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1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE7

Agriculture the backbone of Indian Economy. still holds its relative


importance for more than a billion peoples. The Government of India from
time to time has taken considerable steps for the upliftment of Agriculture
Sector. Fertilizer in the agricultural process is an important area of
concern. Fertilizer industry in India has succeeded in meeting the demand
of all chemical fertilizers in the recent years.

The Fertilizer Industry in India started its first manufacturing unit of Single
Super Phosphate (SSP) in Ranipet near Chennai with a capacity of 6000
MT a year, in 1906.

India's green revolution in late sixties gave a positive boost to the sector.
The sector experienced a faster growth rate and presently India is the
third largest fertilizer producer in the world. The installed capacity as on
30.01.2003 has reached a level of 121.10 lakh MT of nitrogen (inclusive of
an installed capacity of 208.42 lakh MT of urea after reassessment of
capacity) and 53.60 lakh MT of phosphates nutrient, making India the 3rd
largest fertilizer producer in the world. The rapid build-up of fertilizer
production capacity in the country has been achieved as a result of a
favorable policy environment facilitating large investments in the public,
co-operative and private sectors. Presently, there are 57 large sized
fertilizer plants in the country manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous,
phosphatic and complex fertilizers. Out of these, 29 unit produce urea, 20
units produce DAP and complex fertilizers 13 plants manufacture
Ammonium Sulphate (AS), Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) and other
low analysis nitrogenous fertilizers. Besides, there are about 64 medium
and small-scale units in operation producing SSP.

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1.2 KEY PLAYERS:
In south Gujarat region basically the major players are:
GNFC
GSFC
IFFCO
KRIBHCO
And local small fertilizers producers.

1.3 COMPANY PROFILE1

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers Company Ltd. (GNFC), is a joint


sector enterprise promoted by the Government of Gujarat and the Gujarat
State Fertilizer Company Ltd.(GSFC). It was set up in Bharuch, Gujarat in
1976. Located at Bharuch in an extremely prosperous industrial belt,
GNFC draws on the resources of the natural wealth of the land as well as
the industrially rich reserves of the area.

GNFC started its manufacturing and marketing operations by setting up in


1982, one of the world's largest single-stream ammonia-urea fertilizer
complexes. Over the next few years, GNFC successfully commissioned
different projects - in fields as diverse as chemicals, fertilizers and
electronics.

Since inception, GNFC has worked towards an extensive growth as a


corporation. A growth which respects the environment and springs from
the progressive vision of GNFC.

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GNFC today has extended its profile much beyond fertilizers through a
process of horizontal integration. Chemicals/Petrochemicals, Energy
Sector, Electronics/Telecommunications and Information Technology form
ambitious and challenging additions to its corporate portfolio. GNFC has
an enterprising, strategic view towards expansion and diversification.

ACHIEVEMENTS:
• The world's largest single stream fuel oil based Ammonia-urea
plant.
• India's Largest Producer of Formic Acid, Acetic Acid and Methanol.
• India's Only Producer of Glacial Acetic Acid through cutting-edge
Methanol route.

PRODUCTS OF GNFC

Fertilizers4:

GNFC started fertilizer manufacturing and marketing operations by


setting up in 1982, one of the world’s largest single-stream ammonia-urea
fertilizer complexes.

GNFC today is one of the leaders in fertilizer industry. The company is


engaged in manufacturing and selling fertilizers such as Urea, Ammonium
Nitro phosphate and Calcium Ammonium Nitrate under the umbrella
NARMADA. GNFC has to its credit one of the largest Ammonia plant, a
reference plant in the world of fuel oil based technology along with the
world's largest single stream Urea plant.

Urea [NARMADA Urea]

Ammonium Nitro phosphate [NARMADA PHOS]

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate [NARMADA CAN]

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The treaded fertilizers:

The company is engaged in handling and importing Urea, Di ammonium


Phosphate (DAP), Muriate of Potash (MOP) and Ammonium Sulphate. In
addition, GNFC is also handling traded fertilizers like Single Super
Phosphate(SSP) from Liberty Phosphate and Others, DAP and Urea.

The basic objective of marketing such fertilizers is to make available wide


range of fertilizers to farming community, making regular supplies of
fertilizers to distribution channel and enhancing the company's turnover.
The market is undergoing a sea change and there is a shift from sellers to
buyers market. Therefore it is of paramount importance to make available
different kind of fertilizers as per the market demand in different areas,
and we at GNFC are more concerned about that. Such steps help in
making the distribution channel more strong and developing a good
rapport with them

Chemicals3:

GNFC has kept pace with changing times and its vision is always focused
on growth. Even as the Company was implementing its fertilizer complex,
plans were underway for expansion and diversification in related areas.
This resulted in the setting up of core chemical and petrochemical plants
such as Methanol, Formic Acid, Nitric Acid and Acetic Acid

These industrial chemicals are used by a wide range of manufacturers,


processors and chemical operators in India and even abroad. While
Methanol finds applications in chemicals, resins etc., Formic Acid is used
mainly in rubber, textiles, tanneries and pharmaceuticals industries. Both
Methanol and Formic Acid are regularly being exported to international
markets.

