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Quarter 1 - Module 3
Vulnerability: Its Definition
The Vulnerable Sectors
in the Society
Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction SHS
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 1 – Module 3: Vulnerability and Its Definition and the Vulnerable Sector in the
First Edition, 2020

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Published by the Department of Education

OIC-Schools Division Superintendent: Carleen S. Sedilla CESE
OIC-Assistant Schools Division Superintendent: Brian E. Ilan EdD

Development Team of the Module

Writer: Maria Vina C. Liwanag

Editors: Ernell O. Placido & Gerry Tirao

Reviewer: Edwin I. Salviejo EdD

Layout Artist: Arnold G. Chan

Management Team: Angelita S. Jalimao

Chief Education Supervisor, Curriculum Implementation Division

Neil Vincent C. Sandoval

Education Program Supervisor, LRMS

Edwin I. Salviejo EdD

Division Science Coordinator/School Principal I

Printed in the Philippines by the Schools Division Office of Makati City through the
support of the City Government of Makati (Local School Board)

Department of Education – Schools Division Office of Makati City

Office Address: Gov. Noble St., Brgy. Guadalupe Nuevo

City of Makati, Metropolitan Manila, Philippines 1212
Telefax: (632) 8882-5861 / 8882-5862
E-mail Address:
What I Need to Know

The module is divided into two lessons, namely:

• Lesson 1 – Vulnerability: Its Definition

• Lesson 2 – The Vulnerable Sectors in the Society
After going through this module, you are expected to:
1. Identify the things that makes you susceptible and resilient
2. Categorize vulnerability into demographic or socioeconomic factor
3. Create a “Capacity ID” for each family member to promote preparedness
to a hazard

What I Know

True or False: Write True if the sentence is correct and False if the sentence is wrong.

________ 1. If you are working in a hotel situated along the coast line, you
are not susceptible to a tsunami.
________ 2. Houses with good foundation near an active fault system are not
susceptible to earthquake. They are only vulnerable to it.
________ 3. Resilience can be in the form of materials, drill preparation and
immediate response.
________ 4. Vulnerability can be characterized in terms of susceptibility and
economic indicators.
________ 5. The greater the resilience the lesser is the vulnerability
________ 6. People with low income is a demographic indicator of vulnerability.
________ 7. Children, elderly and people with pre-existing medical conditions are
vulnerable to health hazards because of their decreased immune
________ 8. Farmers and fishermen are vulnerable to typhoons because of their
age and sex.
________ 9. People with low educational attainment are vulnerable because of
their limited job opportunities, limited knowledge of family planning
and limited knowledge of family care.
________ 10. Some sectors are more vulnerable to disaster such as daily wage
earners, bank managers, engineers and event organizers.


1 Vulnerability: Its Definition

Is it possible that you are susceptible but at the same time resilient against an
earthquake hazard? If yes, are you vulnerable more or less in this kind of situation?
Let us study today’s lesson to understand how someone or how an entire community
becomes vulnerable.

What’s In
Let us review the previous lesson about the effects of disasters! What
human aspect is affected by the disaster as shown in each row?

1) broken leg bruise sprain swelling

2) anger sadness fearful upset
3) damayan malasakit pakikibahagi maagap

What’s New
How would you know if you are vulnerable or not? For you to answer
this question, you must know the terms used to describe vulnerability.
Learn some of these terms in the activity below. Combine the words
represented by the picture and letters to form the term hidden in the diagram below.
What terms related to vulnerability?

