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CHAPTER X1X

Quintus ad rhetorem ibat; tres homines, gladiis armati, eum oppugnaverunt.

Quintus e manibus e6rum evasit t6tam rem patri narravit; ille fili6 'haec
domumque fiigit. · urbs non tiita est,' inquit; 'parvam spem
de republica habe6.'

th (and last) declension

n this declension the vowel e predominates throughout.


res, rei,f. thing, affair, matter
,,.,,
singular plural
nom. res res respublica Note respfiblica public
acc. rem res rempublicam affairs, politics, the
gen. rei ·,. rerum reipublicae state; both halves
dat. rei rebus reipublicae decline
ab/. re rebus republica

All nouns of this declension are feminine, except for dies, which is
usually masculine.
Learn spes, spei,f. hope.
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hit= -this
0 The mixed conjugation
t These verbs have already been explained in Chapter 8. They are verbs
I e nd ing in -io which go like audio except for their infinitive, which is
•ere (not -ire) and imperative, which is -e (not -i), e.g.
C •- .
apao, capere imperatives cape, capite
You have met the following
capio, capere, cepi I take
accipio, accipere, accepi 1·receive
facio, facere, feci ldo, make
interficio, interficere, interieci I kill
iacio, iacere, ieci I throw
conicio, conicere, conieci I hurl
fugio, fugere, fiigi I flee
cupio, cupere, cupivi I desire
rapio, rapere, rapui I seize, snatch
conspicio, conspicere, conspexi · I catch sight of
inspicio, inspicere, inspexi I look at, inspect

0 Compounds of 'do'
do, dare, dedi (I give) is 1st conjugation.
But all compounds of this verb are 3rd conjugation.
addo, addere, addidi I add
edo, edere, edidi I produce, put forth
reddo, reddere, reddidi I give back, return
condo, condere, condidi I build, found; I hide

Exercise 19.1
Translate
1 t6ta respiiblica in periculum venit.
2 Orbilius pueris multa narrabat de rebus Romanis.
3 Quintus carmen faciebat; magister iratus erat tabulamque eius
rapuit.
4 Quintus ad rhetorem ibat sed non cupiebat de legibus cogn6scere.
5 malebat carmina facere, quod cupiebat poeta esse.
6 dum Quintus domum redit, fiir accurrit capsulamque eius rapere
temptavit, sed Quintus celeriter fiigit.
7 Quintus t6tam rem patri narravit.
8 pater c6nsternatu~ erat; parvam spem de repiiblica habebat.
9 fuge, Quinte; fiir t~ petit.
10 cape hoc iaculum, Quinte, et tempta id conicere.
malebat he preferred fiir thief iaculum javelin

