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Tribhuwan University

Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)


PG campus
Department of Animal Science

A Research Proposal on,


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE OF
BROILER PRODUCERS AT DIFFERENT SCALE IN DANG DISTRICT OF NEPAL: A
CASE STUDY

SUBMITTED BY:
SUSHIL BASNET
R-2017-LPM-02M

SUBMITTED TO:
INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE, T.U KATHMANDU
PROJECT TITLE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
AND PERFORMANCE OF BROILER PRODUCERS AT
DIFFERENT SCALE IN DANG DISTRICT OF NEPAL

Institute Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS),


Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu
Researcher Sushil Basnet
Contact No: 9865622486
Email: basnetsushil33@gmail.com
Major Advisor Bhargab Dhital,
Professor
HOD, Livestock Production and Management
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu
Sector Poultry

Total cost of Research NRs. 55550.00

Duration of the research 2077/4/15 – 2077/10/15

Location Dang District


Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Statement of the problem ...................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Rationale of the study ............................................................................................................ 3
1.4 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 3
Broad Objective ....................................................................................................................... 3
1.4.2 Specific Objectives ......................................................................................................... 3
1.5 Limitation of the study .......................................................................................................... 3
2. Literature Review........................................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Livestock and Poultry sector of Nepal: ................................................................................. 4
2.2 Economics of Broiler Farming .............................................................................................. 6
2.2.1 Performance of broiler farms .......................................................................................... 7
2.2.2 Cost of production and return ......................................................................................... 7
2.2.3 Gross margin analysis ..................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Major Problems of broiler farming in Nepal ......................................................................... 8
2.3.1 High cost of production/ feed ......................................................................................... 8
2.3.2 Outbreak of different diseases ........................................................................................ 8
2.3.3 Overuse of Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance ........................................................ 8
2.3.4 Price fluctuation in poultry meat .................................................................................... 9
2.3.5 Unavailability of quality chicks and feed ....................................................................... 9
2.3.6 Inadequate finance .......................................................................................................... 9
2.3.7 Lack of technical knowledge .......................................................................................... 9
2.3.8 Other problem ................................................................................................................. 9
3. Methods and Methodology ....................................................................................................... 10
3.1 Study Area ........................................................................................................................... 10
3.2 Sampling Size and Technique ............................................................................................. 11
3.3 Method of Data Collection .................................................................................................. 12
3.3.1 Primary Sources:........................................................................................................... 12
3.3.2 Secondary Sources:....................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Analysis: .............................................................................................................................. 13
5. Risk and Assumptions............................................................................................................... 15
6. Calendar of Operation: .............................................................................................................. 16
7. Estimated Budget: ..................................................................................................................... 17
8. References: ................................................................................................................................ 18
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Different structure of poultry industry in Nepal ............................................................... 5


Table 2: Commercial poultry and meat production statistics of Nepal .......................................... 5

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Map of Nepal showing Dang District............................................................................ 10


Figure 2 Map of Dang District ...................................................................................................... 11
1. Introduction

1.1 Background
Contribution of Agriculture sector in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nepal is 33 % (MOAD,
2016). Out of which, contribution of livestock sector in total Agriculture Gross Domestic
Product (AGDP) is 26.8 % and poultry sub sector within livestock contributes 8 % of the AGDP
(MOLD, 2015). The poultry sector is an integral part of the Nepalese farming system. Poultry
meat is the fastest growing component of the global meat production, consumption and trade.
The contribution of the poultry industry to the national economy is rising in trend. Poultry meat
fulfills around 13 percent of countries’ meat requirement of Nepal. Nepal had 72 million
chickens in 2018, which was contributing in production of 60 thousand MT chicken meats
(Subedi & Kaphle, 2018). Chitwan is the largest producer of poultry products in the country
making it poultry hub (Karki et al., 2015) with the district recording a turnover of Rs 10.17
billion and have 11 percent of the total broiler population of the country (CBS, 2016).

Poultry meat offer considerable potential to meet human needs for dietary animal supply. The
increase in consumption of poultry products has been particularly dramatic and widespread,
while changes in buff, pork and dairy demand vary with cultural differences between countries.
Future meat demand is expected to grow at roughly equivalent rates in different developing
countries, with very large absolute increases in demand in China leading to large imports
(Andrew et al., 2008). FAO recommendation for daily protein consumption is put at 60 gram per
person out of which 35 gram is expected to be of animal source (FAO, 2011).