1. A
Source: Source:

2. T
Source: Source:
vector-image 26784/


Source: Source: Source:

green-40678/ /panda-character-chinese-noodle-1892023/ sand-beach-palm-tree-sea-shore-305497/

What Is It

Vulnerability refers to the characteristics and circumstances of people, community,

system or properties that increases the chances of suffering from a disaster. The
characteristic of people or community can be described through resilience. While
circumstance can be identified through susceptibility.
Susceptibility. This refers to your proximity and exposure to a hazard. Proximity
means your physical closeness to a hazard zone. Example of proximity is when your
house is near an active fault on the ground. Once the fault moves, you and other people
located away from the active fault would experience the effects of the movement of the
fault; however, it is you who are more susceptible to direct effects caused by an

earthquake. Exposure, on the other hand, refers to your physical presence in the
hazard zone. Example of exposure is when you are living in the city where there are all
sorts of vehicles releasing gas exhaust, you are susceptible to air pollution. Once you
are close to hazard zone or physically present in the area where hazard exists, then you
are immediately vulnerable. The West Valley Fault System is an active fault system
which runs 100 kilometers into different barangays in Luzon including Comembo, East
Rembo, Pembo, and Rizal in Makati City. Therefore, it is important that we prepare for
the movement of the fault with a predicted magnitude of 7.2 because we are susceptible
to it.
Resilience. This refers to your ability to adjust and recover. Your ability depends on
your capacity, preparedness, and response. Capacity refers to all resources utilized to
handle an incident caused by a hazard or to cope with the effects of a disaster. This
includes skills, materials, and organizations which will give you the needed recovery
support. Preparedness are the actions taken before a disaster happens that will guide
us how to act once a disaster occurs. Examples are disaster drills, information
dissemination, and disaster planning. This will also include attitude particularly
motivation and determination to be prepared before a disaster happens. Response are
the appropriate actions taken during or after a disaster to help lessen the negative
effects. An example of response during an occurrence of earthquake is doing the “duck,
cover and hold.” Another example of response during a fire incident is using properly a
fire hydrant through a method known as PASS which stands for pull, aim, squeeze, and
sweep. On the other hand, response after a disaster include search and rescue,
providing care for the wounded people, and giving food relief to victims of disaster.
Susceptibility affects vulnerability. If you are located near or at living in an area where
there is active fault system, you are immediately susceptible. When you are susceptible,
you become immediately vulnerable.
You may be susceptible and at the same time resilient. If you are living in a house which
can withstand a strong earthquake, then you are resilient even if you are susceptible to
an earthquake hazard. Resilience affects how more or less vulnerable you are. It is
important to understand that when you are resilient against a disaster in any way, you
become less vulnerable. Moreover, if you are resilient in all possible ways in terms of
capacity, preparedness and response, you are least vulnerable.

What’s More

Analyze the items marked with letters in the illustration below.

A. Hardhat
B. First Aid Kit
C. “Duck, Cover and D

D. Earthquake Drill B DRILL SCHEDULE

Monitoring Schedule
E. Plant in pot located
above the floor Source:

Answer the following questions based on the illustration above. Choose the letter of
the best answer. Then, provide an explanation to all of your answers.

1. Which item makes you susceptible to falling object in an event of an

2. Which item gives you capacity?
3. Which item represents your preparedness to an earthquake hazard?
4. Which item represents response during an earthquake?
What I Have Learned

Vulnerability depends on susceptibility and resilience. Vulnerability exists when you

are susceptible to a hazard in terms of proximity and exposure. The closer you are to
the hazard, the greater is your susceptibility. The greater your susceptibility, the
greater your vulnerability. On the other hand, vulnerability can be reduced through
resilience. There are three ways of being resilient namely capacity, preparedness and
response. The greater your resilience, the lesser is your vulnerability.

What I Can Do

Analyze the given situation and the effect of a disaster. Then, complete the diagram by
identifying the causes that lead to the effect. Put the cause under the appropriate group
it belongs. Choose from the words or phrases in the text for your answer.

