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FEBRUARY 2017 / VOL. 20 / NO.

Inspection
Trends
THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION AND TESTING PERSONNEL

•Application of Groove
Weld Symbols AWS.ORG

•Better WPS Templates


•AWS Certification
Program Update
For Info, go to aws.org/ad-index
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REV. 11/15
FEBRUARY 2017 / VOL. 20 / NO. 1

Inspection
Trends
THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTIONS AND TESTING PERSONNEL

Features

14 19
Cover photo: Illustration by Willie Chinn,
creative design specialist, AWS.

Applications of Groove Weld Symbols


INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is
published quarterly by the American Welding Society. by R. D. Campbell and J. P. Christein / The first article in a series about
Editorial and advertising offices are located at 8669 NW improving the communication of welding symbols / 14
36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-
9353. Printed by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia,
Miss. Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified, AWS Certification Program Update
nonmembers in the United States and its possessions; by M. Lucia / Important changes to the CWI, CAWI, and SCWI
$50.00 per year in foreign countries; $20.00 per year for
noncertified members and students; $10.00 single issue
certification programs are outlined / 19
for nonmembers; and $7.00 single issue for members.
American Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36th WPS Templates: Good Welding Starts with Explicit Procedures
St., #130, Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional by K. Madsen / How welding procedure accuracy can be improved by
mailing offices. using custom specification forms / 22
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society, 8669
NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166.

Readers of Inspection Trends may make copies of articles


for personal, archival, educational, or research
purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Permis-
sion is granted to quote from articles, provided custom-
ary acknowledgment of authors and sources is made.
Starred (*) items excluded from copyright.

AWS MISSION STATEMENT


The mission of the American Welding Society is to advance
Departments
the science, technology, and application of welding and
allied joining processes worldwide, including, brazing,
soldering, and thermal spraying.
Editor’s Note ................................6 Just the Facts.............................32

AWS DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION News Bulletin ...............................8 Mail Bag .....................................35
STATEMENT
AWS values diversity, advocates equitable and inclusive Print and Product Showcase .....10 The Answer Is.............................36
practices, and engages its members and stakeholders in
establishing a culture in the welding community that
welcomes, learns from, and celebrates differences among Technology Notes ......................26 Classifieds ..................................38
people.
AWS recognizes that a commitment to diversity, equity, Mark Your Calendar ..................28 Advertiser Index ........................38
and inclusion is essential to achieving excellence for the
Association, its members, and employees.
Certification Schedule ...............30

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 5


Editor’s Note
Publisher
Mary Ruth Johnsen, mjohnsen@aws.org

Editorial
Dear Readers,
Editor
It is an honor and privilege to intro- Carlos Guzman, cguzman@aws.org
duce myself as the new editor of Inspec-
tion Trends. As some of you may know, Senior Editor
Andrew Cullison, managing director of Cindy Weihl, cweihl@aws.org
publication services, has retired, and
Mary Ruth Johnsen is now the publisher Features Editor
of all our periodicals. She continues as Kristin Campbell, kcampbell@aws.org
editor of the Welding Journal, but has
handed over her duties as editor of In-
Associate Editor
Carlos Guzman spection Trends to me.
Katie Pacheco, kpacheco@aws.org
I have been with AWS for 12 years,
starting as associate editor of the Welding
Handbook. In 2005, I became the editor of the then-new Welding Jour- Design and Production
nal en Español, which has been a success since its introduction. Not Production Editor
long after that, I also became manager of electronic media, taking care Zaida Chavez, zaida@aws.org
of digitizing all our periodicals and distributing them to our members.
We have a great editorial calendar planned for you in 2017. This Assistant Production Manager
month’s issue includes the first (feature article) in a four part series Brenda Flores, bflores@aws.org
dedicated to welding symbols. This series aims to explain how to cor-
rectly use these symbols by all parties involved to improve communica- Manager of International Periodicals
tions and avoid welding issues. and Electronic Media
This issue’s second feature article outlines important changes to Carlos Guzman, cguzman@aws.org
the Certified Welder Inspector (CWI), Certified Associate Welding In-
spector (CAWI), and Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWI) pro-
grams. The CWI certification has been issued to more than 100,000 in- Advertising
dividuals worldwide since 1976. Since QC1, Specification for AWS Certi- Manager of Sales Operations
fication of Welding Inspectors, was last revised nine years ago, significant Lea Paneca, lea@aws.org
changes have been made to the 2016 edition that you need to know.
Our third feature examines how custom Welding Procedure Specifica-
Senior Advertising Sales Executives
tion (WPS) forms may improve the accuracy and efficiency of welding
Sandra Jorgensen, sjorgensen@aws.org
procedures.
Annette Delagrange, adelagrange@aws.org
Continuing with the editorial calendar, the May issue will include
topics such as choosing the right metal markers and temperature indi-
cating sticks, and NDE education and training. August will include pen- Senior Advertising Production Manager
etrant testing, prequalified vs. qualifying welding procedure specifica- Frank Wilson, fwilson@aws.org
tions, and updates on B1.10, Guide to the Nondestructive Examination of
Welds. Last but not least, the November issue will cover welding metal- Subscriptions Representative
lurgy, underwater weld inspections, and safe inspection practices. I en- Evelyn Andino, eandino@aws.org
courage you to contact us and let us know what topics you would like to
read about in future issues of Inspection Trends. American Welding Society
I also want to take this opportunity to thank all our contributing 8669 NW 36th St., #130
authors who make this publication possible with their involvement and Miami, FL 33166-6672
dedication — we couldn’t do it without you! (800/305) 443-9353
I look forward to keeping the tradition of excellence that Inspection
Trends has offered throughout the years — being a beacon publication Copyright
of the welding inspection community — and I look forward to continue Copyright © 2017 by American Welding Society in both
meeting and exceeding your needs as a reader and welding inspection printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsi-
ble for any statement made or opinion expressed herein.
professional. Data and information developed by the authors of specific
articles are for informational purposes only and are not
intended for use without independent, substantiating
Always forward, investigation on the part of potential users.
Carlos Guzman
cguzman@aws.org
(800) 443- 93953, Ext. 348

6 Inspection Trends / February 2017


For Info, go to aws.org/ad-index
News Bulletins

Nine-Year CWI Recertification Seminar Hosted at AWS World Headquarters

Nine-year CWI recertification seminar attendees were recently in Miami, Fla.

On December 4–9, 2016, the American Welding Society coordinator of the welding program at Moraine Valley Com-
(AWS) hosted a nine-year Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) munity College, Palos Hills, Ill.
recertification seminar at its world headquarters in Miami, Members of the class included (in alphabetical order): John
Fla., instructed by AWS Past President (2004–2005) Jim Atkinson, Robert Barner, Jeremy Bazemore, Kelly Bennett,
Greer (front row, third from right). Greer is a professor and Alexander Caploon, Robert Casto, David Cenefels, Jimmy

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8 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Clifton, Jason Daniels, Robert Dawson, Marty Deperro, Ron-
nie Eagle, Margaret Gagne, Anthony Galindo, Domingo Gil,
Julian Hamilton, Matthew Mathis, Brian Myers, Alan McCol-
lum, Ronald Newman, Michael Ortiz, Gene Powell, Bertram
Price, Michael Sanders, Cory Satka, Marcus Scruggs, Gregory
Seferian, Joseph Thomas, Hugo Vera, and Mark Waggoner.

AWS Training Facility Established in


Indonesia
PT. Asian Welding Specialist, an AWS Educational Institu-
tion Member and SENSE-participating organization, which PT. Asian Welding Specialist, Lincoln Indoweld, and SMKN 2
representatives posed during the Oct. 15, 2016, memorandum of
provides welding certification for code welders, has opened understanding and equipment donation gathering in Bandung,
for business in Bandung, Indonesia. Indonesia.
“It is imperative the local talent is developed, rather than
utilizing imported labor, for the numerous infrastructure proj- Director and QA Manager Dina Septriana Snyder.
ects planned and currently underway, including 35 mW of The organization is working on its next phase in acquiring
power plant construction over the next two to five years, as AWS ATF certification.
well as numerous petrochemical expansion projects and more
than 2000 km of pipeline projects,” said AWS SCWI/CWE and
Accredited Testing Facility (ATF) Supervisor Steven Synder. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
The organization is operating from Bandung SMKN 2 Vo- Opens New Welder Learning Facility
cational Technical School and has partnered with other cor-
porations, such as PT Lincoln Indoweld and Rigid Profes- The new Welder Learning Facility at the Hobart Institute
sional Tools, to provide the necessary equipment for con- of Welding Technology’s (HIWT) Troy, Ohio, campus will en-
ducting welder testing. hance the student experience for new welders and welders
“This working agreement and memorandum of under- seeking continuing education and certifications, as well as cor-
standing allows us to work together, engaging local young porate services training and testing.
developing talent to offer them the recognition and oppor- The 16,000-sq-ft building began hosting classes in late 2016,
tunity to train using SENSE guidelines and work toward and is an addition to the 13-acre campus that has trained more
achieving AWS Certified Welder status,” explained Managing than 100,000 welders. — continued on page 12

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 9


Print and Product Showcase

Time of Flight Diffraction to incorporate popular features of ex-


isting Phoenix TOFD scanners, it of-
Scanner Makes Setup fers fast setup and reliable, repeatable
Simple inspections of pipe welds, from 2 in.
up to flat plate, in a site-ready scan-
The Duo scanner is an operator- ning frame. Constructed from durable,
friendly time-of-flight diffraction lightweight aluminum, the product
(TOFD) inspection solution. Designed combines the benefits of a tool-less

probe installation and adjustment


with a sturdy frame featuring handles
for ease of operation and movement
around pipes. Wedges snap in and out
of its scanner frame without the need
to unscrew any parts. Probe separation
is quick to adjust with a graduated
scale. Equipped with three magnetic
wheels that provide adhesion and
tracking, the product also incorporates
a brake for hand repositioning, so it is
ideal for rope access inspections. The
scanner is also available without
wheels.