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Methanol

Acetic Acid(Glacial)

Formic Acid 85%

Methyl Formate

Concentrated Nitric Acid

Weak Nitric Acid 61.5%

AmmoniumNitrate [MELT]

Calcium Carbonate

Catsol

IT PRODUCTS2:

1 INFOTOWER:

Having 6 floor and 155000sq feet place, it is situated in Ahmedabad.it is


an ideal location for banks, financial institutions, etc,… it is a well known
destination for IT based companies in Gujrat.

2. VSAT SERVICE:

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GNFC has entered into the business of providing satellite based
communication network services using VSAT technology. A strategic
alliance has been made with M/S TIW Systems Inc., USA in the field of
Satellite Communications to offer state of the art satellite
communications equipments and services to the Indian market.

GNFC has license to provide VSAT services in India. The company has
established Hub station at Bharuch - Gujarat. The hub station is designed
to handle large traffic of voice, data, Internet and Video Conferencing. All
the critical equipments are fully redundant to give 100% reliable services.
GNFC plans to have their own VSAT Network connecting all the Regional
and Area offices located all over India.

3 INTERNET GATEWAY:

GNFC has license to provide Internet Gateway Service. The Gateway is


installed and commissioned at Bharuch. Private International Gateway has
been established by using IntelSat -704 satellite on C-band.

A High Speed Bandwidth Internet Feed initially available at 16 Mbps


planned to expand up to 50 Mbps, provides high speed Internet access
Internet link.

OTHER IT SERVICES ARE:

• SECURITY SOLUTIONS
• NETWORK SOLUTIONS
• GIS SERVICES

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FUNCTIONS OF GNFC8:
PRODUCTION:

GNFC Plants Installed capacity:

Plant Installed Capacity

Ammonia 4,45,500 MTA


Urea 6,36,000 MTA
Ammonium Nitro phosphate 1,42,500 MTA
Calcium-Ammonium Nitrate 1,42,500 MTA
Methanol-I 50,000 MTA
Formic Acid 10,000 MTA
Methanol-II 1,00,000 MTA
Weak Nitric Acid 2,47,500 MTA
Concentrated-Nitric Acid I & II 66,000 MTA
Acetic Acid 1,00,000 MTA
Synthesis Gas Generation Unit 216 Million NM3 per annum
Captive Power Plant I & II 50 MWH

GNFC has always shown a dedication to standards of production and


environment safeguards, qualified research acumen, and 100% capacity
utilization for more than two decades
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTATION1
Regional Offices:
Ahmedabad Hyderabad Bangalore
Jaipur Bhopal Lucknow
Chandigarh New Delhi Pune

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GNFC Area Offices:

Karnal Surat Meerut Ratlam


Bareilly Indore Agra Raipur
Jodhpur Jalgaon Udaipur Nasik
Vijaywada Chennai Mehsana Cochin
Rajkot Vadodara Bhavnagar

Thus, GNFC has developed its marketing and distribution


network all over the India.

Environment Management1

GNFC has developed and implemented Environment Management System


(EMS) as per 1S0:14001-1996 for its Fertilizers, Chemicals and supporting
services at Bharuch. GNFC is "An ISO:14001 Company" certified by the
certifying body RWTUV ,Germany. Presently, Latest certificate is valid up
to January,2008
GNFC has so far spent Rs.800 million on installation of pollutants control
equipments and facilities. The company has also clear Environment
Policy. GNFC management is dedicated for allocating various resources
for continual environmental improvement.

Research & Development1

Research and Development centre at GNFC was formally set up in 1986.


The R&D centre is recognized by DSIR, Ministry of Science and
Technology, Government of India in 1988 as an in house R&D unit. The
centre is manned by highly qualified team of scientists and technologists.

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1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW

Packaging is, now a days become very important. Basically, it provides


protection and identification to the product.

Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting


products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to
the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Package
labeling or labeling is any written, electronic, or graphic communications
on the packaging or on a separate but associated label.
Packaging is heavily integrated into our daily lives, we see it all around us,
on everyday items such as chocolate bars and potato chip (crisp) packets-
As explained below, the main use for packaging is protection of the goods
inside, but packaging also provides us with a recognizable logo, or
packaging, we instantly know what the goods are inside

We can also define packaging as all the activities of designing and


producing the container for a product. Well-designed package can create
convenience and promotional value. The packaging is buyer’s first
encounter with the product.6

Various factors have contributed to the growing use of packaging as a


marketing tool, they are…6

Self service:
Many products are sold , today on the self service basis. attractive
packaging helps the customer to get attracted towards the product.

Consumer affluence:

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Means the consumers are willing to pay a little more for convenience,
appearance, dependability, and prestige of better package.

Company and brand image:


Packaging contributes to instant recognition of the company or brand.

Innovation opportunity:
Innovative packaging can bring large benefit to consumers and profits to
producers.

