer Schildkröte äußere Merkmale einer 166
Bartregion 86 Duodenum 93
MO einschaligen Muschel 48 Brustbeine 56
Bauch 85,120
Anatomie einer Schnecke 46 äußere Merkmale einer Brustflosse 60, 62,152 E
Baucharterie 59
Anatomie einer weiblichen Fledermaus 164 Brustwirbel 110,136,154, Echinodermen 10,15
Bauchflosse 61, 62
Hplnne 42 äußere Merkmale einer 157 Eckstrebe 118
Bauchfuß 23
Anatomie einer zweischaligen Giftschlange: Kopf 77 Bauchpanzer 79 Brutraum 33 Ei 34,89
Muschel 50 äußere Merkmale einer Bauchschuppe 76 Buckelwal 150 Eichelhäher 99

DEUTSCHES
Anatomie eines Flußbarschs Honigbiene: Arbeiterin 24 Baumvogel 94 Büffel 130 Eichhörnchen 113
04 äußere Merkmale einer Katze Becken 107,157,162,166 Bulldogge 138 Eidechse 82
Anatomie eines Hummers 58 141 Becken, rudimentäres 155 Bürzel 84 Eier 65, 72
Anatomie eines männlichen äußere Merkmale einer Ratte Befruchtungstasche 46 c Eigelb 89
1toschs 68 109 Begattungskammer, Öffnung Eileiter 21
Anatomie eines Pferdes 122 äußere Merkmale einer 21 Carapax 57 Ein-Zehenhuf 127
Anatomie eines Schwamms Schildkröte 78 Begattungstasche 21 Carina 61 einfache Organismen 10
REGISTER

14 äußere Merkmale einer Behaarung 106, 109,156, Carpus 91 einfaches Auge 15


Anatomie eines Seesterns 16 Schnecke 44 161 Cephalothorax 40 Einflugloch 32
Anatomie eines Tintenfischs äußere Merkmale einer Bein 79,156 Chamäleon 82 Eingeweideganglion 50
04 Spinne 40 Beispiele für Amphibien 73 Choanocyte 14 eingezogene Kralle 142
Anatomie eines Vogels 92 äußere Merkmale einer Beispiele für Beuteltiere 163 Chow-Chow 138 einschalige Muschel 48
Anatomie eines weiblichen zweischaligen Muschel 49 Beispiele für Fledertiere 168 Chromatin 10 einschalige Muschel, äußere
Schmetterlings 20 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Hasentiere 116 Collie 138 Merkmale 48
Ankylosaurus 74 Delphins 152 Beispiele für Hufe 127 Costalschild 79 Einzeller 12
Anlonne 18, 22,25, 28, 57 äußere Merkmale eines Beispiele für Huftiere 128 Coxaldrüse 42 Eisbär 148
Anlnnnula 57 Flußbarschs 62 Beispiele für Insekten 35 Cyanobakterium 8 Eisvogel 97

169
Eiweiß 89 Frosch, Anatomie 68 Handgelenk 164 I Kolon 21, 80, 122
Eiweißdrüse 46 Frosch, äußere Merkmale 66 Handschwingen 88 Kondor 102
Igel 108
Ektoderm 14 Frosch, Lebenszyklus 72 Handwurzel 110,136, 154, Königin 29
Ilium 70, 90
elastisches Ligament 142 Frosch, Skelett 70 167 Innenlippe 48 Konturfeder 87
Elch 131 Fuchs 144 Harnblase 65, 68,80 innerer Rand 119 Kopf 18, 23, 28, 45, 86, 16!»
Elefant 132 Fühlerputzer 27 Harnleitermündung 46 Insekten 18 Kopf der Katze 140
Ellbogen 134,164 Fuß 19, 26, 44, 51, 156, 160,Hase 116 Insekten, Beispiele 35 Kopf und Flügel 91
Elle 91,107,110,125,136, 164 Insektenfresser 96,106 Kopfbruststück 56
Hasentiere 109
154, 157,162, 166 Fußdrüse 47 Insektenfresser, Beispiele 108 Kopfganglion 51
Hasentiere, Beispiele 116
Elster 98 Fußgelenk 134 Ischium 70,90 Korakoid 71,90
Hasentierkiefer 114 Korallennatter 82
Embryonalgewinde 48 Fußwurzel 111,124,137,166
Hasentierkiefer: Kaninchen Körnerfresser 96
Enddarm, blinder 16
115 Köte 120
Ende, hinteres 49 Jaguar 147
heranwachsende Kötengelenk 120
Ende, vorderes 49 Gabelbein 91 Jura 9
Gallenblase 69 Nahrungsvakuole 13 Krabbenspinne 39
endoplasmatisches Retikulum
Galopp 126 Herz 2 0 ,3 0 ,4 3 ,4 6 , 50, 55, Kralle 7 8 ,8 5,9 4,1 33 ,14 2
11
Ganasche 121 59, 64, 69, 76, 92, 123 Kralle, ausgestreckte 142
Ente 104 Kaiman 83
Gangarten 126 Hinterbein 18,19, 24, 66, 72 Kralle, eingezogene 142
Entoderm 14 Kakadu 105
Gans 104 Hinterbein (Innenseite) 26 Krallenbein 142
Entstehung und Entwicklung Kalb 129
Gartenkreuzspinne 39 hinterer Schließmuskel 50 Krebse 56
der Arten 8 Kalkschwamm 14
Gaumenbein 115 hinteres Ende 49 Kreide 9
Entwicklung des Lebens 8 Kambrium 8
Gehäuse 3 3,45 Kremaster 22
Erdkröte, gemeine 73 Hinterextremität 106,161 Kamel 131
Gehirn 31,42, 54, 58, 64, 69 Kreuzbein 157,166
erste Rückenflosse 61 Hinterflügel 19 Känguru 160,163
Geier 102 Kreuzbeinwirbel 111,137
Esel 128 Hinterhauptbein 136 Känguru, äußere Merkmale
gemeine Erdkröte 73 Krokodil 83
Hinterleib 19,22,24, 40, 56 160
Genitalöffnung 47 Kronbein 124, 142
Hinterleibssegment 23 Känguru, Skelett 162
Genitalporus 16 Krone 120
Hinterzehe 8 4,94 Kaninchen 115,116
Facettenauge 18,25, 28 Gepard 147 Kropf 20, 30, 47,55, 92
Karbon 8
Fächerlunge 43 Gesicht 156 Hoden 59, 68 Kruppe 120
Kardinal 105
Fahne 87 gespaltene Zunge 77 Homo sapiens sapiens 9 Kuh 129
Karpalballen 133
Falke 102 Gibbon 159 Honigbiene 24 Küken 103
Kasten 29
Farne 8 Giftdrüse 30,42, 54, 77 Honigbiene, Anatomie 30 Kurzhaarkatze, Amerikanische
Katze 140
Fasan 104 Giftklaue 40,42 Honigbiene, äußere Merkmale 143
Katze, äußere Merkmale 141
Feldmaus 112 Giftschlange, Anatomie 76 24 Katze, Kopf 140
Fell 141 Giftschlange, äußere Honigraum 32 Katzenrassen 143
Fersenbeinhöcker 124 Merkmale 77 Laden 114
Honigzelle 34 Kaulquappe 72
Giftzahn 77 Lama 130
Fessel 120 Hornisse 36 Kehle 85
Gimpel 105 Lappen 95
Fesselbein 124,142 Hornschnabel 78 Keimscheibe 89
Giraffe 132 Larve 34
Fibula 70 Hornschuppe 94 Kernmembran 10
Glottis 77 Laubfrosch 73
Finger 67 Hornsohle 118 Keule 135
Goldzeisig 97 Laubheuschrecke 37
Fink 97 Hornstrahl 118 Kiebitz 99
Golgi-Apparat 11 Lauf 84
Fische 60 Gonade 17, 51, 55 Kiefer 54
Hornwand 118 Laufbein 23, 40
Flageilum 46 Gorilla 156 Kiefertaster 40
Hose 120 Laus 35
Flamingo 101 Gorilla, äußere Merkmale 156 Huf 117, 120 Kielbein 90
Leben, Entwicklung 8
Flanke 84 Gorilla, Skelett 157 Kieme 55
Huf, Unterseite 118 Lebenszyklus des Frosches 72
Fledermaus 164 Gottesanbeterin 37 Kiemen 50, 64
Hufbein 124 Leber 64, 69, 76,80, 92,
Fledermaus, äußere Greiffinger 156 Kiemen, äußere 72 122
Hufe, Beispiele 127 Kiemendeckel 62, 72
Merkmale 164 Griffelbein 124 Lefzen 134
REGISTER