Phoenix Inspection Systems Ltd.


phoenixisl.com

Line-Scan Cameras
with 3D Machine Vision
Feature High Optical
Resolution

The latest generation of the compa-


ny’s 3DPIXA stereo line-scan color
cameras, the 3DPIXA HR (high resolu-
tion), offers more speed and a high op-
tical resolution. Operators can meas-
ure the height, shape, and volume of
extremely small structures and objects
in the micrometer range. The new
cameras are available in two models.
The HR 5-μm camera has a larger field
of view of approximately 35 mm and a
scanning speed of up to 30 kHz, which
allows for very short inspection times
at a resolution of 5 μm. The HR 2-μm
camera is designed for applications re-
quiring even higher resolution and
precision, and covers a 16-mm field of

10 Inspection Trends / February 2017


view. Interactions between camera forecast that the global ultrasonic expanding aerospace and defense sec-
electronics and optics were also en- NDT equipment market will grow at a tor. That industry uses ultrasonic test-
hanced, resulting in greater image compound annual growth rate (CAGR) ing equipment for frequent testing of
sharpness at the edges. An example of of 5.89% during that period. Some of the welds in joined structural steel
such an application is flip chip assem- the topics covered are market drivers: parts and materials. The global aero-
bly, where miniaturized components emergence of new avenues for natural space and defense sector is expected to
are no longer soldered but pressed into gas market; market challenges, the ne- witness moderate growth during the
place to a substrate, board, or carrier. cessity for price-sensitive and multiple forecast period. During the past few
Components must be precisely aligned technology solutions; and market years, the industry witnessed a contin-
in the μm-range, requiring inspection trends: ultrasonic testing for case- uous decline in revenue growth, which
systems with extremely high optical hardened components and laser- registered 3.1% in 2013, 1.89% in
resolution. The Intelligent functions welded tailored blanks. 2014, and 0.61% in 2015.
and the higher resolution integrated According to the report, one of the The report states that one major
into these cameras enable inspection primary drivers in the market is the challenge in the market is the necessi-
in flip chip assembly and other chal-
lenging 3D applications. Images cap-
tured by these cameras can be refer-
enced by Chromasens 3D Viewer soft-
ware, along with software packages
such as National Instruments Lab-
VIEW, MVTec HALCON, Matrox MIL,
and SAC Coake for analyzing and per-
forming various inspections.

Chromasens GmbH
chromasens.com

Global Ultrasonic Testing


and Ultrasonic NDT
Equipment Market Research
Reports Offered

Two market research reports have


been added to the company’s catalog:
Global Ultrasonic NDT Equipment Mar-
ket 2016–2020 and Ultrasonic Testing
Market — Global Forecast to 2022.
The first report covers the present
scenario and the growth prospects of
the global ultrasonic NDT equipment
market for 2016–2020. The analysts
For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 11


ty for price-sensitive and multiple key driving factors for the growth of most every household.
technology solutions. Advances in the ultrasonic testing market are the The UT market in North America is
technology have encouraged compa- demand for a reliable nondestructive primarily driven by major infrastruc-
nies to invest in innovative products, testing technique for fiberglass and ture undertakings in verticals such as
thus increasing market competitive- carbon fiber composites in aerospace, power generation, and
ness. Evolving consumer preferences manufacturing. transportation in the United States.
have increased the need for invest- The market for phased array ultra- The market in Asia Pacific is expected
ments in product development. A ma- sonic testing (UT) is estimated to grow to grow at a high CAGR between 2016
jority of ultrasonic NDT equipment at a high CAGR during the forecast pe- and 2022. The growth of the UT mar-
vendors are dependent on raw materi- riod. This type of UT optimizes defect ket in Asia Pacific is due to the rapid
als from China to manufacture their detection and minimizes inspection infrastructural development. The mar-
products. The increase in raw material time; thus, this method is expected to ket for NDT equipment is forecasted
costs and import duties imposed by grow at a faster rate than other types to grow fast, driven primarily by major
governments worldwide has raised the of UT techniques during the forecast infrastructure advancements and au-
production cost of ultrasonic NDT period. tomation in manufacturing processes
equipment. The market for the power generation in countries such as India and China.
The study was conducted using an vertical is estimated to grow at a high This research report categorizes the
objective combination of primary and CAGR during the forecast period. UT global ultrasonic testing market by
secondary information including in- plays an important role in ensuring type, equipment, services, vertical,
puts from key participants in the in- the safety of nuclear power plants in and geography.
dustry. The report contains a compre- inspection during construction and
hensive market and vendor landscape while in-service. Additionally, develop- Research and Markets
in addition to a SWOT analysis of the ing economies such as India are invest- researchandmarkets.com
key vendors. ing in power grid infrastructure to ex-
The second report explains that the pand their reach of electricity to al-

News Bulletins
— continued from page 9

The new space features three technically advanced class-


rooms that seat up to 120 students, and contain high-tech
audio-visual training aids. The facility also houses a dedicated
nondestructive laboratory and classroom for hands-on liquid
penetrant and magnetic particle inspection and training. Ad-
ditionally, the Welder Learning Facility boasts a large welder
performance qualification laboratory for destructive testing.
The new facility will enhance the student learning experience
for welder skill and technical training, as well as qualification
testing and certification services.
“This expansion to our campus is an investment in its mis-
sion to serve our students and industry,” said Scott Mazzulla,
HIWT president and CEO. “This new state-of-the-art building
will educate the next generation of welders and welding profes- An instructor demonstrates the magnetic particle NDT process on
sionals. For those current and future certified welding inspec- a steel part.
tors and certified welders looking to gain continuing education
or acquire new certifications, this building is certainly designed
N.H., campus. This program will provide technical training in
to provide that successful environment.”
the inspection methods most commonly used in the indus-
HIWT serves the welding industry in an educational ca-
tries in southern and seacoast N.H., such as radiography, ul-
pacity as a career school approved by the Ohio State Board of
trasonic, and liquid penetrant, as well as visual inspection.
Career Colleges and Schools and accredited by the Accredit-
The NDT courses are developed using ASNT and National
ing Commission of Career Schools and Colleges.
Aerospace Standard to meet formal training
requirements.
Great Bay Communty College Offering NDT
Certificate Program in Rochester, N.H.
Great Bay Community College is now offering a nonde-
structive testing (NDT) certificate program at its Rochester,

12 Inspection Trends / February 2017


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Feature By Richard D. Campbell and J. P. Christein

Applications of Groove Weld Symbols


The first article in a series about improving the communication of welding symbols

The American Welding Society’s


(AWS) A2.4, Standard Symbols for Weld-
ing, Brazing, and Nondestructive Exami-
nation, describes the great communi-
cation tools of welding symbols. How-
ever, if the language is not understood
or utilized correctly by all parties in-
volved, then serious welding issues
could occur. This article is the first in a
series that will strive to improve the
communication of welding symbols, Fig. 1 — Groove weld symbols.
beginning with groove weld symbols.
All the data in this article is referenced
from AWS A2.4:2012 or AWS ARROW
A3.0M/A3.0:2010, Standard Welding
Terms and Definitions.
REFERENCE LINE

Distinction between Weld


Symbol and Welding Symbol
AWS A2.4 makes a distinction be- Fig. 2 — Welding symbol with reference line and arrow.
tween the terms weld symbol and weld-
ing symbol. The weld symbol indicates
the type of weld and, when used, is a
part of the welding symbol.
Eight options of groove weld sym-
bols are provided in AWS A2.4, as
shown in Fig. 1, each of which illus-
trates the graphical cross section of
that groove weld.

Required Elements of Fig. 3 — V-groove weld on the arrow side of the joint.
Welding Symbols
The basis of the AWS system is that
only two basic elements are required
in a welding symbol: the reference line
and the arrow, as shown in Fig. 2. No
other elements are needed, provided
that the drawing or some other docu-
ment — such as a specification — pro-
vides any additional details needed.

Location of the Weld with


Fig. 4 — V-groove weld on the other side of the joint.
Respect to the Joint
One of the most important points to

14 Inspection Trends / February 2017


understand for all welding symbols is
the placement of the weld symbol in re-
lation to the reference line. According
to AWS A2.4, weld symbols and any
other information placed below the ref-
erence line relate to welding on the ar-
row side of the joint, as shown in Fig. 3.
When detailing a drawing to iden-
tify welding that is to be performed on
the other side of the joint, the weld
Fig. 5 — V-groove weld on both sides of the joint. symbol and pertinent information are
located above the reference line, as il-
lustrated in Fig. 4.
Finally, AWS A2.4 stipulates that if
the same type of groove weld is to be
made on both sides of the joint, the
same weld symbol shall be placed above
and below the reference line, as shown
in Fig. 5.

Groove Welds
Fig. 6 — Correct weld symbol with the perpendicular leg to the left.
As defined in AWS A3.0M/A3.0, a
groove weld is “a weld in a weld groove
on a workpiece surface, between work-
piece edges, between workpiece sur-
faces, or between workpiece edges and
surfaces.” As such, a groove weld joins
components by penetrating into the
joint between the welded parts rather
than by joining them with a weld on
the outside like a fillet weld.
Fig. 7 — Incorrect weld symbol with the perpendicular leg to the right.
Orientation of Specific
Groove Weld Symbols

Bevel-groove, J-groove, and flare-bev-


el-groove weld symbols are always
drawn with the perpendicular leg to the
left, as shown in Fig. 6. Incorrect appli-
cations of these symbols occur when the
symbol is reversed, leaving the perpen-
dicular leg to the right, as in Fig. 7.

Break in the Arrow


Fig. 8 — Application of a break in the arrow.
A broken arrow (or break in the ar-
row) is used, when necessary, to specify
when only one joint member is to have a
bevel-groove, J-groove, or both. To iden-
tify that member to be prepared, the ar-
row shall have one break and point to-
ward that member — Fig. 8. The arrow
need not be broken if it is apparent
which member is to have the bevel- or J-
groove, or if there is no preference as to
which member is to be prepared.

