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Task # 4

QUICK REVIEW (5pts): Based on Reading 5, fill in the blanks.


1. To attempt to persuade by giving good reasons is to give an argument.
2. Definition of some thing or phenomenon tells us the necessary and sufficient conditions for
counting as that kind of thing.
3. An attempt to persuade that uses the power of words instead of giving good reasons is called a
rhetoric
4. An argument is composed of a set of propositions of which one is a conclusion and the
remainder are premises, intended as support for the conclusion.
5. Implicature is meaning, which is not stated, but which one can reasonably take to be intended,
given the context in which the sentence is written or uttered.

These are some attempts to persuade that were posted on social media. Analyze the following:

1. “So ayon. Wala na daw talagang


gentleman ngayon. HAHA. Wait lang
no. Chivalry is dead? Diba feminism
gusto niyo? Eh diba chivalry is
basically there because history wise,
women were seen as weaker than
men? Kaya treated “special” and even
protected? Haha. So ano ba talaga.
Sorry but CHIVALRY IS DEAD
BECAUSE FEMINISM KILLED IT.
#SorryNotSorry #EqualityKamo”

This is an attempt to persuade by argument, since it attempts to provide the audience with reasons
for believing a claim.

P1 – Chivalry has existed for the reason of ‘fragility’ of women compared to men.
P2 – Feminism is the advocacy of women's rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes.
P3 – Gender equality aims to provide equal opportunities for women and men, having no
privileges.

C – Feminism has killed chivalry.

This argument does actually make sense because feminism simply means that women are
equal to men. Women can do what men can do. Thus, the privilege coming from chivalric acts are
no longer needed by women. I think there is a need to distinguish kindness and chivalry. What the
modern society needs is kindness. Kindness that is not limited to women, but to all genders.
Therefore, chivalry is no longer relevant as feminism arises.

2. Some people are quiet about their struggles. Sometimes, we just don’t know how to reach out
for help. Sometimes, we don’t know how to share. It’s always nice to check on your loved
ones from time to time. You never know when a simple text could be such a big deal.

P1 – Some people are quiet about their struggles because there are instances where they don’t
know how to reach out for help and how to share it to someone.
P2 – A simple text to approach would mean a lot to them.

C – Check on your loved ones from time to time

This argument is undoubtedly valid. There are some people who are afraid to approach and
open up to someone because of the fear of getting shrugged off. Especially this pandemic, many
are suffering from anxiety and depression. Thus, checking loved ones from time to time is a big
help to ease the emotional burden they’re feeling.

3. We should normalize hugging and holding hands with your friends. Why isn’t this a thing??
Gives comfort. Reduces stress. Makes you feel safe. Everyone would feel good and the world
would be a better place.

P1 – Physical contact, such as hugging and holding hands, gives comfort


P2 – It reduces stress.
P3 – It makes people feel safe.

C – Hugging and holding hands with friends is normal

“Everyone would feel good and the world would be a better place” is an extraneous material.

This argument is valid at some point, especially when a person is comfortable with hugs
and kisses coming from his/her friends. However, there are also people who feel uneasy with
physical contact. Therefore, we can perceive hugging and holding with friends as a normal
behavior, having no malice at all, but it doesn’t mean that this behavior can be done to anyone.

4. Being healthy is a choice. Stop using body positivity as an excuse for staying fat. How about
actually taking care of your body by exercising and eating properly?
#GetSeriousAboutLiving #BeHealthy

This is actually non-argumentative at all for the reason that he/she didn’t provide any
valid reason to support his/her claim.
P1 – A person always has a choice; it’s either he/she want it or not.
P2 – The choice of taking care of one’s body by exercising and eating properly can really make a
person healthy
P3 – There is no excuse for being not healthy.
P4 – Thus, body positivity is not an excuse for staying fat.

C – Being healthy is a choice.

This argument is not valid at all. Being healthy is NOT ALWAYS a choice because there
are uncontrollable factors that may deteriorate oneself. Firstly, not everyone has the privilege to
eat properly or even thrice a day. Informal settlers also have no choice but to eat unhealthy foods
due to lack of money. Moreover, there are also people who suffers from eating disorder, such as
anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the narrative ‘being healthy is a choice’ is not
applicable to everyone.