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# Numerical for practice

1. A first order reaction A B is carried out in a reactor. The volume of reactor is 1.5m3. The inlet feed rate is
1.5m /min. The rate constant of the reaction is 0.8 min-1.The steady state concentration is 0.63kmol/m3. The inlet
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## concentration of the reactant is subjected to step change of 0.6kmol/m3.

Calculate the concentration of the product at t=0.5 min, t=1 min, t=1.5min and t= 3 min.

2. Derive an expression for transfer function of liquid level tank and discuss transient response of the first order system to
step function.

3. An aqueous solution in a tank is heated by coil. The density and the specific heat of solution is 1000 kg/m 3 and 4kJ/kgoC
respectively. The feed rate is 1m3/min and volume of the tank is 1.5m3.The power supplied to the heating coil is varied
sinusoidally between 50kW to 60kW with a 38 sec/cycle period of oscillation and is oscillatory about the average power of
55kW.The steady state temperature of the solution is 60oC.
Calculate
(i) Maximum and minimum temperature of the solution and the outlet temperature at t=35sec, t=60sec
(ii) Amplitude ratio,
(iii) Phase lag.

## 4. What is feedback control system? Explain the components of control System.

5. Derive transfer function of two interacting liquid level tanks and Explain Effect of interaction on step response of two
tank system.

6. Two non interacting tanks are connected in series as shown in figure 5-(a). The time constants are τ 2= 1 and τ 1=0.5;
R2 = 1. Sketch the response of the level in tank 2 if a unit-step change is made in the inlet flow rate to tank 1.

figure

7. The two tank liquid level shown in figure is operating at steady state when a step change is made in the flow to
tank1 .The transient response in critically damped, and it takes 1 min for the change level in second tank to reach 50 % of
total change. If the ratio of the cross sectional areas o the tanks is A1/A2 = 2, find R1/R2. Calculate the time constant for each
tank. How long does it take for the change in level of the first tank to reach 90% of total change?

figure

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8. A tank having a time constant of 1 min and a resistance of 1/9 ft/cfm is operating at steady state with an inlet flow of
10ft3/min. At time t = 0, the flow is suddenly increased to 100 ft3/min for 0.1 min by adding an additional 9 ft3 of water to the
tank uniformly over a period of 0.1 min. Plot the response in tank level and compare with the impulse response.

9. A thermometer is observed to exhibit the first order dynamics. The response of the thermometer was evaluated by
applying a step a step change in the bath in which the thermometer is placed. After six second the output value was 63.2
percent of the total applied step change. The thermometer reading at temperature of 55oC was put into a bath whose
temperature was varied sinusoidally between 50oC and 60oC with a 60 sec/cycle period of oscillation. Determine:
(i) Maximum and minimum temperature of the solution and the outlet temperature at t=35sec, t=60sec
(ii) Phase lag
(iii) Amplitude ratio,

10. A mercury thermometer having a time constant of 0.1 min is placed in a temperature bath at 100°F and allowed to
come to equilibrium with the bath. At time t = 0, the temperature of the bath begins to vary sinusoidally about its average
temperature of 100oF with an amplitude of 2oF.If the frequency of oscillation is 10/π cycles/min, plot the ultimate response of
the thermometer reading as a function of time. What is the phase lag?

11. A thermometer having first order dynamics is placed in a temperature bath of 45 oC.After the thermometer reaches
the equilibrium with the bath. The bath temperature is subjected to sinusoidal forcing function about its average temperature
of 45oC with amplitude of 15oC.If the period of oscillation is 30 sec/cycle and the time constant of the thermometer is 10
second. Determine
(i) Maximum and minimum temperature of the solution and the outlet temperature at t=10 sec.
(ii) Phase lag
(iii) Amplitude ratio,

12. A first order reaction is carried out in a stirred tank with a holdup time of 1.6 hr and a rate constant of 2hr-1.Show the
effect of a sudden change in feed concentration from 0.50 to 0.48 mole/ft3.

13. A second order system is observed to exhibit an underdamped response having the ultimate value of the response
is16, the minimum value of the response is 10.If the value of the damping parameters are 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.1.Show that as
the damping coefficient decreases the overshoot increases of the system.

14. Find the transfer functions H2/Q and H3/Q for the three tank system shown in Fig 1. where H2, H3 and Q are
deviation variables. Tank 1 and Tank 2 are interacting. (ii) For a unit step change in q, sketch H3(t)vs.t.

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15. A thermometer having first order dynamics is placed in a temperature bath of 50oC. After the thermometer reaches
the equilibrium with the bath, the bath temperature is subjected to sinusoidal forcing function about its average temperature
of 50oC with amplitude of 20oC.If the period of oscillation is 25 sec/cycle and the time constant of the thermometer is 3
second.
a) Maximum and minimum temperature of the solution and the outlet temperature
b) Phase lag
c) Amplitude ratio,

16. A thermometer having a time constant of 2 min is initially at 45oC.It is immersed in a bath maintained at 90oC at
t=0.Determine the temperature reading t=1.8 min. If at t=2.5 min, the thermometer is removed from the bath and put in a bath
of at 75oC, determine the maximum temperature indicated by the thermometer.

17. Consider a tank that blends and heats two inlet streams. The heating medium is a condensing vapour at temperature
Tc in a heat exchanger of surface area A. Assume: - Physical properties of the liquid (density, heat capacity, etc.) as
constants. Identify
A. What are the control objectives?
B. What are the manipulated variables?
C. What are the measured variables?
D. What are the external disturbances?
Develop feedback control configuration.

## 18. Identify the control objectives, the available measurements, and

manipulated variables in heat exchanger as shown in figure. What are the external disturbances for such a system? Is this
a SISO system? Develop a feedback control configuration to achieve your control objectives.