Developing the effective packaging requires a number of decisions. From


the perspective of both the firm and consumer , the packaging must
achieve a number of objectives, like…6

1 identifying the brand


2 convey descriptive and persuasive information
3 facilitate product transportation and protection
4 assist at-home storage
5 aid product consumption

The purposes of packaging and package labels: 5

• Physical Protection –
The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from,
among other things, shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc.
• Barrier Protection –
A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required. Package
permeability is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain
desiccants or Oxygen absorbers. especially, this purpose is important for
the fertilizers. Fertilizers get effected by the whether.
• Containment or Agglomeration –

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Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of
efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical
handling than 1000 single pencils. Liquids, powders, and flowables need
containment.
• Information transmission –
Information on how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package
or product is often contained on the package or label. With
pharmaceutical, food, medical, and chemical products, some types of
information are required by governments.
• Marketing –
The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage
potential buyers to purchase the product. Package design has been an
important and constantly evolving phenomenon for years.Marketing
communications and graphic design are applied to the surface of the
package and (in many cases) the point of sale display.
• Security –
Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of
shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to
deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to help
indicate tampering. Packages may include authentication seals to help
indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit.
• Convenience –
Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution,
handling, display, sale, opening, enclosing, use, and reuse.
• Portion Control –
Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of
contents to control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided
into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households. It is
also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one-liter-bottles of milk,
rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves.

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Packaging types5

Packaging may be looked at as several different types. For example a


“transport package” or “distribution package” is the package form used
to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a
consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or
household.
It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function:
"primary", "secondary", etc.
• Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product
and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use
and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents.
• Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging – perhaps
used to group primary packages together.
• Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling and shipping.

Primary packaging
• Bags-In-Boxes
• Beverage can
• Bottles
• Blister packs
• Carton
• Envelopes
• Plastic bags
• Plastic bottles
• Tin can
• Wrappers

Secondary packaging

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• Boxes
• Cartons
• Shrink wrap

Tertiary packaging
• Bales
• Barrel
• Crate
• Container
• edge protector
• Flexible intermediate bulk container, Big bag, "Bulk Bags",
or "Super Sacks"
• Intermediate bulk container
• Pallets
• Slip Sheet stretch wrap

These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example,


depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when
applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when combining
smaller packages, and tertiary packaging on some distribution packs

Developing effective Packaging may creat considerable amount of money


and several months to complete, but it also help company to gain good
results.

PACKAGING FOR FERTILIZERS:

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The fertilizers are packed in the bag with the weight of 50 kg. In case of
fertilizers, there nothing likes primary or secondary packaging. There are
bags with weight of 50 kg. Packaging is important for fertilizers because
fertilizers easily get affected by the weather. The moisture affects the
fertilizers. The package label of fertilizers bag also contain the information
regarding to NPK ratio, its weight, price, name and logo of the
manufacturing company, etc,…

Good packaging of fertilizers helps in protecting them,


providing necessary information to farmers, attracting them, comfortable
and safe handling, and safe storing.

CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY :

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2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT:

“Customer’s opinion about the Packing of Fertilizers products and where


the packaging of GNFC fertilizers stands compared to competitors, in case
of its fertilizers products, in Mandvi & near by villages.”

2.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:

Prime Objectives:-

• To know the customers opinion about the packaging of


fertilizers products.
• To know where the packaging of GNFC stands with
compared to the competitors

Secondary Objectives:-
• To know the use of fertilizers of different companies, by the
farmers.
• To know the factors, those are taken in to consideration by
the farmers while choosing the fertilizers.
• To know what are their opinion about double packaging,
type of bag, weight of bag, information printed on bag,etc,

• To know where the farmers need improvement in the
packaging of fertilizers of GNFC.
• To know how the customers rank different companies for
their packaging and why?
• To provide some necessary suggestions.
2.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

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Before starting I have discussed with my guide at the company, and few
farmers about the packaging of fertilizers. I did general talk on the same
topic with the farmers. during this EXPLORATORY RESEARCH , I came to
know about the thoughts of farmers and the need of the need of the
company. On this basis I made questionnaire for further research.

For this part, the research design is DISCRIPTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL


RESEARCH DESIGN. as I have tried to give answer of questions like. What,
how much, why, etc,… it is descriptive research design. And as the study
is conducted only at a particular point of time- the study would not be
done again- it is cross sectional research design.

PRE TESTING:

The pre testing was conducted on 15 farmers in the Mandvi and nearby
area. According to their response the necessary modification was made in
questionnaire.

2.4 DEFINE TARGET POPULATION:

SAMPLING PLAN:

Sampling plan is very important when there is limited time. It helps in


collecting the appropriate data .it provides clear scheduled plan for
collecting data.

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION
In this study the target population is of farmers, who consume the
fertilizers.

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SAMPLE SIZE:
150 farmers were interviewed as respondents.

SAMPLE SITE:
The samples were taken from Mandvi and nearby villages.

SAMPLE SELECTION TECHNIQUES:

NON PROBABILITY CONVENIENCE TECHNIQUE was used for selecting


samples. As the sample site was Mandvi and nearby villages, the
probability of all other farmers, to be selected as sample, was not same.
And even in selected sample site, who so ever farmers were available,
was interviewed and so it is convenient sampling.

2.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:


The questionnaire was used as research instrument. That contains:-
Multiple options questions and Open ended questions.

2.6 DATA COLLECTION:


The two kinds of data were collected.
1 primary data
2 secondary data.

1. Primary data: collected through the questionnaire, from the


farmers.
2. Secondary date: taken through the use of internet, printed outlets
provided by GNFC, the diary of GNFC, and some books.

