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General Education




Associate Professor/OIC-HRMO

University of Eastern Philippines

College of Arts & Communication
University Town, Catarman, Northern Samar

July 4, 2020
Dear Students of GenEd Purposive Communication:

I am your professor Nelson O. Sanchez. I am the faculty of the College of Arts

and Communication (CAC) at the same time Officer-in-Charge of the Human
Resource Management Office (HRMO).

Once and foremost, let me tell you that I am happy and excited to handle
this subject. In this subject, you will gain insights based on the drawings or cartoons
presented and have relevant to the topics which are engaging. This concern about
theories and issues on how the learning is taught that studying this course is really
an enriching experience.

We are fortunate that on the first day of the opening of classes on October 5,
2020 we were graced by our two great leaders from their own hearts and minds
that we may be protected by the Farther Almighty about this CoVID-19 pandemic,
and I quote, “May this School Year be marked with strong hopes and optimisms that
effective learning will take place even amidst the odds and challenges. I wish you all the
best in your academic journey at mabuhay kayong lahat,” President Rodrigo R. Duterte.

“Today, we celebrate a great victory. We declare our victory over CoVID-19 , the
destroyer of our lives, the destroyer of our economy and of our way of life and society. But
we will not allow CoVID-19 to destroy our children’s education and their future, ” Dr.
Leonor Briones.

So, give your best play. As one Alexander Gray’s epigram says – “A little
learning is a dangerous thing, drink deep, or taste not the Pierian Spring.” Adopted from
AFC Bautista.

The last but the best, I want you to know that I am the author and the editor
of this instructional module, illustrated by Ms. Cherilyn M. Ambos and Ms.
Catherine P. Chan which are luckily to have. I rest assured that you will have the
best participation and cooperation.

You can contact me at:

Residence: B10-L14 University Homes

Office: HRMO, 2nd flr., Administration Building
College: College of Arts and Communication
Table of Contents
Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . 1
Course Title . . . . . . . . . 1
No. of Units . . . . . . . . . . 1
Course Description . . . . . . . . 1
Learning Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . 2
Knowledge . . . . . . . . . 2
Skills . . . . . . . . . . 2
Values . . . . . . . . . . 2

Chapter I. Understanding 21st Century Communication . . . . . . . . . . 3

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 3
Module I. Students’ Views in Digital Communication . . . . . . . . . . 3
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lesson 1. Types of Digital Communication . . . . . . . . . . 4
1. The Internet and Email . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Cell Phones . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. High-Definition Television . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Other Electronic Communication . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Physical Digital Media . . . . . . . . . . 6
Activity 1. Send your story through e-mail or in a messenger . . . . . . . 6
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . 7
Module 2. Communication Processes, Principles and Ethics. . . . . . . . . . 7
Objectives. . . . . . . . . . 7
Lesson 1. The Components of the Communication Process. . . . . . . . . . 8
1. Source . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Message . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Channel . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Receiver . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Feedback . . . . . . . . . . 8
6. Environment . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. Context . . . . . . . . . . 8
8. Interference. . . . . . . . . . 8
Lesson 2. The Nine Principles of Effective Communication. . . . . . . . . . 9
1. Clarity . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. Concreteness . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Courtesy . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Correctness . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. Consideration . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Creativity . . . . . . . . . . 9
7. Conciseness . . . . . . . . . . 9
8. Cultural sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. Captivating . . . . . . . . . . 9
Lesson 3. Ethical Consideration in Communication . . . . . . . . . . 9
1. Respect Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
• Smile . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Make eye contact. . . . . . . . . . 10
• Be honest . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Be open . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Tell them stories . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Be authentic . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Be passionate. . . . . . . . . . 10
2. Consider the Result of Communication . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Was clearly written. . . . . . . . . . 10
• Had all the relevant information. . . . . . . . . . 10
• Had clear recommendations. . . . . . . . . . 10
• Use information correctly . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Value truth . . . . . . . . . . 10
Module 3. Global and National/Local Multicultural Communication Settings . . . . . . . . . 10
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 10
Lesson 1. Global Multicultural Communication Settings . . . . . . . . . . 11
1. Cultural relativism . . . . . . . . . . 11
2. Lack of knowledge of other’s culture . . . . . . . . . . 11
3. Discrimination and harassment . . . . . . . . . . 11
4. Language differences . . . . . . . . . . 11
Lesson 2. National/Local Multicultural Communication Settings . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. High Context of Culture . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Value traditions . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Foster long-lasting relationship. . . . . . . . . . 12
• Rely on non-verbal signs . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Tend to be non-confrontational and more in-direct. . . . . . . . . . 12
• Rejection is to be interpreted from non-explicit
communication . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Are more collectivism . . . . . . . . . . 12
• The identity lies with the group . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Value group harmony. . . . . . . . . . 12
• Have stronger boundaries, i.e. one belongs with a certain
group . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Are slow to change. . . . . . . . . . 12
2). Low Context of Culture . . . . . . . . . . 13
• Tend to make many shallower, short-term relationships . . . . . 13
• Require explicit communication since they lack additional
context . . . . . . . . . . 13
• Communication is more direct and confrontational . . . . . . . . . . 13
• Require all the information in the message . . . . . . . . . . 13
• Can change quickly . . . . . . . . . . 13
3). Other Related aspect of Culture is the Perception of Time . . . . . . . . 13
1. High context cultures, typically use a polychronic perception… 13
2. Low context cultures, use a monochronic perception . . . . 13
Assessment: Please Comprehend your Role as Effective
Communicator . . . . . . . . . . 14
Lesson 3. The Different Models of the Communication Process. . . . . . . . . . 14
1. Belch’s Model of Communication . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. Schramm’s Model of Communication. . . . . . . . . . 15
3. Berlo’s Model of Communication . . . . . . . . . . 16
Lesson 4. Telepathic Communication: by Operation Meditation . . . . . . . . . . 16
Activity 2. Do Self-Meditation . . . . . . . . . . 17
Self-Assessment Question No. 1 (SAQ1) and
Answers to Self-Assessment 1 (ASAQ1) . . . . . . . . . . 17

Chapter II. Communication for Academic Purposes . . . . . . . . . . 20

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 20
Module I. Writing a Research Paper . . . . . . . . . . 20
Objectives. . . . . . . . . . 20
Lesson I. Integrating Quotation and a Citation Style . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Direct Quotation . . . . . . . . . . 21
1) Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon . . . 21
2) Use an introductory or explanatory phrase . . . . . . . . . . 21
3) Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any
punctuation between your own words and the
words you are quoting . . . . . . . . . . 22
4) Paraphrasing . . . . . . . . . . 22
Lesson 2. Methods of Documentation . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. APA (American Psychological Association) . . . . . . . . . . 23
Book . . . . . . . . . . 23
Journal . . . . . . . . . . 23
Video . . . . . . . . . . 23
Website . . . . . . . . . . 24
In-text citation (author, year of publication, page) . . . . . . . . . . 24
2. MLA (Modern Language Association) . . . . . . . . . . 24
Book . . . . . . . . . . 24
Journal. . . . . . . . . . 24
Video. . . . . . . . . . 24
Website. . . . . . . . . . 24
In-text citation (author, page) . . . . . . . . . . 24
3. Chicago/Turabian (Kate L. Turabian) . . . . . . . . . . 25
Footnote. . . . . . . . . . 25
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . 25
Television Broadcast and Youtube . . . . . . . . . . 25
4. OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities) . . . . . 25
Footnote . . . . . . . . . . 25
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . 25
Lesson 3. Simple Steps to Write a Good Thesis Statement . . . . . . . . . . 26
1) How do I write a thesis Statement? . . . . . . . . . . 27
Step I. You do research . . . . . . . . . . 27
Step 2. Inspiration list . . . . . . . . . . 27
Step 3. Get Creative. . . . . . . . . . 28
2) Topic Sentence . . . . . . . . . . 28
Summary . . . . . . . . . . 29
Key to Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 29
Activity 3. Write at least 2 paragraphs whether the research
findings have significance to the respondents . . . . . . 29
Lesson 4. Writing a Standard Essay . . . . . . . . . . 30
I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 30
II. Body Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . 30
III. Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . 31
Activity 4. Select 1 topic inside the box and write essay . . . . . . . . . . 31
Example: What is your Sunday Routine? . . . . . . . . . . 31

Chapter III. Formatting the Physical Form of the Business Letter . . . . . . . . . . 33

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 33
Module I. The Letter. . . . . . . . . . 33
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 33
Lesson I. Parts of the Letter . . . . . . . . . . 34
1. Letterhead . . . . . . . . . . 34
2. Date. . . . . . . . . . 34
3. Inside Address . . . . . . . . . . 34
4. Salutation . . . . . . . . . . 34
5. Message . . . . . . . . . . 34
6. Complimentary close (subscription) . . . . . . . . . . 34
7. Signature . . . . . . . . . . 34
8. Reference initials . . . . . . . . . . 35
9. Reference line . . . . . . . . . . 35
10. Special mailing notation and on-arrival notations . . . . . . . . . . 35
11. Attention line . . . . . . . . . . 35
12. Subject line . . . . . . . . . . 35
13. Carbon copy notation (copy furnished) . . . . . . . . . . 36
14. Blind carbon copy notation. . . . . . . . . . 36
15. Enclosure notation . . . . . . . . . . 36
16. Postscript . . . . . . . . . . 36
Lesson 2. Comparison of the British and the American Styles . . . . . . . . . . 36
Activity 5. The Magic Square . . . . . . . . . . 37
Lesson 3. Business Letter Form Arrangement and Punctuation Styles . . . . . . . . . 38
1. Full-block (also called block or extreme block) . . . . . . . . . . 38
2. Simplified . . . . . . . . . . 39
3. Block (also called modified block) . . . . . . . . . . 40
4. Modified Semi-Block (modified block with indented paragraphs) . . . . . 41
5. Indented . . . . . . . . . . 42
6. Hanging-indented (also called inverted paragraph) . . . . . . . . . . 43
Folding and Inserting the Letter. . . . . . . . . . 44
Activity 6. Write a Friendly Letter . . . . . . . . . . 45


Chapter IV. Job-Search Communication . . . . . . . . . . 46

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 46
The Seven In-Demand Entry-Level Skills and Traits . . . . . . . . . . 46
1. Language skills . . . . . . . . . . 46
2. Software and internet skills. . . . . . . . . . 46
3. Growth mindset . . . . . . . . . . 46
4. Innovation skills. . . . . . . . . . 47
5. Positive attitude . . . . . . . . . . 47
6. Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . 47
7. Decision-making ability . . . . . . . . . . 47
Module I. Writing an Application Letters . . . . . . . . . . 47
Objectives. . . . . . . . . . 47
Lesson I. The Letter of Application . . . . . . . . . . 47
Lesson 2. Requesting References. . . . . . . . . . 48
Lesson 3. Follow-up Letter. . . . . . . . . . 49
Lesson 4. Letter of Refusal. . . . . . . . . . 49
Lesson 5. Thank You Letter (same with a letter of accepting the position) . . . . . . 49
Lesson 6. Letter of Resignation. . . . . . . . . . 50
Module 2. Writing Good Résumés . . . . . . . . . . 51
Lesson 1. The Importance of Writing Resume . . . . . . . . . . . 52
• Stay Away From:
* Smilies . . . . . . . . . . 53
* Cutesy graphics . . . . . . . . . . 53
* Gigantic photos of yourself . . . . . . . . . . 53
* Fancy paper . . . . . . . . . . 53
* The use of all caps . . . . . . . . . . 53
* Text abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . 53
Lesson 2. Seven Things to Remember. . . . . . . . . . 53
Lesson 3. Writing the Objective Statement . . . . . . . . . . 53
• The following are samples of the objective statements . . . . . . . . . . 54
* For Career Objective. . . . . . . . . . 54
* For Sales Objective . . . . . . . . . . 55
* For Professional Objective . . . . . . . . . . 55
* For General Resume Objective . . . . . . . . . . 55
Module 3. Sources of Job Opportunities. . . . . . . . . . 56
Objectives. . . . . . . . . . 56
Pleasing Personality: Its Importance to the Applicants . . . . . . . . . . 60
Jobs Directly Related to your Degree . . . . . . . . . . 62
Lesson 2. Different Types of Interview. . . . . . . . . . 62
• One-on-One Interview . . . . . . . . . . 63
• Phone Interview . . . . . . . . . . 63
• Job/Career Fair Interview . . . . . . . . . . 63
• Group Interview . . . . . . . . . . 63
• Panel Interview . . . . . . . . . . 63
• Audition Interview. . . . . . . . . . 63
Lesson 3. Tips on How to Sell Yourself in any Job Interview . . . . . . . . . . 64
1. Be the solution. . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2. Show your intelligence . . . . . . . . . . 64
3. Demonstrate your willingness to learn . . . . . . . . . . 64
4. Show off your portfolio. . . . . . . . . . 64
5. Prepare to talk about your resume . . . . . . . . . . 65
6. Be positive . . . . . . . . . . 65
Activity 7. Write Application Letter. . . . . . . . . . 65

Chapter V. Writing Memorandums. . . . . . . . . . 66

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 66
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 66
Lesson I. The Memorandum . . . . . . . . . . 66
Activity 8. Write a Memo. . . . . . . . . . 67

Chapter VI. How to Conduct a Meeting . . . . . . . . . . 69

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 69
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 70
Module I. Tips on How to Conduct a Successful Meeting. . . . . . . . . . 70
Lesson I. Making a Motion. . . . . . . . . . 71
Seconding the motion. . . . . . . . . . 71
Discussing the motion . . . . . . . . . . 72
Voting on the motion . . . . . . . . . . 72
Some Terms in the Conduct of a Meeting. . . . . . . . . . 72
* A majority vote. . . . . . . . . . 72
* A two-thirds vote. . . . . . . . . . 72
* A quorum. . . . . . . . . . 73
* A tie vote. . . . . . . . . . 73
Lesson 2. Sequence in the Conduct of a Meeting . . . . . . . . . . 73
1. Meeting Called to Order . . . . . . . . . . 73
2. Roll Call . . . . . . . . . . 73
3. Reading the Minutes . . . . . . . . . . 73
4. Approval of the Minutes. . . . . . . . . . 73
*Four Ways of Voting. . . . . . . . . . 74
1. Voting by acclamation “aye” or “nay” . . . . . . . . . . 74
2. Voting by standing or raising the hand. . . . . . . . . . 74
3. Voting by roll call . . . . . . . . . . 74
4. Voting by ballot. . . . . . . . . . 74
5. Presenting Names of New Members . . . . . . . . . . 74
6. Reports of Officers and Committees. . . . . . . . . . 74
7. Unfinished Business. . . . . . . . . . 74
8. New Business . . . . . . . . . . 74
9. Motion to Adjourn . . . . . . . . . . 75
Lesson 3. Speaking at a Meeting: Dos and Don’ts . . . . . . . . . . 75
Module 2. Minutes of Meeting. . . . . . . . . . 76
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 76
Lesson I. The Meaning of Minutes. . . . . . . . . . 76
Lesson 2. The Difference between Minutes and Proceedings. . . . . . . . . . 77
• Authentication of Minutes . . . . . . . . . . 77
• Proceedings of a Meeting . . . . . . . . . . 77
• The Distinction Between Minutes and Proceedings. . . . . . . . . . 77
• Important Skills in Taking the Minutes . . . . . . . . . . 78
* Before the Meeting . . . . . . . . . . 78
* During the Meeting . . . . . . . . . . 78
* After the Meeting. . . . . . . . . . 78
Activity 9. Conduct a Meeting in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . 78

Chapter VII. A Resolution. . . . . . . . . . 80

Overview . . . . . . . . . .80
1. Specific suggestions . . . . . . . . . . 80
2. The suggested format. . . . . . . . . . 81
• Title . . . . . . . . . . 82
• The Preamble . . . . . . . . . . 82
• The Resolved (Dispositive Portion) . . . . . . . . . . 82
3. Specific tips for resolution writing . . . . . . . . . . 82
Activity 10. Write a Resolution . . . . . . . . . . 83
Activity 11. Assignment . . . . . . . . . . 84


Book . . . . . . . . . . 85
Journal . . . . . . . . . . 85
Periodical . . . . . . . . . . 85
Wikipedia and Online . . . . . . . . . . 85
Government Document . . . . . . . . . . 86
1.00 96-100 Excellent
1.25 94-95 Very Good
1.50 92-93 Very Good
1.75 89-91 Good
2.00 87-88 Good
2.25 84-86 Good
2.50 82-83 Fair
2.75 79-81 Fair
3.00 75-78 Passed
5.00 Failed
Inc. Incomplete
Drp. Dropped

Final grade will be computed: Midterm + Final = /2 = GPA consistent with the thrust of
promoting academic integrity and honesty. Any form of cheating will justify an automatic grade
of 5.0 or failed, besides the imposition of any proper disciplinary action. Only 3 absences of fifty
four (54) contact hours are allowed for each student. Each absence shall be translated to a
corresponding grade, to wit:

1 absence =1.25
2 absences =1.50
3 absences =2.00
4 absences =2.25
5 absences =2.50
6 - 7 absences =3.00
8 or more absences =5.00

Successive late/tardiness of thirty (30) minutes shall mean one (1) absence; unless there
is prior consent from the professor has been sought by the student.