große Armdecken 88 Hufeisen 117,119 Kiemenspalten 60


Fledermaus, Skelett 166 Leguan 82
große Handdecken 88 Hüftbein 111 Kinn 85
Fledertiere 164 Lemure 159
Fledertiere, Beispiele 168 Grubenorgan 77 Hüfte 19, 27 Klappe 49 Lende 120
Fliege 35 Huftiere 117 Klapperschlange 81 Lendenwirbel 111,137,155,
H Huftiere, Beispiele 128 Klaue 19, 26, 57, 106,109, 157
Floh 35
Haftscheibe 73 Huhn 103 160,164 Leopard 147
Flossenstrahl 63
Hummel 36 Klavikula 71 Leopardfrosch 73
DEUTSCHES

Flugbrettchen 32 Hagelschnur 89
Hahn 103 Hummer 56 Klebfaden 41 Libelle 38
Flügel 22, 24, 84, 88, 165
kleine Armdecken 88 Ligament, elastisches 142
Flügelader 19 Hai, äußere Merkmale 60 Hummer, Anatomie 58
kleiner Tentakel 45 Lippe 121,140
Flugfuchs 168 Hals 78,121 Hummer, äußere Merkmale
Kloake 43, 68, 80, 93 Lippentaster 18, 28, 51
Flughaut 165 Halswirbel 110,136,154, 56
Knie 121,135 Löwe 146
Fluglochschieber 33 157 Hund 133 Kniescheibe 120,124,137 Luchs 146
Flußbarsch, Anatomie 64 Hamster 112 Hund, äußere Merkmale 134 Knochenfisch 62 Luftkammer 89
Flußbarsch, äußere Merkmale Hand 156 Hund, Skelett 136 Knorpelfisch 60 Luftröhre 92,123
62 Handdecken, große 88 Hund, Vorderpfote 133 Koala 163 Lunge 47, 69, 76, 92, 123
Frontoparietale 71 Handdecken, mittlere 88 Hunderassen 138 Kobra 81 Lunula 49
Frosch 66 Handfläche 106 Hyäne 146 Kolibri 97 Lysosom 11

