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INDUCED DEFENCES OF THE BODY

MODULE 5
5.2 Adaptive Immunity/ Function of Immune cells .
Humoral Immunity

• Humoral immunity (HI) Ab molecule

• 1. Is mediated by proteins termed antibodies.

• 2. Neutralizes microorganisms and toxins and removes antigens in the


body fluids by amplifying Phagocytosis or lysis by complement.
Cell Mediated Immunity

• B. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)



• Is mediated mainly by T cytotoxic cells, NK cells, and activated
macrophages.

• Is responsible for eradicating microorganisms residing within body cells,


as well as the killing of aberrant cells.
Adaptive Immunity

• Adaptive immune defenses have in common that they are:

• • Specific for particular antigens and are specialized to provide the best
protection
• • Diverse in their specificity
• • Enhanced with each repeated exposure (express immunologic
memory)
• • Capable of self/non-self recognition
• • Self-limiting
Adaptive Immunity

• Phagocytic cells process and display antigen to facilitate stimulation


of specific T lymphocytes.

• • Macrophages secrete immunoregulatory molecules (cytokines),


which help trigger the initiation of specific immune responses.
• •
• T lymphocytes produce cytokines, which enhance the microbicidal
activities of phagocytes.

• • Antibodies produced by plasma cells bind to pathogens and activate


the complement system to result in the destruction of the invaders.
• • Antibodies produced by B lymphocytes bind to pathogens and assist
with phagocytosis (opsonization).
Lymphoid Organs

• Organs involved
• 1. Central lymphoid organs
• a. This is where immunocompetent cells are developed.
• b. Comprised of the thymus and bone marrow.

• 2. Peripheral lymphoid organs


• a. This is where immunocompetency is expressed.
• b. Includes the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and intestinal
Peyer’s patches.
Immune Cells Involved in Acquired Immunity

• Cells involved

• Antigen presenting cells (APCs), thymus-derived (T cells), and bone


marrow–derived (B) cells interact in the organs.

• Along with cytokine release are responsible for HI and CMI adaptive
immunity .
Acquired Immunity

• Development of the adaptive immune system

• Multipotential stem cells originate in the fetal liver and bone marrow.

• When they migrate to the fetal thymus, they acquire the phenotypic
characteristics of T cells under the influence of thymic hormones.
Immune cells in Acquired Immunity
Immune cells in Adaptive Immunity
Monocyte
Macrophage
Eosinophil / Dendritic cell
Eosinophil
Basophil / Mast cell
Lymphocyte
Natural Killer cells
Plasma cells
Cellular Interaction in Adaptive Immunity
T Cells
• T cells are characterized by:
• a. Clusters of differentiation (CD)
• (1) Phenotypic protein markers appearing on the T-cell membrane at
different stages of differentiation
• in the thymus.
• (2) CD2 and CD3 are major markers retained on all peripheral T cells
and are useful in identifying and counting T cells.
• (3) CD4 defines a T-helper (Th) cell subset, which aids responsiveness of
B cells and other
• immunocompetent cells.
• (4) Th cells differentiate in the thymus into Th0, Th1, and Th2 cells
based on differences in the cytokines they secrete.
Types of Immune cells
Mature B Lymphocyte
Mature T Lymphocyte
• Image sources Text Book of Microbiology by Kaplan 5th edition.