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2.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH:

1. PROBABILITY SAMPLING was not used. So the result can not be


generalized.
2. The time period was limited of two months.
3. The farmers can be biased while giving their opinions.
4. My own limitations: as being the new fellow in such study, the lack
of experience and expertise from my part creates some limitations.

2.8 TOOLS AND TECHANIQUES USED:

Frequency analysis: frequency analysis provides the frequency of the


respondents, in giving the answers of the questions.

Cross tabs:

The Cross tabs procedure forms two-way and multiway tables and
provides a variety of tests and measures of association for two-way
tables. The structure of the table and whether categories are ordered
determine what test or measure to use.

Crosstabs' statistics and measures of association are computed for two-


way tables only. If you specify a row, a column, and a layer factor (control
variable), the Crosstabs procedure forms one panel of associated
statistics and measures for each value of the layer factor (or a
combination of values for two or more control variables.

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Cross tabs:

The Cross tabs procedure forms two-way and multiway tables and
provides a variety of tests and measures of association for two-way
tables. The structure of the table and whether categories are ordered
determine what test or measure to use.

Crosstabs' statistics and measures of association are computed for two-


way tables only. If you specify a row, a column, and a layer factor (control
variable), the Crosstabs procedure forms one panel of associated
statistics and measures for each value of the layer factor (or a
combination of values for two or more control variables.

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CHAPTER 3
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRITATION

Q-2 Which companies’ fertilizers do you use?

Purpose of the question: the question is asked to know the use of


various brands of fertilizers by the farmers.

Fertilizers used of various companies- Frequencies

Percent
Responses of Cases
N Percent N
Fertilizer fertilizer used of GNFC 116 22.6% 77.3%
fertilizer used of GSFC 110 21.4% 73.3%
s Used(a)
fertilizer used of
115 22.4% 76.7%
KRIBHCO
fertilizer used of IFFCO 100 19.5% 66.7%
fertilizer used of other
72 14.0% 48.0%
companies
Total 513 100.0% 342.0%
Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.

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use of fertilizers

140
116 115
120 110
100
100
no. of users

80 72
use of fertilizers
60

40

20

0
GNFC GSFC KRIBHCO IFFCO others
companies

Out of 150 respondents 116 are using the GNFC fertilizers. While for
GSFC, KRIBHCO, IFFCO and others this no. is 110, 115, 100, and 72
respectively. This shows the highest usage of GNFC fertilizers. That is
77.3%

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Q-3 How many bags of fertilizers, do you use per year?

Purpose of the question: To know the consumption of the fertilizers

No. of bags used per year

Frequenc
BAGS/YEAR y Percent
0-10 3 2.0
11-20 1 .7
21-30 4 2.7
31-40 2 1.3
41-50 16 10.7
51-60 21 14.0
61-70 18 12.0
71-80 18 12.0
81-90 17 11.3
91-100 4 2.7
above 100 46 30.7
Total 150 100.0

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bags used per year

0-10
20-Nov
2 0.72.7 1.3 21-30
10.7
30.7 31-40
14 41-50
51-60
61-70
2.7 71-80
11.3 12
12 81-90
91-100
above 100

The chart shows that there are 30% respondents who consume more than
100 bags of fertilizers per year. The users of less than 20 bags per year
are very few. It shows the huge consumption of fertilizers in terms of
quantity.

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Q-4 How many rupees do you spent on fertilizers per year?

Purpose of the question: to know the consumption of fertilizers in


rupees terms. Fertilizers are one of the major inputs in agriculture. So to
know how the spending is done on fertilizers.
Rupees spent on fertilizer per year

Frequency Percent
0-10000 3 2.0
10001-20000 18 12.0
20001-30000 28 18.7
30001-40000 20 13.3
40001-50000 17 11.3
50001-60000 15 10.0
60001-70000 5 3.3
70001-80000 5 3.3
above 100000 39 26.0
Total 150 100.0

rupees spent on fertilizers per year

0-10000
2% 12% 10001-20000
26%
20001-30000
18.70% 30001-40000
40001-50000
3.30% 50001-60000
3.30%
60001-70000
10% 13.30%
11.30% 70001-80000
above 100000

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The information shows that there are 26%respondants who spends more
than 100000 rupees on fertilizers per year. There are very few farmers
who spend less than 10000 rupees on fertilizers per year. This also shows
the big use of fertilizers.

Q-5 what are the factors, those you consider while choosing the
fertilizers? (Give 1 to 5 ranks)

Purpose of the question: to know what are the factors that are
considered by the farmers, while choosing the fertilizers and in which
order?

Rank 1 Frequencies

Percent of
Responses Cases
N Percent N
rank(a Rank given to price 30 20.0% 20.0%
rank given to attractive
) 3 2.0% 2.0%
packaging
Rank given to brand 34 22.7% 22.7%

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Rank given to bag quality 4 2.7% 2.7%
Rank given to NPK ratio 79 52.7% 52.7%
Total 150 100.0% 100.0%
a Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.

If we talk about rank 1 than, 79 respondents give 1 st rank to the NPK


ratio.34 respondents give 1st rank to brand .while only 3 respondents give
1st rank to attractive packaging.