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: It is wisely to call yourselves in the university exercising your academic
excellence and intellectually right.

CONGRATULATIONS on your new learning – The talent of success is

nothing more than doing what you can do well; and doing well whatever you can do. May you
keep flying high with the wind always at your back. May your new venture bring success, good
fortune, and happiness and everything that is most meaningful to you. Best wishes for a bright
future full of adventures and dreams come true. – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
GenEd: Purposive Communication
Course Title: Purposive Communication
No. of Units: 3 Units, 3 hours a week, 18 weeks or 54 hours in a semester

Course Description

Purposive Communication (PC) is a course that develops student

communicative competence and enhance their cultural and intercultural
awareness through multimodal tasks that provide them opportunities for
communicating effectively and appropriately to a multicultural audience in a local
and global context. It requires students with tools for critical evaluation of a variety
of text and focuses on the power of language and the impact of images to
emphasize the importance of conveying messages responsibly.

The knowledge, skills, and insights that student gain from this course may be
used in their other academic endeavors, their chosen disciplines, and their future
careers as they compose and produce relevant oral, written, audio-visual and/or
web-based output for various purposes.

What is Purposive Communication? Think of this question as we start our

modules. Please read the statements below and choose those that you agree with:
1. PC is a preparation for students to become fluent in oral and written
2. PC is a training in the classroom for effective writing based on the
accepted format and citation style (term paper, thesis, and business
3. PC is a winning skill for job competency and promotion of one’s ability.
4. PC is a textual approach and application.

LEARNING OUTCOMES After the end of the course, the students shall be
able acquire:

Knowledge (kaalaman, kabatiran, nalalaman)

1. Describe the nature, elements, and functions of verbal and non-verbal
communication in various and cultural contexts
2. Explain how cultural and global issues affect communication
3. Determine culturally appropriate terms, expressions, and images
4. Evaluate multimodal texts critically to enhance receptive (listening,
reading, writing, speaking, and viewing) skills

Skills (kasanayan)
1. Convey ideas through oral, audio-visual, and/or web-based
presentations for different target audiences in local and global settings
using appropriate registers
2. Create clear, coherent, and effective communication materials
3. Present ideas persuasively using appropriate language registers, tone,
facial expressions, and gestures
4. Write and present academic papers using appropriate tone, style,
conventions, and reference styles

Values (kapakinabangan, halaga, kasaysayan, balor)

1. Adopt cultural and intercultural awareness and sensitivity in
communication of ideas
2. Appreciate the differences of the varieties of spoken and written
3. Adopt awareness of audience and context in presenting ideas
4. Appreciate the impact of communication on society and the world
Chapter I

21st Century Skills was the most popular buzz word phrases in the world of
education. The most common or often referred to as the 4 C's. It includes
communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creative thinking. Now there
are actually a lot of people who dislike the phrase 21st century skills. In talking with
them, I found several reasons for this. Some feel that by emphasizing the need for
new skills, or implying that education has not been working.
Oliver Schinkten (December 21, 2015). Communication is critical to student
success. A variety of technology tools available to 21st century educators expand
your ability to give students fast and effective feedback, saving classroom time and
accelerating student achievement. Throughout this course, Oliver Schinkten
explores how teachers can use Internet-based tools such as video and audio
conferencing, learning management systems, and social media to communicate
more effectively with students, parents, and other educators. In addition to
covering basic theories of communication, Oliver also gives power tips for essential
collaboration tools like Google Drive, Gmail, Google Hangouts, and Collaborize
However, the way that we go about these skills has changed dramatically
over the past 10 to 15 years. What is the main reason? The internet. One of the
most pivotal inventions in history. Let's consider communication. Although there
has been the need to communicate, it wasn't until recently that we had options
such as smartphones, texting, tweeting, Skype calls, emails, Snapchat, Facebook,
LinkedIn, Google Hangouts and more. The methods we have available to
communicate have changed to the digital age. David Christian – “Narrates a
complete history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the Internet, an
enlightening, wide-angle look at complexity, life and humanity, set against our slim
share of the cosmic timeline.”

Module I. Students’ Views in Digital Communication

A century is a period of one hundred years. The twenty-first-century started

on January 1, 2001 and will end on December 31, 2100. This century
communication uses powerful ideas from TED Talks (Technology, Entertainment
and Design), to teach students to think critically and communicate effectively. It
began in 1984, and became a nonprofit, nonpartisan foundation on July 1,
2019. Their agenda is to make great ideas accessible and spark conversation.

The goal of the TED is to foster the spread of great ideas. It also provide a
platform for thinkers, visionaries and teachers, so that students around the globe
can gain a better understanding of the biggest issues faced by the world, and feed
a desired to a better future. Many factors can amplify the power of ideas: mass
media, technology and market forces and create sustainable change in areas such
as global public health, poverty alleviation and biodiversity.

The level of connectedness and the time they spent communicating is

extremely high, likely higher than it has ever been before. The problem
however, was that many students do not seem to have a good understanding of
the proper medium for communication to use for certain situations. Helping our
students to understand which medium is correct to use in specific situations, and
how to use that medium appropriately is an extremely important concept. It's our
job as educators to help them develop these skills.


At the end of the module students should be able to:

1. Familiarize the use of technology in communication;
2. Transmit message using cellphone; and
3. Appreciate correspondence using gadgets and its novelty.

Lesson 1. Types of Digital Communication

David Sorokin said we are living in the Information Age, and there has never
been as apt a name for a particular period of human history. Digital technologies
have revolutionized communication in the modern world -- a revolution so rapidly
integrated into our lives that we can scarcely remember how we used to make a
phone call or exchange messages back in the analog days. The Internet and cell
phones are two of the most prominent examples of the influence of the
Information Age, but there are many other types of digital communication
technologies. Take this as a few examples:
1. The Internet and Email

In 1962, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of

Technology described a "Galactic Network" of interconnected computers
that could talk to one another. The idea of the Internet was born. Relying
on packet switching -- the digital transfer of short bursts of data -- globally
connected computer networks quickly developed into sophisticated
digital communication technologies. Email over the network was
introduced in the 1970s and has since grown into one of the most
widespread forms of digital communication, both on the Internet and
through private networks. Packet-switching protocols matured and
speeds increased. In 1980, the first widespread computer virus crashed
the global computer network.

In the 1990s, digital communication over networked computers

emerged from limited use in the academic, government and business
worlds to come into use by the public. The World Wide Web, the Internet
on steroids, was described in 1991, the White House website appeared in
1993, and the first Internet advertising came online in 1994. As
transmission speeds increased, the Internet evolved from principally one-
way communication to a social two-way system -- Web 2.0 -- at sites like
Facebook and Twitter.

2. Cell Phones

The earliest generation of handheld mobile telephones relied

on the analog communication technology of the conventional phone
network. The first phones using digital communication, known as 2G
phones, appeared in the early 1990s. Digital phone technology developed
rapidly after that. The first text message was sent in 1993, and the
transmission of other digital content, such as ringtones and advertising,
followed shortly after. In 2001, 3G digital phone communication arrived,
providing faster transmission and making broadband communication
practical for multiple media such as voice, Internet and GPS. The 4G
phones appeared later that decade, offering digital communication 10
times faster than earlier technologies.

3. High-Definition Television

Since 2009, the Federal Communications Commission has

required TV stations in the U.S. to broadcast exclusively in digital format.
The transition from conventional to digital television technologies made
high-definition television possible and established the television as more
than a simple receiver of transmitted signals. Many digital TVs are
multimedia devices that display television programming, games,
photographs and on-demand movies, stream Internet content, play music
and handle recorded media like CDs and DVDs. As televisions become
more interactive, they are evolving into true two-way digital
communication devices.

4. Other Electronic Communication

Digital communications have become ubiquitous in modern

society and encompass a wide variety of technologies. Remote controls,
keyless entry devices, walkie-talkies, Bluetooth earpieces, GPS satellites,
cash registers and credit cards are among the many technologies that
communicate digitally with people and with other devices. Futurists have
coined the term "The Internet of Things" to refer to the trend of enabling
thousands of types of devices, from light bulbs to washing machines, with
digital communication capabilities.

5. Physical Digital Media

Given the sophistication of the instantaneous transmission of

digital data, it can be easy to overlook the more mundane communication
activities. We store digital data on many types of physical media,
including CDs, DVDs, flash drives, tape and compact memory chips. Every
time you hand a friend or colleague a file, whether you transfer it
electronically or pass along a DVD, you are engaged in a form of digital

Activity 1. Send your story through e-mail or in a messenger using your laptop or
cellphone to your professor a good lesson from the following taglines
below. Better if you can accessed from a blogger or resource person
from a youtube as your source of references.

Be Nice, Work Hard

A Family of Learning
Dedicated to Excellence
Home of Quality Schools
A Tradition of Excellence
A Great Place for Education
Achieving Excellence Together
Educating for Human Greatness
Committed to Excellence in Education
Educating Students for Success in a Changing World
Everyone is an Achiever
Imagine Greatness
Knowledge is Power
Learners Today, Leaders Tomorrow
Suggested Reading:

Join yourself of browsing in the “World Wide Web” and

look the meaning of the following terms in the internet:
1. What is blog? - A guide to understanding the
concept of blogging.

2. Blog vs. website – What is the difference?

Module 2. Communication Processes, Principles and Ethics

Communication is inevitable. Our need for self-expression leads us to

communicate not only our thoughts but also our feelings. It may be done verbally
or nonverbally. A simple yawn from a member of the audience in a public speaking
engagement is a non-verbal message to the speaker. On the other hand, a phone
call inquiring about a certain product is an example of a verbal message.

The words “communication” has been evolved from Latin language

“communis” and “communicare.” Communis is noun, which means common or
sharing. Similarly, communicare is a verb, which means make something common.
Some scholars relate the term communication with an English word community.
Community members have something common to each other communities are
supposed to be formed with the tie of communication. It is the foundation of
community. Hence, where there is no communication, there cannot be a

Objectives: After studying this lesson, students are expected to:

1) Explain the principles of communication and the ethical

considerations in communication;
2) Elucidate how communication skills help resolve problems, better
understand new concepts and aid in your profession; and
3) Frame a slogan about how the knowledge of the communication
process aids people in communicating effectively.

Lesson 1. The Components of the Communication Process

Understanding the communication process may help the student become a

good communicator by conceptualizing the following terms:

1. Source. The sender (encoder) carefully crafts the message. The sender
may be anyone: an author of a book, a public speaker in a special
occasion or even a traffic enforcer.
2. Message. The message is the reason behind any interaction. It is the
meaning shared between the sender and the receiver. Messages take
many forms like poem, songs, essays, news articles, road signs and even
3. Channel. The channel is the means by which a message is conveyed.
When we answer a phone call, the phone is the channel. On the other
hand, when your parents receive a notification of your absences from
school, the channel is a letter. It is the responsibility of both the sender
and the receiver to choose the best channel for the interaction.
4. Receiver. The receiver is the person who receives the transmitted
message. The receiver is expected to listen or read carefully, to be
aware of different kinds of sender to jot down information when
needed, to provide response and to ask questions for clarification.
5. Feedback. In any communication scenario, a feedback is essential to
confirm recipient understanding. A simple nod for a question of
verification is considered a feedback. Thus, feedbacks may be written,
spoken or acted out.
6. Environment. The place, the feeling, the mood, the mindset and the
condition of both sender and receiver are called the environment. The
environment may involve the physical set-up of a location where
communication takes place, the space occupied by both the sender and
the receiver, including the objects surrounding the sender and the
7. Context. Context involves the expectations of the sender and the receiver
and the common or shared understanding through the environmental
8. Interference. Interference is also known as barrier or block that prevents
effective communication to take place, e.g.: Psychological barriers are
thoughts that hamper the message to be interpreted correctly by the
receiver; Physical barriers include competing stimulus, weather and
climate, health and ignorance of the medium; Linguistic and cultural
barriers pertain to the language and its cultural environment. Words may
mean another in different cultures; and Mechanical barriers are those
raised by the channels employed for interpersonal, group or mass
communication. These include cellphones, laptops, and other gadgets
used in communication.

Lesson 2. The Nine Principles of Effective Communication

Osborn (2009) claims that communication must meet certain standards for
effective communication to take place and clarity with the following:

1. Clarity, makes communication both oral and written understandable.

Fuzzy (malabo) language is absolutely forbidden (ipinagbabawal), as are
jargons, cliché expressions, euphemisms, highfalutin words, and
doublespeak language.
2. Concreteness, reduces misunderstanding. Messages must be supported
by facts such as research data, statistics or figures.
3. Courtesy builds goodwill, it involves being polite in terms of approach and
manner of addressing an individual.
4. Correctness, glaring mistakes in grammar obscures the meaning of a
sentence. Also, the misuse of language can change your credibility.
5. Consideration, messages must be geared towards the audience. The
sender of the message must consider the recipient’s profession, level of
education, race, ethnicity, hobbies, interests, passions, advocacies and
age when drafting or delivering a message.
6. Creativity, means having the ability to craft interesting message in terms
of sentence structure and word choice.
7. Conciseness, simplicity and directness help you to be concise. Avoid using
lengthy expressions and words that may confuse the recipient.
8. Cultural sensitivity, today with the increasing emphasis on empowering
diverse cultures, lifestyle, and races and the pursuit for gender equality,
cultural sensitivity becomes an important standard for effective
communication, and
9. Captivating, you must strive to make messages interesting to command
more attention and better responses.

Lesson 3. Ethical Consideration in Communication

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that focuses on issues of right and wrong in

human affairs, such as:

1. Respect audience - the only thing your audience want from you is to connect
with you and your message. Connecting really is everything and the way to do so
is by treating your audience with the utmost respect. As you set about doing so
make sure you:

• Smile
• Make eye contact
• Be honest
• Be open
• Tell them stories
• Be authentic
• Be passionate

2. Consider the result of communication - The old view of communicating

results, is used to mean producing something that:

• Was clearly written

• Had all the relevant information
• Had clear recommendations

3. Value truth – is the property of a statement of being either true or false.

All statements by definition of "statements" have truth value. As a
person, being truthful means he/she can grow and mature, learning from
its mistakes.

4. Use information correctly and do not falsify information - If

someone falsifies something, they change it or add untrue details to it in order
to deceive people.
Module 3. Global and National/Local Multicultural Communication Settings

Globalization is the communication and assimilation (maging bahagi) among

individuals, ethnicities, races, institutions, government of various nations
supported by technology and compelled by international trade. Due to
globalization, the more you become exposed to diversity --- the valuing of the
uniqueness or differences in gender preference, color, age, religious affiliation,
ethnicity, education, social and economic status and political beliefs.

Objectives: After studying this lesson, students are expected to:

1) Write a reaction paper on communication challenges in a global

atmosphere and methods for effective and ethical global
2) Cite examples on how to enhance one’s ability to communicate
with people from diverse cultures, and
3) Write in one page of a paper about communication in a global

Lesson 1. Global Multicultural Communication Settings

Globalization is not a new process or concept. Years before the advent of

technology, people had been purchasing and selling each other properties, goods
and other objects of certain value.

People’s background and experiences influence their view of the world and
the values, beliefs and behavior patterns assumed to be good. The following are
possible cultural barriers to effective communication in a global environment:

1. Cultural relativism - is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and

practices should be understood based on that person's own
culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of
another. (Wikipedia, accessed August 16, 2020)

2. Lack of knowledge of other’s culture – first thing you do is listen

more than you talk and chances are you all learn more faster. Ask
yourself, “why do I think this?” and “why I am feeling this way?”
Then adjust your responses or action as necessary.

A culture is built on more than just food, music, art and

clothing. Its foundation includes stories, values and beliefs passed
down through generations. Learn to value a culture’s contributions
to the greater human story. When you are in doubt, do not be
afraid to ask questions and enjoy sharing information about their
nation and its culture. By being humble and acknowledging that
you’re still learning you may be more likely to gain acceptance in a
new culture.

You may have heard the saying, “a smile is the same in

every language.” Indeed, a smile can be a great ice-breaker and
stress reliever. Have a smile ready when facing unexpected
challenges and look for humor in a predicament.

3. Discrimination and harassment - harassment is a form of

discrimination. It includes any unwanted physical or verbal
behavior that offends or humiliates you. Generally, harassment is
a behavior that persists over time. Serious one-time incidents can
also sometimes be considered harassment.

4. Language differences - languages and dialects are codes. Linguists

tend to define a language as the standardized code used in spoken
and written form, whereas dialects are spoken vernacular codes
without a standardized written system. A dialect may be elevated
to the status of language for political or national purposes.
Language shapes our social interactions and brings order to our
lives. Complex language is one of the defining factors that makes
us human. Two of the concepts that make language unique are
grammar and lexicon, e.g. phonetics/phonology (level of sounds),
morphology (level of words and endings, to put it in simplified
terms), syntax (level of sentences), semantics (area of meaning), and
pragmatics (use of language in specific situations).

