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MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY – Clinical doing laboratory works and prepare

Laboratory Science or Medical Laboratory samples


Science
ROLES OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST
WHAT IS MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY? 1. Observe, identify and analyze organisms and
• Ruth Heinemann – The application of the cells causing infection and disease
principles of natural, physical, and 2. Perform blood tests
biological Sciences to the performance 3. Measure substances in blood and other body
of laboratory procedures which aid in fluids
the diagnosis and treatment of disease. 4. Operate complex apparatus, instruments
• Anne Fagelson – The branch of medicine and machines
concerned with the performance of 5. Use standards and controls to improve
laboratory determinations and analyses reliability of the result
used in the diagnosis and treatment of 6. Work under pressure with accuracy and
the disease and maintenance of health. precision
• Walters – The health profession 7. Adhere to high ethical standards and
concerned with performing laboratory performance
analyses in view of obtaining information
necessary in the diagnosis and treatment HISTORY OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
of diseases as well as in the maintenance Early Beginnings
of good health. ➢ 400 BC
o Hipocrates (Father of Medicine)
The Philippine Medical Technology Act of 1969 ▪ described the four humors in
(R.A 5527) human (Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile,
• An auxiliary branch of laboratory Black Bile)
medicine which deals with the ▪ Urine was regarded as composite
examination of tissues, secretion and of these humors
excretion of human body and body ▪ Urinalysis is the oldest laboratory
fluids by various chemical, microscopic, procedure
bacteriologic, and other medical ➢ 600 BC
laboratory procedures or technic which o Hindu physicians recorded the sweet
will aid the physician in the diagnosis, taste of diabetic urine as well as
study, and treatment of the disease and polyuria in diabetes
in the promotion of health in general. ➢ 500 BC
• Performing laboratory procedures o Vivian Herrick identified Taenia
(samples) - done by medical (tapeworm) and Ascaris (ringworm)
technologists o Ebers Papyrus was discovered; it is the
• Analysis (results) and diagnosis and oldest preserved Egyptian
treatment (disease) – done by physician compilation of medical texts which
includes surgery, burns, intestinal
Clinical Laboratory – The facility that performs parasitological diseases, and
chemical and microscopic examinations of pregnancy
various body fluids. ➢ 1632
o Anton Van Leeuwnhoek invented the
INSIDE THE CLINICAL LABORATORY compound microscope
1. Pathologist o He was the first to describe red blood
– doctor specialty of pathology; cells, protozoa, and to classify
director bacteria according to shape
2. Medical Technologist ➢ 1628-1694
- Bachelor of Science in Medical o Marcelo Malphigi (Founder of
Technology of Bachelor of Science in Pathology); greatest of the early
Public Health graduate in school microscopist; contributed to
recognized by CHED; should pass the Embryology and Anatomy
medical technology licensure ➢ 1847
examination given by the PRC o Rudolph Virchow was the founder of
3. Medical Technician the Archives of Pathology in Berlin
– individual registered certified by PRC; ➢ 1848
assists the medical technology in

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o Herman Fehling performed the first Health Laboratory now called 26th
quantitative test for urine sugar Medical Infantry of the 6th US Army
(concentration of sugar)

➢ 15TH CENTURY ➢ 1947


o Discovery of dyes (aniline dyes) o Dr. Pio de Roda and Dr. Prudencia
made possible the staining and study Sta. Ana offered a training for
of microorganisms such as bacteria highschool and paramedical
graduates
IN THE UNITED STATES ➢ 1954
➢ 1878 o 6-month laboratory training was
o Dr. William H. Welch established a offered
laboratory at Bellevue Hospital o Formal education of Medical
Medical College Technology began
➢ 1885
o Dr. William H. Welch became the first HISTORY OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
professor in Pathology at John EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
Hopkins University ➢ Mrs. Willa Hilgert Hendrick
➢ 1896 o Founder of Medical Technology
o Dr. William Osler opened the first education in the Philippines;
clinical laboratory at John Hopkins American Medical Practitioner of the
Hospital 7th Day Adventist Church in the
o William Pepper Laboratory was also Philippines
opened at the University of ➢ 1954 - Philippine Union College of Baesa
Pennsylvania ▪ now called Adventist University of
➢ 1908 the Philippines;
o Dr. James C. Todd wrote “A Manual of ▪ First to offer BSMT with the help of its
Clinical Diagnosis” which became sister company the Manila
the standard reference of Sanitarium Hospital now called
laboratories; the 9th edition is called Manila Adventist Medical Center;
“Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory ▪ Dr. Jesse Umali was its graduate
Methods” after 2 years
➢ 1921 ➢ 1957-1958 - UST
o Denver Society of Clinical o Dr. Antonio Gabriel and Dr. Gustavo
Pathologists was organized Reyes of UST offered MT as an elective
➢ 1936 to pharmacy students. Due to its
o American Board of Pathology was popularity, it was decided to be
organized offered it as a course.
➢ WORLD WAR I ➢ 1960 – Centro Escolar University
o Produced a great demand for o CEU offered MT course with the help
technicians because of war of Ms. Purificacion Sunico Suaco
o University of Minnesota established because she made a feasibility study
trainings for workers in 1922 and first to of offering BSMT and it was approved
offer the degree program in 1923 by Carmen de Luna;
➢ WORLD WAR II o first batch graduate in 1962
o Closed system of blood collection ➢ 1961-1962 – Far Eastern University
was adopted; advanced o Dr. Horacio Ylagan and Dr. Serafin
instrumentation, automated Juliano applied for the offering of
equipment; quality control programs BSMT course in FEU which was
approved in 1962
IN THE PHILIPPINES o first batch graduate in 1963
➢ January 9, 1945 ➢ NO YEAR – University of the Philippines
o First clinical laboratory in the o UP offers the same course but the
Philippines at Quiricada St. Sta. Cruz, degree is BS Public Health
Manila was established and is known
as the Public Health Laboratory
➢ October 1, 1945
o Dr. Pio de Roda and Dr. Mariano
Icasiano reopened Manila Public