Depth of Groove and Groove


Weld Size
Fig. 9 — Depth of the groove and groove weld size.
Similar to dimensioning other weld

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 15


symbols, groove weld size is identified
to the left of the weld symbol. Howev-
er, unlike the other weld symbols,
groove welds can be dimensioned with
two dimensions to the left. The first
dimension is the depth of groove
(identified as “D”) followed by the
groove weld size shown in parentheses Fig. 10 — Complete joint penetration groove weld.
(identified as “(S)”), as shown in Fig. 9.
Notice that groove weld dimensions
are specified on the same side of the
reference line as the weld symbol.

Complete Joint Penetration


When the depth of groove, “D”, and
groove weld size, “(S)”, dimensions are
omitted from the welding symbol and a Fig. 11 — Complete joint penetration groove weld with the joint geometry optional.
weld symbol is shown, this requires a
complete joint penetration groove weld
using the weld groove preparation des-
ignated by the weld symbol, which ex-
tends through the thickness of the joint,
as illustrated in Fig. 10.
Complete joint penetration may
also be identified by placing the letters
“CJP” in the tail of the welding symbol
and omitting the groove weld symbol Fig. 12 — Partial joint penetration groove weld with the joint geometry optional.
— Fig. 11. This is often used on struc-
tural engineering drawings, such as
with AWS D1.1, Structural Welding
Code — Steel, where the engineer re-
quires a complete joint penetration
groove weld but leaves the details of
the actual joint geometry to the fabri-
cator.
Fig. 13 — Groove weld sizes specified but the depths of groove not specified.
Joint Geometry Not
Specified but Groove Weld
Size Specified

For optional joint geometry, the


groove weld size is specified by plac-
ing the groove weld size dimension
“(S)” on the arrow side or the other
side of the reference line as required, Fig. 14 — Complete joint penetration groove weld size specified but the depth of
but omitting the weld symbol, as il- groove not specified.
lustrated in Fig. 12.
tion groove weld (from that side) if the welds (arrow side versus other side) that
Partial Joint Penetration weld size does not exceed the thickness extend completely through the joint
of the workpiece. A specified groove shall be specified in parentheses on the
Groove Welds — Groove weld size without a specified depth of welding symbol, such as shown in Fig.
Weld Size Specified but groove is shown for a double-sided bev- 14. Note that each groove of a double-
Depth of Groove Not el-groove weld in Fig. 13. groove joint shall be dimensioned.
Specified
Complete Joint Penetration Depth of Groove Specified
What is often confusing is if only one Double-Sided Groove but Groove Weld Size Not
dimension is shown to the left of the Welds — Groove Weld Size
weld symbol. What does it mean? If the Specified
only number is in parentheses, then the Specified but Depth of
depth of groove is not specified (unless Groove Not Specified If the dimension to the left of the
it is specified elsewhere on the draw- groove weld symbol is not in parenthe-
ing). This means a partial joint penetra- The size of nonsymmetrical groove ses, as shown in Fig. 15, this specifies

16 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Fig. 15 — Depth of groove specified but Fig. 16 — Complete joint penetration —total weld size no greater than base
groove weld size not specified. metal thickness (groove weld size is 5⁄8 in.).

the depth of groove without specifying


the groove weld size. This requires the
groove weld size to be not less than
the depth of groove.

Complete Joint Penetration


Double-Groove Welds
The groove weld size of double-
sided groove welds that extend com-
pletely through the joint is limited by
Fig. 17 — Root opening. the joint thickness, as shown in Fig.
16. While the weld from each side is
specified as 38⁄ in. for a total of 34⁄ in., the
total groove weld size can never exceed
the base metal thickness, which in this
case is 58⁄ in.

Root Opening
The root opening of groove welds, if
needed, shall be specified inside the
weld symbol and only on one side of
the reference line — Fig. 17.

Groove Angle
Fig. 18 — Groove angles.
The groove angle of groove welds, if
needed, shall be specified outside the
weld symbol, as shown in Fig. 18.

Radii and Root Faces


The groove radii and the root faces
of U- and J-groove welds shall be
Fig. 19 — Radii and root faces are not specified on the welding symbol but on a specified by a cross section, detail, or
drawing detail. other data with reference thereto in
the tail of the welding symbol. There
are no dimensions shown on the
welding symbol itself — Fig. 19.

Flare-Groove Welds
Flare-groove welds are not prepared
like most other groove welds, but have
a naturally occurring rounded or ra-
diused surface. Dimension “D” of flare-
Fig. 20 — Flare-V-groove weld symbol. groove welds is described as the dis-
tance from the point of tangency to

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 17


Campbell / Symbols Feature Rev 1.1.qxp_Layout 1 2/13/17 2:36 PM Page 18

the top of the member, as illustrated


in Fig. 20. The groove weld size “(S)” is
specified as the distance from the top
surface to the weld root. Flare-V-
groove welds occur when two pieces of
pipe (Fig. 21), square, or rectangular
tubes are placed parallel and welded.
Examples of flare-bevel-groove welds
would be those made between a bar
and plate (Fig. 22), the edge of square
tube and plate, or the end of square
tube to the side of another square tube
Fig. 21 — Single-flare-V-groove weld symbol. of similar size — Fig. 23.

Summary
This article laid the foundation for
basic welding symbol requirements
and then expanded on those require-
ments by detailing groove weld symbol
requirements in AWS A2.4. Future ar-
ticles will describe fillet weld symbols,
other weld symbols, and nondestruc-
tive examination symbols.

Fig. 22 — Single-flare-bevel-groove weld symbol.

RICHARD D. CAMPBELL
(rdcampbe@bechtel.com) is with Bechtel
Corporation and has taught AWS CWI
seminars for more than 21 years. He also
developed a seminar on welding symbols
that he teaches for AWS at FABTECH
shows and in-house seminars. He is also
a member of the AWS D1 Structural
Welding Committee.

J. P. CHRISTEIN (jpc00@verizon.net) is
chair of the AWS A2 Committee on
Definitions and Symbols as well as chair
of the A2C Subcommittee on Symbols. He
Fig. 23 — Single-flare-bevel-groove weld preparation between two pieces of is also a member of the AWS Technical
square tube (before paint removed). Activities Committee.

18 Inspection Trends / February 2017


By MARTY LUCIA Feature

AWS Certification Program


Update
Important changes to the CWI, CAWI, and SCWI certification
programs are outlined

A
WS QC1:2016, Specification for Endorsements for SCWI
AWS Certification of Welding In-
spectors, stands as the seminal New subclause 6.1.4 allows an alter-
certification standard for welding in- native method for individuals to achieve
spectors — Fig. 1. The Certified Weld- the SCWI by earning endorsements.
ing Inspector (CWI) certification has The CWI applicant can take an approved
been issued to more than 100,000 in- core of mandatory endorsement exams
dividuals worldwide since 1976. Since and a specified additional number of
QC1 was last revised nine years ago, elective endorsement exams. Some of
significant changes have been made to these endorsement exams exist today
the 2016 edition that you need to while others are under development.
know. As of January 2017, the Ameri- The AWS Qualification & Certification
can Welding Society (AWS) has initiat- Committee will establish the details of
ed a phased implementation of this option at a later date.
QC1:2016. It is important to note that the ten
The Certified Associate Welding In- current endorsement certifications
spector (CAWI), the Certified Welding only supplement inspection creden-
Inspector (CWI), and the Senior Certi- tials (CWI and SCWI). Most of the
fied Welding Inspector (SCWI) pro- mandatory and elective endorsements
grams are directly impacted. It bene- have yet to be created and approved. Fig. 1 — The latest version of AWS QC1
fits you to know how these changes You cannot obtain a SCWI with the contains significant changes.
will apply to your initial application, existing endorsements.
three-year renewal, and nine-year It was clarified in the definitions
recertification. Following are details perform inspections under the direct
section that an endorsement is an supervision of a CWI/SCWI. However,
on some of these changes. indication of additional “knowledge,” in this edition, direct supervision has
“ability,” or “skill” beyond what the been clarified and defined as active su-
B5.1 – QC1 Relationship individual was originally tested for pervision, meaning “direct on-site or
when earning his/her CWI or SCWI. readily available supervision” by a CWI
AWS B5.1, Specification for the Qual- The following endorsements are avail- or SCWI “in the form of necessary in-
ification of Welding Inspectors, estab- able: Structural Steel, Structural Alu- structions to assure that the CAWI can
lishes the requirements for qualifica- minum, Bridge Welding, Railroad, perform specific evaluations as speci-
tion and defines the body of knowl- Aerospace, API 1104 Pipeline, Struc- fied by the employer” (subclause 4.4).
edge applicable to welding inspection tural Drawing Reading, Structural As in the past, the CWI or SCWI main-
personnel. AWS QC1 sets the certifica- Bolting Inspection, ASME Pressure tains the responsibility for determin-
tion requirements for the AWS Certi- Piping B31.1 and B31.3, and ASME ing final acceptance of the welds.
fied Welding Inspector program. Certi- Pressure Vessel Section VIII, Div. 1.
fication documents follow the stan- Education and Experience
dards established in the corresponding CAWI Active Supervision Requirements
qualification documents; in this case,
QC1:2016 reflects the changes in the The Certified Associate Welding In- Senior Certified Welding Inspector
B5.1:2013 document. spector has always only been able to applicants are now able to draw from

