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Interpretation of the lab result (except urinalysis) (adiba)

Renal Profile • BUSE (Blood Urea Serum • Urea and electrolytes are carried out routinely
Electrolyte) (Normal) on serum or plasma samples.
• Serum creatinine (Normal) • It was normal and indicates that this patient does
not have electrolyte imbalance and renal failure.
• Serum creatinine measurements are used to
calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate
(eGFR), which is used as a screening test to look
for evidence of kidney damage.

Serum uric • 600 μmol/L (High) • Male: 2.1 to 8.5 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
acid level • Female: 2.0 to 7.0 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
• Uric acid formation may occur when the blood
uric acid level rises above 7 mg/dL.
• Increased concentrations of uric acid can cause
crystals or kidney stones that can damage the
• Uric acid stones compose <5% of all urinary
calculi and are usually found in men.
• Most patients with uric acid calculi, however, do
not have hyperuricemia.

KUB • A right ureteric stone is present. • The KUB (kidney, ureter, and bladder) study is a
• The tip lumbar transverse process diagnostic test used to detect kidney stones and to
noted. diagnose some gastrointestinal disorders.
• The right kidney shadow appears • The KUB is also used as a follow-up procedure
larger than normal. after the placement of devices such as ureteral
stents and nasogastric or nasointestinal tubes
(feeding tubes) to verify proper positioning.
• Normal KUB showing contrast opacified
• Note the course of the ureters lateral to the
lumbar spine overlying the psoas muscles
proximally, crossing over the sacrum, and
curving laterally in the pelvis before turning
medially to insert in the urinary bladder. Due to
peristalsis, the ureter may not be visible in its

Left Ureter Stone

Left Distal Ureter Stone

A KUB film shows a radiopaque lesion over left

paraspinal area, indicating a large ureteral stone.
Intravenous • There is hydronephrosis of the • IVP (intravenous pyelogram or intravenous
Urogram right with two kidney stones urogram (IVU) is the same test by another name)
noted at the pelvis; each measures which requires about 50 ml of a special dye to be
1.0cm in diameter. injected into the bloodstream that is excreted by
• The left kidney is normal. the kidneys and by its density helps outline any
• There is also a ureteric stone stone on a repeated X-ray.
measuring 0.5cm in diameter seen • These can also be detected by a retrograde
at the pelvi-ureteric junction. pyelogram where similar "dye" is injected directly
into the ureteral opening in the bladder by a
surgeon, usually an urologist.

Normal excretory phase of an IVU (intravenous

urogram). This film was taken approximately 10
minutes following IV injection of iodinated contrast
material. The kidneys are excreting contrast into non
dilated calyces (arrows), renal pelvis (p), ureters (*)
and bladder (B).
Dilation of Right
Renal Pelvis and

Pyelo-ureteric Junction Obstruction Shows as

Dilation of Right Renal Pelvis and Calyces