Broiler is an important source of high quality proteins, minerals and vitamins to balance human
diet. Broilers are acting efficiently in conversion of feed to meat within a short period of time
(Sefeedpari et al., 2012). Broiler is the third most consumed meat in the world, after beef and
pork (Atilgan and Hayati, K., 2006). In last decade, the growth of meat was estimated about 10
percent per annum. (Poultry Manch, 1997). In recent years, broiler production has emerged as
one of the attractive business in Nepal. The broiler production business has thus witness a
considerable investment, which is reflected by the growing number of commercial poultry farms
(Bhurtel, 1999). Broiler production is unique in that it offers the highest turnover rate and the
quickest returns to investment outlay in the livestock enterprises (Sanni and Ogundipe, 2005).

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Funds invested in broiler production are recovered faster than in any other livestock farming.
The rate of growth in production of broiler is the highest when compared with ruminants and
other monogastric animals (Braenkaert et al., 2002) and the cheapest, commonest and the best
source of animal protein (Ojo, 2002). Ogundipe and Sanni (2002) confirmed that returns to
investment can be improved by turning out batches in a year depending on the length of the
production cycle.

1.2 Statement of the problem


Besides many opportunities of commercial broiler farming, many broiler producers were found
at loss due to lack of knowledge about market, pricing mechanism and role of stakeholders. The
higher cost of feed is one of the main reasons cited by many researches on why the industry
cannot perform better and highly rely on the price trend of the main feed ingredients. (Elsedig et
al., 2015; Chanjula and Pattamarakha, 2002). They exert that high cost of feed is considered as a
major problem of broiler production along with a lack of knowledge for disease prevention,
outbreak of diseases. The feed cost in broiler production as a major cost that contributes about 70
% to the total variable cost while, day old chick (DOC) contributes about 22 % and the rest like
labor, vitamin, and equipment jointly contributes less than 9 % (Ravindran, 2013). Because of
this, producers are largely price taker of what feed industries offer of their produce. Though,
great majority of producing firms have little saying in price and even in disposal of produce
because of dependencies created by asymmetry in access to information and market access and
excessive transaction costs.

Broiler marketing problem is another major issue for the broiler production farmers. The
prevailing marketing system has not supported to small scale farmers for tapping benefit. In
Dang district, existing marketing situation of broiler farmers have different kind of channels. The
producers are selling their marketable broiler informally to individuals, middlemen, wholesalers
and retailers as well as through the feed industries. Likewise there is several fragmented and
inefficient marketing system due to the several channels. These circumstances has resulted in
high risk and high marketing costs which in turn leads to low prices for producer and high prices
for consumers. It does indicate that operation of poultry market is not efficient and is operating
under the control of few leading firms. Moreover, the small broiler farmers cannot sell their
broilers at the time when it is more profitable for them, so they lose money on this business due
to not approaching to the right buyers.

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1.3 Rationale of the study
The broiler production can help to meet the nutritional requirements of the community besides
providing income and employment to the weaker section of the society. In this view, it is felt
essential to critically study the economic variation of broiler farming. Further, the information on
the cost of production of broiler would be useful in indicating the share of various factors
incurred in the production of broiler farming. This would also provide an in-sight into the cost
structure so that efforts can be made to lower the expenditure and increase the margin of profit to
the producer. This study will give indication of production status and addresses problems of
broiler farmers related to broiler production.

Study will be useful in analysis of channel wise price spread and estimates on producer’s share
and consumer’s rupee, which will help to find way to increase the efficiency of marketing of
produce with which farmers dispose the produce to their greatest advantage. Therefore, this
research seeks how to increase income of the small broiler farmers through improving marketing
system. Likewise, this study helps to find out the socio-economic status, benefit cost ratio,
problems of broiler production and broiler producer so that it will clear the economics of broiler
production.