Situation: A school is situated near an active fault system, the West Valley Fault, so it
conducted regular earthquake drills. However, it was observed by an outside earthquake
drill evaluator that most students are not taking drill seriously. One day, a 7.2
magnitude earthquake struck the area where the school is located. While the building
is still shaking, many students ran down the stairs instead of doing the “duck, cover
and hold.” Many were injured because they were thrown off their feet while shaking.
After the shaking, the effect of the disaster was a lot of students got bruises, open
wound, broken leg and sprain. There was only one school nurse and she was
overwhelmed by the number of injured students. The situation could have been
managed had the students brought their emergency bags to school.


cause cause


cause cause



Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a
separate sheet of paper.
1. You are living near an active fault system. Which of the following terms best
describes your situation?
A. capacity B. resilience C. response D. susceptibility
2. Study the Marikina River’s Alarm Official Water Level Monitoring
System shown on the right. Which 1st Alarm Prepare to Evacuate
response should you do if you hear 1- 1 minute (15 meters
minute continuous airing of the alarm? continuous airing water level)
nd Evacuate
A. Forced Evacuation 2 Alarm
2 minutes intermittent (16 meters
B. Prepare to evacuate
airing water level)
C. Evacuate to designated centers
3rd Alarm Forced Evacuation
D. Secure personal belongings (18 meters
5 minutes continuous
to higher ground. airing water level)

3. A volcano spewed a large cloud of ash which contains very small, sharp particles
made from rocks and glass. Hence, it is advised to wear protective equipment
such as masks and goggles to avoid eye and lung irritation. What form of resilience
are masks and goggles?
A. capacity B. exposure C. preparedness D. response

4. Which of the following response is correct while there is ground shaking?

A. Perform the “duck, cover and hold.”
B. Evacuate the building as fast as you can.
C. Gather in the evacuation area and do the head count.
D. Search and rescue people who were left in the building.

5. Which of the following situations will lessen your vulnerability?

A. Undergo a Basic Life Support Training.
B. Participate in earthquake drill once in a year.
C. Stay in your house and be on alert when a tsunami warning is raised.
D. Seek safety to higher floors in your house when 2 nd alarm of flood warning is

Additional Activities

Create a “Capacity ID” for each member of your family by asking their skills that they
can do in order to survive in case a disaster happens. Include all family members who
can make an understandable dialogue either by writing or by sign language.

The Capacity ID should have the following details:

1)Photo, optional 2)Age 3)Sex and 4)Skills.
(Note: Please refer to your teacher for the Rubric)
You can use the sample interview questions below to
know your family member’s skills. Submit the
interview transcript (set of questions and answers) and
the Capacity ID of each family member.
For Children
Name: ______________
1. Do you know how to change your clothes by yourself?
Age: ____ Sex: ___
2. Can you tie a shoe lace?
(sample features of Capacity ID)
3. Can you tell me our address? Skills: ______________

For all other Family Members ______________

1. Can you make a bread? ______________

2. Can you sew a dress?
3. Do you know how to care for minor cuts and scrapes?
4. Do you know carpentry?
5. Can you start a fire using a firewood?
6. Can you build a tent?
7. Do you know how to make a water clean?

The Vulnerable Sectors in
2 the Society
Do you remember when you were only five years old and your mom was always telling
you what to do and what not to do? It is typical that certain group of people like children
will get more special care because they are vulnerable. Today, we are going to learn what
makes certain group of people vulnerable.

What’s In

Let us recall how you can be more resilient and be less vulnerable to a fire hazard. Look
for the terms that will increase capacity, preparedness and response.

The terms that you discovered from the puzzle are various ways of being resilient
against disaster. Resilience is needed specially to make people less vulnerable to
disaster. Resilience can be maximized if the need of a person will be addressed. To
identify what are the exact needs of a person, it important to understand the
characteristics of that person which makes him or her vulnerable to disaster.

What’s New

Who are the more vulnerable in your society? Find out who are more vulnerable people
through the set of pictures below.

What is It

The characteristics and conditions of some group of people make them vulnerable to
disaster. There are several sectors in the society which are vulnerable to hazards and
the effects of a disaster. These sectors are characterized by socio-economic and
demographic indicators.