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PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS OF 4. Demonstrate interpersonal skills,
MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES leadership qualities, and ethical
1. The Philippine Association of Schools of practice of the profession
Medical Technology and Public Health 5. Apply research skills in relevant to areas
(PASMETH) of Medical Technology/ Laboratory
➢ national organization of Science practice
recognized schools of MT and 6. Participate in community-oriented
Public Health in the Philippines activities
7. Engage in life-long learning activities 8.
➢ Goals: Demonstrate effective teaching and
i. To develop closer relation communication skills
ii. To maintain the highest PROGRAM CURRICULUM
standard of education MT curriculum – 4 years including a 12 month
2. The Philippine Association of Medical long internship in accredited laboratories
Technologists (PAMET) with the following subjects: General
➢ national organization of all RMT in Education, Core Courses, Professional
the Philippines Courses
➢ father of PAMET is Crisanto
Almario SCOPE OF LICENSURE EXAMINATION
➢ Goals: 1. Clinical Chemistry 20%
i. To standardize and give 2. Microbiology & Parasitology 20%
dignity to the profession 3. Hematology 20%
4. Blood Banking & Serology 20%
NATURE AND FIELD OF STUDY 5. Clinical Microscopy 10%
Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology 6. Histopathologic Techniques 10%
or Bachelor of Science in Medical And MT Laws
Laboratory Science
– 4 year degree program consisting of 1 EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
year internship with rational duties in 1. Medical Technologist (generalist/
different sections during the 4th level in a specialist)
CHED accredited training laboratory; a 2. Clinical laboratory supervisors
licensure examination to all applicants for 3. Chief medical technologist
registration as Medical Technologist. 4. Laboratory owners
5. Sales and public relations representative
PROGRAM GOALS 6. Educational representatives (company/
1. Develop knowledge, skills, professional health program)
attitude and values in the performance 7. Researcher (industrial/medical)
of laboratory procedures 8. Teachers/instructors (secondary/tertiary
2. Acquire critical thinking skills levels)
3. Engage in research and community- 9. Employment abroad
related activities
4. Participate in activities promoting the UNIT 2: CLINICAL LABORATORY
profession and engage in life-long ● facility
learning undertakings ● Specimens (whole blood, serum, plasma,
5. Develop collaborative and leadership
urine, stool, etc.) from the human body
qualities
● Collected, processed, examined, or
analyzed
EXPECTED PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES OF
● Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
GRADUATES
1. Demonstrate technical competence in
the performance of clinical laboratory CLASSIFICATION OF CLINICAL LABORATORY
tests Department of Health- Administrative Order no.
2. Demonstrate analytical and critical 2007-0027
thinking skills in the workplace A. Based on Ownership
3. Engage in the proper collection, 1. Government
analysis, and projection of health 2. Private
information B. Based on Function
1. Clinical Pathology
a. Clinical Chemistry

