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BIC Library Guide Series: No 27. Harvard Referencing System: An Introductory Guide
BIC Library Guide Series: No 27.
Harvard Referencing System:
An Introductory Guide

What is it?

Academic writing requires the author to support their arguments with reference to other published work or experimental results/findings. A reference system will perform three essential tasks.

1. Enable you to acknowledge other authors ideas [avoid plagiarism]

2. Enable reader to quickly locate the source of the material you refer to so they can consult it if they wish.

3. To indicate to the reader the scope and depth of your research

The Harvard System is a widely used referencing system to help you achieve these objectives

How do I use the Systems?

The Harvard System involves two tasks:

1. How you refer to other authors in the body of your text.

2. How you compile a list of reference sources [Bibliography] at the end of your text.

The system in essence uses an author/date system of referencing in the body of the text and full bibliographic details of citations in the Bibliography [reference list] at the end of the text. In essence in the body of your text you will cite/refer to the authors name and the date of publication and in the list of references you will provide the full bibliographic details of the cited publications.

Single Author

Examples

The style depends on the context of the reference.

In the text

In the Bibliography

‘The financial problem faced by the developers has been described in detail in Jones (1998)’ or

Book Jones, K. (1998) Financial management today. Dublin :

Argus Press.

or

‘Ryan (2006) states that cost overruns are frequently the result of inadequate planning.’

Journal Ryan, J. (2006) ‘Management accounting for developers’, Journal of advanced accounting, Vol. 1, No 5 : p.21-24

Options You may use accepted abbreviations in place of the full name of the journal e.g. Jnl.Adv.Acc You may use Vol. To indicate the volume number and no. to indicate the issue number (The Web of Knowledge Database provides a list of references in the abbreviated format)

Internet journal (Text only available on the internet) After the title (Bibliographic details) add the FULL location followed by the date accessed. e.g. http://www/abc.ac.uk/zpl.htm (accessed 7/6/05)

Journal available from an Electronic Database provider, e.g. ABI, EBSCO, etc After the full bibliographic details add the name of the provider, followed by the date it was accessed:

e.g. ABI Proquest (accessed 7/6/05).

Two Authors

In the text ‘Boyd and McKee (2006) indicate value…’

In the Bibliography Boyd, M. and McKee, W. (2006) Advanced Mathematics. Galway : Ocean Press.

More than two authors

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Murphy, A., Boyd, M., Smith, A. (2006) Introduction to advanced geometry. London : Longman.

Murphy et al. (2005)…

Two authors with the same surname

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Black, K. (2005). Geology of Dublin. Cork : UCC, Geology Dept. Black, R. (2005). Liffey Valley Project. Belfast : University Press.

Black, K (2005)

Black, R (2005)

Single author, two or more publications, same year, cited on different occasions

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Greene, K. (2006A) ‘Irish TV Drama’, Journal of Radio, Vol. 5 No.2 : p. 10-16. Greene, K. (2006B) ‘Welsh radio today’, Journal of Radio, Vol. 5 No 3 : p. 10-16

Greene (2006A).

Greene (2006B).

Single author, two or more publications, same year, cited on the same occasion

In the text

In the Bibliography Greene, K. (2006A) ‘Irish TV Drama’, Journal of Radio, Vol. 5 No.2 : p. 10-16. Greene, K. (2006B) ‘Welsh radio today’, Journal of Radio, Vol. 5 No 3 : p. 10-16

Greene (2006A, B).

Edited work: Citing a book edited by a known editor

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Saunders, M. (ed.) (1998). Advances in food science. Waterford : Nore Press.

Saunders (1998)

Edited Works

Citing the work of an author which is a chapter or part of another work.

In the text The early history of direct mail advertising in Ireland is described by Drake (1935) in Campbell, A. (ed.) History Of Irish advertising. Glasgow : Macmillan.

In the Bibliography Drake, S. (1935) Irish advertising. In Campbell, A. (ed.) History of Irish advertising. Glasgow : Macmillan.

Works which have no personal author: Corporate authors

These include companies, Governments, organisations etc. Examples:

Aer Lingus

Department of Education

University College Dublin

Road Hauliers Association When citing in the body of the text use the name of the organisation as the author.

In the text The recent annual report indicates success in achieving its financial targets Eircom (2005)

In the Bibliography Eircom (2005) Strategic review and report to employees. Dublin : Eircom PLC

You may use the abbreviated name provided you refer to the full name when first cited.

 

In the text

 

In the Bibliography

1 st

Citation: University College Dublin [UCD] 2006

2 nd Citation: UCD (2006)

1 st

Citation: University College Dublin [UCD] 2006

2 nd Citation: UCD (2006)

If citations are to distinct publications you may proceed as for authors with the same name e.g. UCD.A (2006) UCD.B (2006)

Secondary Sources: Private Sources

If you are unable to ascertain an exact reference to the source, e.g. you are referring to a source used by another author who does not provide full bibliographic details of his/source e.g. a quotation from a textbook you have two options

1. attempt to track down the exact source [Web of Knowledge Database may assist- its lists citations to key academic articles]

2.

refer to it in the text as follows:

In the text O’Reilly, as cited by Kelly (2005) indicated that bus lanes were not a simple solution

In the Bibliography Cite the referring publication following the rules above (e g as a single author etc)

Private Sources

These include letters, internal documents etc not available to the general public.