157
IDUS MARTIAE Idus Martiae 15 March, the
Ides of March
Idibus Martiis Quintus, ubi Heliodorus discipul6s
dimisit, domum lente ibat. illa nocte tempestas <lira dira terrible
fuerat sed iam dies amoenus erat; aura mitis per vias amoenus pleasant; aura
flabat ; arbores iam flores edebant. omnia nov~ et mitis a gentle breeze
pulchra erant. flabat was blowing
Quintus constituit ad Campum ambulare. forum
transiit et mox ad Viam Triumphalem advenit. \sed ubi Triumphalem Triumphal
ad theatrum Pompeii accessit, magnam turbam turbam crowd
hominum vidit circa atrium Pompeii stantem.l Quintus, circa around; atrium hall
qui parvus erat, per turbam ad primum ordinem se stantem standing
insinuavit, unde omnia videre poterat.l ordinem row; se
ianuae apertae erant. multi senatores aliique viri insinuavit wriggled through
insignes atrium inibant.lQuintus Gaium lulium insignes famous
Caesarem vidit cum magistratibus ineuntem;ltogam magistratibus magistrates
purpuream gerebat et in capite coronam lauream.( ineuntem going in
omnes senatores surrexerunt Caesaremque purpuream purple
sah1taverunt. dum assidet, multi senatores eum coronam Jauream a crown of
circumsteterun t. laurel
assidet he sat down
deinde fmus eum aliquid rogabat et togam eius aliquid something
manibus tenebat . Caesar eum repellere temptavit. eo repellere push away; eo ipso
ipso tempore alter senatorum eum pftgione fer.it; tertius tempore at that very moment
bracchium vulneril!. Caesar surgere temptavit, sed piigione with a dagger
coniiirati eum undique oppugnabant. inter alios Caesar ferit strikes; bracchium ann
coniiirati the conspirators
Bnitum vidit, amicum suum intimum, in se irruentem; intimum closest
irruentem rushing upon
Caesar diO iacebat mortuus prope statuam Pompeii.
LfA-tn rr~
'et tu Brut ?' . . t!'f)k6h ~1.w
ad t ' e ·. mqu1t; tum caput toga obvolvit eCdecidit et tii you too; obvolvit he
. -~rram, tnbus et viginti vulneribus confossus. diii ibi covered
Ia _at, mortuus, prope statuam Pompeii. confoss~s pierced through
st
mterea coniiirati ex atno m aream eruperant et !taruam arttue d
populo cla -b . , aream cou yar
R_ _ ma ant. mortuus est tyrannus; populum eriiperant had burst out
_o~anum liberavimus.' sed omnes taciti stabant, re tyrannus the tyrant
dua obstupefacti. Quintus se vertit et domum cucurrit, diri terrible
territus. obstupefacti struck dumb
postridie Quintus paterque ad Heliodori scholam
pervenire non poterant. ubique maniis hominum eos pervenire to get; maniis
procedere prohibebant, qui clamabant, res rapiebant, bands
saxa iaciebant;lalii clamabant: 'mortuus est tyrannus;
tandem liber est populus Romanus.'jalii: 'Caesar,
amicus populi, pater patriae, mortuus est; homines
scelesti eum necaverunt.' Flaccus timebat Quintumque scelesti criminals
domum reduxit.J necaverunt have butchered
quinto die post mortem Caesaris, ubi Quintus ad
forum advenit, ingentem turbam vidit, quae totum quae which
forum complebat4 non poterat pervenire ad viam quae complebat filled
ad scholam Heliodori ferebaljitaque in ultima parte ferebat led
fori manebat gradiisque templi ascendit, unde omnia
videre poterat.
magnam pompam conspexit, quae in forum pompam procession
procedebat. magistratfis feretru111 portabant, in quo feretrum the bier; in quo on
iacebat corpus Caesaris. in medium forum processerunt which
et feretrq.n:;i pro rostris deposuerun~ Marcus Antonius, rostfi:s platform
amicus Caesaris, rostra ascendit et orationem ad
populum habuit.JCaesarem laudavit, coniuratos habuit delivered
vehementer acciisavit, populu.~ ad furorem excitavit. vehementer passionately
ubi Antonius orationem confecit rostrisque furorem frenzy
excitivit roused
descendit, homines ubique clamabant et furebant;
coniecit finished
fustes saxaque per auram volabanh):luo homines, qui furebant, raged
prope rostra stabant,_gladiis annati facesque manibus fustes clubs; auram air
tenentes, ad feretrum accesserunt. feretrum facibus volabant were flying
incenderunt...,LaliJ accurrerunt et virgulta in flammas faces torches
tenentes holding
ieceruntJalii subsellia rapuerunt et imposuerunt'. mox virgulta brushwood
ingens pyra ardebat et corpus Caesaris flammis subsellia benches
crematum erat. tum manus hominum e fo_r.o, pyra pyre; ardebat was
evolaverunt, qui coniiiratos quaerebant, certi mortem burning
Caesaris vindicare. crematuJJl burnt
evoliverunt flew out
certi resolved
vindicare avenge

159
duo homines gladiTs armati facesque manibus tenentes ad feretrum accesserunt.

0 libero, liberare, liberavi I free


liber, libera, liberum free
acciiso,accusare,acciisivi I accuse
vuJnero, vulnerare, vulneravi I wound
vulnus, vulneris, n. wound
prohibeo,prohibere,prohibui I prevent
incendo, incendere, incendi I set on fire
rapio, rapere, rapui I snatch
patria, patriae, /. native land
toga, togae,f. toga
saxum, saxi, n. rock
soror, sororis, /. sister \
caput, capitis, n. head
corpus,corporis,n. body
alter, aJtera, alterum one or the other of two
ubi? where
ubique everywhere
ibi there
unde? whence, from where?
unde whence, from where
undique from all sides
inde then, thence
pro + ablative in front of, on behalf of
trans + accusative across

160
Numerals: eleven to twenty
iindecim eleven septendecim seventeen
duodecim twelve duodevlgintl eighteen
tredecim thirteen Ondevlgintl nineteen
quattuordecim fourteen vigintl twenty
quindecim fifteen
sedecim sixteen

G eclension of 'hie' this

singular plural
m. f. n. m. f. n.
nom. hie haec hoc hi hae haec
acc. hunc hanc hoc hos has haec
gen. huius huius huius horum harum horum
dat. huic huic huic his his his
ab/. hoc hac hoc his his his

The singular needs careful learning; the plural is like bonus except for
the neuter nominative and accusative.

ans/ate
1 viginti iuvenes in hac schola sedent Heliodorumque
intente audiunt. ·
2 Quintus sedecim annos natus erat cum togam virilem
siimpsit.
3 quis iecit hoc saxum? paene me vulneravit. paene almost
4 fur saxum iecit; huius pueri capsulam rapuit. fiir thief
5 ubi est fiir? prohibe eum effugere.
6 duodecim iuvenes eum petunt; ecce, iam eum
capiunt.
7 iube furem capsulam huic puero reddere.
8 hie puer capsulam iam recepit. debemus hunc furem
ad magistratus diicere.
9 magister Decimum rogat: 'adde quindecim tribus;
quot babes?' Decimus respondet: 'duodeviginti quot how much?
habeo.'
10 magister 'iam,' inquit, 'deme quinque de tredecim; deme subtract
quid restat?' Marcus respondet: 'octo.' restat is left