Lesson 2. National/Local Multicultural Communication Settings

Living in a globalized world, you encounter people with diverse cultural

backgrounds. Such interactions occur in social, educational, political and
commercial settings. Hence, in today’s era of increased global communication, it
is imperative to understand intercultural communication for us to enhance our
awareness and competence. It is essential for us to live harmoniously despite our
differences in culture.

According to Gamble and Gamble (2008), communication style among

cultures differs; it may be high-context or low-context communication.

High-context communication is a tradition-linked communication system

which adheres strongly to being indirect. The low-context communication is a
system that works on straightforward communication.
Frost (2013) cited the book of Hall (1976), “Beyond Culture,” he distinguished
the difference between high context and low context culture, in the following

1). High Context of Culture

• Value traditions
• Foster long-lasting relationship
• Rely on non-verbal signs such as tone of voice, facial expressions, body
language, and soon
• Tend to be non-confrontational and more in-direct.
• Rejection is to be interpreted from non-explicit communication
• Are more collectivism
• The identity lies with the group
• Value group harmony
• Have stronger boundaries, i.e. one belongs with a certain group
• Are slow to change

2). Low Context of Culture

• Tend to make many shallower, short-term relationships

• Require explicit communication since they lack additional context
• Communication is more direct and confrontational
• Require all the information in the message
• Can change quickly

3). Other Related aspect of Culture is the Perception of Time

(1). High context cultures, typically use a polychronic perception

People see time as fluid. Punctuality and structure are not as

important and deadlines are something to aim for not to meet at all
costs. Similarly, polychronic people work with multiple tasks at once,
switching back and forth from one to the other.

They prefer to multi-task, or work on different activities at the

same time. They do not stay on schedule, and in fact, will work while
socializing in order to keep strong business relationships, e.g., lunches
where meetings are held, friendships are developed, and
simultaneously may watch television, surf the Internet and talk on the
telephone at the same time.

(2). Low context cultures, use a monochronic perception

People see time as tangible and sequential – adhere to strict

deadline and focus on one task at a time. A person from a low-context
culture could behave in a way that could be considered ignorant, rude,
or incompetent in a high-context culture, e.g. by asking a lot of
questions (hence implying that he does not understand the meaning
without them).

It is estimated that 70% of the world is high context (Tung,

1995). Examples of high context countries include: Japan, China, and
the Arab countries. Examples of low context countries include:
Scandinavia, Germany, and the US. Japan, which has a very high
context culture, uses both polychronic and monochronic time. This
means that they have a linear time orientation where only one thing
can be accomplished at a time.

To a monochronic-based, time is a precious commodity that can

be lost, saved, or wasted. Companies that embrace a monochronic
time orientation view schedules and punctuality as an indispensable
part of their workday. If executives were facing a delay in a
presentation due to a speaker running late, they would be extremely
upset and view the entire episode as unprofessional. Most
monochromic time oriented companies are found in Western based
cultures, such as the United States and Germany. (Jennifer Lombardo,
accessed 2020).

Assessment: Please Comprehend your Role as Effective Communicator

How do you get to communicate effectively across cultures?

Indicate whether you agree or disagree with each of the following
statements below by checking the corresponding column:

Statement Agree Disagree

I am interested in interacting with people who are

both like me and different from me.

I can sense when persons from other cultures seem

not to understand me or get confused by my

I have no fear communicating with persons from

both minor and major cultural groups.

I deal with conflicts with people from other

cultures depending on the situation and their
cultural background.

I am sensitive to the concerns of all minority and

majority groups in our multicultural country.
I can manage my behavior when dealing with
people of different cultures.

Note: The more number of agreements you have indicates the

more prepared you are in expanding your communication
arena by welcoming people from different cultures.

Lesson 3. The Different Models of the Communication Process

Communication models (Mortensen, 1972) are merely pictures; they are
even distorting pictures, because they stop or freeze an essentially dynamic
interactive or transactive process into a static picture. Models are metaphors; they
allow us to see one thing in terms of another.
At another level, models have heuristic value (e.g., this method include using
a rule of thumb, an educated guess, an intuitive judgment, or common sense); that
is, they provide new ways to conceive of hypothetical ideas and relationships. This
may well be their most important function. With the aid of a good model, suddenly
we are jarred from conventional modes of thought. Ideally, any model, even when
studied casually, should offer new insights and culminate in what can only be
described as an “aha!” experience, as like:
1. Belch’s Model of Communication

Sender’s Field of Receiver’s Field of

Experience Experience

SENDER Encoding Channel Decoding RECEIVER


2. Schramm’s Model of Communication

3. Berlo’s Model of Communication

Encodes Decodes

Source Message Channel Receiver

Communication Content Hearing Communication

Skills Skills
Elements Seeing
Attitudes Attitudes
Treatment Touching
Knowledge Knowledge
Structure Smelling
Social System Social System
Code Tasting
Culture Culture

Lesson 4. Telepathic Communication: by Operation Meditation

Telepathy, is Greek tēle (far away), patheia (perception or feeling). This was
popularized by Frederic W. H. Myers. Causing someone to think or feel something
by use of one's mind; communication using means beyond the standard physical
senses. One who has such abilities is a “telepath” (which is technically different
from “psychic,” who calls on and communicates with spirits rather than the minds
of the living). The abilities themselves are described as “telepathic.” An older term
still found in the literature is "thought transference," mostly of "thought
impressions." This is sometimes also referred to as a spiritual source, natural
source or divine source. All living beings are born with a natural telepathic ability.
Many people are unaware of how to use it though, hence why there are so few
people who do actually communicate in this way. Lack of belief is also a big block,
with many people remaining skeptical. By learning how to tune into the correct
frequencies and wave lengths, it is possible for everyone to use telepathic

To send a message, vividly imagine the person you want to communicate

with. Imagine giving them a message. You can visualize handing them a written
message on a piece of paper, sending an email or text message to them, talking to
them by telephone or talking to them in person; the method that you imagine
conveying the message by is not important, as long as your visualization is strong
and detailed. When beginning to experiment with telepathy, it is important that
you remain patient and practice regularly. Your skills will develop and strengthen
over time the more that you use them.

As a beginner, you may like to experiment with a friend. Try sending

messages to each other and note the exact time that you feel that they have
received your thoughts. Your friend should do the same and write down the exact
time that they believe they obtained communication from you. At a later time,
compare your results. This should help you to identify the feeling of having sent a

Activity 2. Do Self-Meditation

How to send mental messages to someone

By Helen Demetrieu and Sonnie Shadows

1. Relax and breathe (inhale and exhale)

2. Contact somebody with his/her picture
3. Rub your palms and separate apart, then move a little
closer at the center of your head call a name and talk
4. Lift up your palms

Self-Assessment Question No. 1 (SAQ1) and Answers to Self-Assessment 1 (ASAQ1).

Reminder, do not peep in while you are reading the questions.

√SAQ 1
1. Has English become the sole language of communicating discoveries in science and
technology in research journals?
2. To what extent do you support the idea of integrating English culture in your English
language classroom?
3. How might one distinguish between intercultural communication and intercultural
4. Are there any lessons from social science that would allow non-Muslims to reach out to
the Muslim Community Worldwide?
5. Will cross-cultural communication assume a new dimension in the context of
1. Has English become the sole language of communicating discoveries in science and
technology in research journals?

English has accepted words/terms from almost all languages of the world.
Scientific discoveries published in languages other than English are not globally read and

If you want your paper to be read by many scientists from all over the world, you
have to write it in English. I am an Estonian, if I would write my paper in Estonian, then
who would read it? Our population is only 1.3 million... Of course, many other languages
are more widely spoken than Estonian (Mandarin, Spanish, German, French, Russian,...)
but still, many scientists don't speak these (or know a couple of words or phrases... not
enough to understand a scientific article) and they most probably won't be interested in
paying somebody to translate such articles to English or their own language. Tiia Vissak,
October 4, 2013

2. To what extent do you support the idea of integrating English culture in your English
language classroom?

It is said that language and culture are inseparable and learning language is void
without achieving an awareness of its culture. Language is the carrier of culture and
without culture language is of nonsense. On the other hand, many communities consider
learning a foreign culture as a kind of cultural invasion and prefer to expose their children
to foreign language but not to its culture. What do you think we as EFL teachers should
do in our classes? And should our teaching of English be culture-free or culture oriented?

Every language offers a look at the world so that when you learn another
language, you also open another door to see the world. Ruth Galve, December 2018

3. How might one distinguish between intercultural communication and intercultural


People communicate interculturally all the time....but that doesn't mean that they
learn anything from each other. There has been so much written about this concept, but
it remains obstinately Eurocentric: for all that he tried to break down barriers, and I
believe his approach was genuine.....he still wrote from a Northern European point of
view. An Argentine colleague of mine pointed out, very correctly, that the vast majority
of intercultural manuals are written from the vantage point of the USA-American or the
Northern European. If the book were written from the standpoint of a Central American,
the conclusions would be much different, and far less optimistic. As a matter of fact, if the
manuals were written by a lower-middle class USA-American, they would also be less rosy
and optimistic. Culture is a major factor in relations, but class looms large. And the
majority of supposed cross-cultural specialists overlook that point.

Are there any lessons from social science that would allow non-Muslims to reach
out to the Muslim Community Worldwide?
Currently, some political candidates in the United States have done their best to
further alienate the world-wide Muslim Community. What can we do as social scientists
(and U.S. citizens) to neutralize the effects of crazy candidates like Donald Trump?

Donald Trump does not represent all Americans, the extremists don't represent
all Muslims, I wonder why it needs to be emphasized so much. It’s not that complicated.
I really loved the way Pres. Obama expressed his concern on the issue during his recent
visit to a mosque, that's how other enlightened social scientists can reach out as well.
Fatima Sajjad, February 5, 2016.

4. Will cross-cultural communication assume a new dimension in the context of


Will growing multiculturalism all over the world increasingly affect cross-cultural
communication? What possible forms can this influence take? Will it be mostly positive
or negative for different cultures? Could we possibly foresee any potential drawbacks of
this process and try to avoid or prevent them?

In the environment of globalization it is most important for persons to be

culturally competent in all aspects including communications. This means that the person
not only understands the spoken or written word but also the nuances, body language (if
applicable) and cultural context behind the conversation. Srini Vasan, January 3, 2020.
Chapter II

With the multifarious information from the internet, books, and other
reading resources that will help you finish your academic research papers, it is
paramount that we recall how you can avoid using somebody’s words or ideas as
your own.

Quoting is copying the words of the author and intertwining these words to
your own. Quoted statement, which are incorporated at the beginning, middle, or
end part of your paragraph are enclosed in quotation marks and are identified with
the author’s family name, year of publication, and page number of the journal or
book where the quoted statement was lifted from.

Module I. Writing a Research Paper

This module is great for first-time authors or for those looking to improve
their manuscript writing skills. Starting with the basics, it builds up with expert tips,
a great sample, and engaging quizzes and tests to guide you through each step. If
also points out the writing red flags to watch out for and ends with a handy checklist
to ensure you don’t miss out on important points when creating an effective
introduction for your research.

Most students simply scan the introduction of a research paper to evaluate

whether it is worth investing time to read the full text. This is why a persuasive
introduction, which showcases your research and builds reader interest is
extremely important if you want to boost readership and get more citations. Think
of this as a section that lets you truly define your work and claim your place within
your field of research.


After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Write varied academic papers using appropriate tone, style,
conventions and referencing/citation style; and
2. Illustrate the differences of quotes, phrases, summaries.
Lesson I. Integrating Quotation and a Citation Style

Writing on papers should show two things on the part of the writer: care
and courtesy. Care for the paper itself – its presentation, style, organization, ideas,
evidence of revision – and demonstrable courtesy.

During a conversation with a friend, you ask question such as, “where did
you hear that?” or “who said that?” it is only natural to know the source of the
speaker’s information. When you are writing a research paper, you are required to
support and credit sources in much the same way. In other words, you document
other writer’s or speaker’s words that are not your own original ideas so that your
reader will know “who said that?” or “where did you read that?”

Let’s begin with a print book, one of the simplest sources to cite:

Gordin, Michael D. The Pseudoscience Wars: Immanuel Velikovsky and
the Birth of the Modern Fringe. Chicago: University of Chicago
P, 2012. Print.
Gordin, M.D. (2012). . The pseudoscience wars: Immanuel Velikovsky
and the birth of the modern fringe. Chicago, IL: University of
Chicago Press.

There are several methods that provide the documentation you will need as
you prepare your research paper, such as APA – American Psychological
Association; MLA – Modern Language Association; OSCOLA - Oxford Standard for
the Citation of Legal Authorities; Turabian Chicago, etc. However, not all of these
are used at the same time in the same paper.

1. Direct Quotation (exact words of an author placed inside quotation)

1) Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon

e.g.: President Rodrigo Roa Duterte encourages all college

students’ free tuition and matriculation fees: “my sentiment
is to eradicate graft and corruption in the Philippine

2) Use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete

sentence, separated from the quotation with a comma (use a
quotative frame with a verbs such as “says,” “said,” “thinks,”
believes,” “recalls,” “asks,” etc.) You should use a comma when
you introduce a quotation with a phrase as “According to …. “
e.g.: According to Sen. Paolo Benigno “Bam” A. Aquino IV,
“let us give priority to free education especially the poor
but deserving students.”
3) Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any
punctuation between your own words and the words you are

e.g.: Vice President Leny Robredo recalled that her husband was
one of the benefactors for free education to poor but
deserving student in Naga City.

4) Paraphrasing is when you read someone’s idea from another

source and then put it into your own words. Your paraphrase must
be sufficiently distinct from the original passage. It is not simply
changing a word or rearranging the author’s sentences—you might
as well use the original passage in quotation marks. An effective
paraphrase will convey the author’s facts or conclusions accurately,
but in your own unique style.
e.g.: Original source
“Manila, Philippines (PNA) – On February 14, 2019
Police Officers have arrested a 58-year-old man who they
say broke into a department store, stole a couple of
sausages and fell asleep.”


“A 58 year old man in Manila, Philippines didn’t

break into a business and run, like most criminals. Intead,
he took several sausages then simply fell asleep inside the
department store.” The PNA (Philippine News Agency
reported February 14, 2019).
Headline News: President Rodrigo Roa Duterte Approved
Free Fees for Documentary Use for Employment under
RA 11261 First Time Jobseekers Assistance Act on May 7,
President Duterte Oks Law Waiving Fees for First-
Time Jobseekers (ABS-CBN)
New Law Waives Government Document Fees for
First-time Jobseekers (Rappler)

President Duterte Inks Law Waiving Government

Fees for First-Time Jobseekers (Sun Star Manila)

First-Time Jobseekers Exempted from Paying

Government Fees on Documents (https//news

To avail of the benefits, a first-time jobseekers must present

a barangay certificate stating that the individual in indeed a first-
time applicant.

Lesson 2. Methods of Documentation

Ask of which style of citation for research you want to use. If there is no
preference, you can use any or follow guidelines:

1. APA was originally published in 1929, 6th edition used in research

in psychology, education, and other social sciences. In addition, APA papers
are written in past tense.

Davies, R. (2005). What’s bred in the bone. Markham, Ontario,
Canada: Penguin.
King, S. (2015). The bazaar of bad dreams. New York, NY:
Allen, D. E., & Idlebird, J. L. (2014). Depreciation’s effect on capital
budgeting metrics needs more educator focus. American
Journal of Business Research 7(1), 45-51. Retrieved from
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham (2012, July 5). Research methods for educational
enquiry: methodological approaches for small-scale research [Video file].
Retrieved from

French revolution. (2009). Retrieved from
In-text citation (Author, year of publication, page number)
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of
investments (Allen and Idlebird, 2014).

According to Allen and Idlebird (2014), “the format of the

statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (p.
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect
students’ accuracy” (Allen & Idlebird, 2014, p. 45).

2. MLA is used in research for literature, arts, and humanities. In

addition, MLA papers are written in present tense.

Davies, Robertson. What’s Bred in the Bone. Markham,
Ontario, Canada: Penguin, 2005.

King, Stephen. The Bazaar of Bad Dreams. New York: Scribner,

Allen, Darryl E., and Jo Lacy Idlebird. “Depreciation’s Effect on Capital
Budgeting Metrics Needs More Educator Focus.” American Journal
of Business Research vol. 7 no. 1 (2014): 45-51. Questia. Web. 24
Nov. 2015.
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham. “Research Methods for Educational
Enquiry: Methodological Approaches for Small-scale Research.” 05
July 2012. Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed on 24 Nov.
“French Revolution.” A+E Networks, 2009. Web.
24 Nov. 2015.
In-text citation (Author, page number)

Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of

investments (Allen and Idlebird 45).

According to Allen and Idlebird “the format of the

statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (45).

