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Band 61.] C. R. WILLIAMS: The Cylinder Seal of a King Userkere.


Die Pyramidentexte enthalten aber noch ein viel schöneres Beispiel für unsere
Negation w in der Stelle Pyr. 815, die gleichfalls bisher nicht richtig verstanden werden
tonnte: I j — ^ f T ^ k · · · · 28 — — \ ·
pI Ii w 21^ ,unnnr e n a , = a U^ _ ( p U Ö =5=!λλλλλλ
" « rI <=><*=*, ° w e n n auwUH, d a B d u

lebst, o Horus . . ., so sollst du nicht verschließen die Türe des Himmels, so sollst
du nicht verwehren seine Verwehrenden (d. h. die Türflügel des HimmelsJ^ sobald']/
du den Ki des P. zu diesem Himmel genommen hast". Diese Aufforderung, die
stark an die Stellen erinnert, von denen ich ÄZ. 59, 63 ausging, sind an den Himmels-
pförtner gerichtet, weil der Tote selbst noch dem Kì folgen soll, der ihn dem großen
Gotte anzumelden vorausgesandt ist (Pyr. 816 d).
Was die Stelle vor allen anderen auszeichnet, ist der Umstand, daß sie unsere
Negation wenigstens das eine Mal in dem ältesten der Paralleltexte (P), dessen
Wortlaut oben abgedruckt ist, in der Schreibung m i t dem Zeichen der Ver-
neinung als Determinativ zeigt, wo die beiden anderen Paralleltexte die gewöhnliche
Schreibung haben. Damit wird allen Zweifeln die Spitze abgebrochen.

The Cylinder Seal of a King Userkere.

B y C . RANSOM W I L L I A M S .

Among the smaller antiquities acquired in Egypt in the years from 1858 to 1876
by E D W I N SMITH and presented by his daughter in 1907 to the New York Historical
Society is the cylinder seal of an obscure king, Userkere. This seal, of which the
original and an impression appear in the accompanying illustration, measures 8,2 cm
in length and 1,0 cm in diameter; the bore is
7 mm in diameter at the lower end and 3 min
above. The material is a light-coloured steatite
and no traces of glaze are apparent on it. The
inscription mns: M ΠS L D i I C T I l W
„King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Userkere, Be-
loved of Khentkheti". Today nothing is known of
this king, and the cylinder is chiefly to be valued
as confirming the existence of a later Userkere
already suggested by two scarabs, No. 65 of the
F R A S E R collection and No. 2 8 7 , 1 4 in the Cleveland Museum^ The FRASER scarab,
however, links Userkerë's name with that of Khenzer {Hndr) thereby bringing us
face to face with further uncertainties.

1) Sie heißen so, weil sie dem gemeinen Volk den Eintritt verwehren (hsf rh.t), vgl. Pyr. 655 b, 876 b, 1726 b.
2) Journ. of Egypt. Arch., Y (1918), p. 172, No. 9, Pl. XXVII. "
Zeitsohr. £. Agypt. Spr., 61. Band. 11

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82 C. R. WILLIAMS: The Cylinder of a King Userkere. [61. Band.

The most important monument attesting to a king Khenzer is the Louvre stela
C. 11, at the top of which his name appears with the prefix ^ ^ ww associated
with Tkis last name, to be read Nekhanematrê ( N - J i - N - m f . t - r )
following M. WEILL , is said by Messrs. BURCIIARDT and P I E P E R to be „über einem
getilgten Namen eingesetzt" 3 . I have had access to a very tiny photograph of the
stela available in the Oriental Institute oí the University of Chicago and on it can
see that the two cartouches have a different appearance. The one containing the
shorter name is wider than the other and is defined by a single line. The name
Nekhanematrê is more closely spaced, and the cartouche seems to have been narrowed
by cutting lines within the original border, but of an erasure I can see no evidence3.
Since Dr. BORCHARDT, however, has shown convincingly that Amenhotep Ill's name
once stood in the cartouche on the Berlin relief of Aton with falcon's head 4 , we
must be prepared for surprises of this kind on the most familiar monuments.
Professor P E T R I E has raised the question whether there were two Khenzers5. It
may be so; there is just a bare chance, however, that we have to do with one
Khenzer whose prenomen was Userkere rather than Nekhanematrê; the Louvre stela
should be examined for evidence in favor of, or against, such a solution. But who
Nekhanematrê was if not Khenzer would then be difficult to explain.
On the other hand, I do not see that the Userkerë and Khenzer of the FRASER
scarab are unquestionably the same king, inasmuch as scarabs and cylinders occasionally
bear names belonging to different kings. Thus they might be successive kings who
had a period of coregency6. Again, on the F R A S E R scarab, the unusual common
prefix for the two cartouches, instead of a prefix before each cartouche, is to be
reckoned with. Indeed the ^ over the first cartouche and over the second,
with a wide space between the two signs, have a queer look, as has also the O in
the normal rather than inverted order in the writing of Userkerë. Dr. P I E P E R once
questioned the genuineness of this scarab7, but must later have thought better of
it, since he and BURCHARDT recognized it in their „Königsbuch". Our cylinder seal,
too, has an oddly redundant writing and uncommon order of signs in the syllable
ti of the god's name, but I hope I am right in attributing the peculiarities of these
two pieces to the partial break-down of established forms characteristic of the time
in which they were made rather than to forgery.
The chronological position of the Khenzer of the Louvre stela, too, is in doubt.
Dr. P I E P E R ' S suggestion8 that he is identical with the Σάλ'.τις who opens Manetho's
1) Journal asiatique, 11 th series, III (1914), p.130 (I am indebted to Mr. WINLOCK for calling M. WEILL'S
article to my notice). — 2) Königsnamen, No. 220. — 3) In the small photograph the next to the last sign is
not distinguishable from a a (t) and it is precisely the last two signs which have given difficulty in the past.
But BUBCHABDT and PIEPEE indicate that the entire name is surcharged. Surely, however, the first sign, which
much resembles the disk of the winged disk at the top of the stela, is original, and the original name —
whatever it was — was a solar name. — 4 ) No. 2072; ÄZ., 52 (1914), p. 73; 55, pp. 7—8. Mitt. d. D.
Or.-Ges., No. 57, March 1917, pp. 18—22. — 5) History, I, 10 th ed. (1923), p. 245. — 6) Cf. the
numerous cylinders of Sesostris III and AmenemesIIl: NEAVBERBY, Scarabs, PL. VI, 10, 11, 15; T. G. ALLEN,
A Handbook of the Egypt Coll. (Art Institute), Chicago, 1923, p. 139, No. 94. 1278; another, unpublished,
HASKELL 10572, in the University collection; PETBIE, Scarabs and Cylinders, PL. XIII, 12. 5, 16; XIV, 12.
6, 21. Such cases as the scarab of ÄZ., 33 (1895), p. 143, the similar No. 154 of the British Museum
(HALL, Catal. of Egypt. Scarabs, etc., I, p. 16), and No. 05. 3. 340 of the Metropolitan Museum ( = GBIFFITH,
Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 19, 1897, p. 293 = WABD, The Sacred Beetle, 219) have not been cleared up.
Mr. HALL regards the main cartouche of the British Museum piece as a garbled form of Nematrë and
dates the scarab in Dyn. XIX—XX. — 7) Die Könige zwischen dem MR. und NR., p. 32. — 8) Loc. cit.