161
19.3

slate into Latin


1 Take this garland to that girl. garland corona, -ae., f.
2 What if she doesn't want to accept it? what if? quid si?
3 Don't be tiresome. Go and give it to her. tiresome molestus-a-um
4 Did she accept the garland? Tell me the whole thing.
5 She snatched it and fled into the house.
6 Poor boy, I have little hope for you, if this girl is so fo r de + ablative
shy. shy verecundus-a-um

Exercise 19.4

Either translate the fallowing passage or answer the questions below

Quintus foro discessit domumque festinavit, territus.


patrem, qui domi illo die manserat, vocavit et totam
rem ei narravit. ille omnia anxius audivit; caput demisit demisit lowered
oculosque manibus operuit. tandem Quinto respondit: operuit covered
'fili,'•inquit, 'Roma non tuta est. ubique tumultus, tumultus uproar
ubique pericula. cives furunt. quid futurum est? nflllam furunt are mad; futiirum
spem habeo de repiiblica. ego debeo domum redire et going to happen
matrem foam sororemque curare. tu debes Roma
discedere; tempus est ~thenas navigare et philosophiae Athenas to Athens
studere.' philosophiae philosophy

1 Why was Quintus terrified?


2 . What did Flaccus do when Quintus told him what he had seen?
3 Why was Flaccus so depressed?
4 What did he decide that (a) he and (b) Quintus should do? •
5 The following English words are derived from Latin words in this
passage: mansion, capital, oculist, debt. Say from what Latin word
each is derived and explain the connection in meaning between the
Latin and English words.
6 In what case is each of the following and why: foro (1.1) ;·illo (1.2);
ei (1.3); ille (1.3); caput (1.3)?
7 Give the first person singular of the present of the following verbs:
discessit (1.1), manserat (1.2); demisit (1.3).
8 Translate into Latin:
(a) When Quintus saw Caesar's body burnt (crematum), he fled
home.
(b) He told his father everything.
(c) His father said, 'We must leave Rome at once.'

162
OF THE REPUBLIC
A key moment in the long drawn out death of the Roman republic
occurred in 60Bc. The three most powerful men of the time, Julius
Ca_esar, Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, joined in an
alltance known as the First Triumvirate (a ruling group of three men).
They made it clear that nothing would stand in their way and Caesar
ma.de sure that nothing did when he became consul in 59 BC. The
Triumvirate was supported by the army, the knights and the people,
so the senate was unable to oppose it. Nobody paid any attention to
Cicero's appeals to save the republic.
Caesar fought his famous and brilliant campaigns over the next
decade in Gaul (France, Holland and Belgium) and Britain (which he
invaded in two raids in 55 and 54 BC). However, the situation at Rome
was less happy for him. The unity between the men of great ambition
lasted a surprisingly long time and a meeting of the Triumvirate in
56 BC smoothed over the problems which had arisen. Crassus,
however, was killed in Parthia in 53 BC (see the end of Chapter 12),
and Pompey became more and more an ally of the Senate. Caesar and
Pompey were being driven further apart, and the Senate voted on 1
January 49 BC that Caesar, who was still in Gaul, should lay down his
command.
Caesar's response came .on lOJanuary, when he brought his army
into Italy. This was really a declaration of civil war since it was treason
for a general to enter Italy at the head of an army. Caesar fully
realized the,great significance of what he was doing. He spent one
hour in solitary thought. Then he crossed the river Rubicon , which
marked the frontier between Gaul and Italy, and exclaimed, 'iacta
alea est!' ('The die is cast!')
Pompey and most of the Senate withdrew across the Adriatic to
Greece. Caesar defeated Pompey's supporters in Spain, then followed
him to Greece and in 48 BC won a great victory over him at Pharsalus.
Pompey fled on horseback and succeeded in escaping to Egypt, but
was stabbed to death as he landed. Ptolemy, the boy king of Egypt,
sent his head to Caesar, hoping to win favour with him, but the victor
was revolted and distressed by this grisly gift.
Other wars were to follow - including the one in which he made
his celebrated boast 'veni, vidi, vici' ('I came, I saw, I overcame') . He
had a famous love affair with Cleopatra, the beautiful Egyptian
queen. He was by now the most powerful man in the Western world.
He was appointed dictator at Rome, first in 49 BC and then for life in
February 44 BC. Though he refused the title rex (king), he put on the
purple robe worn by the Tarquins, and his supreme power struck
many as intolerable. A conspiracy to assassinate him led by Marcus
Brutus and Caius Cassius succeeded in 44 BC. His mutilated body fell
at the foot of the statue of his great opponent Pompey as you have read.

163
It was now the task of his friend Marcus Antonius and of his
great-nephew and heir Octavian to avenge his death.

Antony

Octavian

f) Write a paragraph describing Julius Caesar's thoughts as he sat by the


Rubicon.

164