1 70
M Mundöffnung 16, 51 Ohrdecken 86 Q Schambein 111
Mündung 48 Ohrmuschel 109,160 Quartär 9 Scharrknochen 107
Mndreporenplatte 15
Mundwerkzeuge 25 Okapi 130 Scheitel 86
Mugen 16, 46, 51, 55, 64,
no, 76, 80, 122 Mungo 144 Opossum 163 R Scheitelbein 136
Muschel, einschalige 48 opponierbarer Daumen 156 Schenkel 19,27, 84,119,
Mngenmund 58 Rabe 98
Muschel, zweischalige 49 Orang-Utan 158 120
Mitgenpförtner 59 Radiärkanal 16
Muskelblock 65 Ordovizium 8 Schenkelring 19, 27
Mahne 121 Radius-Ulna 71
orientalische Schabe 36
Maikäfer 37 Muskelmagen 93 Radula 47 Schere 57
Osculum 14
Maine Coon 143 Rähmchen 32 Schienbein 111,137,157,
IM Ösophagus 16, 20,31, 42,
Rand,äußerer 119 162,167
Makak 158 47, 69, 80, 92, 123
Nabe 41 Rand, innerer 119 Schiene 19, 27
Makronukleus 13 Otolith 64
Nabel, oberer 87 Rassel 76 Schildchen 49
Malplghi-Gefäß 30 Ovarium 21,43
Nabel, unterer 87 Ratte 113,114 Schildkröte 78
Malplghi-Gefäße 21 Ovidukt 43, 80
Nabelschwein 128 Ratte, äußere Merkmale 109 Schildkröte, Anatomie 80
Mantel 50, 53 Nachtigall 99
Mnntelhöhle 55
P Ratte, Skelett 110 Schildkröte, äußere Merkmale
Nachtigall-Grashüpfer 37 Raubtiere 133
Mantelmuskeln 55 Pankreas 69,93 78
Nacken 85 Raubtiere, Beispiele 144
Manxkatze 143 Paramecium 13 Schildwanze 36
Nagel 119 Raubvogel 9 4,96
Marder 145 Nagelloch 119 Passgang 126 Schimpanse 159
Raupe 23
Marginalschild 79 Nagetier 109 Pavian 158 Schirmfeder 88
Rebhuhn 105
Nagetiere 109 Pelikan 101 Schlange 76
Marienkäfer 36 Reh 130
Nagetiere, Beispiele 112 Penis 47 Schließmuskel, hinterer 50
Mauersegler 98 Reiher 100
Nagetierkiefer 114 Peristom 13 Schließmuskel, vorderer 51
Maul 60, 152 Rektum 21,30, 8 0,9 3,1 22
Nagetierkiefer: Ratte 114 Perlhuhn 102 Schloßband 49, 50
Maultier 128 Rentier 130
Nagezahn 115 Perm 9 Schlüsselbein 91,162
Maulwurf 106, 108 Peroxysom 10 Reptilien 74
Nahrungsvakuole 12,13 Schmetterling 18
Maulwurf, äußere Merkmale Perserkatze 143 Reptilien, Beispiele 81
Nahrungsvakuole, Schmetterling, Anatomie 20
106 Pfau 100 Retikulum,
heranwachsende 13
Maulwurf, Skelett 107 endoplasmatisches 11 Schmetterling, äußere
Naht 48 Pfeifhase 116
Mairessäugetiere 149 Pfeilsack 47 Ribosom 11 Merkmale 18
Narwal 151
Maeressäugetiere, Beispiele Pferd 117,129 Riechkapsel 64 Schnabel 85
Nase 60,109,121
149 Nasenblatt 165 Pferd, Anatomie 122 Riechnerv 64 Schnauze 67,106,134, 140,
Maerschweinchen 112 Nasenloch 67, 77, 86 Pferd, äußere Merkmale 120 Ringelnatter 81 160
Magazostrodon 9 Nasenöffnung 62 Pferd, Skelett 124 Ringkanal 17 Schnauzer 138
Manogloea 14 Nasenspiegel 140 Phalangen 70, 71,91,110, Rippe 90,107, HO, 124, Schnecke 44
Nashorn 132 154,166 136,155,157, 162, 166 Schnecke, Anatomie 46
Manothorax 22
Nephridium 58 Pharynx 31 Röhrbein 125 Schnecke, äußere Merkmale
Matncarpus 71, 91
Nervenstrang, ventraler 59 Pinakocyte 14 Rotkehlchen 97 44
Metatarsus 70
Nervensystem 31 Pinguin 101 Rotknievogelspinne, Schneidezahn 114
Mntathorax 22
Nerz 144 Pinseläffchen 159 Mexikanische 39
Mexikanische Schnurrhaare 140
Neuralfortsatz 65 Plasmamembran 12,13 Rücken 84,1 20 ,13 5
Hntknievogelspinne 39 Schritt 126
Nickhaut 140 Pollenbürste 26 Rückenflosse 153
Mikrofilament 11 Schulter 121,134
Niere 46, 50, 55, 65, 68, 76, Pollenkamm 26 Rückenflosse, erste 61
Mikronukleus 13 Schulterblatt 71, 90,107,
93,122 Pollenkörbchen 24 Rückenflosse, zweite 61
Mikrotubulus 10 Nilpferd 132 Rückengefäß 31 HO, 125, 154, 157,162,
Pollenschieber 26
Milz 64, 68, 80,122 Nukleolus 10 Rückenmark 65, 69 166
Pollenzange 26
Mitochondrium 10 Nüster 121 Pollenzelle 34 Rückenpanzer 79 Schulterfeder 88
Miltelbein 18,25 Porenzelle 14 rudimentäres Becken 155 Schuppe 63, 77, 78
Millelbein (Außenseite) 26 a Pottwal 149 Rumpf 66 Schwalbe 97
Miltoldarm 3 0,43 Oberarmbein 125 Präkambrium 8 Rüssel 18 Schwamm 14
Miltoldarmdrüse 51, 54, 59 Oberarmknochen 71,91,107, Prämaxilla 115 Schwamm, Anatomie 14
Miltoldarmdrüsen 43 110, 136, 154, 157,162, Prämolar 114 Schwanz 56, 76, 79,106,
Miltolfuß 27, 111, 120, 137, 167 Primaten 156 Sägekauz 99 109, 120, 135, 141, 153,
10/ oberer Nabel 87 Primaten, Beispiele 158 Sakralwirbel 70 161,165
Mittelfußknochen 124 oberes Augenlid 67,140 Proconsul 9 Salamander 73 Schwanzfächer 56
Mittelglied 142 Oberkiefer 28, 62,71,91, Prothorax 22 Samenleiter 47 Schwanzfeder 84
110,115, 136, 154 Pseudopodium 12 Saugmagen 42 Schwanzflosse 61, 63,153
Mittelhand 110,136,154
Oberkiefer, vorderer 62 Pubis 90
imitiere Armdecken 88 Saugnapf 52 Schwanzflughaut 165
Oberlippe 28 Pudel 138
mittlere Handdecken 88 Saumrand 117 Schwanzwirbel 111,137,155