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 19


only the last eight years to meet the quired. If all three parts need to be re- rules for scoring and determination of
six-year minimum CWI certification taken, then 40 hours of training are certification are not changing from
status requirement (subclause 5.2). needed before retesting. This better what they have been previously.
Previously, an individual who held a reflects the relationship between the Although this new approach to ad-
CWI for at least six years, then let it necessary retraining required in pro- ministering exams appears to be split,
lapse for any duration of time (for ex- portion to the number of test portions it is only split in terms of timing, and
ample, 20 years), could apply and earn and topics covered in the retest. The not the split examination option de-
a SCWI without first reestablishing his qualifying training must be document- scribed in subclause 6.2.7. This B then
or her CWI certification. The new rule ed as per subclause 6.2.5.2. A and C method is being run under the
limits the lapse of time to two years. QC1 has been revised to clarify that existing rules found in subclauses
applicants who fail to pass the Part C – 6.2.1 through 6.2.6. We understand
Exam Application Code Book portion of the CWI exami- this change to QC1 and our change in
Requirements nation are required to use the same test administration might be confused
code used for the original examination with each other because in both in-
Subclause 5.3 calls for more specific (subclause 6.2.5.3). stances there is some splitting of the
information described in the relevant A new subclause (6.2.6) describes a exam; however, the subclause 6.2.7
work experience including contact in- Certified Welding Educator (CWE) ex- testing model and the change in our
formation for employers, description emption: If the CWI applicant previ- administration of the exam are com-
of the work performed, and employ- ously passed the CWE Parts A and B at pletely separate situations.
ment dates. Applicants attest to the or above the CWI level, then he/she
accuracy of the information provided, need only take Part C and pass it at the Achieving Certified
which is subject to review by the AWS CWI level. Associate Welding Inspector
Certification Department. It is impor- Certification
tant to note that false information is Split Examination
cause to reject the application and can New language cautions that CAWIs
disqualify the applicant from testing During this revision of QC1, the
are limited on how they can practice
to be an AWS CAWI, CWI, or SCWI. Certification Committee considered
inspection activities. For those who
This applies to the first three-year and changing the testing model of the CWI
are unable to comply with these re-
second three-year renewals, as well as to require individuals to first pass Part
strictions, it is recommended to
the nine-year recertifications. A before being able to take Parts B and
surrender the CAWI certification and
C (i.e., Part A would serve as a prereq-
to continue to work uncertified.
uisite). At the same time, AWS consid-
Examination Requirements ered moving some of its testing to
for SCWI and CWI computer-based testing platforms, Visual Acuity and Photo
which would have helped facilitate this Requirements
The minimum number of questions new testing model. Subclause 6.2.7 on
for Part B – Practical portion of the ‘Split Examinations’ was added to al- QC1:2016 introduces the AWS Vi-
CWI exam allows for a decreased num- low AWS to implement this change sual Acuity Form that a designated
ber of questions as per subclauses when and if it chooses to do so. AWS is professional must complete for the
6.2.2 and 7.1. This change allows more planning to move most of its exams to SCWI, CWI, and CAWI. The visual acu-
flexibility for the CWI exam develop- computer-based testing in 2017; how- ity time period has changed from sev-
ers. For example, more time intensive, ever, moving to split exams as allowed en months to one year prior to the ex-
but fewer, questions could be chosen by subclause 6.2.7 proved to be too amination or certification expiration
to better differentiate candidates’ abil- challenging logistically and not practi- date. The (completed) visual acuity
ities in the given testing period. There cal at this time. So, although QC1 record is valid for up to one year from
is no plan to reduce the Part B exam to allows split exams per 6.2.7, the AWS the exam date.
fewer than the current 46 questions, Certification Department is not plan- The time for the AWS Certification
but this option was deemed possible ning to implement them until the Department to receive the results of
during the recent development of the logistical and practical issues are the Visual Acuity Form has been ex-
new Part B exam so the option was in- resolved, which may take years. tended up to 60 days after the exami-
cluded in this edition of QC1. AWS is planning to change its ad- nation date in subclause 8.1.2. A new
ministration of CWI exams in mid-2017 subclause (8.2) describes passport-
Retesting by first requiring candidates to take the style color photograph requirements
practical Part B exam at a typical AWS and acceptance parameters.
A retest is the testing of a previous- exam location, which usually follows a
ly failed portion of the exam (Part A – multiday preparatory course. Within a Certification
Fundamentals, Part B – Practical, or predetermined period of time, set by
Part C – Code Book). QC1:2016, sub- AWS, after taking the Part B exam, can- New documentation language (sub-
clauses 6.2.5.1 and 6.2.5.2, differenti- didates must take Parts A and C at a clause 10.1) clarifies that certification
ate the amount of additional hours of computer-based training location. All becomes effective on the first day of
training required. If one or two parts three exam scores are then combined to the month following the date of exam-
of the exam need retesting, then 16 determine if the candidate achieved the ination. Note that this has been previ-
hours of qualifying training are re- scores necessary to become a CWI. The ously implemented. Also, the wallet

20 Inspection Trends / February 2017


card will include the photo of the per- the AWS Certification Department — dance was added as a form of verifica-
son certified. no earlier than 11 months prior to tion. Subclause 16.5.3 clarifies that
Verification requests of status and the certification expiration date. Pre- non-AWS conference PDHs are allowed
certification number of SCWIs, CWIs, viously, the time period was six if they address subjects in B5.1 and if
and CAWIs will now include the certi- months. This gives welding inspec- proof of participation is provided.
fied person’s photo, in addition to the tors additional time to prepare and However, new subclause 16.5.9 allows
certification number, date certified, submit their documentation. If you PDHs for items not directly listed in
expiration date, current status (cur- should miss the renewal deadline, B5.1 contingent upon AWS Certifica-
rent, revoked, etc.), and certification new subclause 15.3.2 allows renewals tion Department approval.
limitations (corrected vision, etc.) to be accepted after the 60-day grace New language has been added in
as per subclause 10.2. Remember, period for up to one year of expira- subclause 16.7 to allow CWI nine-year
you can always verify current AWS tion; however, administrative late recertification applicants to switch the
Certification credentials using the fees may be applied. SCWIs and CWIs recertification means (such as from
AWS Certification Quickcheck at are strongly advised to renew prior to Part B to an endorsement) if within
aws.org/certification/search. the grace period since the SCWI and the deadline. New subclause 16.7.1
CWI certifications will be expired specifies the instances in which all
during this time. You cannot perform three exam Parts — A, B, and C — are
Code of Ethics, Rules of welding inspector work using an ex- required for CWI nine-year recertifica-
Conduct, and Practice pired certification. See the Code of tion. Individuals who take the exams
Ethics section of this article. but fail to pass are no longer certified
Language has been added stating The SCWI and CWI certification re- once the certification expires and are
that the SCWI, CWI, and CAWI will not newal clarifies that continuous inac- then considered new applicants as
use the certification stamp or number tivity refers to work inactivity in sub- described in subclause 16.7.2.
connected to a lapsed or terminated clause 15.4.
SCWI, CWI, or CAWI status (subclause
11.2.3). This is an important ethical Conclusion
matter that directly affects one’s liveli- Nine-Year Recertification for
SCWI and CWI This article is not intended to serve
hood. Following QC9, Administrative
as a complete depiction of all changes
Procedures for Alleged Violations of AWS
in QC1:2016, nor is it intended to re-
Certification Programs, a recent AWS Consistent with the renewal appli- place your own review of the docu-
Subcommittee on the Code of Ethics cation extension, subclause 16.1 ex- ment. There are many nuances in
Hearing Panel ruled against a CWI for tends the nine-year recertification ap- the standard that cannot be fully re-
falsely representing his/her current sta- plication acceptance up to 11 months flected in this article. It is the respon-
tus as a CWI; the penalty included hav- prior to the certification expiration sibility of first-time applicants and re-
ing the CWI credential, which was active date. A 60-day administrative exten- newing CWIs and SCWIs to carefully
at that time, revoked for a significant sion is allowed; however, your certifi- identify how these changes will affect
period of time. cation will be expired during this time. themselves.
With the CAWI active supervision QC1:2016 references that the CWI Should you have any questions or
addition in subclause 4.4, the Code of may recertify by taking a Committee- concerns, please feel free to contact
Ethics in subclause 11.2.5 clarifies approved endorsement and that the the AWS Certification Department
active supervision as one of the pa- endorsement need not be current at at (800) 443-9353, ext. 273. AWS
rameters in which an inspector can the time of CWI recertification appli- QC1:2016 is available for free down-
sign off work. Language has been cation (subclause 16.3.1). As of this
modified in subclause 11.4.4 regarding load at pubs.aws.org/t/freedownloads.
writing, in addition to the ten existing
conflict of interest conditions allowed endorsements cited in the Endorse-
for an inspector whose work is per- ment section of this article, there are
formed while being a public official. additional endorsements pending de-
This is now allowed if this practice is velopment and approval by the Quali-
expressly dictated by a job description fication & Certification Committee, as
or specification and all affected parties well as administrative implementa-
are notified. tion. For further information, go to
aws.org/certification/page/cwi-scwi-
Renewals endorsements.
Within training and teaching re-
New language reaffirms that the quirements, new language allows for
CAWI certification is up to a three-year broader course content relevant to sub-
period with no renewals as per sub- ject or job functions in B5.1 (subclause
clause 15.1, and that CAWI testing for 16.4.2). Earning Professional Develop-
CWI status falls under CWI examination ment Hours (PDHs) now reflect a
requirements (subclause 15.1.1). wider parameter as stated in subclause MARTY LUCIA (mlucia@aws.org) PhD,
Subclause 15.2.2 extends the peri- 16.5.1. Wording in subclause 16.5.2 in- is standards program manager,
creases the maximum PDHs to 40 from Certification Department, American
od of time in which SCWI and CWI re- Welding Society, Miami, Fla.
newal applications are accepted by the previous 20; also, proof of atten-

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 21


Feature By K. Madsen

WPS Templates: Good Welding Starts with


Explicit Procedures
How welding procedure accuracy can be improved by using
custom specification forms

Welding is one of the many voca-


tions showcased in annual skills compe-
titions where the best welders from
high schools and colleges across the
country compete to find the best of the
best. These competitions can be consid-
ered the Olympics of the trades to rec-
ognize and award excellence. The focus,
skills, and determination demonstrated
by these competitors to do the best job
possible are attributes that result in ex-
cellent welding.
This quest for excellence often
contrasts with welding procedure doc-
umentation when these important
documents are developed quickly from
available templates. In some cases,
personnel without welding expertise
write them using templates available
from the various codes or jurisdictions
responsible for compliance. These tem-
plates may save time in developing
procedures, but may sacrifice achiev-
ing the intended function of the docu-
ments. That function is to provide
guidance and instructions on how to
prepare base metal and set up equip-
ment to create production welds.
This article explains and gives ex-
amples about how welding procedures
can give much more explicit instruc-
tions if custom-designed forms are
used. While this may take more upfront
welding procedure development time,
the clarity in instructions increases the
likelihood that welds are produced with
the desired quality and efficiency.
Fig. 1 — Custom shielded metal arc welding WPS example.
Most welders are professional are
conscientious about trying to complete
assigned tasks following instructions. as clear and concise as possible. Before in preparing welding procedure docu-
With the instructions often in the form welding, the young skills competitors mentation can result in WPS docu-
of a Welding Procedure Specification put a lot of effort into cleaning, edge ments that provide concise and explicit
(WPS), the goal should be to create this preparation, machine setup, and tack instructions on how each joint is best
important document with instructions welding with ideal fitup. The same effort welded.

