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FOREWORD

Praise the presence of Allah SWT, who has given His grace and
guidance so that we can complete the assignment of this paper entitled “Present
Participle” on time. The purpose of writing this paper is to fulfill the assignment
in the English course. In addition, this paper also aims to add insight into the
present participle for the reader and also for the writer. We thank the supporting
lecturers, as lecturers of English courses who have given this assignment so that
they can increase their knowledge and insight. We also thank all those who have
shared some of their knowledge so that we can complete this paper.
We realize, the paper we write is still far from perfect. Therefore, we
will look forward to constructive criticism and suggestions for the perfection of
this paper.
Jambi, March 2020

Author..........

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER....................................................................................................................i

FOREWORD..........................................................................................................ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................iii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Paper....................................................................................1

1.2 Formulation of the Problem...............................................................................1

1.3 Our Purposes......................................................................................................1

CHAPTER II THEORY AND DISCUSSION

2.1 Understanding of Present Participle...................................................................2

2.2 Function of Present Participle............................................................................3

2.3 Science Article...................................................................................................6

CHAPTER III CONCLUSION

3.1 Conclusion..........................................................................................................8

3.2 Suggestion..........................................................................................................8

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................9

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Paper

English has become an international language, meaning that the language


used throughout the world and as a language of liaison between countries.
Therefore inevitably, anyone who wants to succeed must master this language.
Moreover, facing international free trade competition, where trade markets
between countries become more open, so that foreigners will be more free in and
out of a country. With the mastery of English, of course it will really help
communication if there are other citizens visiting our area.

As someone who studies English, we are certainly familiar with several


names of tenses, such as for example present continuous or past simple. Now,
have you heard or known about present participle? If not, this paper will discuss
and learn more about present participle and its use in English.

1.2 Formulation of the Problem

1. What is the meaning of Present Participle?


2. What is the function of Present Participle?
3. What is an example of the Present Participle used in a science article?

1.3 Our Purposes

1. To find out the meaning of present participle.


2. To find out the function of present participle.
3. To find examples of present participle used in a science article.

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CHAPTER II
THEORY AND DISCUSSION

2.1 Understanding of Present Participle

Present participle is a verb that gets additional letters (ing) that function
as verbs, adjectives, or adverbs/additions. Usually this verb contains active
meanings and indicates the present tense. Example: reading, speaking, listening,
writing, waiting, walking, etc.

Spelling Rules :
1. For verbs ending in -e, we omit the -e and add -ing.
Example :
Drive Driving
Move Moving
Come Coming
Dance Dancing
Leave Leaving
2. For verbs with one syllable, we need to double the consonant in the end.
Example :
Get Getting
Put Putting
Sit Sitting
Run Running
Stop Stopping
3. For verbs ending in -ie, replace with -y and add -ing.
Example :
Die Dying
Lie Lying
Vie Vying

2.2 Function of Present Participle

1. Present Participle as Part of the Continuous Form of a Verb

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The present participle is used as a component of verb phrases with
auxiliary verbs to form continuous tense.
Tenses Examples of Present Participle Sentences
Present continuous tense He is smiling to you.
Present perfect Those toddlers have been sleeping for an hour.
continuous tense
Past continuous tense The workers were queuing for their salaries.
Past perfect continuous The labors had been demonstrating for two hours
tense before you came.)
Future continuous tense She will be working at the office.
Future perfect continuous That cat will have been sleeping long.
tense

2. Present Participle as Adjective


Many English verbs can be used as adjectives using present participle.
We can use this adjective to describe nouns or nouns, such as people, things, or
situations.
For example in the sentence:
1 The rooster annoys me.
2 The fact interested me.
Can be made into sentences with present participle:
1 It is an annoying rooster.
The annoying rooster eats a lot.
2 It was an interesting fact.
The interesting fact was published.
Annoying and interesting in the example above is a present participle that explains
rooster and fact.

3. Present Participle After Certain Verbs


 Present participle after verbs relating to the senses
Subject + Verb + Object + Present Participle
Example :

 We saw the police catching a criminal.


 They heard someone calling for help.
 I watched the band marching past.

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 Present participle after verbs relating to movement and position
Example :

 She went shopping.


 I go running every morning.
 He lay looking up at the clouds.
 She came running towards me.

4. Present Participle in the Structure of Sentence Usage


 Subject of Sentence
Example :
 Cleaning her house, she is healthy
 Browsing the internet, he knows about anything.
 Subjective Complement
Example :
 My friend is running.
 She is cooking now.
 Head (words or sentences which are located as explained)
Example :
 The girl waving her hand is my friend.
 I saw the man hitting him.