Rank 2 Frequencies

Percent of
Responses Cases
N Percent N
rank(a) Rank given to price 32 21.3% 21.3%
rank given to attractive
3 2.0% 2.0%
packaging
Rank given to brand 44 29.3% 29.3%
Rank given to bag quality 12 8.0% 8.0%
Rank given to NPK ratio 59 39.3% 39.3%
Total 150 100.0% 100.0%
a Dichotomy group tabulated at value 2.

59 respondents give 2nd rank to NPK ratio. 44 respondents give 2nd rank to
brand. Here also only 3 respondents give 2nd rank to attractive packaging.

The above both the table shows that the farmers give more preference to
NPK ratio and the brand. While they give least preference to attractive

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packaging.

Q-6 Out of the information printed on bag , what are the


informations you consider?

Purpose of the question: to know what informations do they consider,


printed on bag, so that necessary improvement can be done in printing
the information.

Information printed on bag.

Percent
Responses of Cases
out of printed information N Percent N
Information weight is considered
42 7.6% 28.0%
printed on
bag(a) NPK ratio is considered
141 25.5% 94.0%

company name is
111 20.1% 74.0%
considered
fertilizer name is
131 23.7% 87.3%
considered
company logo is 49 8.9% 32.7%
considered

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price is considered
78 14.1% 52.0%

Total 552 100.0% 368.0%

The table shows that 141 respondents considered the information of NPK
ratio.131 considered the name of the fertilizers while 111 considered the
information of company name and 78 considered the price. Few
respondents considered weight and logo.(42 & 49 respectively)
Q-7 “How much a particular fertilizer should be used for different
crops” should this information be printed on the bag?

Purpose of the question: to know the opinion of the respondents for


this idea.

Crop wise information should be printed on bag

Frequency Percent
yes 105 70.0
no 45 30.0
Total 150 100.0

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should "cropwise information" be printed on bag

30%

yes
no

70%

70% respondents believe that this information should be printed on the


bag of fertilizers so that it provides guideline

Q-8 Which kinds of bag do you prefer?

Purpose of the question: to know the preference of the farmers for bag.

Better bag, jute/HDEP

Frequency Percent
Jute 14 9.3
HDPE 136 90.7
Total 150 100.0

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type of bag prefered

9.30%

Jute
HDPE

90.70%

90.7% respondents believe that the present HDPE bag is better. They
prefer HDPE bag.

Q-9 Can you identify the bag of “Narmada” fertilizers of GNFC,


without reading the name?

Q-10 If yes, through which?

Purpose of the questions: Except the name, by which element the


“Narmada” fertilizer is identified. So that more focus on that element can
be given.

Identification of ''NARMADA'' brand

Frequenc
y Percent
yes 150 100.0

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The identification of NARMADA is done by

Frequency Percent
logo of
150 100.0
company

All the respondents can identify the “Narmada” fertilizers of GNFC without
reading the name. they all can identify only through the logo of the
company. So the logo of the company is quite popular among the farmers.

Q-11 how much weight of fertilizer bag is appropriate according


to you?

Purpose of the question: during the pre testing I found that many
farmers were complaining that now a days , it becomes difficult for people
to handle the weight of 50 kg at a time, so there should be bag with the
weight of 25-30 kg. so this question has been kept to know the opinion of
other respondents.

Weight of bag

Frequency Percent
50 109 72.7
25-30 41 27.3

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Total 150 100.0

weight of bag

27.30%

50 kg
25-30 kg

72.70%

72.7% respondents believe that the present 50 kg bag is appropriate.


While 27.3% respondents believe that there should be bag with the
weight of 25-30 kg.
Q-12 Do you believe that the double packaging of GNFC fertilizer
helps in protecting the products.

Purpose of the question: GNFC has introduced DOUBLE PACKAGING in


particularly NARMADA CAN. This question has been asked to know
whether this double packaging has got succeed.

Successful double packaging

Frequency Percent
yes 135 90.0
no 15 10.0
Total 150 100.0

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Is double packaging helps

10%

yes
no

90%

90% respondents believe that the double packaging helps in protecting


the products.

Q-13 which things you find appropriate in packaging of GNFC


fertilizers?
Q-14 which things you find in packaging of GNFC fertilizers, that
need to be improved ?

Purpose of the question: to know according to respondents what is


appropriate and what need to be changed. The options given in both
these questions are same and so they also check whether the respondent
is consistent.

Appropriate- Frequencies

Responses % CASE
N Percent N
Appropriat Bag color is appropriate
111 14.5% 74.0%
e

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print color is appropriate 138 18.0% 92.0%
Logo size is appropriate 145 19.0% 96.7%
Bag material is appropriate 118 15.4% 78.7%
Steaching is appropriate 131 17.1% 87.3%
weight is appropriate 114 14.9% 76.0%
others is appropriate 8 1.0% 5.3%
Total 765 100.0% 510.0%

Need to improve- Frequencies

Percent of
Need to Improve (a) Responses Cases
N Percent N
bag color should be improved 37 27.0% 40.2%
print color should be improved 10 7.3% 10.9%
logo size should be improved 4 2.9% 4.3%
bag material should be improved 32 23.4% 34.8%
steaching should be improved 19 13.9% 20.7%
weight should be improved 35 25.5% 38.0%
Total 137 100.0% 148.9%
a Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.