Oberschenkel 70,124,161 pulsierende Vakuole 12,13
mittlere Strahlgrube 118 Schabe, orientalische 36 Schwarzbär 148
Oberschenkelknochen 90, Puma 146
Molar 114 Schädel 54, 64, 91,125, Schwein 128
111, 137, 157, 162, 166 Punktauge 23, 28
Molch 73 Oberschnabel 86 Pupille 140 154,157,162,166 Schwertwal 149
Monarchfalter 38 Oberschwanzdecken 84 Puppe 22,34 Schaf 128 Schwimmblase 65
Mimklto 35 Ochse 129 Putzsporn 27 Schäferhund, Deutscher 138 Schwimmfuß 66
Mufflon 128 Öffnung der Pygalschild 79 Schaft 87 Schwimmhaut 66, 95
Mund 45,47, 58, 67 Begattungskammer 21 Pygostyl 90 Schale 50, 55, 89 Schwimmhautzeh 95
Mundhöhle 92 Ohr 141,164 Python 82 Schalenhaut 89 Schwimmlappenzeh 95
Seehund 150 Spinnwarze 40,43 Tintenfisch, äußere Merkmale Vögel 84 Wimpern 140
Seeigel 17 Spinosaurus 75 52 Vogel, Anatomie 92 Windhund 139
Seelöwe 150 Spiralskulptur 48 Totengräber 36 Vogel, äußere Merkmale 84 Windung 4 4,48
Seeotter 145 Spitzmaus 108 Trab 126 Vogel, Skelett 90 Wirbel 49, 51, 71,155
Seeschwalbe 99 Spongozöl 14 Trachte 117,118,119 Wirbelsäule 65,107
Vogelfüße, Beispiele 94
Seestern, Anatomie 16 Sporn 26,165 Trachtenwand 117,118, 119 Wolf 148
Vogelschnäbel, Beispiele 96
Tragfaden 41 Wüstenfuchs 144
Seestern, äußere Merkmale Spritzloch 152 Vogeltypen, unterschiedliche
Trias 9 Wüstenspringmaus 112
15 Sprunggelenk 120,135 97
Triceratops 74
Sehne 142 Spule 87 Vorbackenzahn 115 V
Trichter 53
Seitenlinie 63 Stachel 15, 24 Trommelfell 67 Vorderbein 18,25, 67, 72 Yak 131
Seitenwand 117,118,119 Stachelschwein 113 Truthahn 103 Vorderbein (Außenseite) 27
seitliche Strahlgrube 118 Star 98 Tsetsefliege 35 vorderer Oberkiefer 62 Z
Sesambein 125 Stegosaurus 75 Tukan 100 vorderer Schließmuskel 51 Zahn 60, 77
Siamkatze 143 Steinmarder 144 Tümmler 151 vorderes Ende 49 Zebra 129
Silur 8 Sternalarterie 59 Tyrannosaurus 75 Vorderextremität 106,160 Zecke 39
Sinushaar 109 Sternum 70 Zeh 119,133,135
U Vorderflügel 19
Siphonalkanal 48 Stigma 19,22 Zehe 94
Vorderfußwurzel 125
Skelett einer Fledermaus 166 Stinktier 145 Uhu 102 Zehe, dritte 85
Vorderpfote des Hundes 133
Skelett einer Ratte 110 Stirn 86 Unterarm 134,165 Zehe, vierte 85
Skeletteines Delphins 154 Stirnbein 136 unterer Nabel 87 W ________________ Zehe, zweite 85
Skelett eines Froschs 70 Stirnschopf 121 unteres Augenlid 67,140 Wabe 33 Zehenaufzug 117
Skelett eines Gorillas 157 Stop 134 Unterkiefer 23,28, 62, 71, Zehenballen 133,142
Wabenausschnitt 34
Storch 101 Zehenglieder 137
Skeletteines Hunds 136 91,110, 115, 125, 136, Wachtel 104
Strahlbein 125 Zehenwand 117,118
Skeletteines Kängurus 162 154,162 Wadenbein U l, 137,157,
Strahlgrube, mittlere 118 Zellafter 13
Skelett eines Maulwurfs 107 Unterschenkel 124, 164 162,167
Zelle 19,33
Skelett eines Pferdes 124 Strahlgrube, seitliche 118 unterschiedliche Vogeltypen Wal 149
Zelle, tierische 10
Skelett eines Vogels 90 Strauß 101 97 Waldfrosch 73
Zelle, verdeckelte 34
Skorpion 39 Synsakrum 90 Waldmurmeltier 113
Unterschnabel 86 Zellkern 10,12
Wallaby 163
Sohlenballen 133,142 Unterschwanzdecken 84 Zentralscheibe 15
Walroß 150
Specht 105 Unterseite des Hufs 118 Zentriol 10
Tamarin 158 Wapitihirsch 130
Speiche 41, 91,107,110, Ureter 46,93 Ziege 129
Tarsometatarsus 90 Waran 82
125, 136, 154, 157, 162, Zikade 37
Tarsus 70 Urogenital-Öffnung 65 Waschbär 145
167 Zügel 86
Tasmanischer Teufel 163 Urostyl 70 Wasserfluß 14
Speicheldrüse 20,31, 47 Zunge 28, 64, 69
Taube 104 Wasserfrosch 73 Zunge, gespaltene 77
Speichelkanal 31 Telson 56
V _________________ Wasserkäfer 37 Zuwachsstreifen 45, 49
Speiseröhre 64, 76 Tentakel 52 Vagina 43, 47 Wasserläufer 38 Zwei-Zehenhuf 127
Sperling 97 Tentakel, kleiner 45 Vakuole 11 Wasserspinne 39 zweischalige Muschel 49
Spermatheka 21, 4 3,46 Termite 35 Vakuole, pulsierende 12,13 Wasservogel 95, 96 zweischalige Muschel,
Spießblattnase 168 Tertiär 9 Vampir 168 Watvogel 96 Anatomie 50
Spindel 48 Teufel, Tasmanischer 163 Weichstrahl 63 zweischalige Muschel, äußern
ventrale Aorta 64
Spindelfalte 48 Thorax 18, 2 3,25 Weichtiere 44 Merkmale 49
ventraler Nervenstrang 59
Spinndrüsen 43 Tibia 70 Weiselwiege 34 zweite Rückenflosse 61
Verankerungspunkt 41
Tibiotarsus 90 weiße Linie 118 zweite Zehe 85
Spinne 40 verdeckelte Zelle 34
tierische Zelle 10 Weißwal 151 Zwitterdrüse 46
Spinne, Anatomie 42 Tierreich 8 Vertebralschild 78 Wespe 36 Zwittergang 46
Spinne, äußere Merkmale 40 Tiger 147 Vier-Zehenhuf 127 Widerrist 121,134 Zytopharynx 13
Spinnennetz 41 Tintenbeutel 54 vierte Zehe 85 Wiesel 144 Zytoplasma 11,13
Spinnentiere 18
REGISTER