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b. Hematology 2. Special Laboratory
c. Microbiology a. Assisted reproduction technology
d. Clinical Microscopy laboratory
e. Immunology b. Molecular and cellular
f. Molecular Biology technology
g. Immunohematology c. Molecular pathology, Forensic
h. Cytogenetics pathology and Anatomic
i. Endocrinology laboratory
j. Toxicology
k. Therapeutic drug monitoring E. National Reference Laboratory
2. Anatomical Pathology 1. Confirmatory Testing
a. Surgical Pathology 2. Surveillance
b. Immunohistopathology 3. Resolution of Conflicting results
c. Cytology 4. Training and research
d. Autopsy 5. Evaluation of diagnostic kits and
e. Forensic Pathology reagents
f. Molecular Pathology
C. Based on Institutional Character National Reference Laboratories
1. Institution-based 1. Research Institute for Tropical Medicine
2. Freestanding 2. San Lazaro Hospital STD-AIDS
D. Based on Service Capability Cooperative Center Laboratory (SACCL)
1. General Clinic Laboratory 3. East Avenue Medical Center
a. Primary Category (minimum of 10 4. National Kidney and Transplant Institute
square meters in floor area) 5. Lung Center of the Philippines
i. Routine Hematology (CBC)
ii. Qualitative Platelet F. Satellite Testing Sites
Determination ● Testing site owned by licensed laboratory
iii. Routine Urinalysis and but situated in a location some distance
Fecalysis from the main laboratory
iv. Blood typing - for hospital
based G. Mobile Clinical Laboratories
● laboratory testing unit
b. Secondary Category (minimum of
● Moves from one testing site to another
20 square meters in floor area)
testing site
i. Routing Clinical Chemistry
● Has a temporary testing location
ii. Quantitative Platelet
● Shall have a base laboratory
Determination
● Permitted to collect specimen only
iii. Cross Matching
● Operate within 100km radius from its
iv. Gram Staining
main lab
v. KOH staining for fungal
disease
LABORATORY SECTIONS
c. Tertiary Category (minimum of 60
A. Specimen Processing
square meters in floor area)
B. Hematology Section
i. All secondary lab services
C. Coagulation Section
ii. Special Chemistry
D. Clinical Microscopy
(Cardiac markers)
E. Parasitology
iii. Special Hematology
F. Clinical Chemistry
(Coagulation tests)
G. Clinical Microbiology
iv. Immunology/Serology (HIV,
H. Immunology/Serology Section
Hepa profile, tumor
a. Serology tests:
markers)
i. Pregnancy tests - detects
v. Microbiology - culture and
B-HCG
sensitivity
ii. Dengue Test
d. Limited Service Capability
iii. HbsAg - for hepatitis
i. Dialysis Centers
iv. Bacterial Agglutination test
ii. Social Hygiene Clinics

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1. Widal test - typhoid ○ To Transmit test results
fever ○ Reference ranges
2. Weil-Felix – non- ○ Date and time of the specimen
specific test for collection
typhus fever ○ Name, address of laboratory
I. Immunohematology/Blood Bank ○ Name and identification number
J. Histopathology/Cytopathology of patient
○ Source of specimen
INFORMATION FLOW IN THE CLINICAL ○ Date & time 5he report was
LABORATORY generated
● Laboratory Requisition
○ Lab Request form THREE PHASES OF LABORATORY TESTING
■ a form used by physician to 1. PREANALYTICAL PHASE
document the tests that srr ○ Occurs first in the lab process
to be performed on ■ Patient preparation
patients ■ Paperwork and data entry
■ Contains the following: ■ Specimen collection,
● Patient’s processing, storage, and
demographic data: transportation
names, data, ○ Responsible Personnel
address, birth date ■ Phlebotomist, lab technician
● Patient gender ■
● Date & time of 2. ANALYTIC PHASE
collection ● Considered the “actual” lab
● Room number (in- testing or the diagnostic
patient or out- procedures, processes and
patient) products
● Test selection ○ Proper instrument
● Identification kf the maintenance
lerson who ○ Reagent supplies
performed the ○ Quality control
collection ● Responsible personnel
● Name and ○ Medical technologist or
signature of medical lab scientist
ordering physician
● Source of specimen Quality Control
● Physician’s clinical ● Ensure accuracy, precision,
diagnosis reliability of test procedure
● Additional ● Validates the following:
comments ○ Test reagents/kits
● Laboratory Directory ○ Testing process
○ Internal test number ○ Training of lab personnel
○ Acronym or abbreviations of the performing the test
test 3. POST-ANALYTIC PHASE
○ Type of specimen required ● Includes the following:
○ Specimen volumes and the ○ Review and analysis of results
minimum acceptable volume ○ Recording and reporting of results
Collection notes ○ Storage and disposal of specimen
○ Storage instruction of specimen ○ Releasing of results
○ Stability of the specimen ● Responsible personnel
○ Reference ranges ○ Medical technologist
○ Clinical Significance ○ Section supervisor
○ Test schedule or testing ○ Chief Med Tech
interval/frequency ○ Office clerk
○ Method ○ Office staff
● Laboratory Reports