1.4 Objectives

Broad Objective
Study the production and marketing performance of broiler producer in Dang district

1.4.2 Specific Objectives


The specific objectives of the study are to:

 Study of production practices adopted by farmers


 Study the cost and return and production efficiency in broiler production
 Study the marketing behavior and performance of farmers
 Identify the problem faced by the broiler farmers
 Identify the risk and mitigation strategy used by farmers

1.5 Limitation of the study


The study will be conducted at Dang District. Thus, the findings might not be generalized in the
context of all other broiler farmers of the country due to different geographical condition,
educational status, number of years of poultry farming, training and extension programs

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conducted on those areas; and production system in the country. The study will rely on the
respondent perception, personal experience and knowledge where the effect of expressive
behavior of farmer may be inevitable.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Livestock and Poultry sector of Nepal:


Livestock constitutes an integral part of Nepalese agriculture system. The sector contributes 11
% to national GDP and 27 % to AGDP (ABPSD, 2010/11). The majority of agricultural
households keep livestock. Roughly one half of the agricultural households keep cattle on their
house holding. 38 % households have buffalo, 52 % have goat or sheep, 44 % have poultry and
10 % of agricultural households are keeping pig in the country. (ABPSD, 2010/11). The average
number of poultry per household is 3.4 in the country. Poultry birds are more popular in the hills
so average number of poultry birds is the highest in the hills (CBS, 2011). Poultry subsector
alone contributes about 3-4 % in AGDP of the country. Commercial poultry sector is providing
employment opportunities to more than 0.1 million people in the country (ABPSD, 2010/11).
Poultry production statistics of the country shows that there are around 55 % backyard and 45 %
commercial poultry production.

Nepal lies at 112th position for chicken meat production of world (FAO, 2014). The grandparent
stock for the broiler was established by Cobb Nepal with the start of production from September
2013 (FAO, 2014). The total production of broiler is 1170573 per week. The total feed
production is 646845 tons in 2010/2011 and demand of poultry meat per day is around 150000
kg/ day (FAO, 2014).

In spite of the fact that growing prices of geed materials, climatic extremes, and lack of good
conductive government policies, broiler farming is growing as the emerging profit-motive
industry since past decade. Different components like feed industries, hatcheries, meat processor,
medicine, packaging and allied agencies, big broiler farm etc. are the important components of
poultry industry use in Nepal. The number of medicine and health institute related to poultry is
relatively few but number of feed industries, hatcheries and big broiler farm has been increased
to 111, 98 and >1000 respectively which is depicted in the table 1.

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Table 1: Different structure of poultry industry in Nepal

S.N Poultry Scenario Total Number

1. Feed Industries 111

2. Hatcheries 98

3. Integrated broiler producer 65

4. Meat Processor 8

5. Medicine 6

6. Packaging and allied agencies 50

7. Big broiler farm >1000

Source: MOAD 2013, Nepal Feed Industry Association Brochure 2011)

Table 2: Commercial poultry and meat production statistics of Nepal

Year Commercial Poultry Statistics Total chicken meat production


(metric ton)

2010/11 39530620 36085

2011/12 45171185 40346

2012/13 47959239 42810

2013/14 48079406 43133

2014/15 50195285 45458

2015/16 68630638 55041

2016/17 70007151 57268

Source: ABPSD report, 2016/17

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2.2 Economics of Broiler Farming
Regarding the cost of production, cost of feed has been found to be 71 %, chicks 24 %,
medicines and vaccines 5 % (Joshi et al., 2014). This clearly indicates that cost of feed and
treatment cost are the major factors attributed to expensive poultry production in Nepal.

Sah et al (1996) reported that there is variation in cost of broiler production depending upon the
size of firms on their study on the problems and prospects of broiler production in Chitwan
district. They also reported that the season has also effect on prices of broiler because of
seasonality in consumption pattern. Likewise, Bhattarai et al (1991) have found that the per unit
profit margin tend to increase with the increase in size of production.

The cost of chicks, price of feed, feed conversion ratio, medical cost and the sale price of broilers
affected profitability (Bandara & Dassanayaka, 2006). Iroshan et al (2011) in a study on
profitability analysis of broiler production found that the sales price of broiler chicken had a
significant positive impact on profits, while the price of day-old chicks and feed conversion ratio
had a negative impact on profits. They concluded that broiler production was not a profitability
venture.

AI- Masad (2010) in a study on factors affecting profits of broiler industry in Jordan found that
the sale price of broiler meat had a positive impact on profits, which day-old chick price, price of
feeds, veterinary services and medicine costs, chick mortality rate and feed conversion ratio had
a negative effects on profits.