Tintenfisch 52 Viper 81 Wildschwein 128 Zytoplasmamembran 11


Spinnentiere, Beispiele 39 Tintenfisch, Anatomie 54 Vogel 84 Wimper 11,13 Zytostom 13
DEUTSCHES

172
E N G L I S H I N D E X

2nJ metacarpal 164 anterior adductor muscle 51 black bear 148 carnivorous mammals, condor 102
in! metacarpal 164 anterior end 49 black flying fox 168 examples of 144 contour feather 87
'lili metacarpal 164 anus 1 6 , 2 1 ,4 3 ,4 6 , 50, 55, bladder 80 carpal pad 133 contractile vacuole 1 2 ,1 3
tiili metacarpal 164 59, 65, 80 bladder, gall 69 carpus 9 1 ,1 1 0 ,1 2 5 ,1 3 6 , Coon, Maine 143
aorta, dorsal 31 bladder, urinary 68 1 5 4 ,1 6 7 copulatory bursa 21, 46
A aperture 48 blastodisc 89 cartilaginous fish 60 coracoid 71, 90
Ibdomen 19, 2 2 ,2 4 , 40, 56, apex 4 4 , 4 8 blood vessels 165 castes 29 coral snake 82
HI) aquatic bird 9 5 , 9 6 blowhole 152 cat 140 cord 69
Abdominal segment 23 arachnids, examples of 39 boa 81 cat breeds 143 cord, nerve 31
Abyssinian 143 arachnids, insects and 18 boar, wild 128 cat’s head 140 cord, ventral nerve 59
Adductor muscle, anterior 51 archaeognatha 8 bone, falciform sesam oid 107 cat, morphology of 141 coronet 117,120
Adductor muscle, posterior 50 archaeopteryx 9 bone, frontal 136 caterpillar 23 costal shield 79
Idhesive disc 73 arm 1 5 ,1 5 6 bone, occipital 136 caudal fin 61, 6 3 ,1 5 3 cow 129
nfiurfeather 87 artery, dorsal abdominal 59 bone, parietal 136 caudal vertebrae 111, 137, coxa 1 9 ,2 7
mi bladder 65 artery, sternal 59 bony fish 62 155 coxal gland 42
MU space 89 artery, ventral 59 book lung 43 cavity, buccal 92 crab spider 39
«llmtross 100 ass 128 bow-winged grasshopper 37 cavity, dorsal mantle 55 cremaster 22
Albumen 89 Atlas 125 brachiosaurus 74 cell 1 9 ,3 3 Cretaceous 9
fllliumen gland 46 atlas 1 1 0 ,1 3 6 brain 3 1 ,4 2 , 54, 58, 64, 69 cell membrane 11 crocodile 83
«lighting board 32 atlas moth 38 branch 119 central disk 15 crop 20, 30, 47, 5 5 ,9 2
Alligator 83 auricle 26 breast 85 centriole 10 croup 120
flllosaurus 74 auriculars 86 breeds, dog 138 cephalothorax 40, 56 crown 86
«lulu 88 axial rib 48 brood cham ber 33 cerebropleural ganglion 51 crustaceans 56
im b le 126 axis 110 buccal cavity 92 cervical vertebrae 1 1 0,136, cyanobacteria 8
American goldfinch 97 buffalo 130 1 5 4 ,1 5 7 cytopharynx 13
B bug, shield 3 6 chalaza 89 cytoplasm 11,1 3
American shorthair 143
«moeba 12 baboon 158 bulb 117,118 cham eleon 82 cytoproct 13
Amphibians 66 back 8 4 , 1 2 0 ,1 3 5 bulldog 138 cheek 1 2 1 ,1 3 4 cytostome 13
«mphibians, examples of 73 badger 145 bullfinch 105 cheetah 147
bum blebee 36 □
nmpulla 17 bar 118 chest 121
«mil fin 61, 63 barb 87 bursa, copulatory 2 1 ,4 6 chick 103 Dalmatian 139
«mil proleg 23 bat 164 butterfly 18 chim panzee 159 Dane, Great 139
Aiietomy of a bird 92 bat, morphology of 164 butterfly, hind leg 19 chin 85 dart sac 47
Biirttomy of a bivalve shell 50 bat, skeleton of 166 butterfly, monarch 38 chipm unk 112 devil, Tasmanian 163
«nntomy of a fem ale butterfly bat, spear-nosed 168 butterfly, morphology of 18 choanocyte 14 Devonian 8
21) bat, vampire 168 Chow Chow 138 dew pad 133
C chromatin 10 dewclaw 133
«nntomy of a fem ale spider beak 54
42 bear, black 148 caeca 43 chrysalis 22, 34 diastem a 114,115
«nntomy of a honeybee 3 0 bear, polar 148 caecum 5 5 ,9 3 ,1 2 2 cicada 37 digestive gland 51, 54, 59
Aimtomy of a horse 122 beaver 113 caecum, pyloric 17 cilia 13 digestive glands 43
«nntomy of a lobster 58 beetle, furniture 3 5 caecum, rectal 16 cilium 11 digit 67, 1 0 9 ,1 6 0
Aimtomy of a male frog 68 beetle, sexton 3 6 caim an 83 clavicle 7 1 ,9 1 ,1 6 2 digit, prehensile 156
nimtomy of a perch 64 belly 120 calam us 87 claw 19, 26, 57, 78, 8 5 ,1 0 6 , digital pad 133, 142
Aimtomy of a snail 46 belly scale 76 calcaneus 124 1 0 9 ,1 3 3 ,1 4 2 ,1 6 0 ,1 6 4 digits 90
nimtomy of a sponge 14 Bernard, Saint 139 calcar 1 6 5 ,1 6 7 claw, extended 142 dinosaurs 74 E N GL I SH
Aimtomy of a starfish 16 bill 85 calcareous sponge 14 claw, retracted 142 diplodocus 75
nimtomy of a turtle 80 bills, exam ples of 96 calf 129 cleg 3 6 disk, central 15
nimtomy of a venomous bird 84 Cambrian 8 cloaca 43, 6 8 ,8 0 , 93 distal phalanx 142
«nuke 76 bird of prey 9 4 , 9 6 camel 131 cobra 81 distal sesam oid 125
«imtomy of an octopus 54 bird, anatomy of 92 Canadian elk 130 cockatoo 105 dog 133
Anchor point 41 bird, morphology of 84 canal, radial 16 cockchafer 37 dog breeds 138
INDEX