34
27% respondents believe that the color of bag should be changed. Instead
of present white bag some colorful bag should be there. (Probably sky
blue) 23%respondents believe that the quality of bag should be improved.
25.5%respondents believe that the weight should be changed.

Q-15 Give rank 1 to 5 to the following brand for their bag quality.

Purpose of the question: in packaging the bag quality is one of the


most important elements for the farmers. The empty bags are used for
making carpers, for storing grains in it, etc. so farmers give importance to
the quality of the bag also. This question finds according to farmers which
company’s bag quality is good?

Bag Quality Frequencies

Percent of
Bag Quality(a) Responses Cases
N Percent N
rank to bag quality of GNFC 82 54.7% 54.7%
rank to bag quality of GSFC 31 20.7% 20.7%
rank to bag quality of IFFCO 26 17.3% 17.3%

35
rank to bag quality of KRIBHCO 11 7.3% 7.3%
Total 150 100.0% 100.0%
a Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.

54.7% respondents say that the bag quality of GNFC is best. Then comes
GSFC, IFFCO, KRIBHCO in descending order.

Q-16 Give rank 1 to 4 to following brands for the packaging of


their fertilizers
Q-17 according to you, what are the reasons for good packaging
of above companies

Purpose of the questions: how the farmers give rank to different


companies for the packaging of their fertilizers and why and where the
GNFC stands compared to the competitors, for packaging of its fertilizers

Rank for Packaging Frequencies

Percent of
Rank to Packaging(a) Responses Cases
N Percent N
rank to packaging of GNFC 77 51.3% 51.3%
rank to packaging of GSFC 31 20.7% 20.7%

36
rank to packaging of KRIBHCO 16 10.7% 10.7%
rank to packaging of IFFCO 26 17.3% 17.3%
Total 150 100.0% 100.0%
a Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.

77 (51.3%) respondents believe that the packaging of GNFC is best.


Means GNFC stands 1st for its packaging of fertilizers products.

Reasons for good packaging Frequencies

Percent of
Reasons(a) Responses Cases
N Percent N
bag color is reason for good packaging 82 13.2% 54.7%
print color is reason for good packaging 62 10.0% 41.3%
bag material is reason for good packaging 135 21.8% 90.0%
info. Printed is reason for good packaging 120 19.4% 80.0%
steaching is reason for good packaging 131 21.2% 87.3%
weight is reason for good packaging 89 14.4% 59.3%
Total 619 100.0% 412.7%
a Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.

37
The reasons for good packaging are-
21.8% are saying good bag material.
21.2% are saying good steeching.
19.4% are saying information printed is the reason.

Chi-square test:

Here by chi-square test we will try to find that


Is there any significance association between the quantity of land owned
by the farmers and the rank given to different factors while choosing the
fertilizers?

Null Hypothesis: There is no significance association between the Qty


of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to PRICE, while choosing
the fertilizers.

Alternative Hypothesis: There is significance association between the


Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to PRICE, while
choosing the fertilizers.

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-
sided)

38
Pearson Chi-Square 50.230 20 .000

Here the significance value comes at 0.000, which is less than 0.05. So,
null hypothesis is rejected. And so, alternative hypothesis is accepted. So
there is significance association between the Qty of LAND owned by the
farmers & the rank given to PRICE, while choosing the fertilizers.

Land & attract packaging

Null Hypothesis: There is no significance association between the Qty


of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to ATTRACTIVE
PACKAGING, while choosing the fertilizers.

Alternative Hypothesis: There is significance association between the


Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to ATTRACTIVE
PACKAGING, while choosing the fertilizers

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 25.303 20 .190

Here the significance value comes at 0.190, which is greater than 0.05.
So, null hypothesis is accepted. And so, there is NO significance

39
association between the Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank
given to ATTRACTIVE PACKAGING, while choosing the fertilizers.

Land & brand

Null Hypothesis: There is no significance association between the Qty of


LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to BRAND, while choosing
the fertilizers.

Alternative Hypothesis: There is significance association between the


Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to BRAND, while
choosing the fertilizers

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-
sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 24.715 20 .213

Here the significance value comes at 0.213, which is greater than 0.05.
So, null hypothesis is accepted. And so, So there is NO significance
association between the Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank
given to BRAND, while choosing the fertilizers.

40
Land & Bag quality

Null Hypothesis: There is no significance association between the Qty of


LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to QUALITY OF THE BAG,
while choosing the fertilizers.

Alternative Hypothesis: There is significance association between the


Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to QUALITY OF THE
BAG, while choosing the fertilizers

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-
sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 31.309 20 .051

Here the significance value comes at 0.051, which is greater than 0.05.
So, null hypothesis is accepted. And so, there is NO significance
association between the Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank
given to QUALITY OF THE BAG, while choosing the fertilizers.

41
Land & NPK ratio

Null Hypothesis: There is no significance association between the Qty of


LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to NPK RATIO, while
choosing the fertilizers.

Alternative Hypothesis: There is significance association between the


Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to NPK RATIO, while
choosing the fertilizers

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-
sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 19.396 20 .496

Here the significance value comes at 0.496, which is greater than 0.05.
So, null hypothesis is accepted. And so, there is NO significance
association between the Qty of LAND owned by the farmers & the rank
given to NPK RATIO, while choosing the fertilizers.

42
.