A study in Bangladesh (Rana et al., 2012) identified that broiler production was profitable and
that the major factors affecting production were feed cost, cost of day-old chick, labor cost and
litter cost. While Unang (2003) in a study of profitability and efficiency of the broiler industry in
Indonesia, found it to be an efficient industry. The larger farmers enjoyed more profit relative to
the smaller firms. It was also identified that the levels of efficiency and profitability were
influenced by the prices of feed and chicks as well as broiler output. In a study of profitability
and constraints in broiler production in Ghana, Etuah et al. (2013) found that broiler production
was profitable with a return of 27 % on investments and the major production constraints
identified, in order of severity, were high feed cost, lack of access to credit, competition from
cheap poultry imports and lack of government support.

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2.2.1 Performance of broiler farms
The number of production cycles per year is highest for large farms (Bhurtel and Sharma, 2000).
More studies showed that larger farms have a little bit higher live weight per bird. In Nepal,
Bhurtel and Shaha reported that the average live weight per bird was 2.0 kg. However this was
found just opposite to the result obtained by Bhurtel and Shaha (2000), i.e., Bhurtel and Shah
reported that smaller farm had higher live weight per bird than medium, and medium had higher
than large farm for the same.

The quantity of feed consumes to produce 1 kg live weight by a broiler on an average was found
2.5 kg. It was found small difference between medium and large in context of feed conversion
ratio (Gairhe, 2008). But there was no such relation found in the study of Bhurtel and Shaha
(2000). They reported that the average feed consumption ratio was in the range of 2.3 to 2.5 kg.
On an average feed consumption per bird was found 5 kg (Gairhe, 2008)

2.2.2 Cost of production and return


It was observed that there were great variations in the variable costs of production among broiler
producers (Gairhe, 2008). The variable cost share by the feeds was found the greatest followed
by the variable cost incurred for buying chicks. Then, the cost share of medicines, vitamins,
vaccines and others were found after chicks (Shrestha and Bhandari, 2000).Shrestha and
Bhandari (2000) reported that the average variable cost per kg live weight was Rs. 59.48 for
small, Rs. 57.01 for medium and 45.70 large farms.

The average revenue (price) received per kg live weight was found Rs. 81 and revenue received
per bird was 158. Revenue received per kg live weight and per bird was found increasing with
farm size (Gairhe, 2008).

2.2.3 Gross margin analysis


The gross margin per kg of live weight was Rs. 13.6 in the study area of Chitwan district. The
gross margins per kg live weight for small, medium and large farms were found Rs. 10.4, 13.0
and 18.3 respectively (Gairhe, 2008). The gross margin reported was Rs. 13.6 per kg live weight
(Shrestha and Bhandari, 2000). The gross margin reported by Bhurtel and Shaha (2000) per bird
was 12.88, whereas the gross margin per bird was Rs. 27.3 in the study area of Chitwan district.
The gross margin per bird for small, medium and large farms found Rs. 18.8, 25.3 and 35.0

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respectively. These result shows that the broiler production is profitable business in Chitwan
(Gairhe, 2008).

2.3 Major Problems of broiler farming in Nepal


Acharya and Kaphle, 2015 describes some of challenges of poultry production as perceived by
the stakeholders of poultry production:

2.3.1 High cost of production/ feed


Cost of production of per kg of broiler meat has been increased day by day due to uncontrolled
rise of price of feed ingredients. High cost of feed and treatment is contributing more than 75 %
of total cost of production. Since production of raw ingredients of Nepal especially the maize
sustains only 40-50 % of demand for feed production (Sharma, 2012). We have to depend on
India for ingredients of feed; this has also added the cost of feed and ultimately the cost of broiler
production.

2.3.2 Outbreak of different diseases


About 96 % of small-scale poultry entrepreneurs do not have any formal training on farm
management (Oliver and Pant, 2011). Lack of awareness coupled with improper bio-security
transmissible diseases such as the infectious bursal disease (IBD), New Castle Disease, Avian
influenza (AI) has been found to be major diseases contributing the more than 80 % mortality of
poultry, which if the proper biosecurity is followed can be easily controlled.

Disease outbreak such as bird flu, Newcastle disease, gumboro, marek, fowl pox diseases etc
tends to increase the cost of medication which directly increase the operating cost and this
problem increases the mortality rate causing a decrease in the profit generated from broiler
production. This is probably because most of small scale broiler farmers could not identify the
symptoms of disease earlier enough to prevent disease outbreak which is a major threat that wipe
out many of the broilers in developing countries. .