niilmal cell 10 bird, skeleton of 90 canal, ring 17 cockroach, oriental 36 dog’s forepaw 133
nulmal kingdom 8 birds 84 cannon 120 collie 138 dog, morphology of 134
«nkylosaurus 74 birds, exam ples of 97 carapace 57, 79 colon 21, 8 0 ,1 2 2 dog, skeleton of 136
«lit 35 bison 131 Carboniferous 8 colum ella 48 dolphin 151,152
nntnlope 128 bivalve shell 49 cardiac stomach 58 colum ella fold 48 dolphin, morphology of 152
AMtinna 1 8 , 2 2 ,2 5 , 2 8 , 57 bivalve shell, anatomy of 50 cardinal 105 common frog 73 dolphin, skeleton of 154
mitennae cleaner 27 bivalve shell, morphology of carina 61 common toad 73 dorsal abdom inal artery 59
Aiijtnnule 57 49 carnivorous m amm als 133 compound eye 1 8 ,2 5 , 28 dorsal aorta 31
dorsal blood vessel 20 F _________________ frog, northern leopard 73 hen 103 J
dorsal fin 153 frog, skeleton of 70 hermaphroditic duct 46
face 156 jaguar 147
dorsal mantle cavity 55 frog, wood 73 heron 100
falciform sesamoid bone 107 jaw, lagomorph’s: rabbit 115
dragonfly 38 frontal bone 136
falcon 102 hind leg 18, 24 jaw, rodent’s: rat 114
dromedary 131 frontoparietal 71
fan 40 hind leg, butterfly 19 jaws, rodent’s and
drone 29 fur 106,109,141,156,161
fang 42, 77 hind leg, honeybee 26 lagomorph’s 114
duck 104 furcula 91
feet, examples of 94 hind limb 66, 72, 106, 161 jay 99
duct, hermaphroditic 46 furniture beetle 35
female butterfly, anatomy of hind toe 84, 94 jerboa 112
duct, salivary 31
20 hind wing 19 Jurassic 9
duct, spermathecal 47 G
female spider, anatomy of 42 hippopotamus 132
duodenum 93 gaits, horse 126 K
femur 19, 27, 70,90, 111, hive 32
124, 137, 157, 162, 166 gall bladder 69
hive body 33 kangaroo 160,163
fennec 144 gallop 126
hock 120,135 kangaroo, morphology of 160
eagle 102 ganglion, cerebropleural 51
ferns 8 kangaroo, skeleton of 162
ear 141,164 ganglion, visceral 50 homo sapiens sapiens 9
fetlock 120 keel 90
echinoderms 15 garden spider 39 honey cell 34
fetlock joint 120 kidney 46, 50, 55, 65, 68,
ectoderm 14 garter snake 81 honeybee 24
fibula 111, 124,137,157, gaskin 120 76, 93,122
egg 34, 89 honeybee, anatomy of 30
162,167 genital pore 16,47 killer whale 149
eggs 65, 72 honeybee, foreleg 27
field mouse 112 German shepherd 138 kingfisher 97
elastic ligament 142 honeybee, hind leg 26
fin, anal 61 gibbon 159 knee 121,135
elbow 134,164
fin, caudal 61,153 gill 55 honeybee, middle leg 26 koala 163
elephant 132
fin, dorsal 153 gill openings 60 honeycomb 33
elk 131 L
fin, first dorsal 61 gills 50, 64 honeycomb section 34
endoderm 14
fin, pectoral 60,152 giraffe 132 hoof 117,120 labial palp 18, 28, 51
endoplasmic reticulum 11 gizzard 93
fin, pelvic 61 hoof, plantar surface 118 ladybird 36
entrance 32 gland, albumin 46
fin, second dorsal 61 hoofs, examples of 127 lagomorph’s jaw: rabbit 115
entrance slide 33 gland, coxal 42
finch 97 hornet 36 lagomorphs, examples of 110
escutcheon 49 gland, digestive 51, 54, 59
first dorsal fin 61 horny beak 78 lagomorphs, rodents and 109
European robin 97 gland, green 58
fish, bony 62 lapwing 99
evolution of life 8 gland, pedal 47 horse 117,129
fish, cartilaginous 60 large intestine 68
examples of amphibians 73 gland, poison 42, 54 horse, anatomy of 122
fishes 60 larva 34
examples of arachnids 39 gland, salivary 20, 31, 47 horse, gaits 126
flagellum 46 glands, digestive 43 lateral groove 118
examples of bills 96 horse, morphology of 120
flamingo 101 glands, silk 43 lateral line 63
examples of birds 97 horse, skeleton of 124
flank 84 glottis 77 leg 79, 156
examples of carnivorous horseshoe 117,119
flea 35 goat 129 leg, walking 40
mammals 144 hub 41
flews 134 Golgi apparatus 11 lemur 159
examples of feet 94
flow, water 14 gonad 17, 51, 55 humerus 71, 91,107,110, leopard 147
examples of flying mammals
flowering plants 9 goose 104 125,136, 154,157, 162, lesser covert 88
168
fly 35 gorilla 156 167 life cycle of the frog 72
examples of hoofs 127
fly, tsetse 35 gorilla, morphology of 156 hummingbird 97 life, evolution of 8
examples of insectivorous gorilla, skeleton of 157
flying fox, black 168 hyena 146 ligament 49, 50
mammals 108 granivorous bird 96
flying mammals 164 limb, hind 106,161
examples of insects 35 grasshopper, bow-winged 37 J __________________ lion 146
examples of lagomorphs 116 flying mammals, examples of Great Dane 139 lip 121,140
examples of marine mammals 168 great green bush-cricket37 iguana 82
liver 64, 69, 76, 80,9 2,1 22
149 food vacuole 12, 13 great horned owl 102 ilium 70,90, 111
lizard 82
examples of marsupials 163 foot 44, 51, 156, 160, 164 greater covert 88 incisor 114,115 lizard, monitor 82
examples of primates 158 foot, tube 15 green gland 58 incurrent pore 14 llama 130
examples of reptiles 81 forearm 134 greyhound 139 inferior umbilicus 87 lobate toe 95
examples of rodents 112 forehead 86 groundhog 113
ink sac 54 lobe 95
examples of ungulate foreleg 18, 25 growth line 45, 49
inner edge 119 lobster 56
mammals 128 foreleg, honeybee 27 guinea fowl 102
guinea pig 112 inner lip 48 lobster, anatomy of 58
excretory pore 46 forelimb 67, 72,106,160
inner toe 85 lobster, morphology of 56
exit cone 32 forelock 121
forewing 19
H insectivorous bird 96 loin 120
extended claw 142 lore 86
forked tongue 77 hamster 112 insectivorous mammals 106
external gills 72 louse 35
eye 40, 42, 45, 53, 57, 77, forming food vacuole 13 hand 156 insects and arachnids 18
lower eyelid 67,140
78,106,141,152 four-toed hoof 127 hare 116 insects, examples of 35
lower mandible 86
eye ring 86 fowl, guinea 102 head 18,23, 28, 45, 86,165 interfemoral membrane 165