22 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Fig. 2 — Custom flux cored arc welding WPS example.

In reviewing welding procedures, adds clutter, requiring the user to search preparation and fitup dimensions, and a
there is often room for improvement for relevant instructions. second sketch shows pass sequence for
in the following three areas, with the 2. You may have heard the saying, making multipass and double-side
first two being based on template limi- “a picture is worth a thousand words.” welds.
tations or restrictions: Why, then, do some WPS templates 3. The last issue that sometimes
1. Excessive information that is not only have a postage-stamp sized space needs fine-tuning is that process vari-
relevant to the specified weld process for adding a weld joint sketch? Compli- ables, such as arc voltage or wire feed
with the templates trying to be a catch- cating this in many cases is that two speed, are often listed with a wide range
all for all welding processes. This often sketches are required. The first shows from a reference source, instead of the

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 23


Fig. 3 — WPS template with embedded help and shortcuts.

ideal parameters for each specific can easily create forms in any desired tion is best welded. In creating the WPS
application. format. To provide further efficiency, document, think about it from the per-
To eliminate confusion, creating a custom WPS forms (Fig. 3) can be de- spective of a standalone document that
WPS on a single page is easily achiev- signed to include features such as the will advise a stranger on how to repli-
able, providing enough room to in- following: cate an optimum weld. Don’t confine
clude legible fitup and pass sequence 1. Locked label cells so only vari- the WPS to only code-required data, but
sketches, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. In able data cells can be edited. This means instead think about writing instruc-
doing this WPS consolidation, it is im- that only the form fields shown in gray tions, making sketches, and listing the
portant to maintain code compliance; in Fig. 3 are available for data entry. variable ranges that should be used to
in general, this would mean capturing 2. Auto entry with pull-down op- make the best weld possible.
requirements for all essential and tions, ensuring correct terms and re- The young skills competition par-
nonessential variables for the applica- ducing typing. ticipants have a goal of making the
ble weld process. 3. Context-relative help windows best-welded structures in the country.
The increased WPS development that show both in the status bar and In creating welding procedure docu-
time can be reduced by making cus- by pressing F1, for example. ments, the same approach will in-
tomized templates for each welding This prevents unintended changes crease the likelihood that your WPS
process. Further savings are possible by for portions of the form and provides forms are understood and followed to
making the first WPS documented from help about the current field, minimiz- produce optimum results.
a procedure qualification record (PQR) a ing the need to consult the code book
template for other WPS, and only for references during development. KARSTEN MADSEN
changing the essential variables for new The first step should be experi- (karstmadsen@gmail.com) is a
applications. Word processing software menting to determine how the applica- consultant, OptiWELD, Canada.

24 Inspection Trends / February 2017


American Welding Society®
CERTIFICAATION
T
aws.org

IT’S TIM
MEE YOUR WORK
WAS RECOGNI
WA R IZED.
No matter where
w you are on your caareer path, recognition foorr
excellence in
i a skilled trade sets yoou apart.

Earning an AWS Certified Radiographica Interpreter (CRI) crreedential


distinguishees you as a leader in the nondestructive weld-tesstting arena
by certifyingg your expertise in radiographic scan interpretatio
t on.
on

It is a tangibble representation of prooficiency in a relevant, reelaatable and


transferablee industry skill. It is exceellence recognized.

Learn more about the AW


WS CRI proggram at go.aws.orgg/BeccoomeACRI

C
Current AW
WS CWI’s:
Did you kno
k w that AW WS CRI certificcation could be used as ann endorsement to your CWWI
credentiaal? Often times the work you are required to do as a Welding Inspector could ca call on
skills that overlap with what is neeeded to qualify as a radiographic interpreter. Why noot use
your expeerience to increase your skill set and help further yoour career.

Find out moore at go.aws.org


aws orgg/Becom
meACRI
Technology Notes
Interpretations A5.5 Errata
D1.5M/D1.5:2015, Bridge Welding
Subject: Filler metal impact testing at
a temperature lower than specified. Code
REPRINTS
Code Edition: A5.5M:2006 and sub-
sequent editions; A5.18:2005 and sub- The following errata have been
sequent editions; A5.20/M:2005 and identified and will be incorporated Custom reprints of Welding Jour-
subsequent editions; A5.28M:2005 into the next reprinting of this
nal articles, in quantities of 100
and subsequent editions; document.
or more, may be purchased from
A5.29M:2005 and subsequent editions Foster Printing Co. at (219) 879-
AWS Log: A5.5-A5.18-A5.20-A5.28- Page 368, subclause C-4.5.2.3:
change “must exceed” to “must not 8366 or (800) 382-0808.
A5.29-102
Inquiry: For the filler metal specifica- exceed.”
tion listed herein, is it the intent of the Request for quotes can be faxed
committee that filler metal classification D1.5M/D1.5:2010, Bridge to (219) 874-2849.
testing to demonstrate comformance to Welding Code
a specified minimum acceptable level You can e-mail Foster Printing
for impact testing (i.e., minimum ener- Page 356, subclause C-4.5.2.3: Co. at sales@fostereprints.com.
gy specified temperature) can be met by change “must exceed” to “must not
testing and meeting the requirement at exceed.”
any lower temperature?
Response: Yes. However, the actual
temperature used for testing shall be
listed on the documentation when is-
sued.

26 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Mark Your Calendar

The 4th Lightweight Vehicle Manufacturing Summit ASNT Annual Conference 2017
2017 October 30–November 2. Gaylord Opryland Resort and Con-
February 22, 23. Detroit, Mich. An expert speaker panel in- vention Center, Nashville, Tenn. Contact American Society for
cluding Honda, Volvo, FCA, GM, Ford, and others will dis- Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org.
cuss the latest innovations in adhesives, additive manufac-
turing, machine learning, joining methods, corrosion miti- Educational Opportunities
gation techniques, and more. Visit global-lightweight-vehicle-
manufacturing.com. ASME Section IX Seminar
April 3–5, San Franciso, Calif., and June 12–14, Houston,
Aluminum Welding Technology Seminar Tex. Visit asme.org and search “PD 190” or contact Marian
(AWS-sponsored event) Hess, hessm@asme.org; (212) 591-7161.
March 8. Metairie, La. The AWS New Orleans Section will
host a seminar covering aluminum welding processes, met- Brazing Training Seminars
allurgy, procedure development, weld quality, productivity, Three-day intensive training programs in all aspects of braz-
and application. Certificates of attendance will be provided ing from fundamentals to advanced concepts. Covers fur-
for eight Professional Development Hours (PDHs) toward nace, torch, induction, and dip brazing of aluminum, titani-
AWS CWI renewal. For more information, contact D. J. Berg- um, superalloys, and ceramics. Classes held April 11–13,
er at (504) 415-9165 or dj@nationalitc.com. Simsbury, Conn.; May 16–18, Los Angeles, Calif.; October
3–5, South Carolina; and November 14–16, Simsbury, Conn.
26th ASNT Research Symposium 2017 Contact Kay & Associates at dan.kay@kaybrazing.com or call
March 13–16. Jacksonville, Fla. Contact American Society (860) 651-5595.
for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org.
Certified Welding Inspector/Educator Prep Courses
NDT of Composites 2017 and Endorsement Seminars
May 9, 10. Seattle, Wash. This topical conference will provide Allentown, Pa. Six-day prep courses begin Feb. 13, May 1,
the opportunity for information exchange on existing, new, July 31, and Nov. 13. Single-day bolting endorsements begin
and developing methods of NDT for composite materials and Feb. 10 and July 28. Single-day D1.1/D1.5/API endorse-
fabrication techniques including advances in composite NDT ments begin Feb. 16, May 4, Aug. 3, and Nov. 16. CWI/CWE
technology or methods; NDT of new product forms; in-process and endorsement exams given Feb. 19, May 7, Aug. 6, and
NDT; and NDT of composites used in commercial, military, Nov. 19. Contact Welder Training and Testing Institute, Tra-
subsurface, space, and space applications. Participants from in- cy Wiswesser, (610) 820-9551, ext. 204; wtti.com.
dustry, academia, government, and research organizations are
encouraged to present. Contact American Society for Nonde- CWI/CWE Course and Exam
structive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org. A ten-day program presented in Troy, Ohio. Contact Hobart
Institute of Welding Technology, (800) 332-9448;
International Chemical and Petroleum Industry hiwt@welding.org; welding.org.
Inspection Technology (ICPIIT) 15
May 17–19. Galveston, Tex. The International Chemical and E-Courses in Destructive and Nondestructive Testing
Petroleum Industry Inspection Technology (ICPIIT) Confer- of Welds and Other Welding-Related Topics
ence is the premiere conference for the sharing of knowledge Online video courses taken at one’s own pace offer certifi-
of nondestructive testing in the chemical and petroleum in- cates of completion and continuing education units. Contact
dustry. In its 15th showing, ICPIIT will again prove to be a valu- Hobart Institute of Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448;
able and popular topical conference. Contact American Society welding.org/product-category/online-courses/.
for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org.
EPRI NDE Training Seminars
National Robotic Arc Welding Conference and EPRI offers NDE technical skills training in visual examina-
Exhibitions (AWS-sponsored event) tion, ultrasonic examination, ASME Section XI, UT operator
June 6, 7. Milwaukee, Wis. A call for papers has been issued training, etc. Contact Sherryl Stogner, (704) 547-6174,
for topics addressing robotic arc welding-related challenges sstogner@epri.com.
and successes through innovation in part design, tooling,
process optimization, people skills, or other means. This GE Inspection Academy Courses and Industrial
conference is a joint effort between the AWS Milwaukee Sec- Computed Tomography (CT) Operator Course
tion, AWS D16 Robotic and Automatic Welding Committee, Online e-courses, on-site classes, and week-long classroom
and Milwaukee Area Technical College. All proceeds from the programs in the major industrial evaluation techniques.
conference go toward the J. F. Hinrichs Scholarship fund. To Learn to operate the 3D technology that is becoming more
submit a short abstract, contact Jeffrey Noruk, j.noruk@us.- prominent in industrial quality control and metrology. For
servorobot.com, or Jay Haynes, jay.haynes@wolfrobotics.com. information, visit geinspectionacademy.com.