“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect

students’ accuracy” (Allen and Idlebird 45).

3. Chicago/Turabian (Kate L. Turabian, Secretary of the University of

Chicago from 1930s to 1950s), designed to college students in business,
history, and fine arts.
Gaudencio V. Aquino, Educational Administrators.
(Quezon City: Rex Book Store, 1985), p. 48
Ibid., p. 3
Aquino, Gaudencio V. Educational Administrators.
Quezon City: Rex Book Store, 1985.
Television Broadcast and Youtube

Name Individual’s Function Date Program Title

Davila, K. (Moderator). (March 11, 2019). “Harapan” senatorial town hall debate 2019
[Television special coverage]. South Triangle, Quezon City: ABS-CBN.

Source Location Broadcasting Service

Author [Screen name]. (month date year). Title of video [video file]. Retrieve from

4. OSCOLA (Oxford Referencing) is the abbreviated name for Oxford

Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities, 4th edition. It’s the style many
students use for referencing authorities, legislation and other legal materials.
It is widely used in law schools and by journal and book publishers.

There are two golden rules for the citation of legal authorities: 1)
consistency, and 2) consideration for the reader.

Legal writing is more persuasive when the author refers to legal materials in
a clear, consistent and familiar way. When it is easy to identify and to find the
author’s sources, it becomes easier for the reader to follow the argument. OSCOLA
is designed to help the author to achieve consistency and to make life easier for
the reader.

Stella Cotroll. The Study Skills Handbook. (Palgrave McMillan 2013).
Cotrell, S. The Study Skills Handbook. (Palgrave McMillan 2013).

A citation in a footnote is not required when citing legislation if all the

information the reader needs about the source is provided in the text, as in
the following sentence:

This case highlights the far-reaching judicial role ushered

in by the Human Rights Act 1998.
Where the text does not include the name of the Act or the relevant
section, this information should be provided in a footnote:

British courts must only consider Strasbourg

jurisprudence: they are not bound by it,1

Human Rights Act 1998, s. 2.

Interpretation of Convention as to Section (s) in line with its citation of


(1) A court or tribunal determining a question which has arisen in connection with
a convention right must take into account any—

Judgment, decision, declaration or advisory opinion of the European Court

of Human Rights,

Opinion of the Commission given in a report adopted under Article 31 of

the Convention,

Decision of the Commission in connection with Article 26 or 27(2) of the

Convention, or Decision of the Committee of Ministers taken under Article
46 of the Convention,
Whenever made or given, so far as, in the opinion of the court or tribunal,
it is relevant to the proceedings in which that question has arisen.

Lesson 3. Simple Steps to Write a Good Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is a single sentence that explains the argument you want
to present in a paper. It is most often located in the first paragraph of your paper.
Most academic outlets expect that you will present an argument. It is not
sufficient to simply report what you have read. You must take it a step further and
come to a conclusion based on the information you have gathered. This conclusion
is your thesis and your paper is your defense of the thesis.

1) How Do I Write a Thesis Statement?

Step 1. First you do research

Students often make the mistake of coming up with a thesis
before doing any research. A better method is to begin with research
in your field of study and look for patterns or themes. Not only does
this make proving your thesis easier, it also prevents you from tunnel
vision that could result in your arguing a thesis that is not true.

Step 2. Inspiration list

As you research, write down any ideas or themes that you
notice as you go along. Look for subjects that are recurring, interesting
or controversial. As an example, let us say you are researching street
art and graffiti you might write down the following:

 Some people love street art and others think it is vandalism.

 Certain cities seem to attract street artists more than others.
 Street art and graffiti (painting on walls) are not considered
the same thing.
 More visible and public areas are prized by street artists.
 Street art can be viewed for free.

The difference between Street Art and Grafitti, thus, the tag is
the core of graffiti writing. A graffiti writer might be insulted to be
called a “graffiti artist” or “street artist.” Within this subculture there
exists one main delineation between graffiti writers and street artists,
and that delineation is marked by the intention of the artist. Street art
is a subset of graffiti writing. Although there is a distinct difference
between the two, they are closely related and there is a great deal of
crossover between the genres. Because graffiti writing has a bad
public reputation as a destructive and vandalistic behavior, many
artists prefer to be called “street artists.” Conversely, many graffiti
writers, specifically “taggers” are out to destroy and vandalize public
property. They find the term “art” offensive and are happy to be
known as “saboteurs” (Lewisohn).

Tip: Keep track of where you found your most compelling research;
it’s not crazy to start building a works cited page in MLA or
an APA reference page this early. It just means that once you
are ready to write your thesis statement, you’ll already have
everything you need to build an outline for the rest of your

Step 3. Get creative

Take a look at your inspiration list and try to draw a unique conclusion
that you have not already read about. When it comes to papers, creative
ideas that can be supported by strong evidence are optimal. Based on our
list, we could reasonably argue that: Street art is the most accessible modern
art form.
2) Topic Sentences
A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph.
Sometimes referred to as a focus sentence, and it helps organize the
paragraph by summarizing the information in the paragraph. In formal
writing, the topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph.
The topic sentence essentially tells readers what the rest of the
paragraph is about. All sentences after it have to give more information
about that sentence, prove it by offering facts about it, or describe it in more
detail. For example, if the topic sentence concerns the types of endangered
species that live in the ocean, then every sentence after that needs to
expound on that subject.
Every topic sentence will have a topic and a controlling idea. The
controlling idea shows the direction the paragraph will take.
Here are some examples:
Dogs make wonderful pets because they help you to live longer.

(The topic is "dogs make wonderful pets" and the controlling idea is
"because they help you to live longer.")

Graduating from high school is important for many different reasons.

The topic is "graduating from high school" and the controlling

idea is "many different reasons."

Therefore, a carefully thought out topic sentence has two

functions. First, it helps you, the author, to stay focused. Second, a
clearly stated topic and controlling idea will give readers the tools they
need to clearly understand what you have to say.

Remember that topic sentences set the tone for the paragraph
and should relate back to the thesis or the main idea of the paper.


TEST: If you can answer yes to all of the following questions, your thesis
statement is ready.
√ Could someone reasonably dispute your thesis?
√ Is your thesis provocative or compelling?
√ Interesting ideas make reading more fun.
√ Is there enough research to support your argument?
√ Is your thesis statement simple to understand?
√ If your statement is too long or meandering take some time to
edit down to a more basic version.
Key to Assessment

A thesis statement is a research-based opinion. Keep it clear and

concise and you are on your way to a strong final paper.

Activity 3. Write at least 2 paragraphs whether the research findings have

significance to the respondents

Copyrighted information from broadsheets, books, journals are protected by

law. You must not copy exactly or in verbatim the information you have read. To
steal and use someone ideas without acknowledging the original author is
plagiarism and it is against the law. You can use your own words when getting
information from another source. This is called summarizing. Just do not forget to
give credit to the author/original source.


Practice summarizing, (250 words)! 1. Find a published research (thesis,

magazine, & journal). 2. Read a significant findings in 1 or 2 paragraphs, 3. Choose
the most important information, 4. Summarize this information and write it down
in your own words. Use proper citation/referencing, you can use:

√ APA/MLA (parenthetical citation)

√ Turabian (footnoting)

Lesson 4. Writing a Standard Essay

I. Introduction

A. Use a creative, interesting opening to catch the reader’s attention. You

can use interesting facts, figures, quotes, anecdotes, etc.
B. Provide brief background information of your paper’s topic (just enough
for the reader to have a context, this also explains why your opening
is relevant).
C. Provide a preview of the main points in your essay (briefly touch on the
subject areas that you plan on incorporating).
D. Establish your ideas and concisely articulates the paper’s main
idea/argument and topics that you will be writing about.
II. Body Paragraphs

A. Provide a topic sentence for each paragraph. This states the main idea of
the paragraph and transitions from the paragraph before it. Topic
sentences always connect back/expands on/argues.

Tip: If you cannot find some connection to your thesis within

your topic sentence/paragraph, it’s probably arbitrary information
and better left out.

B. Use supporting details to defend or strengthen the topic sentence.

Supporting details include primary or secondary sources, facts,
examples, and expert opinions. Ensure that every source is introduced
and properly cited with in-text citation and referenced on your
reference page.
C. Add personal commentary on the sources. Elaborate on why you included
your sources and what relevance or importance.
D. Paragraphs must be at least 5 solid sentences. Avoid paragraphs longer
than half a page.
E. Standard essays have at least 3 body paragraphs, but strong essays have

III. Conclusion

A. Restate your essay, but reword slightly to avoid unnecessary repetition.

B. Briefly summarize your main points proving that ties everything together.
C. Articulate why your essay relates to the larger audience.

Tip: This answers the “So what?” question. Why does your
paper matter? What relevance does it have to the larger audience?
Activity 4. Select 1 topic inside the box and write essay.

Do you use study guide?

Do you have a best friend?
How careful are you online?
What is your Sunday routine?
Are you distracted by technology?
Would you like to take a class online?
What famous landmarks have you visited?
Do you know boys who regard girls a prey?
What makes a graduation ceremony memorable?
Do you think you will have a career that you love?
What would you invent to make the world a better place?

Every Sunday, I used to listen TV Mass at the ABS-CBN at 6:00 in the

morning before going to church. One of the homilies that still I can memorize
until now when Fr. Glen Gomez said, “that a person has a human conscience,
you should be intellectually honest and emotionally right.” Our physical
being is composed of mind and body. Whatever dictates and dictions that
comes from our minds shall be controlled in our divine hearts.

The way we listen the gospel from the priest during Sunday Masses
are divine, hence our formation of wisdom always repeatedly read to us and
have been taken from the four evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
These four witnesses of Christ’s life on earth gives meaning that we should
follow on top of our decisions and before anything else we should share love
to our parishioners.

During the mass I understood by coming late, and also I am praising to

God when I came early. Fr. Bonifacio Salinas, who was my mentor, explained
to us that there are two parts in celebrating the mass. First, is the “Words of
God,” and the second, is the celebration of the Holy Eucharist…” A person
was created in likeness and image of God with an inner beauty through our
hearts and minds in such endeavor we walked with faith, respect, and love
one another (but never to love another one).

Finally, our spiritual alleviation by heart and mind we should do

praising, forgiving, repentance. Through patience make ourselves away from
the devil. Make ourselves accessible to those who needs in material and
moral by way of inclusion and also recalling that we were born not
sufficiently equip this world.
Chapter III

No one can cut-and-run in writing letters, words, or lines but tell us

where did you heard and read including quote. But if you will observe
over time, and trying to compete your profession beyond expectation
you encourage yourself to learn many things and you thought of being

Herbert Patterson, said “I haven’t written a letter in a long time.

Whether I am communicating with someone locally or overseas, I do it
by telephone. Communicating by telephone is easy, quick and very
reliable. East, west, north or south; it does not matter where someone I
need to talk to is I can get them on the telephone. But I do think that we
have lost something important. Penning a letter is an asset and
important skill which improved our skill in using the English language.

He credits frequently in writing letters throughout his studies for

helping him become a more precise writer. He taught us to think a lot
more about it than just writing a text or calling in telephone. He said and
concluded with the belief that “everyone should write letters instead of

Module I. The Letter

Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to:

1. Identify the parts of a business letter; and

2. Differentiate the different types of letter style/format.

A letter is written or printed means of communication addressed to a

person or organization. This form of communication is used to deliver messages
which can be a good news, offer, report, demand, request, information, claim,
instruction, etc. This form of communication has developed drastically. It has
changed into electronic mail or letter which is usually called e-mail. Though most
people have used e-mail, the traditional form of a letter is still widely used
especially for formal, business, and official use. Good business letters usually fulfill
the following criteria:

Lesson I. Parts of the Letter

Business letters include seven standard parts and the rest are optional in
1. Letterhead. This is the part of the letter that is printed at the top
of the stationery. It contains the name of the agency or institution, the
address and the telephone number. Sometimes the cable address, the
agency’s slogan or other data which serve to identify the particular company
are included. The letterhead is used by most agencies not only for
identification purposes but also for establishing its image.

2. Date. Is placed for the purpose of recording business events.

It consists of the month, the day and the year.
3. Inside Address. Focus on correct genders, names and titles. These
three are the most-important words to readers. Make a mistake with one of
these and you’ve offended the readers. By far, these are the most-important
words in their vocabularies. The inside address includes the name of the
addressee, or the person to whom the letter is intended; the title of respect
(such as Mr., Ms., Miss, Mrs., Dr., etc.) or the business title (such as the
president, the manager, etc.) and the address.

4. Salutation. Serves as a greeting for the addressee. The salutation

directly addresses the recipient of the letter and followed by a colon (except
when a friendly, familiar, sociable tone is intended, in which case a comma
is used).

5. Message. The message has three parts, namely; the opening,

the body and the closing. The opening presents the subject of the letter; the
body, discusses the subject; the closing rouses the reader to action. When
stationery with a letterhead is used in correspondence, blank paper of the
same weight, and size is also supplied for use in lengthy letters.

6. Complimentary close (subscription). Serves to end the message just

as good-bye and serves to end a conversation.

7. Signature. Contains the name of the writer. Always handwrite

your signature, even if the rest of the letter is typed.

8. Reference initials. It is included only for the writer’s administrative

purpose of reference later on. The reference initial are written two spaces
below the writers identification. The initials may include those of the
secretary, or the typist.

9. Reference line. An optional part of the letter, is placed on the page

immediately above or below the date line, when correspondence is devoted
to a certain file, policy, order or invoice, or intended for filing purposes. This
serves as a useful tool for both the reader and the writer of the
e.g. June 9, 2008 Ref. B-25295
Ref. B-25295 June 9, 2008

10. Special mailing notation and on-arrival notations. May be used

to specify a delivery method and intended readers for a business letter. If
this is used in a letter, is also included on the envelope. Special mailing
notation is used only if a letter is to be delivered by other than regular mail,
such as CERTIFIED or SPECIAL DELIVERY. On-arrival notation is used to
indicate which reader or readers are authorized to view the material
enclosed. PERSONAL is used when the letter should only be read by its
addressee. CONFIDENTIAL is used when the communication may be read by
its addressee and other persons authorized to view material the letter

11. Attention line. Is used by writers when a letter is addressed to a

company in general. This device is used for the purpose of directing the
letter to the attention of a specific person or group within the company that
can take care of handling the message.
e.g.: The Chair
Women’s Civic League
234 Mendiola St. Metro Manila
Attention: Ms. Sol Laredo

12. Subject line. Is a device used by the writer if s/he wants the reader
to know in advance the subject matter of the message. It is written two
spaces below the salutation.
e.g.: The Chair
Women’s Civic League
234 Mendiola St. Metro Manila
Attention: Ms. Sol Laredo
Subject: Beautification Campaign

13. Carbon copy notation (copy furnished). This device is used by the
writer when s/he sends duplicate copies of the letter to people other than
the addressee. The notation cc is written below the reference initials and is
indicated on all copies of the letter.
cc: Mr. George delos Santos
Atty. Angelito Almario

14. Blind carbon copy notation. The writer uses this notation when
s/he sends copies of the letter to other people other than the addressee.
The notation bcc is written only on the duplicate copies but never on the first
page of the addressee because the writer does not want the addressee to
know that s/he is furnishing copies of the letter to other persons.

15. Enclosure notation. Is written directly below the reference

initials. It is written for verification purposes only that something is enclosed
or included with the letter. It is for the good of both the writer and the
e.g.: Enclosure:

16. Postscript. This device is used by the writer when s/he forgets to
include an important point in the message. It is abbreviated P.S. in the letter.
The postscript is a time-saving device. Instead of retyping the entire letter,
the writer can just include the important portion of the message after the

Lesson 2. Comparison of the British and the American Styles

British Style American Style

Date: 3 August 2008 August 3, 2008

3rd May, 2008
Formal Salutation: Dear Sir, Dear Sir:
Dear Sir/Madam, Dear Sir/Madam:
Dear Messieurs/Mesdames, Dear Messrs/Mesdames:
Dear Madame Santos, Dear Madame Santos:
Semiformal Salutation: Dear Mr. Smith, Dear Mr. Smith:
Dear Mademoiselle Sawyer, Dear Miss Sawyer:
Dear Ms. Santos, Dear Ms. Santos:
Informal Salutation: Dear Dylyn, Dear Dylyn:
Closing: Yours faithfully, Very truly yours,
Yours sincerely, Sincerely yours,
Regards, Sincerely,
Activity 5. The Magic Square


Directions: Select from the numbered statements the one that relates best to each of
the learning style elements. Put the number in the proper space in the magic box. The
total of the number will be the same across each row and down each column. Three foil
items are included.