lumbar vertebrae 111, 137,
eyeball 67 fox 144 head and wing 91 intestine 16,20, 43, 46, 50,
155,157
eyebrow stripe 86 frame 32 head, bird 86 59, 65, 76 lung 47, 69, 76, 92, 123
eyelashes 140 frog 66,118 heart 20,30, 43,46, 50, 55, intestine, large 68 lung, book 43
eyelid 78 frog, common 73 59, 64, 69, 76, 92,123 intestine, small 68, 80,93, lunule 49
eyespot 15 frog, life cycle 72 hedgehog 108 122 lynx 146
eyestalk 45 frog, morphology of 66 heel 117,118,119 ischium 70, 90, 111 lysosome 11
M mongoose 144 O peristome 13 Q
limcaque 158 monitor lizard 82 occipital bone 136 Permian 9 quail 104
fflacaw 105 morphology of a bat 164 octopus 52 peroxisome 10 quarter 117,118,119
mncronucleus 13 morphology of a bird 84 octopus, anatomy of 54 Persian 143 Quaternary 9
mtidreporite 15 morphology of a bivalve shell octopus, morphology of 52 phalanges 70, 71, 91,110, queen 29
Mutgpie 98 49 137,154,166 queen cell 34
oesophagus 16, 20,31,42,
Mdlne Coon 143 morphology of a butterfly 18 phalanx prima 124 queen excluder 33
47, 64, 69, 76, 80, 92, 123
imilar region 86 morphology of a cat 141 phalanx secunda 124 queen, honeybee 29
okapi 130
untie frog, anatomy of 68 morphology of a dog 134 phalanx tertia 124
olfactory bulb 64
Mdlpighian tubule 30 morphology of a dolphin 152 R
olfactory nerve 64 pharynx 31
Mulpighian tubules 21 morphology of a frog 66 rabbit 116
one-toe hoof 127 pheasant 104
IMtmmals, carnivorous 133 morphology of a gorilla 156 raccoon 145
opening of copulatory bursa pig 128
itmmmals, examples of morphology of a honeybee: rachis 87
21 pig, guinea 112
Insectivorous 108 worker 24 radial canal 16
openings, gill 60 pigeon 104
ntftmmals, flying 164 morphology of a horse 120 radial thread 41
operculum 62, 72 pika 116
nmmmals, insectivorous 106 morphology of a kangaroo radio-ulna 71
opossum 163 pinacocyte 14
mtimmals, marine 149 160 radius 91,107,110,125,
opposable thumb 156 pinna 109,160 136, 154, 157, 162, 165,
Itmmmals, marsupial 160 morphology of a lobster 56
orangutan 158 pit 77 167
itmmmals, primate 156 morphology of a mole 106
orbit 91,136, 154 plantar pad 142 radula 47
itmmmals, ungulate 117 morphology of a perch 62
Ordovician 8 plantar surface of the hoof rat 113
Itmndible 23,28, 62, 71, 91, morphology of a rat 109
oriental cockroach 36 118 rat, morphology of 109
110,115,125,136,154, morphology of a shark 60
origin and evolution of plants, flowering 9 rat, skeleton of 110
1(12 morphology of a snail 44
species 8 plasma membrane 12,13 rattle 76
Itmne 121 morphology of a spider 40
osculum 14 plastron 79 rattlesnake 81
ttmntid 37 morphology of a starfish 15
ostrich 101 raven 98
nmntle 50, 53 morphology of a turtle 78 point, anchor 41
otolith 64 receptacle, seminal 21, 43
nmntle muscles 55 morphology of a univalve shell poison gland 42, 54
otter, river 145 rectal caecum 16
Mmtx 143 48 polar bear 148 rectum 21,30, 80, 93,122
nmrginal shield 79 outer edge 119
morphology of a venomous pollen basket 24 red-kneed tarantula 39
nmrlne mammals 149 outer lip 48
snake: head 77 pollen brush 26 reindeer 130
ttmrlne mammals, examples morphology of an octopus 52 outer toe 85
pollen cell 34 reptiles 74
ttl 149 ovary 21, 43
mosquito 35 pollen press 26 reptiles, examples of 81
nmrmoset 159 moth, atlas 38 oviduct 21, 4 3,80
poodle 138 retracted claw 142
nmrsupial mammals 160 moth, peppered 38 ovotestis 46
porcupine 113 rhinoceros 132
mnrsupials, examples of 163 mouflon 128 owl, great horned 102
pore, excretory 46 rib 90,107,110,124,136,
iimrten 145 mouse, field 112 owl, northern saw-whet 99 155, 157, 162, 166
o x l2 9 pore, genital 16,47
niftrten, stone 144 mouth 16, 45,47, 51, 58, 67, ribosome 11
oystercatcher 98 pore, incurrent 14
Itmxllla 28, 62, 71,91,110, 152 ring canal 17
porpoise 151
115.136.154 mouth parts 25 river otter 145
median groove 118 P posterior adductor muscle 50 robin, European 97
mule 128
nmgazostrodon 9 posterior end 49 rodent 109
muscle segment 65 palatine 115
membrane, plasma 12, 13 palm 106 pouch 161 rodent's and lagomorph’s
muscles, mantle 55
mesohyl 14 palmar pad 133 Precambrian 8 jaws 114
muzzle 134,140
mesothorax 22 pancreas 69,93 prehensile digit 156 rodent’s jaw: rat 114
iimtacarpus 71, 91,110,125, N __ premaxilla 62,115 rodents and lagomorphs 109
paramecium 13
136.142.154 premolar 114,115 rodents, examples of 112
nail 119 parietal bone 136
metatarsus 27, 70, 111, 124, primaries 88 roof 33
nail hole 119 partridge 105
137,167 primary covert 88 roof section 32
nape 85 pastern 120 rooster 103
nmtathorax 22 patella 124,137 primate mammals 156
narwhal 151 rorqual 150
mlcrofilament 11 peacock 100 primates, examples of 158
neck 78,121 rump 84
inlcronucleus 13 proboscis 18
nerve cord 31 peccary 128
mlorotubule 10 proconsul 9 S
neural spine 65 pecten 26
mid gut 30 proleg 23
newt 73 pectoral fin 60, 62, 152 sac, dart 47
middle covert 88 prothorax 22
nictitating membrane 140 pedal gland 47 sac, ink 54
middle leg 18,25 proventriculus 92
nightingale 99 pedipalp 40 sac, venom 30
middle leg, honeybee 26
northern leopard frog 73 pelican 101 proximal phalanx 142 sacral vertebra 70
middle phalanx 142
northern saw-whet owl 99 pelvic fin 61, 62 proximal sesamoid 125 sacral vertebrae 111, 137
middle primary covert 88
nose 109,121 pelvis 107,124,157,162, pseudopod 12 sacrum 157,166
middle toe 85
nose leaf 165 166 pubis 90, 111 Saint Bernard 139
mink 144
milochondrion 10 nose leather 140 pelvis, vestigial 155 puma 146 salamander 73
molar 114,115 nostril 60, 62, 67, 77, 86, penguin 101 pupil 140 salivary duct 31