Socio-economic Indicators. People who have low income, work usually in

agriculture or contractual job, and have low educational attainment are vulnerable to

Low Income. People with low income tend to have limited resources. They would not
be able to buy the necessary things for disaster preparedness because of their low
income. Their lack of preparedness would lead to their vulnerability to hazards. They
also tend to have poor nutrition which may lead to their vulnerability to infectious
diseases. They would buy food with low nutritional value which is usually priced
within their means. These people can only afford poor dwellings in informal
settlements which are usually in hazard prone areas. They bear with the poor
conditions in their dwellings like poor sanitation, poor waste management, poor
quality of house structure, narrow alleys, overcrowding and lack of power supply.
Informal settlements are not planned and not connected to basic services which
explains why these areas are usually vulnerable to hazards such as earthquake, fire,
and epidemic among others.

Occupation. The common livelihood in the country is forestry, farming, mining, and
fishing because of the country’s vast natural resources such as soil, forest, mountain,
and bodies of water. Agriculture and fishing have been largely the main source of
income to most Filipinos. Farming and fishing always face repeated exposure to
frequent typhoons, El Niño and La Niña. The extreme weather conditions directly
affect the amount of rain, the quality of soil, and water. Farmers may lose their crops
to prolonged drought or even to a single blow of a super typhoon. Fishermen may lose
their catch if the weather affects the temperature of waters killing a lot of fish. In recent
years, the country geared towards building a stronger economy through infrastructure
projects, business process outsourcing and manufacturing industries. Through these
economic developments, a lot of daily wage earners were employed. These group of
people suffer most during a disaster when the project or business in which they belong
are put on hold. They are also exposed to unjust labor practices which make their
safety and wellbeing at risk making them vulnerable to physical and health hazards.

Educational Attainment. Families often prioritize food instead of education and other
essential things before and after disaster occurs. Children from rural areas would
attend school irregularly to help their parents in farming or fishing. Similarly, children
from urban areas would often look for a job to augment the family’s income. Both of
these children would seldom finish basic education due to work. Having a low
educational attainment deprives a person of job opportunities with better income to
support oneself for essential needs. People with low educational attainment tend to
have poor family planning and limited knowledge about health care which makes them
vulnerable to health hazards.

Demographic Indicators. Young people, aging people, pregnant women,

undernourished people, and people with pre-existing medical conditions are mainly
vulnerable to the effects of a disaster.
Young people. These people are in the age of 18 and below. These group of people
commonly characterized by having a developing immune system, limited knowledge
about disaster preparedness, limited skills to survive, and little experience of disaster
situation. These characteristics are what make young people vulnerable to the effects
of disasters.

Aging People. These people are aged 60 and above. Getting old is not really a factor
to be vulnerable. It is the health conditions that people in this age group experience
that makes them vulnerable to disaster. People around this age usually experience
declined strength, poor resistance and endurance to physical activity (e.g., standing
for a long time), functional impairment (e.g., recalling things), and reduced sensory
responsiveness (e.g., due to hearing loss).

Pregnant women. Women carry a child inside their womb for an average of nine
months. Within that period, they experience a lot of physical, emotional and mental
changes. They would normally put on weight as pregnancy progresses. Their added
weight may limit them to move quickly especially during an emergency making them
vulnerable to physical hazard. Their weight could lead to diabetes and hypertension.
They can also acquire a health condition known as preeclampsia which is
characterized by protein in urine, high blood pressure and swelling in hands, legs and
feet. These three conditions make them vulnerable to health hazards. They also need
special nutrition especially for the child they are carrying. They need special treatment
and care to monitor both their own and their child’s health status. They would be
vulnerable to health hazard if nutrition and treatment would be inaccessible during a
disaster. They are also vulnerable to infectious diseases which might affect the mental
development of the child. Extreme emotional experience from a traumatic situation

may also trigger premature labor causing unintended abortion or miscarriage and
even premature delivery. All of these conditions make pregnant women vulnerable to
the effects of a disaster. The case of pregnant women is special because it is not only
them who are affected but as well as the overall health of the unborn child.

People with pre-existing medical conditions. These are people who have lifelong
illnesses such as diabetes, heart conditions, lung problems, and hypertension. These
people need continuous medication and health monitoring. If they would not be able
to access the needed medicines and health care, they would be vulnerable to health
hazards. Their condition also weakened their immune system making them vulnerable
to infectious diseases.