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Band 61.] F. W. Freiherr v o x BISSING und H. P. BLÖK: Eine Weihung an die sieben Hathoren. 83

XV th Dynasty has not been given much support although Professor ERMAN1, Pro-
fessor BREASTED" 2 , and M. GAUTHIER 3 consider Khenzer a Hyksos king, perhaps being
influenced by the unusual formation of the name. Others would make him a pre-
Hyksos ruler, subsequent, however, to the XII th Dynasty. In this view Professor
MEYER 1 depended on the supposed identity of the vizier Enkhu mentioned in the
Louvre stela C. 12, who was certainly of the time of the Khenzer of the companion
stela C. 11, with the vizier Enkhu of the Boulaq account papyrus 18, who lived in
the time of a Sebekhotep; Khenzer could not have been a Hyksos, he reasoned,
because Enkhu would not have served both an Egyptian king and the foreign
invader. But, as M. WEILL has pointed out 6 , there is no proof that so common a
name as Enkhu was not borne by two viziers of this period between the Middle
Kingdom and the expulsion of the Hyksos. Even so, however, M. W E I L L favors a
pre-Hvksos date for Khenzer, having built up a theory on the stylistic resemblance
of the stela C. 11 to another from Abydos which, in its turn, he connects with a
stela surely of the period following immediately upon the XII th D}Tnasty7. And
Mr. MACE thinks the absence of known Hyksos names and the presence of a number
of XIII th Dynasty kings in the inscriptions found at Lisht favorable to a date in
the XIII th Dynasty for Khenzer whose cartouche occurs on a piece of a tile
from there 8 .
Our cylinder affords only meager chronological clues in its size and shape. It
is unlike the „long and thick cylinders with large perforations" prevalent in the
time of the first Userkerë, but may be paralleled at different times after the
beginning of the XIIth Dynasty 9 . A post-XII th date for it, rather than one within
the XII th Dynasty, is of course probable, and the size and smaller perforation do
not, in my opinion, enable one to say anything more precise about its date. Possibly
the unpublished fragmentary tile from Lisht mentioned above may have preserved
also part of a second cartouche and in time enough inscriptions may be found
elsewhere to illuminate this particular dark spot in the identity and succession of
Egyptian kings.

Eine Weihung an die sieben Hathoren.

Yon F. W. Freiherr VON BISSING und H . P . BLÖK.

In dem kürzlich an der Carnegielaan im Haag eröffneten Museum des Herrn Dr.
LUNSINGH-SCHEURLEER befindet sich eine ungefähr rechteckige Platte aus grau-
braunem kristallinischem Sandstein. Das Material erinnert mehr an Denkmäler aus
oberägyptischen Brüchen, etwa vom Gebel Silsile, als von dem bekannten Gebel Ahmar
1) Chrestomathie, p. 37*. — 2) History, p. 221. — 3) Livre des rois, II (1912), pp. 138—9. —
4) Geschichte des Altertums, I, II 2 , p. 281. — 5) Proposed quite tentatively by Mr. GRIFFITH, ÄZ., 29
(1892), p. 106; assumed to be established by WEIL, Veziere, p. 47 and by others. — 6) Journ. asiatique, III,
p. 136. — 7) Idem, III, pp. 125—7. — 8) Bulletin of the Metr. Mus. of Art, Nov. 1921, Part II, pp. 18
—19. — 9) S e e NEWBERRY. S c a r a b s , p p . 4 6 — 7 .

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