mole 106,108 121 penis 47 pygal shield 79 salivary gland 20,31, 47
mole, morphology of 106 nuclear membrane 10 peppered moth 38 pygostyle 90 scale 63, 77, 78,94
mole, skeleton of 107 nuclear whorl 48 perch, anatomy of 64 pyloric caecum 17 scapula 71, 90,107,110,
molluscs 44 nucleolus 10 perch, morphology of 62 pyloric stomach 59 125, 154, 157, 162, 166
monarch butterfly 38 nucleus 10,12 perching bird 94 python 82 scapular 88
Schnauzer 138 sparrow 97 T _________________ tubules, Malpighian 21 vertebrae, thoracic 110,136.
scorpion 39 spear-nosed bat 168 turkey 103 157
tadpole 72
sea lion 150 species, origin and evolution turtle 78 vertebral shield 78
tail 56, 76, 79,106,109,
sea urchin 17 of 8 turtle, anatomy of 80 vessel, dorsal blood 20
120,135,141, 153, 161,
seal 150 sperm whale 149 turtle, morphology of 78 vestigial pelvis 155
165
sealed cell 34 two-toed hoof 127 vibrissa 109
spermatheca 46 tail feather 84
second dorsal fin 61 tympanum 67 viper 81
spermathecal duct 47 talon 94
secondaries 88 visceral ganglion 50
spider 40 tamarin 158 tyrannosaurus 75
vitelline membrane 89
seminal receptacle 21,43 spiderweb 41 tarantula, red-kneed 39
U vulture 102
sexton beetle 36 spider, crab 39 tarsometatarsus 90
shark, morphology of 60 spider, garden 39 tarsus 19,26, 70, 84, 111, ulna 91,107,110,125,136, W
sheep 128 124,137,166 154, 157, 162, 166
spider, morphology of 40 wading bird 96
Shell 55 Tasmanian devil 163 umbo 49, 51
spider, water 39 walk 126
shell 45, 50, 89 telson 56 under tail covert 84
spinal column 65 walking leg 23, 40
shell membrane 89 tendon 142 ungulate mammals 117
spinal cord 65, 69 wall 118
shell, bivalve 49 ungulate mammals, examples
spine 15,107 tentacle 45, 52 wallaby 163
shell, univalve 48 of 128
spinneret 40,43 termite 35 walrus 150
shepherd, German 138 unicellulars 12
tern 99 wasp 36
shield bug 36 spinosaurus 75 univalve shell 48
tertial 88 water bug 37
shorthair, American 143 spiny ray 63 univalve shell, morphology of water flow 14
Tertiary 9 48
shoulder 121,134 spiracle 19, 22 water spider 39
testis 59, 68 upper eyelid 67,140
shrew 108 spiral rib 48 water strider 38
thigh 8 4,120,135,161 upper lip 28
Siamese 143 spiral thread 41 weasel 144
thoracic legs 56 upper mandible 86
side wall 117,118,119 spleen 64, 68,8 0,1 22 web 66, 95
thoracic vertebrae 110,136, upper tail covert 84
silk glands 43 sponge 14 web, spider 41
154,157 urchin, sea 17
Silurian 8 sponge, anatomy of 14 webbed foot 66
thorax 18, 23, 25 ureter 46, 93 webbed toe 95
simple eye 2 3,28 sponge, calcareous 14 thread, radial 41 urinary bladder 65, 68 whale 149
simple organisms and spongocoel 14 thread, spiral 41 urogenital aperture 65 whale, killer 149
echinoderms 10 spur 26 thread, support 41 uropod 56 whale, sperm 149
siphon 53 squirrel 113 three-toed hoof 127 urostyle 70 whale, white 151
siphonal canal 48 starfish, anatomy of 16 throat 85 whiskers 140
skeleton of a bat 166 starfish, morphology of 15 thumb 164,167 V ______ white line 118
skeleton of a bird 90 starling 98 thumb, opposable 156 vacuole 11 white whale 151
skeleton of a dog 136 stegosaurus 75 tibia 19, 27, 111, 124,137, vacuole, contractile 12,13 white-tailed deer 130
skeleton of a dolphin 154 157, 162, 164, 167 vacuole, food 12,13 whorl 44, 48
sternal artery 59
skeleton of a frog 70 tibiofibula 70 vacuole, forming food 13 wild boar 128
sternum 70,90,107,136,
skeleton of a gorilla 157 vagina 4 3,47 wing 22, 24, 84, 88
162,166 tibiotarsus 90
skeleton of a horse 124 valve 49 wing covert 85
stifle 120 tick 39
skeleton of a kangaroo 162 vampire bat 168 wing membrane 165
sting 24 tiger 147
vane 87 wing vein 19
skeleton of a mole 107 toad, common 73
stomach 16, 42,46, 51, 55, velum 27 wing, bird 88
skeleton of a rat 110 toe 94,117,118, 119,133,
64, 69, 76, 80, 122 venom gland 77 wings 165
Skull 125 135 wings, bat 165
stomach, cardiac 58 venom sac 30
skull 54, 64, 91,154,157, toe clip 117 withers 121,134
stomach, pyloric 59 venomous snake, anatomy of
162,166 tongue 28, 64, 69 wolf 148
stone marten 144 76
skunk 145 tooth 60, 77 wood frog 73
stop 134 ventral aorta 64
small intestine 6 8,8 0,9 3, toucan 100 woodpecker 105
stork 101 ventral artery 59
122 trachea 92,123 worker 29
strider, water 38 ventral nerve cord 59
snail 44 tree frog 73 worker, honeybee 29
sucker 52 vertebra 155
snail, anatomy of 46 Triassic 9 wrist 134,164
vertebra, sacral 70
snail, morphology of 44 super 32 triceratops 74 vertebrae 71 V
snake 76 superior umbilicus 87 trochanter 19,27 vertebrae, caudal 111, 137
snake, coral 82 support thread 41 trot 126 vertebrae, cervical 110,136, yak 131
INDEX

snake, garter 81 suture 48 trunk 66 157 yolk 89


snout 60, 67,106,160 swallow 97 tsetse fly 35 vertebrae, lumbar 111, 137,
soft ray 63 swift 98 tube foot 15 157
Z
sole 118 synsacrum 90 tubule, Malpighian 30 vertebrae, sacral 111, 137 zebra 129
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TIERE

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• Das Thema Tiere in 2 Sprachen beherrschen
•Aktueller Wortschatz von Muttersprachlern übersetzt
• Farbillustrationen tragen zumVerständnis bei
• Mit Detailübersetzungen und einer englischen Definition
zujedem Begriff

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killer whale
W id e s p re a d a gg re ssive
m a rin e m a m m a l re a c h in g
up to 9 m e tre s in le n g th ;
it a tta c k s m a in ly y o u n g
w ha le s a n d d o lp h in s .

9783125178625

9 783125 178625 ISBN: 978-3-12-517862-5