FINDINGS:

1. Out of 100% respondents 77% respondents are using the fertilizer


of GNFC. with that

73% are using the fertilizers of GSFC


76% are using the fertilizers of KRIBHCO
66% are using the fertilizers of IFFCO
485 are also using the fertilizers of other brands.
Other includes the brands like, URVIK UREA, MIXTURE OF NAVSARI ,
MIXTURE OF JUNAGHADH. Etc ,

So, we can conclude that the use of GNFC fertilizers is maximum.

2. There are about 30.7% respondents who consume more than 100
bags per year. and about 26% respondents who spend more than
100000 rupees on fertilizers per year. So Mandvi and nearby region
has a big potential.

43
3. While choosing the fertilizers, the main factors, those are
considered are NPK ratio, and than brand and than price. While less
importance is given to attractive packaging.

4. In the same way, out of printed information on the bag, NPK ratio,
name of the fertilizers is considered the most. Than comes brand
name. while weight and logo of the company is generally ignored.

5. 70% respondents believe that “the crop wise information” should be


printed on the bag. so that it provides the guideline in using that
fertilizers for different kind of crops.

6. The company’s present HDPE bag is preferred by the respondents.

7. 27.3% respondents believe that the company should introduce the


bag with the weight of 25-30 kg.

8. 90% respondents believe that the double packaging of GNFC is


good and protect the product.

9. All respondents can identify the bag of GNFC, by only seeing the
logo of the company.

10. 27% respondents believe that the color of the bag should be
colorful. E.g. sky blue.

11. 54% respondents believe that the bag quality of GNFC is best.

12. 51% respondents believe that the overall packaging of GNFC is


best.

44
13. There is no significance association between the Qty of the land
owned by the farmers & the the rank given to PRICE, while choosing
the fertilizers. But there is NO significance association between the
Qty of the LAND owned by the farmers & the rank given to the
factors like…ATTRACTIVE PACKAGING,BRAND,QUALITY OF THE BAG
& NPK RATIO.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
The following recommendations can be given to the company-

1. Looking at to the figure of the consumption of fertilizers, we can say


that there is a huge potential for fertilizers market, in Mandvi and
nearby villages.

77%respondents are using the GNFC fertilizers. The


remaining 23%respondants complaint that they can not get the GNFC
fertilizers as and when required, due to non availability at the dealer. And
so the company should make the fertilizers easily available.

2. The company should focus on printing the information like NPK


ratio. Name of the brand and the name of the fertilizer.

3. The company should introduce the bag with the weight of 25-30 kg.
Even to check the view of more farmers. It may possible that this
new weight can be appreciated by other farmers also.

4. The company should go for double packaging in other fertilizers


also, as it is demanded by the farmers.

45
5. The company should change the color of its bag. As many people
said the color should be sky blue or light green.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. www.gnvfc.net

2. www.gnvfc.net/itdivision.html

3. www.gnvfc.net/chemicals/chemicals.html

4. www.gnvfc.net/fertilizers/fertilizers.html

5. www.iip-in.com

6. http://fert.nic.in/

7. Marketing Management- by Kotler & Keller

8. printed outlets provided by GNFC

46
APPENDIX :

1 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:

Hello,

I come from GNFC Bharuch. I am having a summer project at GNFC


as a part of my M.B.A. curriculum. In this project, I am doing survey on
Packaging of fertilizers products. You are requested to fill up this
questionnaire for this purpose.

• Introduction :

- Please Read each question carefully and give


answer without bias.
- The information received from you would be used
for academic purpose and would be kept confidential.

(1) Do you use chemical fertilizers?

Yes No

47
(2) If Yes, Which companies fertilizers you used? (Tick  In box)

GNFC IFFCO
GSFC Others ____________
KRIBHCO

(3) How many bags of fertilizers, you used for a year? (Tick  In
box)
0-10 61-70
11-20 71-80
21-30 81-90
31-40 91-100
41-50 Above 100
51-60

(4) How much rupees you spend on fertilizers for a Year? (Tick 
In box)
0-10,000 60,000-70,000
10,000-20,000 70,000-80,000
20,000-30,000 80,000-90,000
30,000-40,000 90,000-1,00,00
40,000-50,000 Above 1,00,000
50,000-60,000

(5) What are the factors, that you considered while choosing
fertilizers

48
(Give Rank 1 to 5)
Price
Attractive Packaging
Brand
Bag quality
N.P.K. Ratio

(6) Out of the Information Printed on the bag which are the
informations you consider? (Tick  In box)
Price
Weight
N.P.K. Ratio
Name of Company
Name of fertilizers
Logo of company

(7) “How much a particular fertilizer should be used for different


crops” should this information be printed on bag?
Yes No

(8) Which kind of bag do you prefer?


Jute bag H.D.P.E. Bag

(9) Can you identify then bag of “Narmada” Fertilizers of GNFC,


Without reading the name?
Yes No

(10) If yes, through which you can Identified?

