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VPN (virtual private

network )
Fundamentals of VPNs
Introducing VPNs
VPNs are used to create an end-to-end private network connection
over third-party networks, such as the Internet or extranets.
Fundamentals of VPNs

Benefits
Cost savings of VPNs
• Enable organizations to use cost-effective, third-party Internet
transport to connect remote offices and remote users to the
main site.
 Scalability
• Enable organizations to use the Internet infrastructure within
ISPs and devices, which makes it easy to add new users.
 Security
• Can include security mechanisms that provide the highest level
of security by using advanced encryption and authentication
protocols that protect data from unauthorized access.
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Cryptography GOALS

• Authentication: ensures that whoever supplies or accesses


sensitive data is an authorized party.
• Confidentiality: assures that only authorized parties are able to
understand the data.
• Integrity: ensures that when a message is sent over a network,
the message that arrives is the same as the message that was
originally sent.
• Nonrepudiation: ensuring that the intended recipient actually
received the message & ensuring that the sender actually sent the
message
vocabulary

Plaintext: Data that can be read and understood without


any special measures.
Encryption: The method of disguising plaintext in such a
way as to hide its substance is called encryption.
Cipher text: Encrypting plaintext results in unreadable
gibberish called cipher text.
Decryption: The process of reverting cipher text to its
original plaintext is called decryption.
Key: some secret piece of information that customizes
how the cipher text is produced.
vocabulary

Cryptanalysis: The art of breaking ciphers, i.e. retrieving


the plaintext without knowing the proper key.
Cryptographers: People who do cryptography
Cryptanalysts: Practitioners of cryptanalysis.
Cryptology: The branch of mathematics that studies the
mathematical foundations of cryptographic methods.
Encryption & Decryption
Types of Cryptographic Techniques

• They are categorized based on the number of keys that are


employed for encryption and decryption.
• The three types are :-
• Secret Key Cryptography
• Public Key Cryptography
• Hash Functions
Secret Key Cryptography
• Secret-key Cryptography involves using the same key for encryption and
decryption.
• Key used for Encryption must be as long as the message.
• The main disadvantages of Secret Key Cryptography is exchange of keys.
Public Key Cryptography

• Public-two separate keys, one of which is secret and one of which


is public.
• In this public key is used for encryption and private key is used
for key cryptography requires decryption.
Hash Functions

•It does not use any key for encryption.


•It uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt"
information.
•Here the message is converted into a fixed length hash value.
Hash Functions
Security at What Level?

Application Layer PGP, Kerberos, SSH, etc.


Transport Layer Transport Layer Security (TLS) OR ssl
Network Layer IP Security
Data Link Layer Hardware encryption
What is tunneling?

• Tunneling is the main ingredient to a VPN, tunneling is used by


VPN to creates its connection
Three main tunneling protocols are used in VPN
connections:
• PPTP
• L2TP
• IPSec
What is tunneling?
What is IPSec

A set of protocol and algorithm used to secure IP data


and network layer

Open standard for VPN implementation

Inbuilt in IPV6 and compatible with IPV4

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