It is important to understand that these group of people would have certain needs
based on their characteristics. In order for them to be less vulnerable to the effects of
disaster, it is important to support their needs. These needs have become the basis
of various government programs such as free access to quality education where public
schools cater to student from marginalized families. Students do not have to stop
attending school because of work or even when a disaster strike. Students can
continue their studies and receive quality education in various ways such as modular,
online learning, alternative learning system, and community learning centers. There
are so many other government programs that would cater to the needs of each group
of people to make them less vulnerable.

What’s More

Make a chart to organize the reasons why the following sectors are more vulnerable to
disasters: : 1) Farmer, 2) Children, 3) People with low educational attainment, 4)
People with low income and 5) People with pre-existing medical conditions. Use the
information provided in the table below.
Limited knowledge of Has a lifelong illness Limited job opportunities
family planning
Bones still developing Exposed to prolonged Immune system still
drought developing
Needs daily medication Limited knowledge of Can buy food usually
family health care with low nutritional value
Super Can have limited Needs regular health
Typhoon resources monitoring
Can afford to rent cheap Crops and fields exposed Little experience of
shelter in poor conditions repeatedly to hazards disaster situations

What I Have Learned

1. Some sectors of the society are vulnerable to hazards and the effects of disaster
of socioeconomic and demographic factors.
2. Under socioeconomic indicators, people who have low income, low educational
background, and who works in agriculture and fishing are more vulnerable to
3. Under demographic indicators, children, old people, pregnant women,
undernourished people, and people with pre-existing health conditions are more
vulnerable to disasters.

What I Can Do Pregnant People with pre-
Women existing Illness

Make a Venn Diagram to show the

similarities and differences of vulnerability to HEALTH
health hazard among the following sectors of HAZARD
the society:
a) Pregnant Women
b) Elderly People
c) People with pre-existing health Elderly
conditions People

After completing the diagram, make at least

10 sentences to answer the following
1) What capacity is needed to lessen the vulnerability of these groups?
2) Do you belong to this sector? If yes, what can you do to lessen your vulnerability?
If no, what can you do to help others with higher vulnerability?
(Note: Please refer to your teacher for the Rubric)


Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a separate
sheet of paper.
1. Which of the following groups of people is vulnerable to health hazard because of
their immune system still under development?
A. children C. elderly people
B. pregnant women D. people with diabetes
2. Why are elder people become vulnerable to the physical hazard in street crossing?
A. They have reached the age of 60.
B. They may have lost their sense of hearing.
C. They would always use their senior citizen privilege.
D. They could cross the street only when someone accompanies them.
3. Which of the following is an example of demographic indicator of vulnerability?
A. Farmers C. Pregnant Women
B. Fishermen D. Miners
4. Why are people with pre-existing medical conditions vulnerable?
A. They have lifelong illness. C. They have lifelong medication.
B. They have weakened immunity. D. They need regular check-up.
5. Why are people with low income vulnerable to health hazard?
A. Their house is made from lightweight materials.
B. They live in dwellings with poor sanitation.
C. They have limited resources.
D. They have limited job opportunities.

Additional Activities

Know each of your family member well by creating a “Capacity ID PLUS.” This time
ask each of your family member the following: (BACK)
1) Educational attainment
2) Occupation 1. Highest Educational
3) Company and Address Attainment: __________
4) Income
5) Health conditions. 2. Occupation: __________
Write all these details at the back of your Capacity ID
which you created in the previous lesson. Then based 3. Company and Address:
on the information on the Capacity ID Plus, write at
least 10 sentences to answer the following questions:
4. Income: ______________
1) Is your family member vulnerable? (If your answer
is yes, proceed to #2 and 3)
2) Explain what factor makes your family member 5. Health Conditions:
vulnerable? _______________________
3) What can you do to lessen the vulnerability of your family member?
(Note: Please refer to your teacher for the Rubric)