In the text In a letter to the author the Chairman indicated….

In the Bibliography Burns, C. Letter to author 1/7/06 (Private collection) Or Eircom PLC Internal Report 1/7/05 (Eircom archives)

Burns(2006)

Conference Proceedings

In the text

In the Bibliography Mulvey, K. (2006) ‘Blackrock Shopping Centre’. In Irish Retail Studies Conference Proceedings. June, 2008. Dublin : IRS

Mulvey (2006)

Note: Conference proceedings are published after the date of the conference. The date after the authors name in the body of text and the bibliography refers to the date at which the paper was delivered.

Thesis

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Brown, M. (2003) ‘Email and direct mail’. Unpublished MBA thesis, School of Electronics, University of Munster, Tralee.

Brown (2003)

Working papers

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Henchy, X. (1995) ‘Irish Exports to China’. Department of Geography, University of Munster, Tralee. Working Paper 57.

Henchy (1995)

Edition Statement

In the text

In the Bibliography Smyth, J. (2004) Introduction to calculus, 2 nd. Ed. Cambridge : University Press. or Smyth, J. (2004) Introduction to calculus, second edition. Cambridge : University Press.

Smyth, J (2004)

Newspaper Article: no known author

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Longford Leader (1995) New Library opens. Longford Leader June 12.

Longford Leader (1995)

Newspaper Article: known author

In the text

In the Bibliography White, K (1995). New bookshop opens. Longford Leader June 5.

White, K (1995)

Anonymous Works

In the text In an anonymous pamphlet issued in 1897. Anon

In the Bibliography Anon (1987). Price of salt in India. Bombay : Oriel Press.

(1987)

If the publisher is unknown provide the details of the place of publication. Check the Library catalogue or COPAC to find full bibliographic details.

Legal Publications: Court Cases: Judgements

Legal citations can be quite complex, the under listed are examples of items commonly encountered in business related texts.

Case Law [Ireland]

In the text In Hynes Ltd. V. Independent Newspapers Ltd. it was held…

In the Bibliography Hynes Ltd. V. Independent Newspapers Ltd. [1980]

I.R.204.

Case Law [UK]

In the text In Federal Ltd. V. Central Ltd. a different approach was adopted…

In the Bibliography Federal Ltd. V. Central Ltd. [1958] A.C.270

Abbreviations:

CH refers to Chancery Division, High Court QB refers to Queens Branch Division, High Court When referring to a case in the text you may – if you wish- name the court the case was decided in.

AC refers to the House of Lords, Court of Appeal, Privy Council

In the text On appeal from the High Court the Supreme Court held in Jones V. Kelly…

For unreported judgements (Those not reported in Law Reports)

 

In the text

In the Bibliography Smith V. White. Unreported, High Court. O’Brien, J., July 4, 1995.

Smith V. White (1995)

European Court

In the text In Costa V. ENEL [1964] the European Court held…

In the Bibliography Costa V. ENEL case 6/64 [1964] ECR 585

Acts of the Oireachtas/Acts of Parliament

In the text The Industrial Relations Act (1990) does not deal with the situation

In the Bibliography Industrial Relations Act. 1990

You may distinguish between countries:

e.g. Industrial Relations Act. 1995 [England]

European Union

In the text EU Directive 94/33 (Young Workers) can relate to…

In the Bibliography EU Directive 94/33 (Protection of Young Workers Rights)

In edition to Directives, other areas of EU Legislation include (not all legally binding):

Regulations; Opinions; Decisions; Recommendations; Treaties To refer to these documents simply replace the word Directive in the examples above with the name of the relevant document:

e.g. EU Regulation 58/22 (Price of Corn).

How Library Resources can assist you check references

Books

Electronic Resources: on and off campus

UCD Library Catalogue: http://www.ucd.ie/library (Homepage)

COPAC

http://www.copac.ac.uk

The combined catalogue of the principal UK University Libraries and Trinity College Dublin Library Links to other Libraries: Available from UCD Library Homepage

Periodicals

UCD Library Electronic Resources

A-Z of Electronic Journals

List of Library databases

UCD Library Catalogue (Print holdings and links to some Electronic journals)

Web of Knowledge (on Campus only) Electronic database which provides bibliographic and citation data relating to key academic journals, papers and authors. Example:

You can ascertain the original papers bibliography, who has cited it and who has cited papers which cite the original paper. You can trace papers by Author, Keyword, Title etc. [Separate leaflet available, also online instructions.