2.3.3 Overuse of Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance


About 50% of antibiotics are prescribed inappropriately (DDA Nepal, 2012). About 71% of
veterinary drugs sale are sold by self-prescription rather than qualified registered veterinarian
(Khatiwada, 2013). Such use of antibiotics in feed raises the concern among the public health
authorities and consumer because such levels may incur drug resistance in the gastrointestinal
microbes of animals (WHO, 1985).

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2.3.4 Price fluctuation in poultry meat
There is unstable market price meat resulting disproportionate price of chicken to production
cost. Instability in price meat among different times of year has also resulted in hindrance for the
success of boiler farming enterprise in Nepal. Several ups and down in the unit price of broiler
has been a challenging problem. Sometimes the price of broiler meat is high and sometimes due
to maximum production the price goes down.

2.3.5 Unavailability of quality chicks and feed


The major problems as perceived by the farmers are the unavailability of fresh and healthy
chicks. Most of the grain fed to chicken is imported from India and is of very low quality. It also
contains antibiotics so that the chickens' health remains unaffected by the substandard grain.

2.3.6 Inadequate finance


Inadequate finance could be the reason why farmers could not acquire the necessary inputs
especially fixed inputs for large scale production which attracts higher profit and efficiency.
Umar (2013) reported that technical efficiency was highly influenced by financial constraints.
This is because in addition to the quantity of inputs used, the timing of input usage also affects
farm output.

2.3.7 Lack of technical knowledge


Technical efficiency is low due to insufficient equipment, improper training and motivation for
operational personnel. Institutions are lacking appropriate facilities so cannot provide necessary
exposure and training in automated broiler production. National extension services find it
difficult to properly serve sophisticated farms which then have to depend on foreign services,
personnel and spare parts.

2.3.8 Other problem


Other problems like inadequate market, inefficient extension services, and lack of storage
facilities, pest and diseases, low manpower, shortage of water, poor infrastructure, distant
market, feed scarcity and poor quality of day old chicks are minor problems to the broiler
industry.

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3. Methods and Methodology

3.1 Study Area


Dang district is selected for the study. The total area of Dang district is 2,955 sq. km which is
situated at 213 to 2058 meter above sea level (masl). Total population of Dang districts is
5,52,583 (CBS, 2011).

Figure 1: Map of Nepal showing Dang District

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Figure 2 Map of Dang District

3.2 Sampling Size and Technique


Sampling Technique:

Number of registered broiler farm will be collected from Department of Cottage and Small
Industries, Dang (Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies) and two sub-metropolitans
(Tulsipur and Ghorahi sub-metropolitan) will be purposively selected and each household
samples from respective sub-metropolitan will be randomly selected.

Sampling Size:

The enormous problems to be encountered in the use of actual population size, a portion of
sample formula of Cochran (1977) will be employed. The formula adopts the use of an assumed
sample frame which represents an assumed mean of the true population.

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The formula is,

N
n
1  N (e) 2
Where
n = the sample size sought;
N = the population size (which is taken as the assumed sample frame)
e = is the level of confidence (taken as 95%).

3.3 Method of Data Collection


Generally data will be collected through household survey of producers, key informant
interview from wholesaler, retailors and butchers

3.3.1 Primary Sources:


The primary data containing information about performance of broiler farmers will be collected
through random sampling in selected sub-metropolitans. Data collection will be obtained from
the personal interview with the individual farmers. A pre-tested semi structured questionnaire
will be made to obtain the survey data. Sample size of the total population will be calculated and
selected farmers will be individually interviewed. During the interview, all the information will
be asked in the details. Key Informants Interview (KII) will also be conducted during the
research period.

3.3.2 Secondary Sources:


Secondary data related to broiler production and number of poultry farmers will be collected
through Department of Cottage and Small Industries, Dang (Ministry of Industry, Commerce and
Supplies). Other relevant information will be taken through literatures, books, other findings,
reports and different consulted sources.

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3.4 Analysis:
The study aims to compare large and small scale broiler producers within above objectives.

Objective 1:

Descriptive statistics will be performed for adoption of management practices. Logit regression
will be performed to study the factors affecting adoption of these practices. Also production
efficiency will be assessed through stochastic function approach. A simplified version of SFA as
used by Meeusen & van Den Broeck, (1977) is:
qi  X i   vi  ui
Where, qi represents output of the firm i; Xi represent the inputs used and β represents vector of
unknown parameters. Similarly, vi is the symmetric random error which represent statistical
noise and production risk beyond the farmers’ control (noise effect) while ui is the non-negative
random variable representing error concerned with production factors which can be adjusted by
the farmers (inefficiency effect)
Further, at following stage factors effecting efficiency will be analyzed by linear regression.