Learning Style Statements

A. subject line 1. Serves to end the message
B. enclosure notation 2. Writer’s name in handwriting
C. message 3. An external form of communication
D. salutation 4. Business correspondence
E. complimentary close 5. Greetings
F. letters 6. Transmittal letter
G. inside address 7. It may be written in American or British style
H. reference initial 8. Part of the letter written below dateline
I. postscript 9. It has the opening, body, and closing
J. bcc 10. Directing the letter to the attention of a specific person
K. attention line in the organization
L. letterhead 11. Know in advance the subject of the message
M. signature 12. The writer doesn’t want the addressee that he is
N. date sending copies to other persons
O. application letter 13. To emphasize important point of the message being missed
P. resume 14. Baronial stationery
15. For verification both the sender and the receiver
16. name of the company printed on top of the stationery
17. It highlights your educational qualification
18. It may be as solicited or unsolicited letter
19. Intended receiver of the message




Lesson 3. Business Letter Form Arrangement and Punctuation Styles
After studying this module, you should be able to:
1. follow the prescribed format in writing a letter;

2. understand when to use or not to use punctuation marks in writing

a letter; and

3. use good and tactful language in writing a letter.

Just about all the everyday things that we use are available in a wide variety
of styles or models. You may select from among six commonly used style of
arrangement and forms of punctuation pattern. There is no standard by which the
appropriateness or inappropriateness of specific style can be firmly established.
However, some companies adopt one particular arrangement and punctuation
style; and in such instances, as an employee would be expected to conform.
Modern business correspondence has assumed several formats as
acceptable styles. Each of these formats has its own individual characteristics and
a preferred punctuation pattern. Frequently, companies will adopt a certain style
as a matter of general policy; this make certain letters from that firm easily
recognizable. At present, these forms of letter are popularly used:
1. Full-block (also called block or extreme block)

The full block letter rivals the simplified letter in ease of

construction. Although similar in many ways to the simplified letter, this
very popular style offers the use of more traditional letter parts.
Special features:
1) All lines begin at the left margin. Paragraphs are not indented.

2) The salutation and the complimentary closing are used.

3) Any optional letter part or parts may be used (subject line,

reference line, attention line, enclosure lines, etc.); if included,
the part is blocked flush with the left margin.

4) The full block letter uses either the open or the standard
punctuation or the mixed punctuation style.
Davao del Sur
Telephone No. 569-2061/email add

September 27, 2008

Ms. Gina S. Agasang

Star Lodge and Hotel
General Santos City

Dear Ms. Agasang:

We at the Ocean Park and Resort are planning a seminar workshop for next
month and considering the Star Lodge and Hotel as an ideal venue of the
said activity.

Please send us information on the following services:

1. room rental for a group of 45 persons

2. cover for 3 meals and 2 snacks a day for 45 persons
3. facilities and other amenities available and cost
4. equipment such as projector, sound system available and rental

We will be visiting your place next week for the arrangements.

Very truly yours,

Agusto R. dela Cruz


2. Simplified
Recently, administrators and managers concerned with office efficiency have paid considerable attention to
reducing the time taken up in typing correspondence. The simplified letter is the result of their efforts. Because it has
fewer and less complex internal parts, the simplified letter is gaining popularity as the letter format of choice in many

Special features:
1) All lines begin at the left margin, paragraphs are not indented.

2) The salutation and the complimentary closing are omitted.

3) The subject line, which serves to summarize the message is used. It is flushed with the left margin,
under the salutation. It is completely capitalized and unheaded.
Star Lodge and Hotel
General Santos City
Telephone 662-1961 & email address

September 30, 2008

Mr. Agusto R. dela Cruz

Ocean Part and Resort
Davao del Sur


I am happy to know that you are considering the Star Lodge and Hotel as a possible venue for your training.

To answer your questions we can offer you the following discounted rate of 5 percent for a group of more than
35 for one room per day.

Four hundred pesos standard charge for three meals a day and we can make arrangement for more or less
expensive meals for your executive participants if you wish.

We have one larger meeting room with 100 seating capacity and three small rooms good for 50 persons. One
of these small rooms would probably meet your purpose. There is no extra charge for use of the telephone and
internet if within the town proper only

Finally, we have a large stage with complete facilities like overhead projector, sound system, backdrops, and
,500.00 per day.

Please don’t hesitate to call me at the above number if you have further queries.

Gina S. Agasang

3. Block (also called modified block)

The block letter has long been a popular format for business correspondence. It differs from the full block
letter in the placement of the date, the complimentary closing, and the signature block.

Special features:
1) The date line, the complimentary closing, and the signature block are aligned with one another. They
may also be placed flush with the right margin or centered on the page. The reference line (if used) is
blocked directly above or below the date line, or centered on the page.

2) All other letter parts are blocked, flush with the left margin.

3) Any optional letter part (or parts) may be used; if included, the part is blocked, flush with the left margin.

4) The block letter uses either the open or the mixed punctuation style.
Zaragoza Tiles and Furniture Products
Aquino St., Taguig City

October 10, 2008

Mr. Alex U. Tang

General Manager
Global Metals and Construction Supplies
Taft Avenue, Libertad, Pasay City

Dear Sir Alex:

Our company is interested to be one of the wholesale distributors of your products in Taguig City.
Although this area is occupied by big commercial establishments, your products are excellent and
can compete with other products already in the local market.

We are an accredited wholesale and retail distributor for Mariwasa tiles made in China and locally-
made furniture products intended only for local customers in the Taguig City.

Based on our survey, most of the contractors for 15 years now need additional high quality
products. Thus we are planning to extend our sales and services of these products to the provinces
outside Luzon and have identified middlemen as sub-distributor in those provinces.

Thank you very much.

Very truly yours,

Arlene S. Zaragosa

4. Modified Semi-Block (modified block with indented paragraphs)

The modified semi-block letter is a somewhat more conservative variation of the block letter
style. Since it requires indentation of first paragraph lines throughout the message and indentation of the
postscript, typing letters of this style is not quite as simple as typing the non-indented formats.

Special features:
1) The date line, the complimentary closing, and the signature block are aligned with one
another. They may also be placed with the longest line this letter parts flushed with the right
margin. The reference line, if used is blocked directly above or below the date line, or centered
on the page.

2) The first line of each paragraph and the postscript (if used) are indented five spaces from the
left margin. Optional indentation is three to eight spaces, but five is preferred.

3) The subject line (if used) is typically centered on the page and occurs after the salutation.
Open punctuation may be used, but it is not preferred.
Camp City and Village Resort
Juan Luna St., Marikina City

October 10, 2008

Ms. Agnes S. Gonsalez

Pearl Park and Hotel
Cebu City

Dear Madame Agnes:

From your catalogue we selected item No.10, model No. 50 for our purchase of chairs for
which you are giving a 2% discount. We need 5,000 made wooden chairs of durable materials which
can compete with those made abroad.

We would prefer it if you can deliver the items on site. Please include the applicable sales
tax and handling cost and the official receipt.

Thanking you in advance for your services.

Thank you very much.

Sincerely yours,

Dylyn S. Longcop

5. Indented
The indented letter, though never used in business letter in the United States, may still be found
in use among some European firms. It is included here as an example for correspondents who may
encounter this letter format in communication with foreign firms.

Special features:
1. The date line ends flushed with the right margin. The reference line, if used, is blocked directly
above or below the date line.

2. The first line of the inside address is flushed with the left margin. Subsequent lines are
indented five spaces more than the preceding line.

3. The subject line (if used) is centered on the page and is placed after the salutation.

4. The first line of each paragraph and the postscript (if used) are indented five spaces from the
left margin. All other lines are flushed with the left margin.

5. The signature block is indented five spaces beyond the complimentary closing, which begins
at page center.

6. Other optional letter part or parts may be used; if included the part is blocked flushed with
the left margin.

7. The indented letter uses only the closed punctuation style.

Moonstar and Hotel
Cagayan de Oro City

October 10, 2008

Ms. Jazmin O. Yulo
Ocean Part and Hotel
General Santos City

Dear Madame Yulo:

I would like to inform your company that some items delivered yesterday have been found defective.
It appears that 93 out of the 100 units CCTV were discovered defective and substandard made in China instead
of US.

We will appreciate it if these defective items will be replaced “ASAP” and the collectible balance
will be given upon delivery.

Please check the delivery receipt I have noted and personally witnessed by your delivery agent.

Hoping for your favorable action and consideration.

Cordially yours,

Dorotea S. Dacuno

6. Hanging-indented (also called inverted paragraph)

The hanging indented letter is a special-purpose format that is most popular in advertising letters.
Its main feature is the unique paragraph alignment, designed to catch the reader’s eye. Because of its
special applications, the hanging-indented letter is limited in its optional letter parts and alternatives for
placement of letter components chosen by the writer.

Special features:
1. The date line, the complimentary closing, and the signature block are aligned with one another, with the
longest of any of these letter parts flushed with the right margin.
2. The first line of each paragraph and the postscript (if used) are flushed with the left margin. Subsequent
lines in each paragraph and in the postscript are indented five spaces.
3. Other optional letter part (or parts) may be used; if included the part is blocked flushed with the left
4. The hanging-indented letter uses either the open or the mixed punctuation style.
At 52 Home Depot and Supply
Tugbok District, Davao City
Tele Nos. (035)370-7461 – (035)222-5292

October 10, 2008

Mr. Cresencio P. Orias

Bamboo Park and Resort
Mandaluyong City

Dear Manager Orias:

We appreciate your opinion against our product. We noticed through your representative your
suggestions regarding the color, size, and fixtures of the material only yesterday. You also
reminded that this did not pass through the quality control and standard procedure. This
means that we are overly lenient to our employees before the actual delivery.

Our personal apology to you for the inconvenience. We will require our technical experts at the
marketing department to visit your place and conduct an inspection whether or not the
specification indicated in your original requisitioned was followed.

Please, feel free to call us again in cases like this or email us at our official website.

Thank you very much.

Very truly yours,

Domingo S. Monticalvo

Folding and Inserting the Letter

When you correctly match the size of the envelope to the size of the stationery, folding
the letter attractively and inserting it easily into the envelope is simple.

1. For standard-size letters in No. 9 or 10 envelopes; executive or monarch size No. 7 envelopes;
half-sheet or baronial in No. 6 ¾ envelopes:

Place the complete letter, pages in order, on your desk face up. Fold the lower third of
the all the pages together up over the message. Then fold the upper third of all the pages together
down to meet the folded edge of the pages. Insert the letter so that the final fold faces the closed
bottom of the envelope.

2. For standard-size letter in No. 9 or 10 window envelopes; 8 ½ x 11 inches special forms in

No. 9 or 10 window envelopes:

Place the complete letter or form, pages in order, on your desk face up. Fold the top third
of the letter back so that the inside address and return address are in correct position for the
envelope window. Then fold the bottom third of all the pages together up over the message so
that the bottom edge of all pages meets the folded edge of the pages. Insert the folded sheet so
that all the necessary information is visible through the envelope window(s).
3. Fold letters based on the size of the paper and the envelope. Small sheets of paper need be
folded once; larger pieces must be folded in third, as shown in the diagram below.

Letter Letter
Letter Folded Once Folded Twice

Activity 6. Write a Friendly Letter

Instructions: 1) Use the Modified Semi-Block (modified block with indented

2) Introduce yourself to a new friend, old friend, or
someone you love.
3) Count your words: first paragraph 40 words, second
paragraph 250 words, and your concluding paragraph 30
4) Establish the 7 basic parts of the letter.
Chapter IV


As an entry-level applicant, you’ll want to present yourself well, on paper and in

person. Presenting yourself in the best light will depend on how you express and
communicate the value you offer.

Remember to always give examples of your talents and describe how you can
make a difference. This way, the recruiter can visualize you collaborating brilliantly with
the team you’d be working with.

Whether you’re about to apply for a job or you’re preparing for an interview, the
tips and advice from recruiters and hiring managers will help you stand out.

The Seven In-Demand Entry-Level Skills and Traits:

1. Language skills.
In addition to English, fluency in one of the following languages will be beneficial:
German, French, Dutch, Russian and Arabic. In 2017, we hired people who
spoke more than 50 languages, where their language communication skills were
essential to their role. There is an abundance of opportunities to work on global
projects using your native or second language skills to communicate.
2. Software and internet skills.
We hire entry-level people to work in service delivery roles like customer
experience, collections (finance), digital marketing and content review. To
manage your workload efficiently, good communication, data entry, email and
internet skills will help you keep everything in check. As an intermediate to
advanced user of Microsoft Office, you’ll find yourself easily mastering your role.
3. Growth mindset.
If you’re the type of person who’s always willing to grow and learn, and you give
100 percent when attempting new tasks, you could be the star talent we look for.
Even if you feel unsure, or think you’re not naturally great at something, you don’t
let that stop you. You’re a tryer; you don’t give up easily. You embrace the
famous proverb: “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.”
4. Innovation skills.
The business landscape is continuously changing, and innovation can make a
big impact on your career. An innovation approach helps you to think creatively
and critically, manage risks, solve problems, collaborate and adapt to changing
situations. Embracing innovation is a key quality that can help you develop
solutions and successfully navigate complex business environments.
5. Positive attitude.
A positive attitude is key to achieving your goals, no matter what challenges you
meet along the way. Obstacles in life and in work are only natural. If you can
organize your thoughts positively and communicate professionally, you’ll charge
ahead. Staying positive will also improve your energy levels and productivity—
and will help you meaningfully contribute to the great culture around you.
6. Teamwork.
It’s essential to the success of the team that each new hire is able to work well
with their fellow colleagues. This means listening to and taking guidance from
those who are more experienced. If you’re someone who reacts well to
constructive feedback and you enjoy being part of a team and a larger collective,
you could be the right fit.
7. Decision-making ability.
Rather than overthinking a scenario and procrastinating for long periods of time,
it’s vital that you are able to confidently make decisions when needed.
Throughout our day, each one of us are faced with hundreds of micro-decisions,
from deciding what to eat to how to respond to an email. Confident decision-
making is a sign of efficiency and responsibility.

Module I. Writing an Application Letters


After studying this module, you should be able to:

1. write an application letter to identified employer;
2. understand the use of the classified ads in making an application letter; and
3. know your purpose for writing an application letter.

Lesson I. The Letter of Application

This letter may be written in response to a newspaper advertisement; at the
suggestion of a relative, friend, teacher, or business acquaintance or at your own
instigation, even though you do not know of a specific job opening to which you write.
If the letter is well written, the employer will be interested enough to say, “this
applicant seems to have promise. I would like to talk with him/her in person.” If the
letter is poorly written, the prospective employer will toss it aside without expressing
any desire to see the writer in person. Thus, the employer looks upon the application
letter as a screening device. Those who write good letters get through the screen;
those who do not are left outside. The application letter, then, is important enough
to warrant careful thought and planning.
The appearance of the application letter gives the employer a clue to the
personality and work habits of the writer. A sloppy letter suggests that the writer may
not be careful about his/her own appearance or about his/her work habits – and this
is not the kind of impression you want your letter to make.
The writer of an application letter wants the prospective employer to be
favorably impressed and to grant an interview. The physical appearance of the letter
can do much to help create this favorable impression. Follow this instruction in
preparing your letter:
1. Use good grade of 8 ½ x 11 bond paper (white). Be certain that it is
clean and free from smudges and finger marks both before and after
you write your letter.
2. Type your letter of application, unless you have been specifically
requested to submit an application in your handwriting. If you write
your letter by hand, recopy it until you have the best specimen of your
3. Address your letter to a specific person in the organization if it is
possible to obtain his or her name.
4. Don’t expect to get your letter exactly right the first time. Be willing to
rewrite it until it represents you in the best possible light.
5. Never copy an application letter out of a book. Let your letter express
your own personality.

The application letter is usually accompanied by a qualification summary. In this

case, it is neither necessary nor desirable to describe fully your education and
experiences; this is the job of the qualification summary. The letter’s main purpose is to
transmit the qualifications summary and to supplement it with personal sales messages.
Of course, if you do not send a qualification summary with your letter of application, then
you must include more details about yourself in the letter. One reason why the
qualification summary is so effective is that no one likes to read a long rambling letter of
Beginning the letter – the amount of “selling” done in the letter of application
depends on how much you want the job and how much compensation there is for it. If
you know you have a good chance to get the job without special effort, then there is no
point in making the letter sound like a sales message. If, however, the job is a once-in-a-
lifetime proposition and you know you’ll have to compete for it, then you’ll probably have
to “pull out the stops.”

Lesson 2. Requesting References

Almost every prospective employer likes to have information regarding the
character, training, experience, and work habits of job applicants. You may need to
supply only the name, title, and address of references, leaving to the interested
prospective employer the task of obtaining the references s/he desires.
Before using a person’s name as a reference, you should request his
permission to do so. This permission may be obtained in person, by telephone, or by
a letter like this:

I am applying for the position of assistant records supervisor that is now open at
the San Miguel Corporation in Makati.

Since, I was a student in your office practice class, where I had excellent filing
instruction, I would like to ask permission to use your name as a reference.

Lesson 3. Follow-up Letter

If your application letter has succeeded in obtaining a personal interview for
you, the next letter you should write will follow the personal interview. For example:

Thank you for talking with me yesterday about the vacancy in your credit
department. You gave me a very good picture of what should be expected of anyone who
fills this position

I am very much interested in the job you have available and feel that my
experience with the Layons Automobile Company during the past two years would prove
a definite asset in fulfilling the duties.