28 Inspection Trends / February 2017


INTEG Courses Nondestructive Examination Courses
Courses in NDE disciplines to meet certifications to Canadi- A course schedule is available from Hellier, 277 W. Main St.,
an General Standards Board or Canadian Nuclear Safety Ste. 2, Niantic, CT 06357; (860) 739-8950; FAX (860) 739-
Commission. The Canadian Welding Bureau, (800) 844- 6732.
6790, cwbgroup.org.
Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses
Laser Vision Seminars One- and two-week courses presented in Pascagoula, Miss.,
Two-day classes, offered monthly and on request, include Houston, Tex., and Houma and Sulphur, La. Contact Real
tutorials and practical training. Presented at Servo-Robot, Educational Services, Inc.; (800) 489-2890;
Inc., St. Bruno, QC, Canada. For schedule, cost, and avail- info@realeducational.com.
ability, e-mail info@servorobot.com.
T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., Courses
NDE Classes CWI preparation and NDE courses, including ultrasonic
Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, Ill., offers thickness testing and advanced phased array. On-site train-
NDE classes in PT, MT, UT, RT, radiation safety, and eddy ing available. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., 193 Viking Ave., Brea, CA
current, as well as API 510 exam prep and weld inspection. 92821; (714) 255-1500; FAX (714) 255-1580;
For more information, contact (708) 974-5735; ndtguru@aol.com; testndt.com
wdcs@morainevalley.edu; morainevalley.edu/NDE.

NDE Training
NDE training at the company’s St. Louis-area facility or on-
site. Level III services available. For a schedule of upcoming
courses, contact Quality Testing Services, Inc., 2305 Mill-
park Dr., Maryland Heights, MO 63043; (888) 770-0103;
training@qualitytesting.net; qualitytesting.net.

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index


For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 29


Note: The 2017 schedule for all certifications is posted online at
aws.org/w/a/registrations/prices_schedules.html.
Certification Schedule
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) 9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education re-
Location Seminar Dates Exam Date quirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken
Miami, FL Exam only March 24 at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
York, PA Exam only March 25
Springfield, MO March 19–24 March 25 Location Seminar Dates
Portland, OR March 19–24 March 25 Sacramento, CA April 2–7
Las Vegas, NV March 19–24 March 25 Charlotte, NC May 7–12
Dallas, TX March 26–31 April 1 Pittsburgh, PA May 14–19
Minneapolis, MN March 26–31 April 1 Kansas City, MO June 4–9
Pittsburgh, PA March 26–31 April 1 Miami, FL July 23–28
Atlanta, GA April 2–7 April 8 San Diego, CA July 30–Aug. 4
San Franciso, CA April 2–7 April 8 Orlando, FL Aug. 20–25
Detroit, MI April 2–7 April 8 Boston, MA Aug. 27–Sept. 1
St. Louis, MO Exam only April 8
Miami, FL Exam only April 21 Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Nashville, TN April 23–28 April 29 Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Syracuse, NY April 23–28 April 29 Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Pittsburgh, PA May 7–12 May 13 Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Orlando, FL May 7–12 May 13
Tulsa, OK May 7–12 May 13 Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
Biloxi, MS May 7–12 May 13 CWSR exams are given at Prometric testing centers. More
Des Moines, IA May 7–12 May 13 information at aws.org/certification/detail/certified-welding-
Houston, TX May 14–19 May 20 sales-representative.
Cleveland, OH May 14–19 May 20
Los Angeles, CA May 14–19 May 20
Charlotte, NC May 14–19 May 20 Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
Miami, FL Exam only June 9 CWS exams are given at Prometric testing centers. More in-
New Orleans, LA June 4–9 June 10 formation at aws.org/certification/detail/certified-welding-
Kansas City, MO June 4–9 June 10 supervisor.
Denver, CO June 11–16 June 17
Milwaukee, WI June 11–16 June 17 Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Huntsville, AL June 11–16 June 17 The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
Newark, NJ June 11–16 June 17 exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Beaumont, TX June 25–30 July 1
Duluth, MN June 25–30 July 1 Location Seminar Dates Exam Date
Waco, TX July 9–14 July 15 San Francisco, CA April 10–14 April 15
Sacramento, CA July 9–14 July 15 Las Vegas, NV May 1–5 May 6
Houston, TX July 9–14 July 15 Cleveland, OH June 5–9 June 10
Miami, FL Exam only July 22 Dallas, TX July 17–21 July 22
Louisville, KY July 16–21 July 22 Miami, FL Exam only Aug. 4
Atlanta, GA July 16–21 July 22 Kansas City, MO Aug. 21–25 Aug. 26
Philadelphia, PA July 16–21 July 22 Chicago, IL Sept. 11–15 Sept. 16
Phoenix, AZ July 16–21 July 22 Pittsburgh, PA Oct. 9–13 Oct. 14
Cleveland, OH July 16–21 July 22
Baton Rouge, LA July 23–28 July 29 Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
Helena, MT July 23–28 July 29 ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 391-8421
Seattle, WA July 30–Aug. 4 Aug. 5 OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800, ext. 218
Chicago, IL July 30–Aug. 4 Aug. 5 Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
San Diego, CA July 30–Aug. 4 Aug. 5 Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Salt Lake City, UT Aug. 6–11 Aug. 12 Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
Charlotte, NC Aug. 6–11 Aug. 12 On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Please verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your
course status before making travel plans. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications
received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website
aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit
aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.

30 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Just the Facts Feb 2017new.qxp_Layout 1 2/13/17 2:10 PM Page 32

Just the Facts By Rich Campbell

Is There a Required Accuracy for Tensile Test Data on a PQR?


A Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
may be required to review a Welding
Procedure Specification (WPS) and a
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
submitted by a vendor or contractor,
prepared by their own company, to
prepare these themselves based on
weld tests, nondestructive examina-
tion results, and mechanical testing re-
sults. What accuracy or precision is re-
quired for the measurements and cal-
culations of area and tensile test data?
If a tensile test is performed on a
reduced-section specimen machined
from a welding procedure qualification
test, the result from the tensile testing
equipment is a single tensile load val-
ue. The person performing the testing
will measure the width and thickness,
calculate the cross-sectional area, and
then determine the ultimate tensile
strength of that specimen.

AWS D1.1
Most welding codes require me-
chanical testing of welding procedure
qualification test coupons. In the
Fig. 1 — Mechanical test specimens for welding procedure qualification test weldment
American Welding Society’s (AWS) (AWS D1.1, Fig. 4.6[2]).
D1.1/D1.1M:2015, Structural Welding
Code — Steel, Table 4.2 specifies that
two reduced-section tension speci- Ultimate Tensile Strength psi = Maxi- thickness, t, shall be the same as the
mens and four bend-test specimens mum Load (lb) / Original Area (in.2). plate nominal thickness (for plate less
are required for a plate test — Fig. 1. than 112⁄ in. thick).
The actual tensile test specimen is Figure 4.10 of AWS D1.1 (Fig. 2) There is no requirement for accura-
identified in Fig. 2, which also de- identifies that the width W shall be a cy of the measurements (e.g., two-
scribes several important dimensions, minimum of 34⁄ in. Footnote (b) to the place or three-place decimals). In gen-
including the width of the reduced sec- figure specifies: “The ends of the re- eral, measurements of width and
tion (W) and the thickness (t). These duced section shall not differ in width thickness do not need to be more pre-
two dimensions are critical for the cal- by more than 0.004 in.” This also al- cise than to the closest 0.001 in., or
culation of the ultimate tensile lows for a gradual decrease in width sometimes 0.01 in.
strength, defined in AWS B4.0, Stan- from the ends to the center, but the The AWS D1.1 requirements for re-
dard Methods for Mechanical Testing of width of either end shall not be more duced-section tension testing are
Welds (paragraph 4.8.3), as: than 0.015 in. (0.381 mm) larger than found in paragraph 4.9.3.4, which
the width at the center. The specimen states: “Before testing, the least width

Table 1 — Tensile Test Details Portion of an Example PQR for GMAW and FCAW (AWS D1.1, Annex M, Form M­1 Example PQR for
GMAW and FCAW)

Specimen Number Width Thickness Area Ultimate Tensile Load Ultimate Unit Stress Type of Failure and Location
231­1 0.75 in. 0.100 in. 0.75 in.2 52,500 lb 70,000 psi Ductile/Weld Metal
231­2 0.75 in. 0.100 in. 0.75 in.2 52,275 lb 69,700 psi Ductile/Weld Metal

32 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Just the Facts Feb 2017new.qxp_Layout 1 2/13/17 2:10 PM Page 33