 Compound Nouns / Modifier


The present participle is placed in front of a noun in the form of a person
or animal that has a description of the nature of the activity (something that does
the activity).
Example :
 The smiling girl is my sister.
 That is a singing student.
 Two of the Same Subject

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If there are two that have the same subject and occur at the same time,
usually one of the two can be stated by present participle.
Example :
 When I was walking to school, I saw him there.
Walking to school, I saw him there.
 They were happy, they were travelling to Italy.
They were happy travelling to Italy.
 Two of the Same Event
If there is an event that is immediately followed by another event, and it
is done by the same subject, then the first event is often expressed with a present
participle.
Example :
 He opened the wardrobe and took a tie.
Opening the wardrobe he took a tie.
 We take magazines and read the whole pages.
Taking magazines we read the whole pages.
 As a Result of the First Event
If the second event is part of the first event or is the result of a previous
event, then we can state the second event with a present participle.
Example :
 She went out, slamming the door.
 He tried, wounding one of the bandits.

 Replace Word Patterns (As/Since/Because + Subject + Verb)


Example :
 Because I didn’t know what to do, I telephoned the police.
Not knowing what to do, I telephoned the police.
 Since she is alone, she is to be careful.
Being alone, she is to be careful.
 As he feared that the police recognizes him, he never went out in daylight.
Fearing that the police recognizes him, he never went out in daylight.

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2.3 Science Article

OXIDIZING AGENT IN THE BODY

iiiiiiiiiiiOxidation-reductions are used all the time. Burning, bleaching, batteries,


metallurgy, and photography all rely on oxidation-reduction reactions. An
important application of oxidation-reduction reactions is in electrochemical cells.
(These types of cells should not be confused with biological cells. The word cell
comes from cella, Latin for chamber or small room.) In an electrochemical cell,
the oxidation reaction is physically separated from the reduction reaction, and the
electrons pass between the two reactions through a conductor. Oxidation occurs at
the anode and reduction occurs at the cathode.
iiiiiiiiiiOxidation-reduction reactions are responsible for food spoilage. The main
source of oxidation is oxygen from the air. Preservatives that are added to foods
are often reducing agents. Oxidation reactions are important in many reactions
that keep our bodies going. But oxidation has also been blamed for aging, cancer,
hardening of the arteries, and rheumatoid arthritis. Research is being done to
evaluate the benefits of antioxidants in foods and dietary supplements.
Antioxidants are natural reducing agents, such as fat soluble vitamin E and
vitamin C (ascorbic acid). These substances might inhibit damaging byproducts
of oxidation reactions that can occur in the human body after exposure to some
toxic chemicals. One concern that scientists studying antioxidants have is that
substances do not always act the same way in the human body that they do outside
of it. For example, vitamin C is a reducing agent. If lemon juice is squirted on a
cut apple, the vitamin C in the juice will prevent the browning of the apple that is
caused by oxidation of the apple by the air. However, vitamin C might act as an
oxidizing agent in the body.

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CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION

3.1 Conclusion

1. Present participle is a verb that gets additional letters (ing) that function as
verbs, adjectives, or adverbs/additions. Usually this verb contains active
meanings and indicates the present tense. Example: reading, speaking,
listening, writing, waiting, walking, etc.
2. Function of Present Participle :

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a) Present Participle as Part of the Continuous Form of a Verb
b) Present Participle as Adjective
c) Present Participle After Certain Verbs
d) Present Participle in the Structure of Sentence Usage
3. To find out a sentence or article in which there is a present participle, you
can use the rules contained in this paper.

3.2 Suggestion

The author realizes that there are many mistakes and far from perfection.
With a guideline that can be accounted for from the many sources the author will
refine the paper. Therefore, the authors expect criticsm and suggestions regarding
the discussion of the paper in the conclusions above.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alter. J. B. (2000). Essential English Usage and Grammar. Times Educational.


Booth, Trudie Maria. (2005). French Verbs and Idioms. New York : University
Press of America.
Crenshaw, John Bascom. (2006). The Present Participle in Old High German
and Middle High German. Universitas Michigan : Press of
Guggenheimer.

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Fika, Mun. et al. (1991). Complete English Grammar. Surabaya : Apollo.
Lado. (1986). Mastering English Grammar and Idioms. Jakarta : Titik Terang.
https://www.ef.co.id/panduan-bahasa-inggris/tata-bahasa-inggris/present-
participle/
https://www.wallstreetenglish.co.id/belajar-grammar/weekly-grammar-present-
participle/
https://englishcoo.com/kata-kerja-present-continuous-tense/
https://www.intraxenglish.com/participle/
https://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-contoh-kalimat-present-participle