I hope that you will consider my application favorably. Please let me know if I
may provide you with any additional information. Thank you.

Lesson 4. Letter of Refusal

Perhaps you have been offered a position for which you applied, but you have
also received another offer that you feel is better. You should return the courtesy
extended to you by writing a tactful, friendly letter of refusal. This letter may read:

Thank you for offering me the position of junior stenographer in your law firm.
It would have been a pleasant experience working with you and the other fine people

Just two days before receiving your offer though I accepted another job, I
appreciate the time and effort your people spent in considering me.

Lesson 5. Thank You Letter (the same with a letter of accepting the position)
The persons you have written reference letters for you undoubtedly helped
you obtain a position. You should be courteous enough to let them know that you
have accepted the position. You might write:

Thank you for the recommendation you sent to the Mason Corporation. This is
to inform you that I am already employed as secretary to Mr. George D. White,
Advertising Manager.

Until I see you in person to express my gratitude, let me assure you that I do
appreciate your help.
Lesson 6. Letter of Resignation
Occasionally, you may need to write a letter resigning from a position. (Of
course, you should discuss your resignation with your supervisor before writing a
letter.) Regardless of your reason for resigning, your letter should be friendly in tone
and tactful. Some day you may want your employer to give you a reference and you
want him to remember you favorably. For example:

I wish to resign from my present position, effective April 30, 2012.

I have enjoyed my work in your company, but I accepted a position with the
McKin Insurance Company.

in the new position, I shall have more opportunity to use my stenographic

training. In addition, this offer has more opportunities for advancement.

Thank you for the many kindness that have made my work here for the past two
years such a pleasant and worthwhile experience.
This typical example of preparing an application letter was delivered during the career
orientation seminar for all graduating students of the University of Eastern Philippines, School
Year 2003-2004.

Home Address

Title & Name

Company Name

Dear Sir/Madam:

Tell where you get the information about the opening of the job, and why you
have selected their company. Arouse the employer’s interest by mentioning briefly
something you are preparing that relates to the job you are applying for.

Here, you use your skills of reading between the lines. Use your decoding process
by checking the following requirements stating in the ads. If you have work experience,
be sure to mention pertinent data or accomplishment to show that you have specific
qualifications in this field or for this particular type of work. Refer the employer to your
résumé. Expand on anything in it that relates to the job or employer. Indicate that you
are willing to provide additional data. If possible mention your personal reference.

The closing paragraph should suggest your eagerness to arrange an interview and
to include courteous “participial phrases.”

Very truly yours,

Fullname with signature



Module 2. Writing Good Résumés

Your résumés and cover letter (Bently, 1991) are your first line of attack in getting the job
you want. How do you write them to describe your abilities to potential employers?

Too often people are rejected by prospective employers due to sloppy, silly-looking
résumés. Bear in mind that the résumés is meant to be a list of your qualifications; it is your first
opportunity to convince a prospective employer that you are worth hiring; therefore, a good
résumé is one that gets read by the personnel concerned for hiring.
Lesson I. The Importance of Writing Resume

A clearly stated job objective which answers the following question:

1. What do I want to do?

2. For whom or with whom do I want to do it?
3. Where do I want to do it?
4. At what level of responsibility?

Keep in mind that the job objectives should be written and targeted for each
company you apply to if they are in different fields (i.e., one job objective for a PR

Do not include: A five year plan for your life, ambitions, and any appeals
to emotion, (i.e., “I need a job to support my starving family”).

5. The highlights of your qualifications: You have to convince whoever reads your
resume that you are qualified for the job (with relevant experience, credentials, and basic
skills) and especially talented for it. This means you read the want ad carefully and check
for what the company wants, then key your résumé to focus on the skills and experience
the company needs.

Do not include personal commentaries, i.e., “I am qualified for this job

because I am Catholic.”

6. A presentation of directly relevant skills and experience:

1) Include personal study in your field (workshops, classes, and

other informal ways you have learned).
2) Certificates or credentials (PRC, etc.)
3) Make sure to edit your résumé to suit the position you
are applying for; if you want to be a writer, focus on your work with
the school paper or company newsletter; if you want to be an
accountant, there is no need to stress that you were the school muse
for 2007, unless the position you are applying for requires good looks
(modeling, sales, and so on).

Do not include photographs of your work unless specifically asked for.

7. A chronological work history that lists both paid and volunteer jobs. Include
your job title, the name and address of the company, and a brief job description.

Do not include references, reasons for leaving previous jobs, and salary
rates here.

8. A listing of relevant education and training, which includes a list of schools you
attended (from high school onwards) and the relevant dates, what degrees you earned,
and honors you earned.

Do not include a list of your hobbies, school affiliations (organizations,

clubs, fraternities or sororities), and other useless personal information
Stay Away From:

Smilies. This is a professional application, not a Friendster, Facebook, or

Multiply profiles. Smilies make you look childish and silly.

Cutesy graphics. The overly elaborate fonts and layouts. You want to be seen
as a professional, not a child. The point is to get the résumé read! There are
many good sample résumé layouts online.

Gigantic photos of yourself. You are trying to get hired, not sneered at; if your
photo is particularly silly, you may find it scanned and posted on the Internet.

Fancy paper. (colored, scented, textured, etc.); clean white bond paper is the
best for readability.

The use of all caps (i.e., “PRESIDENT of the Glee Club”) or the unnecessary
capitalization of certain letters and intercapping (Secretary of The Student
CounCil). It’s not a text message.

Text abbreviations. Again, you want to be professional; nobody in his/her right

mind would hire someone who writes this: “N highschool I wnt thru spcl skills

Lesson 2. Seven Things to Remember

√ The résumé is meant to present you as a professional, not a friend. Do
not be cute, and never lie to look better, because HR managers can, and often do,
share information.
√ Be sure to edit your résumé for grammar and spelling. Bad grammar,
and misspelling the name of your school, for example, is always taken against you.
√ Include a cover letter, which should never ever exceed one page.
√ Keep your résumé to two pages or less.
√ Always give your references a copy of your résumé and tell them you are
citing them as references; never blindside a person by listing them then not
informing them.
√ Do not put a date on your résumé (i.e., “updated May 15, 2012”)
because if your search for a job takes longer than a month, hiring personnel will
assume your résumé is outdated and will tend to overlook it.
√ Include the following data about yourself: How you can be contacted
(landline, cellphone, email) but avoid including height, weight, religion, comments
about your health.

Lesson 3. Writing the Objective Statement

What is an objective statement? Ideally, it is a single, brief sentence in which you make a
statement about what you want to do in your career, and show that you know what your goals
in employment are – and these are congruent with the needs of your potential employer.
Remember, you have no direct contact with your potential employer, so the objective
statement is where you can get to make your resume more personal, to introduce yourself to a
potential employer in your own words.
To draft a good objective statement, study the classified advertisement and be sure to
address key phrases in it such as “self-motivated” or “good communication skills.”
In line with that you should list your strengths, abilities, special skills, qualifications,
notable training undertaken, and other qualities you possess that match the position you are
applying for.
An objective statement is something that became necessary on resumes fairly recently,
but it is also where many jobseekers make their biggest mistakes. All too often resume
statements become over general, like this typical objective statement, variants of which appear
in too many resumes:
“To obtain a position at (company) where I can maximize my management skills,
quality assurance, program development, and training experience.” This statement says
nothing, except that it’s about you, not what you can do for the company. So, what should
be in your objective statement? Depending on the company you are applying for, any
and/or all of these:

√ Your career goal(s), and how they match up with the company you are
applying for;

√ Your competencies, so that employers can match them with the position
you are applying for; and

√ Key phrases and words that reflect the qualities the employer is seeking,
and which appeared in the classified advertisement for the job opening(s).
But then the objective statement can be a place to shine. An applicant who submits an
objective statement that complements a potential employer’s mission and vision may find an
edge over others. For example, an applicant for an editor-in-chief position in newspaper industry
can include an objective statement like, “Writing is my strength, and I believe that, given
the commitment to excellent content that your company has, I can reach my
potential as a writer while giving my best services, and find that this works in both
proving my great competence.”
The following are samples of the objective statements
For Career Objective
To utilize all the skills, knowledge and learning that I have acquired during my long time
experience as a marketing student. To contribute and exercise all the capabilities that I possess in order
to serve the current and potential customers of the market.

Guest Richzelle Ann Armamento

For Sales Objective

To offer my skills to your company, especially in the field of sales, advertising, and monitoring and
to grasp power to enhance my professional skill set in accordance with organizational objectives.

Guest Bambino
For Professional Objective
To work in a challenging and stimulating environment with opportunity to use my current
experience and to enrich my knowledge and enhance my experience.To contribute towards the
achievement of organizational objective by applying my professional skills.

Guest Ankit Gupta

For General Resume Objective

Seeking a challenging opportunity where I will be able to utilize my strong organizational skills,
educational background, and ability to work well with people, which will allow me to grow personally and
professionally. I am self-motivated and able to work both independently and as collaborative team
Guest Teerie

Objective Statement To share my knowledge and work experience in your company

that may be needed to your valued customers.
Personal Profile
Date of Birth:
Present Address:
Telephone Number:
Elementary: Name of school, complete address, month and year graduated
High School: Name of school, complete address, month and year graduated
College: Degree, name of the school, complete address, month and year graduated

Your position, name of agency/company, complete address, month and year
Seminar-Workshops Attended
Name and title of seminar, sponsored by, complete address, month and year
Name of particular occasion, sponsored by, complete address, month and year
Membership in Organizations
Your position, name of organization, complete address, month and year
Name of examination, given by, complete address, month and year

Personal Reference
Title and name, position, name of agency, complete address; Title and name, position, name of agency,
complete address.

e.g.: Cong. (complete name), House of Representatives, Constitutional Hills, Quezon City;
Gov. (complete name), Governor, Province of Northern Samar, Brgy. Dalakit, Catarman, Northern
Samar and Hon. (complete name), Mayor, Catarman, Northern Samar

Full Name with Signature

Module 3. Sources of Job Opportunities

After studying this module, you should be able to:
1. Consult your parents or elder brothers and sisters and even friends on job
opening; and
2. Read and look for job advertisement as material for making an application
Lesson I. Different Publications of Vacant Positions from Public and Private Agencies

Vacant Position
In the

(Pursuant to R.A. 7041)

Date of Release: April 30, 2003
Published by the


Northern Samar Provincial Field Office
Catarman, Northern Samar


(Pursuant to RA 7041 and its Implementation Rules)
Published by the Civil Service Commission
Northern Samar Field Office, Catarman, Northern Samar
December 9, 2011

Region VIII. University of Eastern Philippines, University Town, Northern Samar –

Cashier’s Office, One (1) Supervising Administrative Officer (Cashier IV)
Salary Grade 22, Item No. UEPB-SADOP-29-2004, Education: Bachelor’s
Degree, Experience: Three (3) years of relevant experience, Training:
Sixteen (16) hours of relevant training, Eligibility: For SUC’s,
Career Service (Professional), Second Level Eligibility.

Region VIII. University of Eastern Philippines, University Town, Northern Samar –

Instructor I, Salary Grade 12, Item No. UEPB-Instructor 1-2-2011; (College of
Arts and Communication), Education: Bachelor of Science in Education –
major in Filipino preferably Master’s Degree in Filipino or Honor
Graduate; Experience: with relevant experience; Training: none
required; Eligibility: For SUC’s – none required, RA 1080 (For courses
requiring BAR or BOARD eligibility), For non-SUC’s – (PBET/Teacher/
RA 1080).
Republic of the Philippines
Catarman, Northern Samar


As of April 28, 2003
(1) Clerk 1: SG-2 Item # VGO 17-5: completion of two years studies in college;
Career Service Sub-Professional.

(2) Communication Equipment Operator 1: SG-4 Item # PIO 153-3; completion

of two years studies in college or high school graduate with relevant
vocational/trade course; appropriate license or MC 11, s. 96 – Cat. II.

(1) Nurse 1: SG-10; Item # ADH 183-30; Bachelor of Science in Nursing; RA 1080.

(1) Records Officer II; SG-14; PGO 14-1; Bachelor’s degree; 1 year of relevant
experience; 4 hours of relevant training; Career Service Professional.


Presidential Awardee for Export Excellence

(Suriname Earth Moving Contracts N.V./Accre. No. 94790)
Chief Mechanic (Hitachi Mining Level III)
Candidates must have excessive (proven) experience and factory training in
maintenance and repair of Hitachi Mining Excavators and Shovels. Alternatively
mechanics with similar training and experience on Komatsu or
Caterpillar Mining excavators may also apply.

Please report with bio data, certifications, and photo to:

South Superhighway, Paranaque
Tel. No. 8211650 to 55 Fax No. 8222144
Register Online at
Beware of illegal recruiters. POEA 113-LB-052103-AOE
Preparing students to become Global Pinoys.

A progressive tertiary institution in Rizal province, we are inviting qualified

applicants to join us for the 1st. trimester, School Year 2012-2013:

Dean Medical Technology, Engineering (ECE)

Faculty IT, ECE, Business, Mathematics, Criminology, Hotel and

Restaurant, Tourism, Accounting, Physics, English/Filipino, Social
Sciences, Psychology, Education, Medical Technology, and PE

Applicants must be graduates of relevant course, with PRC license (if applicable),
have teaching and industry experience, possess excellent verbal and written
communication skills and of good moral character.

Staff To be assigned in Rizal (Guidance Counselors, Cashier/Teller,

School Nurse, Admissions and Records Clerks, Computer
Technicians, Driver)

To be assigned in San Juan City (CPA, Accounting Assistant, HR

Assistant, Pharmacist, Office Assistant)
Have bachelor’s degree and with license (if applicable), with relevant experience
and of good moral character.

Please submit your updated resume and other credentials to the:

Human Resources Department

P.O. Box 559, Greenhill, San Juan, Metro Manila or to
Email – for more details, please check
PARIKIT INASAL378 de Guangco St., Sta Elena Marikina City Hotel and
Restaurant Updated January 24, 2013

Looking for female waitress with pleasing personality, ages 18 to 25 years old
with or without experience, can work with flexible hours

☞Female at least 5'3 in height, 18-25 yrs old
☞Pleasing personality & good looking
☞At least high school level
☞Fast learner and trainable
☞Flexible and can perform multi tasking
☞Willing to be assigned around Metro Manila areas
☞Preferably near Marikina area

Interested applicants may send updated resume to:

Pleasing Personality: Its Importance to the Applicants

The qualities of a pleasing personality: Negative habits that destroy a pleasing

Positive mental attitude Sarcasm (lack of respect)

Flexibility of behavior Slovenliness (untidy)
Controlled and directed enthusiasm Vanity (pride)
Sincerity of purpose (can’t be faked) Breaking in and running away with conversation
Being a good talker rather than a good listener
Conveying an impression of superiority
Openly and directly challenging people
Habit of finding fault on people
√ Male/Female, 25-35 years old
√ Preferably with experience in government dealings
√ College Graduate of any business or related discipline
√ Good in oral and written communication skills
√ Willing to travel

Submit personally your resume or curriculum vitae to:

HRD at 816 Aurora Blvd. Cubao, Quezon City or
you can email at

Please, look in the

classified advertisements in the
newspaper for job openings of a
company and express your wish to apply.

You have to write the solicited type of

application letter with a resume. Carefully
examine their requirements if
you are qualified for the

Good luck!
Example: BSHRM graduate

The Pino Restaurant at Tsai Hotel Residences, Wilson St., Lahug, Cebu City published in the
Philippine Star’s Classifinder dated October 3, 2019 the following job positions:

Accommodation Manager
Catering Manager
Conference Centre Manager
Fast Food Restaurant Manager
Hotel Manager

Applicants are required to submit updated resume and transmittal letter, with the following

Male/female, at least 23 to 26 years old

College graduate of any business related discipline
Pleasing personality
Hardworking and able to work on flexi time
Good communication skills

Lesson 2. Different Types of Interview


After studying this module, you should be able to:

1. have advance knowledge about the different types of interviews you

may encounter for seeking a job;
2. understand the type or style of interview would the recruitment officer is
imposing; and
3. clear yourself to be interviewed anytime when applying for the job.

Most of us have experienced one-on-one interviews where the recruitment officer asks
questions and we answer them as best we can. But did you know that, depending on the position
you are applying for and your entry level, you might encounter other forms of interviews? Let
me share with you some of the most popular types of interviews so that you can come to any
interview prepared, and you won’t get shocked if all of a sudden, you are asked to do something
else other than just answer questions.