AWS B4.0
AWS has published AWS B4.0:2007,
Standard Methods for Mechanical Test-
ing of Welds, which contains Clause 4,
Tension Tests, covering tension test-
ing of welded joints. This references
ASTM E8, Standard Test Methods for
Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
and ASTM E4, Standard Practices for
Force Verification of Testing Machines,
which addresses calibration of the ten-
sile testing equipment. AWS B4.0 re-
quires tension testing of welded joints
by means of a calibrated testing ma-
Fig. 2 — Reduced section tension test specimen (AWS D1.1, Fig. 4.10).
chine and devices, but provides no re-
quirements for accuracy or precision
and corresponding thickness of the re- cally are the actual values from the of the dimensional, load, or strength
duced section shall be measured. The tensile testing equipment. Notice that values.
specimen shall be ruptured under ten- the ultimate tensile strength (identi-
sile load, and the maximum load shall fied as ultimate unit stress) values are Examples
be determined. The cross-sectional recorded to the closest 100 psi.
area shall be obtained by multiplying
the width by the thickness. The tensile Let us review a few examples of
strength shall be obtained by dividing AWS B2.1 tensile test data from PQRs. Are the
the maximum load by the cross- values in Table 2 acceptable? In this
sectional area.” AWS B2.1/B2.1M:2014, Specifica- case, the measurements of width and
Paragraph 4.9.3.5 provides the ac- tion for Welding Procedure and Perform- thickness were likely made with
ceptance criteria for these reduced-sec- ance Qualification, provides require- calipers (or a micrometer), then the ac-
tion tension tests as: “The tensile ments for mechanical testing of weld- tual area calculated. For Specimen 1,
strength shall be no less than the mini- ing procedure qualification samples. the area calculation was 0.743 in. 
mum of the specified tensile range of In paragraph 4.3.2, it requires me- 0.331 in. = 0.24593 in.2, which rounds
the base metal used.” The minimum chanical test specimens shown in An- to 0.246 in.2. Using that value of area
specified tensile range of the base metal nex A to be used, or the provisions in to calculate the ultimate unit stress (or
typically is listed in tables in the welding AWS B4.0 may be used. This para- ultimate tensile strength) provides
codes, such as AWS D1.1, Table 3.1. For graph specifies: “The test results shall
ASTM A36 carbon steel, the minimum be recorded on or appended to a PQR UTS = Load / Area
specified tensile strength is 58,000 psi. containing the actual qualification
While AWS D1.1 is silent about the variables.” Paragraph 4.3.3 requires
the employer to: UTS = 16,940 lb / 0.246 in.2
accuracy of tensile specimen measure-
ments and calculations, Annex M pro- “ . . . sign and date the PQR indicating = 68,861.8 psi.
vides some guidance with sample and that the PQR is an accurate record of
example PQR forms. Table 1 shows the the welding and testing of the proce- Is it acceptable to round this down
tensile test details portion of an exam- dure qualification test weldment. The to 68,860 psi, as shown on the PQR?
ple PQR for gas metal arc welding Employer may then prepare and issue Absolutely! But, it could have been
(GMAW) and flux cored arc welding an approved WPS. The Employer shall rounded other ways also.
(FCAW). In this example, the width sign and date the WPS to signify ac- For Specimen 2 in Table 2, the area
values are recorded as two-place deci- ceptance of responsibility for use of calculation provides 0.747 in.  0.305
mals (0.75 in.) while the thickness val- the WPS in production.” in. = 0.227835 in.2, which rounds to
ues are recorded as three-place deci- However, nowhere does AWS B2.1 0.228 in.2. Using this for the ultimate
mals (0.100 in.). The area values are specify the accuracy of actual measure- tensile strength of the weldment yields
two-place decimals, consistent with ments or calculations. Consequently,
the accuracy of the width dimensions. what precision should the CWI look UTS = 15,700 lb / 0.223 in.2
The ultimate tensile load values are to for or report prior to them approving = 70,403.6 psi, which rounds to
the closest 25 lb — these values typi- the PQR? 70,400 psi.

Table 2 — Example PQR Tensile Test Data (AWS CWI Seminar Book of Exhibits, April 3, 2016, Edition, Exhibit #2, PQR No. 001)

Specimen Number Width Thickness Area Ultimate Total Load Ultimate Unit Stress Type of Failure and Location
in. in. in.2 (lb) (psi)
1 0.743 0.331 0.246 16,940 68,860 Ductile/Weld Metal
2 0.747 0.305 0.228 15,700 70,400 Ductile/Weld Metal

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 33


Just the Facts Feb 2017new.qxp_Layout 1 2/13/17 2:10 PM Page 34

Table 3 — Example PQR Tensile Test Data (AWS CWI Seminar Book of Exhibits, April 3, 2016, Edition, Exhibit 9, PQR 002).

Specimen Number Width Thickness Area Ultimate Total Load Ultimate Unit Stress Type of Failure and Location
in. in. in.2 (lb) (psi)
1 1.052 1.448 1.523 94,230 61,870 Ductile/Weld Metal
2 1.031 1.459 1.504 98,570 65,540 Ductile/Weld Metal

Table 4 — Example PQR Tensile Test Data (AWS CWI Seminar Book of Exhibits, April 3, 2016 Edition, Exhibit 11, PQR 007B)

Specimen Number Width Thickness Area Ultimate Total Load Ultimate Unit Stress Type of Failure and Location
in. in. in.2 (lb) (psi)
1 0.742 0.21 0.156 16,056 103,042 Weld Metal
2 0.737 0.215 0.158 14,939 94,279 Weld Metal

In Table 3, Specimen 1 has an area value was used to determine the ulti- and listed as such on the PQR.
of 1.052 in.  1.448 in. = 1.5233 in.2. It mate unit stress? Using the ultimate Summary
is appropriate to round this to 1.523 total load and area listed on the PQR
in.2, but likewise, it could have been provides In general, tensile test samples are
rounded to 1.52 in.2 or possibly anoth- measured to the closest 0.001 or 0.01
er close value. The point is that most in. Area calculations would typically be
codes do not specify the precision or UTS = 16,056 lb / 0.156 in.2
= 102,923 psi. as precise or accurate as the least-accu-
accuracy, but rely on industry standard rate of the width or thickness meas-
practices, as discussed herein. The ulti- urement (two- or three-place decimal).
mate tensile strength for this calcu- However, the ultimate unit stress
The tensile testing load typically is re-
lates as recorded on the PQR is 103,042 psi.
ported to the closest 10-, 25-, or 100-
Where did that value come from? As a
lb value. The final ultimate tensile
UTS = 94,230 lb / 1.523 in.2 CWI, is that value acceptable, or
strength (ultimate unit stress) calcula-
= 61,871.3 psi. should you reject this PQR because the
tions typically are reported to the clos-
number is higher than the calculation
est 10, 25, or 100 psi value, unless a
This could be rounded to 61,870 psi you performed? Be very careful and
specific code or the specification of the
as shown in Table 3, but it also could don’t be overzealous. Look again at
client requires greater accuracy or pre-
have been rounded to 61,900 psi. the calculations above and use the
cision. While more precision can be re-
Specimen 2 has an area of 1.031 in. original calculated area of 0.15582 in.2
ported, it must be realized that both
 1.459 in. = 1.5042 in.2, which is (still on the calculator after determin-
area and tensile strength are calcula-
rounded to 1.504 in.2 in the PQR. Us- ing the area) to determine the ulti-
tions that are based on the accuracy of
ing this for the ultimate tensile mate unit stress again:
the original measurements and loads.
strength provides
UTS = 16,056 lb. / 0.15582 in.2
UTS = 98,570 lb. / 1.504 in.2 = 103,042 psi.
= 65,538.6 psi.
What is the value recorded on the
which has been rounded to 65,540 psi. PQR? Again, is this acceptable? Yes,
But, it could have been rounded to RICHARD D. CAMPBELL, PhD, PE
unless a code or specification identi- (rdcampbe@bechtel.com) is a Bechtel
65,500 psi. fies any greater recording or report- Fellow and Welding Technical Specialist
In Table 4, are the area and ultimate ing accuracy or precision, which most with Bechtel Corporation, Houston, Tex.
unit stress calculations acceptable? do not. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding
Evaluating the data for Specimen 1 Inspector; a CWB Level 2 Welding
Notice that the difference in ulti- Inspector; an ASNT NDT Level III Visual
first reveals the width measurement is mate tensile strength between Testing Inspector; a registered
documented as 0.742 in., a three-place 103,042 psi and 102,923 psi is only metallurgical engineer; member of the
decimal, while the thickness measure- about 0.1%. But, what if the minimum AWS D1 Committee on Structural
ment was recorded as 0.21 in., a two- Welding; chair of the D1K Subcommittee
ultimate tensile strength of the base on Stainless Steel; member of the D1H
place decimal. Unless a code or specifi- metal, identified in the welding code Subcommittee on Sheet Steel; member of
cation requires a certain precision, or the base metal specification, was the ASME B31.3 Process Piping Section
both of these measurements are 103,000 psi? Would both values be ac- Committee; vice chair of the ASME B31.3
acceptable. ceptable? The answer is no, because Subgroup E on Fabrication, Examination,
Looking now at the area calculation and Testing; member of the ASME B31
the recorded ultimate tensile strength Fabrication and Examination Committee;
for Specimen 1, it is 0.742 in.  0.21 has to be no less than the minimum of and member of the ASME Board on
in. = 0.15582 in.2, which was rounded 103,000 psi. But, 102,923 psi could Conformity Assessment.
up to 0.156 in.2 in the PQR. What area rightfully be rounded to 103,000 psi

34 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Mail Bag

What AWS Membership Means to Me right there to become a CWI (they didn’t think I could pass
the CWI test). I can only say that my CWI certificate has be-
come very valuable (especially when a client contract specifi-
Just wanted to send you a quick note on the superb job
cally requires a CWI).
everyone accomplishes in publishing Inspection Trends.
I look forward to joining the recently launched AWS
I absolutely love the magazine and also the AWS Weld-
Member Network.
ing Journal. I became an AWS member in 2007, prior to be-
I also very much enjoy reading the AWS Forum (it’s
coming a Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) in 2009.
emailed to me, and I read all the questions I find interesting
I had several other inspection credentials (API and
and informative), and this equals more personal growth and
NACE) that were keeping me employed inspecting
learning factual welding information. I need to start partici-
vessels/piping welds and coatings, but I had become an AWS
pating as well.
member just for what was stated: to keep up-to-date and
continue to learn as much as possible about welding.
I had not planned on becoming a CWI, until one day Jim Gardner
several coworkers poked fun at me for displaying my AWS CWI
Membership Certificate. Well, that was enough motivation Lake Elsinore, Calif.