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LABORATORY POLICIES
A. Laboratory Hour and Emergency Work
○ Definite working hours
○ Outside regular working hours,
organize a system for testing
urgent specimens
B. Range of tests to be performed and those to
be referred to higher level
1. The number of staff available
2. The availability of material resources
3. The types of health institutions (hospital or
health center)
C. Referral of Specimens (when necessary)
- example specimens for HIV detection
and water samples for bacteriological
analysis
D. Collection of Laboratory specimen
● Clearly labeled specimen
● Urine sample tray
E. Workload capacity of a laboratory
● Should match to the number of staff
● Their level of training
● Size of the laboratory
● The availability of lab facilities

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UNIT 3: Regulations Governing Laboratory - three or four years of academic
Personnel course work and one year of clinical
Medical Laboratory Professional experience
➢ skilled and educated laboratory - Certified by PRC. AMT, or ASCP
professionals
➢ play a very important role in health care ➢ MEDICAL LABORATORY
➢ responsible for conducting tests that TECHNICIAN/CLINICAL LABORATORY
provide crucial information for TECHNICIAN
detecting, diagnosing, treating, and - Performs routine tests in all areas of
monitoring disease the clinical laboratory
Clinical laboratory team - Have an associate degree and have
1. Laboratory Director completed an accredited Clinical
2. Technical and General Supervisors Laboratory Technician or certificate
3. Medical Technologist/Medical program
Laboratory Scientist/Clinical Laboratory
Scientist ➢ PHLEBOTOMIST (PBT)
4. Medical Laboratory Technician/Clinical - Phlebotomists work directly with the
Laboratory Technician patient to draw blood for laboratory
5. Phlebotomist tests using venipuncture or skin
puncture.
➢ LABORATORY DIRECTOR
- responsible for managing overall Professional Organizations
operations within the laboratory - Philippine Association of Medical
Technology (PAMET)
1. Pathologist - Philippine Association of Schools of
- board certified physicians who have Medical Technology and Public
specialized training in disease and Health (PASMETH), Inc.
laboratory interpretation.
- Perform all levels of laboratory testing
- Affiliated with hospital and reference
lab

2. Physician
- A physician without any laboratory
specialty training
- With additional credentials
specifically qualifying for the
laboratory setting

➢ TECHNICAL AND GENERAL SUPERVISORS


- A general supervisor is responsible for
oversight of the day-to-day
laboratory operations as well as the
personnel conducting the tests and
reporting results. PROFESSIONAL CODE OF CONDUCT
➢ Ethics
➢ MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST/ MEDICAL - principles of conduct governing an
LABORATORY SCIENTIST/ CLINICAL individual or a group
LABORATORY SCIENTIST Objectives of the Professional Code of Ethics
- performing routine as well as highly 1. Define professional privileges,
specialized tests - perform quality behaviors and responsibilities
control checks - may assume towards the members of the
managerial roles community in general.
2. Promote professional quality,
➢ MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST/ MEDICAL professional conduct and a moral
LABORATORY SCIENTIST/ CLINICAL method of procedures.
LABORATORY SCIENTIST 3. Defend private professions from
- have a bachelor's degree in undue interference by the
clinical/medical laboratory science

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government or by other private
agencies.
4. Preserve the dignity of the
profession and the confidence of
the public
5. Defend clients from unscrupulous
individuals.
6. Certain standards of the
compensations for services or
work.
Specific Principles of Professional Conduct
1. Service to Others
2. Integrity and Objectivity
3. Professional Competence
4. Solidarity and Teamwork
5. Social and Civic Responsibility
6. Global Competitiveness
7. Equality of All Professions

Ethical Practice of Laboratory Medicine By


WHO
➢ Ethical practice
- good technical practice
accompanied by proper attitude
and behavior
Fundamental Principles of Ethics
1. Autonomy
2. Beneficence
3. Non-maleficence
4. Justice
Fundamental Principles of Ethics
1. Autonomy - the right of patients to make
decisions on their behalf
2. Beneficence - the duty or obligation to act in
the best interest of the patient
3. Non-maleficence - the duty or obligation to
avoid harm to the patient.
4. Justice - this embodies concepts of fairness
and giving what is rightfully due
General Application of Ethical Principles
1. Medical laboratories have responsibilities
to others.
- Patients
- Colleagues and the Profession
- Society
2. Collection of Information
3. Collection of specimens
4. Performance of test
5. Reporting of results
6. Storage and Retention of Medical
Records
7. Access to Medical Records
8. Financial Arrangements and
organizational matters.

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