√One-on-One Interview. A recruitment officer will conduct testing and interview you
as a first step. Once, you pass this, you will then be called in for a second interview which is
usually conducted by the supervisor or manager you will be working with. Depending on the
hiring policy and procedure of the company, you may then be asked to return for a third
interview. Otherwise, if your qualifications are suitable and the supervisor or manager gives the
go-signal for hiring, you will meet the recruitment officer and receive a job offer. Some
companies have two to three series of interviews with different formats, but there have been
cases where applicants are hired on the spot by smaller companies where you deal directly with
the boss.
√Phone Interview. Increasingly becoming popular, phone interviews are done as a
screening method before an actual face to face interview. Some recruitment officers prefer to
ask questions during the first phone call so that they can see if you are applying for the
appropriate job and if your circumstances suit you for the job. This saves them time and effort.
When they see that the basics are covered, they will then schedule a face-to-face interview for
you in that same call. This is used to eliminate biases as they will not immediately see your
appearance and mannerism.

√Job/Career Fair Interview. Most career fairs are used by companies to collect
resumes. However, there are some instances wherein you will be given a chance to undergo a
screening interview wherein the Human Resource representative will allot 2-5 minutes for you.
If you do well, you may be called in for a more in-depth interview. Since time is limited, you will
have to take care to make a good first impression. So be sure to dress properly for job fairs; you
never know when you might just get a quick interview right there and then. When you are
interviewed, be sure to smile. Listen attentively and give concise but informative answers. Thank
the interviewer for his or her time and before you go, tell the interviewer that you would be
available for a more in-depth interview anytime and that you are really interested in their
company. Do this confidently and not desperately.

√Group Interview. There are cases when you will be interviewed and tested with two
or more candidates who are all vying for the same position. There could be two reasons for this,
either there is only one job opening and the interviewer wants to see candidates prove
themselves or there could be several job openings for the same position and the interviewer
wants to see how well you can collaborate with other people. Testing your competence for
collaboration is usually done in technology industries where employees work in teams to find

√Panel Interview. There are also instances wherein you will have to face three or more
members of the organization. These may be the management committee or representatives of
different departments that you will be closely working with. This type of interview is usually done
in academic institutions or for senior level positions. It is somewhat similar to your college thesis
defense. It can be a bit nerve-wracking, so you will need to trust in yourself and believe that you
can do it. The reason why this is done is because it saves time and effort for everyone, but more
importantly, it also tests your ability to face a group of people, how well you can address their
concerns, and perform with grace under pressure.

√ Audition Interview. For careers that require public speaking such as even hosting
and training, or on-cam jobs like acting, singing, or entertainment performance, you will most
likely have to undergo an audition or screen test. You will be given a series of public speaking
exercises, reading lines, and impromptu tests. This is to see how well you are able to
communicate with an audience, whether you are prepared or not. You will also be asked
questions and it may feel like an interrogation, but it is a necessary part of an audition.
Remember, when you are faced with this type of interview, just have fun, enjoy it, and bring out
the star in you. You are being asked questions because they are interested in how you
communicate with an audience or in front of a camera. These are just some of the types of
interviews that we normally use as Human Resource practitioners. In fact, in our recruitment
seminar, we further examine interview styles and questionnaires so that we find the best person
for the job. As a job seeker, it is important for you to know what to expect and take time to
mentally prepare for these types of interviews since some companies use several of these
formats in their recruitment process. I hope this helps you job seekers prepare for and enjoy
your interview.

Lesson 3. Tips on How to Sell Yourself in any Job Interview

Knowing how to present yourself and understanding what a potential employer may be
looking for in an interview can increase your chances of landing you the job.

Going for an interview with sufficient industry knowledge is important; however the
manner you present your knowledge can make or break you. Here are some tips on how to be
ready for an interview in an ideal career preparation and it takes diligence and a cool head to
step up to the role as an interviewee.

Every job interview is different, but there are some general guides and principles for any
kind of interview and for any job you apply for. The most common question every interviewer
asks is “Introduce yourself”. While answering this question and others, keep the following points
in mind, so that your interviewer will really begin to consider you as a possible asset to the

1. Be the solution – companies hire on vacant position only. In other words, when a
company feels they cannot work efficiently with their current staff they announce
they need to fill. In this way, you are the need of the business, let him feel as you are
the person he needs. If your interviewer feels that you are already skilled or
possessed experience in the field you want, you have better chance than novices or
those without background.

2. Show your intelligence - always remember to demonstrate your knowledge in any

way you can. Be subtle about it, though. Too much self-praise and you all look like a
know-it all. At the same time, don not act as if you know more than you do. Most
likely, you will be asked to prove this knowledge, especially if you are applying for a
job with high prerequisites; such as a college degree.

3. Demonstrate your willingness to learn – teamwork skills are also fairly important to
discuss when attending an interview. Tell your interviewer of any past experiences
with team work, what kind of work it was, and what tasks you had to accomplish.

4. Show off your portfolio – a portfolio is a collection of works (art, writing, etc.) you
have accomplished in the past. Some careers requires this, while others do not.
Architectural work, for example, usually requires a portfolio of structures you have
designed previously. Journalists and graphic designers also require portfolios. When
showing off your portfolio, remember to explain any drawings or images to the
interviewer, so they have some idea of what they are looking at. Remember to display
your biggest accomplishments the most proudly. For example, if designed a new logo
for a popular or widely-known business that business popularity alone can make you
look more credible and therefore more likely to stand out against other applicants.

5. Prepare to talk about your resume – a resume is a brief outline of your background
and capabilities. At the very least, it should include your higher education, contact
information, skills and job history. Whenever possible, do not lie on your resume.
Sooner or later, you will get found out, and the consequences of that could be losing
your job, or worse. Often, the interviewer will ask you questions regarding your
resume. Answer truthfully and thoroughly.
6. Be positive – do not complain about your past work to the interviewer or give them
any blame. Even if you truly believe your last employer was incompetent or stupid,
complaining about it only makes you look childish. Do not make excuses as to why
you have been fired or why you quit. Most importantly, trust and believe in yourself.

Part of your job includes conversing about everyday topics with your colleagues
for the sake of team-building so that your interviewer will appreciate your ability to transit
from business to casual conversation. The interviewer is most of the time asking you
some polite questions, such as: What do you consider…?, May I ask…?, Could you tell…?,
So, you are interested…?, What do you consider your greatest strength…?, What do you
consider your greatest achievement…?, Could you tell me what job you are doing…?, May
I ask, are you married? As your interview draws to a close, part with a firm handshake
and a light-hearted exchange of your conversations.

Activity 7. Write Application Letter

Instructions: 1. Look a classified ads from the newspaper

2. Choose their qualification needs and think you are qualified
3. Read between the lines, do not copy the phrases, just answer it.
4. Edit your application letter, and your resume, follow the given
Chapter V. Writing Memorandums


Memos have a twofold purpose: they bring attention to problems and they
solve problems. They accomplish their goals by informing the reader about new
information like policy changes, price increases, or by persuading the reader to take
an action, such as attend a meeting, or change a current production procedure.

A memorandum is a short note designating something to be remembered,

especially something to be done or acted upon in the future; reminder. a record or
written statement of something. an informal message, especially one sent between
two or more employees of the same company, concerning company business: an
interoffice memorandum.

After studying this module, you should be able to:

1. know the significance of writing memorandum;

2. differentiate a letter from a memorandum; and
3. understand the strong points of a memorandum.

Lesson I. The Memorandum

A memo is intended to inform a group of people about a specific issue, such as an event,
policy, or resource, and encourages them to take action. The word “memorandum” means
something that should be remembered or kept in mind.
The main difference between a memorandum and a letter is that the memorandum is
written to a person in one’s own company, while a letter is written to someone outside the
In most companies, memorandums are written in first person, just as business letters are.
There is no hard-and-fast rule about tone in memorandum, however. The manner in which they
are written will depend upon the preference of the management in the company by which you
are employed. Those who maintain that interoffice correspondence should be formal believe
that information will be presented more accurately and read more objectively if “I” and “We” are
kept out of the message. They believe that, in a memorandum written in first person, it is easy
to confuse fact with opinion.
In these companies, where business relationships are quite formal and the executives are
not on a first-name basis, memorandums are likely to be written in the third person, thus:
“it is believed that…” (instead of “I believed”)
“it will be seen that…” (instead of “You can readily see that”)
“it is recommended that…” (instead of “I recommend”)
“the requested report has been completed…” (instead of “I have completed the report
you have asked for”)

The tone of the memorandum is influenced also by the position held by the writer in
relation to that held by the person to whom s/he is writing. Obviously, a person writing to the
company president is less likely to be casual and breezy than if s/he were writing to an equal in
rank. However, the personality of the individual receiving the memorandum is what actually
determines its tone. The president may like informality, for example, where a minor executive
might insist on complete objectivity and an impersonal writing style.
Most companies have their own memorandum forms.

No. 1, s. ______
To: ______________
From: ______________
Subject: ______________
1. Message/paragraph
2. Message/paragraph
3. Message/paragraph

Name & Signature

Activity 8. Write a Memo

Assume that you are the
Schools Division Superintendent of the
Department of Education,
Division of Northern Samar, Catarman, Northern Samar.

Write a memorandum to your district supervisors, principals, and

teachers regarding the visit of your Regional Director of the
Department Education, Regional Office No. VIII,
Tacloban City.
His/her visit is to observe the implementation of the
K12 program or the modified basic
education curriculum.
strictly observe the
format/style of writing the memorandum.

Assume that you are the manager of your own business establishment (name)
located in Catarman, Northern Samar. Write a memorandum to your employees remind them about negligence to
duty and reporting to work not in uniform.
Chapter VI


Meetings are an important way to keep your team in sync and your initiatives
running smoothly. Whether you need to share information, gather feedback, or
make decisions, there are a plethora of positive effects of having weekly staff
So, what makes a meeting effective? According to a leadership
lesson presented by the Association of American Medical Colleges, “Effective
meetings allow for open conversation that draws upon each members' knowledge,
skills, and perspectives to solve problems and to support one another in achieving
the collective goals.” This may seem like a simple definition, but it takes skill to
consistently run meetings that fit that description. The better your leaders are
at running effective meetings, the more you will witness the following four benefits
within your organization.
Within an organization, various types of meetings are conducted where
information sharing takes place e.g. for the purpose of problem-solving, planning,
decision making, or a general staff meeting. Such meetings serve as an important
means for coordination between teams and constitute a significant part of the life
of every organization.
Good meeting management skills also ensure valuable contribution by all
team members, which helps in finding the optimum solutions for issues at hand.
Meeting management also plays an important role in improving communication,
interpersonal relationships, teamwork, as well as employee morale and
Therefore, if meetings are so important, so is the ability to manage them
effectively. Cost efficiency serves as the primary importance of meeting
management skills. The more organized a meeting is, the lesser time will be wasted
by employees, resulting in increased productivity and revenues for the

After studying this module, students are expected to:

1. observe the proper conduct of a meeting;
2. develop a habit of respect and obedience to resolve issues;
3. enhance the role of parliamentary procedure in conducting a
4. memorize some terms in conducting a meeting;
5. know how to raise a motion during a meeting; and
6. conduct a meeting in the classroom with your classmates
The characteristics of a successful meeting should start immediately and to
finish on time. Then, all proceedings and transactions of all businesses in the
agenda will be satisfactorily settled and proper decorum of all concerned are
hereby suggested:

Module I. Tips on How to Conduct a Successful Meeting

Proper preparations by the chair and members before the meeting will
ensure that the meeting progresses without a glitch. The following measures will
help to make a meeting successful:

1. At the exact time mentioned the agenda, the chair should call the
meeting to order.

2. Next the quorum should be ascertained. Usually a quorum consists

of a majority (more than half the members of the organization). In large
organizations, a smaller quorum, like one third may be set by the constitution
and bylaws so that meetings are not abandoned for want of sufficient

3. If there are insufficient members for a quorum to constitute, the

chair should postpone the meeting for a certain time, say, 10 minutes, till
there is enough quorum. This should be included in the minutes and
mentioned during the start of the meeting so that latecomers realize their
folly. The quorum requirement is insisted upon to avoid important decisions
being taken by an unrepresentative minority.

4. Once the quorum is ascertained, after roll call, the chair will read
out the agenda and have it approved by the meeting. The meeting will then
proceed according to the agenda.

5. A time limit should be fixed for each item on the agenda.

Lesson I. Making a Motion

A motion is a proposal for action by the officers and members of the organization. They
need to decide on what to do the agenda presented in a meeting. Having a motion will serve the
meeting into a right direction, decision, and even conclusion that the purpose is properly done.
It is suggested that a chair or the presiding officer should follow the level of parliamentary
procedure by using the Robert’s Rules of Order.

There are four main steps in addressing the motion: 1) Making the motion, 2)
Seconding the motion, 3) Discussing the motion, and 4) Voting on the motion.

Making the motion – a motion is a verbal proposal that is raised and

recognized by the chair in a meeting. The proponent (movant) of a motion is
requested by the chair to state motion. In stating the main motion, he/she should
begin and says, “I move that, ….(state the motion).” That said motion should be
specific and diligently spoken in a proper wording. When the motion had properly
done, typically a "seconder" should say, “I second the motion,” once the motion has
been seconded, the chair ask for the discussion.

The chair uses the gavel as a sign of leadership that helps the members to
understand what is happening or how they would participate in the meeting. The
gavel should be tapped on a block or table in a firm, concise manner to symbolize
authority and firm leadership on the part of the chair. The chair might calls out for
actions in random order. In using the gavel, the proper form and the correct number
of taps should be exercised, e.g.:
a) Two (2) taps give a signal to call the meeting to order;
b) Three (3) taps give signals the members to stand during the opening
and closing ceremonies; and

c) One (1) tap to adjourn the meeting. And one which is optional, a
sharp tap or series of taps to restores order.

Seconding the motion – please take note, that the motion is made and seconded.
In stating the motion does not mean the seconder agrees with the motion. But seconded
means the motion is worthy for consideration. Any one of the members can make a
second by simply saying, “I second the motion.” The seconder may not obtain the floor,
but of being heard of the chair and members that someone is seconding. If in case, the
chair cannot recognize any second, the chair will says, “the motion will not be
considered.” It seems awkward if no one agrees the motion. According to Robert’s Rules
of Order, please avoid using the phrase, the motion “dies for lack of a second.” But we
should respect everyone’s time and move on to next business. After the motion is
seconded, that main motion will be discussed by the members with a focus. Remember,
motion is debatable, means can be argued; amendable, means can be changed; and it
requires a major vote.

Discussing the motion – the chair is responsible that all comments are made
thoroughly and the debate is controlled to ensure fairness, balance, and efficiency. Once
the chair feels has sufficient discussion made regarding the motion, the chair will call for
the voting on the motion. It’s up to the chair to protect the rights of the attendees, on
their right to speak, making a motion, advocating a position, and by voting the motion.
Voting on the motion – there are different types of voting, e.g., voting by
acclamation as it says, “aye, or nay,” voting by raising the hand, voting by roll call, and
voting by ballot. But the most common is by a show of hands, and voting by secret ballots
are rare in the meeting, but may be used in areas of confident reality or sensitive matters.
Once the vote is taken, the chair will announce the motion verbally by restating the
motion, as “carried or approved.” Therefore, the meeting is properly conducted and
motions have accomplished objectives, fairly and efficiently.

Voting, means “more than half” of those votes cast. Majority is based on
those voting not those present. If there are 40 votes, 21 is a majority. The Bylaws
should state what vote is required to elect. If 50 are present, (and majority is
based on those present), majority is 26 votes. Or they could say: majority of
membership. If there are 75 members, majority is 38 votes. Please study the table
in determining the two-thirds vote:


By Shane D. Dunbar
Professional Registered Parliamentarian

No. of Votes Majority Two-Thirds

Cast Vote Vote
20 11 14
30 16 20
40 21 27
50 26 34
55 28 37
65 33 44
75 38 50
85 43 57
95 48 63
To calculate a 2/3 vote: divide the number of votes by 3 and then multiply
by 2 as supermajority votes. (e.g.: In the 435 member House of Representatives,
a simple majority is 218 votes; while a 2/3 supermajority requires 290 votes.)

Some Terms in the Conduct of a Meeting:

A majority vote, means more than half of the votes cast (not including
members who abstain) at a legal meeting with a quorum being present.

A two-thirds vote, means at least two-thirds of the votes cast (two out 3
equal parts) not counting members who abstain) at a legal meeting with a quorum
being present. Members who abstain at a meeting are those who choose not to

A quorum, is the minimum of members (more than half) that must be

present before business can be legally transacted at a meeting.