Seeking Volunteer CWIs with Structural Steel Experience

The Structural Steel Inspector subcommittee of the AWS Qualification and Certification Commit-
tee is seeking motivated volunteer CWIs to contribute in the ongoing design and development of the
Structural Steel Inspector certification. With the potential increase of investment in U.S. infrastruc-
ture, there is a pressing need to guarantee the preparedness of inspectors to assure project quality.
CWIs are asked to inspect beyond the limits of that qualification when they work on these projects.
The ideal individual would be a senior in the field of structural steel inspection who is still perform-
ing inspections or supervising, or both. Practitioners with such profile would be ideal subject matter
experts, as they have performed a full range of duties in addition to welding inspection on structural
steel work in either fabrication shop environments or field erection. These individuals should have ex-
perience in primary industries that use steel building structures and bridges in infrastructure proj-
ects, which may also include towers, utility industry structures, marine docks, caissons and waterway
projects, and ancillary products for transportation structures.
These senior practitioners may have performed inspections that are not within the scope of weld-
ing inspector assignment — they may have also performed inspection of erection tolerances, high-
strength bolt installation, and potentially coatings, sophisticated painting systems, metalizing,
galvanizing, powder coating, or fireproofing.

For more information, please contact:

Anna Petroski, anna@atema.com or


Marty Lucia,
mlucia@aws.org

Inspection Trends / Winter 2017 35


The Answer Is By K. Erickson and A. Moore

Q: We are attempting to qualify our


brazers and brazing procedures, but
we are experiencing a failure rate of
100%. The brazing involves copper
pipe and tubing for a medical gas ap-
plication in a hospital. We are using
an oxyacetylene torch with a single-
orifice heating tip, and BCuP-5 filler
metal without flux. Nitrogen is the
purge gas. The joints are not filled
sufficiently, and there seems to be lit-
tle to no bond between the pipe and Fig. 1 — Parts must be degreased and abraded to remove surface contamination and
the couplings. The positions involved oxides. Once cleaned, wear clean gloves when handling the parts.
are vertical requiring both vertical
upflow and downflow, and with the
horizontal position requiring horizon-
tal flow. I know this isn’t much to go
on, but perhaps you can offer some
suggestions that will improve our
chances of passing the required
tests.

A: (from A. Moore) This is something


that I have encountered on several proj-
ects. There are several factors to consid-
er. In no specific order, they include the
following:
1. Equipment
2. Cleaning Fig. 2 — A multiorifice heating tip may be required to heat large-diameter pipe. The photo-
3. Fit graph also shows the small-diameter pipe on the end of the pipe assembly in the fore-
4. Filler metal and flux ground. The small pipe supplies purge gas (nitrogen) to the assembly before, during, and
5. Temperature until the completed joint cools.
6. Technique
You mentioned that this is for an the assembly up to temperature is needed for most copper brazing
application involving medical gas, so promptly. Slow, continuous heating operations.
the standard that you are most likely can lead to a defect called skull, so Oxy-LNG setups are less likely to
meeting is NFPA 99: Health Care Facili- heating the joint quickly is important. starve the torch and backfiring is less
ties Code, and you have to qualify in ac- To provide the proper quantity of likely to occur. The torch should use a
cordance with ASME Boiler and Pres- BTU (British Thermal Units), a multi- multiorifice heating tip that is capable
sure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section IX. orifice heating tip is recommended. of heating the entire joint to the ap-
There are several traps in which peo- Most oxyacetylene units, which usual- propriate temperature in a couple of
ple find themselves. We can consider ly consist of a tank of acetylene and a minutes.
them individually, and you can deter- tank of oxygen, will typically be inade- 2. Cleaning. Flux does not clean
mine if it applies to your situation. quate for any application other than the joint. The joint must be degreased,
1. Equipment. Brazing is not weld- small-diameter pipe or tubing. The and then all the surface oxides re-
ing. When torch welding with oxy- workaround is to utilize an acetylene moved to bright metal before the com-
acetylene, a single orifice is used to manifold consisting of two or three ponents are ready to be assembled —
melt a localized spot. The molten weld acetylene cylinders, or to switch to Fig. 1. No amount of flux is an accept-
pool is moved progressively along the oxy-LNG (liquefied natural gas). The able substitute for proper precleaning.
length of the joint to fuse the metal. problem with acetylene is that the de- Because this is a medical gas applica-
Filler metal is added to the weld pool mand is higher than what most single tion, hand cleaning is most likely used.
as needed. When brazing, the entire tanks can provide without drawing out Plumber’s cloth or a stiff bristled
joint must be heated to the appropri- acetone, or simply starving the torch. brush will remove surface oxides. Do
ate temperature before the filler metal If your oxyacetylene torch is popping not handle cleaned parts with bare,
is introduced. Unless small-diameter (backfiring), it is starved for fuel gas. unprotected hands or the part will be
pipes or tubing are being brazed, a sin- Granted, oxy-LNG does not provide a contaminated with oils and grime
gle-orifice heating tip does not provide high-temperature flame like oxyacety- from the hands. Wear gloves when
a sufficient quantity of heat to bring lene, but high temperature is not what handling cleaned parts.

36 Inspection Trends / February 2017


Fig. 3 — The brazer directs the flame toward the filler metal. This is the wrong way to heat
the joint and the filler metal. As it can be seen, the filler metal melts and forms a small ball
that simply rolls off the joint.

3. Fit. Proper fit is essential to ob- ing cycle. Dams can be used to reduce
taining a proper brazed joint. The the volume that needs to be purged.)
clearance must be sufficient to allow 5. Temperature. The entire joint
the filler metal to wet both surfaces, must be heated to the appropriate
but not too great to prevent capillary brazing temperature before the braz-
action. Brazing filler metals consisting ing rod is introduced — Fig. 2. The test
of a pure metal require smaller clear- assembly consists of two short lengths
ances. Brazing filler metals consisting of copper pipe or tube and a suitable
of two or more alloying constituents coupling. There is air (acting as an in- Fig. 4 — Shown is the proper way to heat
the joint. Direct the flame so it impinges on
require (or will fill) joints with more sulator) in the void between the out- both the pipe and the fitting. Once it is heat-
generous clearances. A clearance of side diameter of the pipe and the in- ed, apply the filler metal to the joint. Do not
0.005 to about 0.01 in. should work side diameter of the coupling. The direct the flame toward the filler metal.
for a BCuP filler metal. The pipe should torch flame should be played against
be able to rotate in the coupling the pipe, but directed toward the cou- orange copper color once the filler rod
without binding, but it should not be pling. The heat will not transfer effi- is introduced — Fig. 4 Again, the phos-
loose and sloppy. I recommend insert- ciently to the pipe if the flame is only phorus acts as a flux while brazing.
ing the pipe into the joint and rotating directed toward the coupling. Large- A common mistake is to drag the
it a few times. Pull out the pipe and diameter parts need more heat. A mul- brazing rod quickly around the joint.
look for burnish marks. If there are tiorifice heating tip or more than one That technique ends the capillary ac-
burnish marks on the pipe, sand the torch may be required to provide the tion, so the joint will not be filled. The
burnished area a little and try the fit volume of heat needed to properly braze joint will consist of a fillet without
again. The pipe should rotate in the fit- heat the joint. properly filling the joint. I see plumbers
ting without binding or squealing. 6. Technique. The technique de- make the same mistake when they are
4. Filler Metal and Flux. You scribed is called face feeding. When the sweating copper plumbing, so the prob-
mentioned that you are brazing copper pipe is in the vertical position, braze lem is not unique to brazing.
with a BCuP-5 filler metal (silver the bottom joint first. If the top joint I hope that my description of
braze). The BCuP filler metals contain is brazed first, the braze filler metal brazing using the face feed technique
phosphorus, making them self-fluxing will be remelted and run out of the is helpful to your situation.
when brazing copper. No additional joint when brazing the bottom joint.
flux is required. The inside of the as- Heat the entire joint to the appropri- The Society is not responsible for any
sembly is kept oxide free by the nitro- ate temperature and then rub the end statements made or opinion expressed herein.
gen purge. If there is any black oxide of the filler rod against the heated Data and information developed by the authors
are for specific informational purposes only
on the inside of the pipe after the as- joint. Do not direct the flame on the and are not intended for use without
sembly is allowed to cool, there is in- filler rod — Fig. 3. Let the heat of the independent, substantiating investigation on
the part of potential users.
sufficient nitrogen purge. joint melt the rod. A slight scratching
Both ends of the assembly should motion with the brazing rod will cou-
be capped. One pipe cap should have a ple the rod to the heated surface. Feed KENNETH ERICKSON is manager of
small hole drilled through it to vent the rod into the joint until refusal — quality at National Inspection &
any air or excess nitrogen. The other that is, until the joint will not accept Consultants, Inc., Ft. Myers, Fla. He is an
AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector,
pipe cap should have a fitting to accept any more filler metal. Then, and only an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector
the nitrogen purge line. While the ni- then, start working the rod progres- in four methods, and provides expert
trogen needs to flow for a few seconds sively around the circumference of the witness review and analysis for legal
before brazing the test assembly, the joint slowly, allowing the joint to fill considerations.
actual pipe installation will require completely. ALBERT J. MOORE JR. is vice president,
longer purge times to reduce the oxy- While feeding the rod into the joint Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton,
gen to an acceptable level. (Off subject, (face feed), continue heating the entire Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified
but important: I usually recommend joint by continually moving the torch Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP
the purge be maintained to displace around the joint. Note that the color of NDT Level III. He is also a member of the
AWS Certification Committee and the
the volume of the pipe system by a fac- the joint appears to be blackened Committee on Methods of Inspection of
tor of five before the start of the heat- as it is heated only to turn to a red- Welds.

Inspection Trends / February 2017 37


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38 Inspection Trends / February 2017


American Welding Society®
www
w.a
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SPREAD
D THE
TH WORD
D
on your compan y around
a the worldd
 Promote your full-color photos of your newest and hottest welding products and services to
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t s.

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nge at Ext. 332, email: adelagrange@aws.org
AWS MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION
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