Objective 2:

The viability of the poultry enterprise will be determined using the benefit-cost ratio (BCR). The
benefit-cost ratio measures how the revenue generated from the broiler production covers the
cost incurred from the same enterprise. It is expressed as follows:

Where:

BCR = Benefit Cost Ratio


Bt = Discounted value of benefits
Ct = Discounted value of cost
n = number of years
t = number of years (=1,2,3,…,n)

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r = rate of discount
= Summation sign

Further, cost on various inputs will be assessed to study the cost structure and proportion of
different inputs.. The aim of this is at estimating the profitability of the enterprises. In this study,
the model used for computing the cost and returns of the broiler enterprise is the gross margin
which is presented as follows:

Where;

GM = Gross Margin
Yi = Quantity of product(s)
Pyi = Unit price of the product(s)
Xj = Quantity of the variable inputs (j = 1,2,3,…n, m inputs)
Pxi = Price per unit of variable input
= Summation Sign

Objective 3:
Descriptive statistics of marketing behavior will be assessed and logit regression will be
performed assess the factors affecting choice of channel. Also performance of marketing will be
studied by marketing margin and producer’s share in market.

Marketing Margin = Retail price – Farm gate price

Producer’s share is the price received by the farmer expressed as a percentage of the retail price,
that is, the price paid by the consumer and is calculated by:

PS = (PF/PR) ×100 %

Where, PS =Producers’ share, PF = farm gate price (producers’ price) and PR = retail price

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Objective 4:

Problem analysis will be done through likert scale technique. In this,

Severity of problem (Sp) was calculated as Sp = Summation of fx


Where, f = frequency of response, x = value of response category.
The highest value indicates the most severe problem and severity goes on decreasing with
descending Sp value

Objective 5:

Descriptive statistics will be performed for various risk and mitigation strategy adopted by
farmers

4. Expected Outputs:

 Socio-economic status of the broiler farmers of Dang district will be identified.


 Problem faced by the broiler farmers will be identified.
 Profitability of broiler production in Dang will be identified

5. Risk and Assumptions


Risks are:

 Data collection problem of COVID-19 pandemic


 Accurate data may not be available from the respondent.
 Taken sample may not be sufficient to represent whole research area.
 Farmer may be unknown about their production record.

Assumptions are:

 No problem of COVID during data collections


 Positive support by all concerned organization
 Timely available of Budget
 Favorable weather and climate during data collection

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 Full cooperation of the farmers

6. Calendar of Operation:
S.N List of Activities Year 2020
August September October November December
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1. Survey Topic
Selection
2. Proposal Writing
3. Questionnaire
Preparation
4. Data Collection
a. Sample Selection
b.. Primary Data
Collection
c. Secondary Data
Collection
5. Data Analysis
6. Report Writing, Thesis
Writing

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7. Estimated Budget:
Estimated Budget for survey research is given below:
S.N Particulars Amount in NPR.
1. Stationery during research 1000.00
2. Transportation and Travelling 7000.00
3. Lodging and Fooding 8000.00
4. Source materials (Books, Booklets, References etc. 1500.00
5. Telephone and Communication 1000.00
6. Data entry and analysis 10000.00
7. Questionnaire Publication 2000.00
8. Thesis Preparation and Seminar 20000.00
9. Sub- Total 50500.00
10. Miscellaneous (10 %) 5050.00
Grand Total 55550.00

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Promotion & Statistic Division, Singhadarbar, Kathmandu.

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Adesiyan, O. (2014). “Technical Efficiency of Poultry Production in Afijio Local Government


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Atilgan, A., & Hayati, K. (2006). Cultural energy analysis on broilers reared in different capacity
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Bandara, R.M.A.S. & Dassanayake D.M.W.K. (2007). A Quantitative Analysis of Factors


Affecting Profitability Of Small Scale Broiler Production. The Journal of Agricultural
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Bhattarai, P.C., Singh, S.B., Shrestha B.S. & Kandel K.P. (1991). Economics of Poultry Raising
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Braenkaert, R. D. S, Gavirial, L. Jallade, J. and Seiders, R. W. (2000). Transfer of technology in


poultry production for developing countries. Paper presented at Worlds Poultry Congress,
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CBS (2011). Statistical year book of Nepal, National Planning Commission, Secretariat,
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