49
Color of Bag
Print of Bag
Logo of Company

(11) How much weight of fertilizers Bag is appropriate according to


you.
The Present Weight 50 KG
25-30 KG

(12) Do you believe that Double packaging of GNFC fertilizers,


helps in protecting the product?
Yes No

(13) Out of following which things, you find appropriate in GNFC


fertilizers packaging? (Tick  In box)

Bag Color
Print – Color
Loge Size
Bag materials
Steaching
Weight
Others

(14) Out of following which things should be improved in GNFC


fertilizers packaging? (Tick  In box)
Bag Color
Print – Color
Loge Size
Bag materials

50
Steaching
Weight
Others

(15) Give Rank 1 to 4 the following brands for the quality of the
Bag ?
Narmada (GNFC)
Sardar (GSFC)
IFFCO
KRIBCHO

(16) Give Rank 1 to 4 to the following brands for the packaging of


the fertilizers product.
Narmada (GNFC)
Sardar (GSFC)
IFFCO
KRIBCHO

(17) According to you, what are the reason for good packaging of
above companion (Tick  In box)
Bag Color
Print – Color
Bag materials
Information printed
Steaching
Weight Other

(18) If you have any suggestion, Please


___________________________________
______________________________________________________________

51
______________________________________________________________
__

Personal Information :-
Name : ___________________________________________________
Address : ___________________________________________________
Age : _______________
Land : (in Acres)

1-5 16-20
6-10 21-25
11-15 26 and above

Crops Taken: (Tick  In box)


Sugarcane
Vegetable
Rice
Wheat
Others ___________
___________

52
Thank You

APPENDIX 2: OTHER MANUFACTURERS OF FERTILIZERS:

Fertilizer Industry in India

Key players

Company Address

National Fertilizers Limited (NFL) National Fertilizers


www.nationalfertilizers.com Limited,
Vijaipur
National Fertilizers
Limited,
Panipat,
Haryana
National Fertilizers
Limited,
Punjab-151003.
National Fertilizers
Limited,

53
Punjab

Fertilisers & Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACT) Udyogamandal Division


www.fact.co.in Kochi, Kerala

Petrochemical Division
Kochi, Kerala
Cochin Division
Kochi, Kerala
Engineering Consultancy
Unit
Kochi, Kerala
Fabricating and
Engineering Unit
Kochi, Kerala
Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited (RCF) Madras Fertilizers
www.madrasfert.nic.in Limited
Chennai – 600 068.
Steel Authority Of India Limited (SAIL) www.sail.co.in Rourkela Steel Plant

Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. (NLC) Fertilizer Factory


www.nlcindia.com Tamil Nadu

Paradeep Phosphates Limited (PPL) PPL Township


www.paradeepphosphates.com Jagatsinghpur-

54
Pyrites, Phosphates & Chemicals Ltd. (PPCL) Amjhore
www.ppclindia.com (Bihar)
Saladipura
Rajasthan
1-AB, Ravindra Nath
Tagore Marg
Uttaranchal
Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited (HFC) Durgapu
West Bengal
Barauni
Bihar
Haldia
West Bengal
Brahmaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation Limited Namrup
www.bvfcl.com Assam

The Fertilizer Corporation Of India Limited (FCIL) Sindri


Jharkhand
Ramagundam
(A.P.)
Talcher
Orissa
Gorakhpur
Uttar Pradesh
Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) Khetri
Acid Cum Fertilizer Plant
Khetrinagar

55
FCI Aravali Gypsum And Minerals India Limited Namrup
P.O. Parbatpur
Dibrugarh-786623
Assam
Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited Kalol
(IFFCO) IFFCO
P.O.Kasturinagar
Distt.Gandinagar-382423.
Gujarat
Kandla
IFFCO
Post Box No. 12
Gandhidham
Kandla- 370210
Gujarat
Phulpur
IFFCO
P.O. Ghiyanagar
Phulpur
Allahabad- 212404
Uttar Pradesh
Aonla
IFFCO
P.O. IFFCO Township
Dist. Bareilly- 243403
Uttar Pradesh
Krishak Bharati Cooperative Limited (KRIBHCO) Hazira
Hazira Fertiliser Complex
P.O. KRIBHCO Nagar
Hazira

56
Surat- 394515
Gujarat

Gujarat State Fertilizer and Chemical limited Fertilizernagar


www.gsfclimited.com (Vadodara)
Kosamba (Surat)
Sikka (Jamnagar)
Vadodara
Coromandel Fertilizers Limited www.cflindia.com Vishakhapatnam

Navi Mumbai

Sriram Fertilizers and Chemicals http://www.dscl.com/ Kota, Rajasthan


Business_Agree_Urea.aspx

Zuari Industries Limited- Fertilizer Limited Goa


www.zuari-chambal.com

Southern Petrochemicals Inds. Corpn. Ltd.: Tuticorin


www.spic.in

Duncans Industries Limited www.duncansfertiliser.com Kanpur

57
Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited Panambur, Mangalore
www.mangalorechemicals.com

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilisers Co. Ltd. Bharuch, Gujarat


www.gnvfc.net

Deepak Fertilizers & Petrochemicals Ltd Plot K1, MIDC Industrial


www.dfpcl.com Area,
P.O.Taloja-
Maharashtra.
Indo-Gulf Fertilizers & Chemicals Corporation PO Jagdishpur Industrial
Limited www.indo-gulf.co.in Area

Uttar Pradesh
Godavari Fertilizer & Chemicals Limited www.gfcl.com Kakinada

Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited Kakinada


www.nagarjunagroup.com

58
59