A tie vote, means equal number of affirmative and negative votes, and the
motion is not adopted since it is not a majority (or two-thirds). To use the table,
find the number of votes cast and then read the majority or two-thirds vote to the
right to determine if the motion is adopted. An initial rising vote (division of
assembly) is used when voting on motions requiring a two-thirds vote to pass.
Lesson 2. Sequence in the Conduct of a Meeting
The president of the organization, together with the members, is responsible
for preparing the order of business for the association’s regular business meeting.
This is a basic schedule which is followed for the systematic transaction of business
at a meeting. “Business” in this context refers to any subject matter that is critically
examined and discussed at a meeting. Associations or organizations have
constitutions, by-laws or standing rules that determine the order of business for
conducting a meeting. However, if the by-laws do not provide for a set of rules or
specific order, parliamentary practice has established the following sequence:
1. Meeting Called to Order. The Presiding Officer stands and says, “the
meeting will please come to order.” If the meeting has been called specially, he
should also briefly state the purpose of the meeting: why it has been called.
2. Roll Call by the Secretary and Response by the Members. Each member
responds by saying: “Present” when his/her name is called, or by giving some other
suitable response.
3. Reading the Minutes of the Previous Meeting. These are read by the
secretary, and are then open for corrections. Any member may make a correction
by standing and addressing the chair. Or the President may simply tell the secretary
what changes to make. The secretary then makes the corrections; if there are many
of them, the minutes are re-read as corrected. It is always wise to keep as accurate
and as complete minutes as possible. Minutes are the record of business
proceedings. As such, it is often necessary to refer back to the minutes of a meeting
to find out what was decided about one or another important question.
4. Approval of the Minutes. If correct, the president may say, “the minutes
stand approved as read (or as corrected).” Or a motion to accept the minutes may
be duly made and seconded from the floor, then voted upon.
Four Ways of Voting

When the discussion is over, the chairman repeats the

motion. Or he may have read by the secretary. He then puts it
to a vote. The following four methods are commonly used:
1. Voting by acclamation “aye” or “nay”
2. Voting by standing or raising the hand
3. Voting by roll call
4. Voting by ballot
The chairman always has certain reserve privilege in
voting. In most cases it is probably better if he (or she) does not
vote, especially when the vote is public. The chairman is the
conductor of the debate and should, in most cases, remain as
impartial to either side as possible.
5. Presenting Names of New Members. This step is omitted, of course, when
there are no new members, or in organization where it is not the custom.
6. Reports of Officers and Committees:
1) Officers’ reports such as (1) treasurer, (2) corresponding

2) Reports of standing or permanent committees such as (1)

program committee, (2) welfare committee, (3) youth

Only committees that have a report to make need to be

called. In each case, the Presiding Officer calls upon the
chairman of the committee to make the report. A motion to
accept or adopt the report must then be duly made and
seconded. Not until this is done is the matter open for
discussion and amendment.

7. Unfinished Business. This includes any business left over from the
previous meeting.
8. New Business. Any new business to be taken up may be presented: (1) in
the form of a resolution or (2) as a simple motion from the floor. Such a motion
must be duly seconded, and is the open to discussion before a vote is taken. It is
always well to give careful consideration to the wording of a motion or resolution
on new business. State the facts clearly and briefly. Otherwise, the question may
not be fully understood, and decisions delayed.
9. Motion to Adjourn. This motion must be made and seconded like all other
motions, but it is not debatable. The meeting is not adjourned until the motion is
duly voted on and the president announces that it has been carried. He then says,
“the meeting is adjourned.” Alternatively, instead of a motion, the chair can ask if
there is any further business. If no response, the chair can say, "since there is no
further business, the meeting is adjourned."

Lesson 3. Speaking at a Meeting: Dos and Don’ts

Members and the chair will follow a few principles while expressing
themselves during the meeting.
1. Permission to speak is obtained by raising hand. Member who first
raises his hand should be recognized and given the opportunity to talk first
by the chair.

2. Except in a few instances of the privileged motions and motions like

points of order and point of information, it is not courteous to stand or speak
while another member has the floor. The member who does so should not
be allowed to speak next.

3. When more than one member properly requests to speak during a

debate, certain rules are applied: the member who had presented the
motion should be given preference over the others even if late to rise so that
he can clarify the points raised by the members. An intelligent chair can also
alternate speakers from all sides so that various viewpoints are appreciated.

4. Speaking is usually not in order until the chair indicates when to

start. Once recognized, the speaker should address the chair and give his
name and state whom (which committee/group etc.) he represents.

5. Once a report is presented, it is followed by a motion or call for

action. After the statement of the motion, the person who presented the
report gets the first chance to talk.

6. A time limit should be imposed for each member; otherwise the

meeting may overshoot its projected adjournment time.

7. If the discussion lingers on, it can be stopped by a motion, which

requires a two thirds majority to be sustained.

It is imperative that the formal meeting procedures are followed to the letter
at all times. A meeting is convened with a specific purpose geared towards certain
goals. To obtain the desired result requires a conscious, concerted effort on the
part of the chairman and participating members. The chair should be aware of how
to chair meetings effectively and all those present should have an elementary
knowledge of different types of formal meeting motions to guide them through the
meeting to its successful culmination.

Module 2. Minutes of Meeting


After studying this module, you should be able to:

1. observe the proceedings of the meeting;
2. learn to listen attentively; and
3. accurately jot down important ideas during the meeting.
Lesson I. The Meaning of Minutes

Minutes are the official record of the proceedings of a deliberative

assembly, board, or committee. The Robert’s rules of order, minutes “should
contain a record of what was done at a meeting, not what was said by the

It should serve the needs of the organization, not only the decisions
(motions) but also the flow of discussion points, so that the rationale for
decisions may be clear in the future. The amount of such detail in minutes
depends on the nature of the group and its custom. Similarly, the minutes
of many groups include comments and humorous remarks; while not
technically correct; the “spirit of the group” may be enhanced and nourished
by giving a personality to the minutes. Normally a secretary or recorder is
designated to prepare the minutes.

The minutes are the property of the assembly, board, or

committee. As such, after the minutes are submitted to the members at a
meeting, the members approve the minutes by a formal vote. In other
practice, a draft of minutes is circulated among the members and
committees who presented a report at a meeting for corrections and
improvements before the final and official minutes are acted upon in a
formal meeting.

The format should be appropriate, the name of the organization, the

exact location, date, time, and place of the meeting, the name of the chair
and secretary for the meeting, and the attendance. Whether the minutes of
the previous meeting were approved (as read or as corrected). The body of
the minutes should contain a separate paragraph for each
agendum. Motions and decisions should be clearly stated.

Lesson 2. The Difference between Minutes and Proceedings

1) Authentication of Minutes

The proceedings of the meeting and the minutes of the meeting

are placed before the next meeting for confirmation. It is known as
authentication of minutes. The secretary reads out the minutes of the
last meeting and when it is accepted by the meeting as to its
correctness, it is then authenticated. It is also known as confirmation
of minutes. If any minute is not approved, a fresh resolution should
be adopted.
2) Proceedings of a Meeting

Proceedings mean the verbatim record for reporting or the

discussions and decisions of a meeting. It is the detailed record of the
matters raised at the meeting, the discussions held on each motion
and the decisions reached on each item.

3) The Distinction Between Minutes and Proceedings

Minutes Proceedings

Proceedings mean the verbatim

Minutes are the official record of
record or report of the
the proceedings of the meeting and
discussions and decisions of a
the decision reached therein.

It is prepared at the time of the

It is prepared after the meeting.

It writes, in a concise form, the It writes, in detail, the

decision of the meeting. proceedings of the meeting.

It records the discussion of the

It records the resolutions only.

4) Important Skills in Taking the Minutes

Since the minutes will serve as an official record of an

organization, what took place during the meeting, you must be very
accurate. Here are some pointers to help you master this skill.
(1) Before the Meeting

√ Choose your tool: Decide how you will take notes, i.e.
pen and paper, computer, etc.
√ Make sure your tool of choice is in working order and
have a backup just in case.
√ Use the meeting agenda to formulate an outline.

(2) During the Meeting

√ Pass around an attendance sheet.

√ Get a list of committee members and make sure you
know who is who.
√ Note the time the meeting begins.
√ Don't try to write down every single comment- just
the main ideas.
√ Write down motions, who made them, and the results
of votes, if any; no need to write down who
seconded a motion.
√ Note the ending time of the meeting.

(3) After the Meeting

√ Type up the minutes as soon as possible after the

meeting, while everything is still fresh in your
√ Include the time the meeting began and ended.
√ Proofread the minutes before submitting them.

Activity 9. Conduct a Meeting in the Classroom

Early Preparation
The Secretary writes on the board the following agenda. While s/he is writing on the
board, the other member from the secretariat administers the attendance to determine the
Determining a Quorum
a) The Presiding Officer calls the Secretary for a roll call
b) The Secretary reports to the Presiding Officer and says “we are now in
c) The Presiding Officer says to the members, “those who are present please say
Meeting Call to Order
a) The Presiding Officer says, “the meeting will please to order,” and it follows
with his/her instruction by saying, “before we start our meeting everyone is
requested to stand up for a prayer and the singing of the Philippine National
b) The Presiding Officer gives a brief statement to the members the purpose of
the meeting
c) The Presiding Officer goes to the board and presents the following agenda.
Then a motion for adoption of the agenda from the participants.
Starting the Meeting
a) The Presiding Officer will give a clue to each agendum on the board “one at a
b) Members should be polite in sharing and giving ideas, opinion, reaction to the
agendum presented.
c) Flow: stating a motion, seconding the motion (discussing the motion, reacting
the motion, voting the motion). Approving the motion . . .
d) The Presiding Officer may habitually exercise parliamentary procedure in the
entire conduct of a meeting.
Adjournment of the Meeting
Chapter VII. A Resolution

In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body. The
substance of the resolution can be anything that can normally be proposed as a
motion. For long or important motions, though, it is often better to have them
written out so that discussion is easier or so that it can be distributed outside the
body after its adoption. An alternate term for a resolution is a resolve. Resolutions
are commonly used in corporations and houses of legislature.
After studying this module, you should be able to:
1. know the importance of writing a resolution;

2. differentiate a resolution from other types of correspondence; and

3. write or draft a resolution.

A resolution is a formal expression of opinion or intention made, usually after voting, by
a formal organization, a legislature, a club or other group. (Jess Stein, ed., College Dictionary,
1980.) Keep the wording simple. Don’t sweat the format, although we have listed some
suggestion and formatting examples.

The draft resolution should be clear and concise. Consequently, the better the substance
of a draft resolution is researched the higher success of passing it within the committee session.
Depending on the committee, its topic discussed and the goal of the delegates drafting and
sponsoring a resolution the content will be more specific or more general.

Others will make suggestions and give their opinion (we’re good at that!) and make
changes so the group in attendance can vote and pass the resolution and let it be an example of
the precinct’s idea. It is very important that all resolutions be clearly worded so that their
intention is unmistakable, please follow the rules:

1. Specific suggestions to think about:

(a) You may think that some phrase or word will sound and look good in your
resolution, but if no one can understand it, the meaning will be lost. Make
your opening statement very clear.
(b) Do not include too many points in one resolution. The reader will lose the
train of thought first presented, and tend to become confused about the
(c) A resolution must not be negative because the principle of discussion is
that an affirmative proposition is being put to the meeting. The expression
of a negative view must be shown by debate and voting against the

2. The suggested format:

1. Title, which identifies the problem or issue or its proposed solution.
2. The Preamble, which is used when information is necessary to support the
RESOLVED section. Each PREAMBLE clause should be written as a separate
paragraph, beginning with the word “Whereas.” The first word should
begin with a capital letter. The PREAMBLE, regardless of its length and
number of paragraphs, should never contain a period. Each paragraph
should close with a semi-colon. The next to the last paragraph should close
with a semi-colon, after which a connecting phrase such as “Therefore” or
“Therefore Be It” or “Now Therefore, Be It” is added.
3. The Resolved (Dispositive Portion), section indicates what action is
proposed. There may be more than one Resolved clauses, each stated
separately. The resolved portion of the resolution states how you feel the
resolution should be dealt with. You must know and indicate the action
you want taken. The word RESOLVED is underlined and printed in capital
letters, followed by a comma and the word THAT. Each resolved clause
must be a separate paragraph and may be ended with a period or a semi-
colon and in the case of the next to the last clause, be followed by the word
AND, Please study this example:
The preamble of a resolution is the introductory part explaining the
problem as it needs to be solved. Essentially, the preamble contains
everything but proposing action to be taken to solve the problem. The
preamble begins with the name of the simulated committee.
Preambulatory phrases are underlined and preambulatory clauses are
separated by commas. Issues that might be included in the preamble are:

☺ References to the charter

☺ Citations of past resolutions or treaties relevant to the topic
☺ Historical background information explaining the need for
further action
☺ Recognition of the efforts made by regional organization
to tackle the problem and dealing with the issue at hand
☺ General statements on the topic, its significance and its
effects satisfying the need for the resolution to be passed

3. Specific tips for resolution writing:

☺Be sure to follow the format for resolutions, each organizations

may have a slightly different format.

☺ Create a detailed resolution, if your resolution calls for a new program,

think about how it will be funded and what body will manage it. And try
to cite facts whenever possible.
☺ Be realistic, do not create objectives for your resolution that cannot be
met. Make sure your body can take the action suggested.
☺ Preambulatory clauses are historic justifications for action. Use them to
cite past resolutions, precedents and statements about the purpose of
action. Keep in mind that the selection of the preambulatory phrases will
be a first step to determine whether the resolution will be more general or
more specific, more radical or softer in its approach. Some of the
preambulatory phrases are: acknowledging, affirming, approving, bearing
in mind, believing, concerning, considering, contemplating, declaring,
desiring, determining, emphasizing, encouraged, endorsing, expressing,
expecting, fulfilling, recalling, recognizing, referring, regretting, reiterating,
seeking, stressing, welcoming, etc.
☺ Operative clauses are policies that the resolution is designed to
create. Use them to explain what the committee will do to address the
issue. These clauses describe the actions that need to be taken in order to
solve the problem, to tackle the issue. It is the way for the supporter to
express their country’s main policy goals on the issue. Each operative
clause begins with a number, ends with a semicolon and the final clause
ends with a period. Operative clauses should be organized in a logical
progression, and each clause should contain a single idea or policy
proposal. Keep in mind that all resolutions except in the Security Council
are non-binding. Therefore, it is important to choose the operative phrases
and the wording of the operative clauses accordingly. Some operative
phrases are: accepts, adopts, affirms, appeals, appreciates, approves,
authorizes, calls upon, commends, concurs, condemns, confirms,
congratulates, declares, designates, directs, emphasizes, encourages,
endorses, expressing, recognizes, recommends, regrets, renews its appeal,
repeats, suggests, strongly, supports, transmits, urges, welcomes, etc.

Republic of the Philippines

Tarlac State University
Tarlac City

RESOLUTION No. 3, s. 2001


Whereas, the SUCs be responsible to the call of modernization and information technology;

Whereas, the Office of the Registrar as the showcase and frontline of the institution is
strongly recommended to be modernized in their services through the following:

1. Automation/computerization of enrolment procedures.

2. The ratio of computer equipment in the Office of the Registrar with the
personnel shall be 1:1.
3. Computerization of student records and files depending on when the process
of computerization started.
4. Computer-generated documents using a system/program for that purpose.
5. The Office of the Registrar having a computer system/program designed for
a particular use and operation.
6. The Office of the Registrar being linked to the rest of the University/College
and the outside through the Local Area Network (LAN) and the Internet, except scholastic
performance and student information records.
7. A LAN within the Office of the Registrar set up exclusively for its own use to
maintain the security and confidentiality of student records.
8. A separate computer serving as data bank in the Office of the Registrar shall
be linked with the University-wide/College-wide LAN and Internet.
9. All personnel of the Office of the Registrar should be computer
knowledgeable and trained.
10. Provision of equipment like machine copier/duplicator, scanner, and server in
the Office of the Registrar to effect a fast delivery of service.



Signed this 15th day of February, 2001 by the NARSUC Board:

LEILANI M. LIZARDO, BulSU, Secretary VIOLETA Q. GREFALDE, SSPSC, Assistant Secretary
CORAZON N. BAZAR, BU, Treasurer ROSA MARIA E. CORTEL, BSC, Assistant Treasurer
HELEN M. MABANTA, PSU, Auditor ADELA L. REYNO, ISU, Business Manager
MIGUEL V. ORTEZA, MPSC, Public Information Officer LUZVIMINDA F. GANAS, CVST, Board Member
HJA. KALSUM B. SARAHADIL, MSU-Tawi-Tawi, Board Member

Activity 10. Write a Resolution

You are a resolution draftor!

Please draft a resolution to stop the illegal
gambling operation in your community.
Observe the format: heading,
preamble, and operative
Activity 11. Assignment

Please put yourself in the shoes of an

elected official of the Sangguniang Bayan in your municipality or town. You want
to increase the revenue collections or taxes from private investors/establishments
of your town in order to get sufficient funds to finance projects and other
infrastructures because of a limited budget given by the national government.

Now, write an ordinance sponsored by you

to be submitted to secretariat of the Sangguniang Bayan Council for their
deliberation during session and for the immediate action of the municipal mayor.

Good luck and happy break, drink milk...

If what you see by the eye doesn’t please you, then close your
eyes and see from the heart. Because the heart can
see beauty and love more than the
eyes can ever wonder.
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Science is organized knowledge and wisdom is organized life. Life without you is like a
broken pencil, there is no point. Growing old is mandatory; growing
up is optional. Love begins with a smile, grows with a
kiss, and ends with a teardrop. An apple
a day keeps the doctor away,
and a day without sunshine
is a day without

Thank you