Sie sind auf Seite 1von 48

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


AN ENGINEER’S VIEW

Infrastructural
Entropy
I guess it would be futile to try and educate politicians about the concept of en-
tropy because it is a scientific and engineering term that would immediately send
them off on their next overseas trip to rather pursue some pointless and costly
party interest. How else does one get the message across to them that unless they
put some energy into the closed system called the county’s infrastructure consist-
Chris Reay ing of engineered assets, constructed facilities and orderly management, then the
Chairman of the Working system will continue to lose any contained energy until it reaches equilibrium with
Committee: Communications nature’s random “chaos”?
(SAIMechE)

A
disturbing recent commentary from the civil awarding of tenders is also a cause of concern.
engineering profession contains a number In fact it is rampant.
of serious issues that illustrate the growing
Leading indicator
loss of skills and institutional energy from
We know that the civil engineering profession tends
the infrastructure. Consider some of these:
to be a leading indicator of the project spend pat-
• Safcec (The SA Federation of Civil Engineering tern. How will this impact on the mechanical and
Contractors) says a large number of contract electrical professions? When local skills capacity
awards are being postponed by all tiers of gov- lies dormant it will seek work outside the country,
ernment, while technical expertise is also lack- and coupled with the general skills shortage across
ing at government level to make the necessary most sectors, even in the unlikely event that the
decisions on project scopes and the awarding politicians do understand the second law of ther-
of tenders. modynamics, then they will find that the source of
providing the required energy has left home.
Bureaucracy, politics, finger trouble and plain stupidity
reign supreme The Local Government SETA’s own scarce skills list
shows “absolute scarcity” ranking in all disciplines
• It is not that government does not have the of engineering. Yet when one develops a programme
money – it is that they are not spending it. One to assist in the relief of this skills need, bureau-
infrastructure agency had access to R27-billion cracy, politics, finger trouble and plain stupidity
in credit, but used only R300-million. reign supreme.
• Overall, the tender adjudication postponement I would to know if the Planning Commission which
rate for the government sector on the whole, has taken so long to get its own planning act to-
across all tiers, increased from 10% in the gether, if at all, is actually aware of the impact of
fourth quarter of 2008 to 23,2% in the fourth a declining infrastructure and what they plan to
quarter of 2009. recommend. The evidence now becoming common
• Where it should take around three months to knowledge is the number of municipalities where
award a tender, it can now take up to a frustrat- the residents are forming their own bodies to run
ing six months, which means skills and capacity the local authorities’ affairs. As institutional memory
in the industry lie dormant. and capacity decline, the citizens will take over to
maintain any sense of stability and control.
• A recent report on municipalities says the com-
bination of poor payment and higher levels of The ANC may just realise in due course that this
postponement suggest either a funding or manage- is not good for voter support, and entropy cannot
ment issue, both implying capacity constraints. be reversed by denial and inactivity. In the end,
Evidence of this is the latest municipal financial engineering skills will be the essential midwife to
report, ending December 2009, which shows a help with the birth of a new dispensation for the
debtor analysis in excess of 70% at 90 days or reversal of the energy loss. It is really that which
more, across all municipal departments. creates the built environment.
• Safcec adds that there is too much political
involvement in decisions that should be driven
by business principles, especially at local mu-
nicipalities and parastatals. Corruption in the

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 


State-of-the-art manufacturing plant backed
by strong technical expertise
Our 27 000 m2 manufacturing facility is designed to satisfy the biggest
high quality fabrication needs locally.

Pressure parts
Tube bending
Low Pressure Feed Water Heaters
Condensers

37 Homestead Road, Rivonia, South Africa


Tel: +27 11 806 3000, Fax + 27 11 806 3330
e-mail: info@steinmuller.co.za, www.steinmuller.co.za

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


May 2010  VOLUME 60  NUMBER 5

Featured on the Cover Contents


Maizey Engineering Plastics
Tel: (012) 352-2000 Monthly Column Filters & Filtration
Email: rikki@maizey.co.za 8 Hooked on Bass 27 Half Price is Half Performance
31 Every Drop Counts
10 Letter to the Editor
Steam, Turbines & Boilers
Cover Story 33 Saving on Process Energy and
11 Coming of Age Steam

Power Transmission Regulars


15 Smoothing the Way 3 An Engineer’s View
17 Die-hard Survive 6 Institution News
Copyright 13 Consulting Engineers SA
All rights reserved. No editorial POWER GENERATION TODAY 26 Nuclear Institute (SA Branch)
matter published in “SA Mechani-
21 Creative Co-Generation 37 Market Forum
cal Engineer” may be reproduced
in any form or language without 24 Power Generation News 46 On the Move
written permission of the publish-
ers. While every effort is made to
ensure accurate reproduction, the
editor, authors, publishers and
their employees or agents shall
not be responsible or in any way
liable for any errors, omissions or
inaccuracies in the publication,
whether arising from negligence or
otherwise or for any consequences
arising therefrom. The inclusion or
exclusion of any product does not
mean that the publisher or editorial
board advocates or rejects its use
either generally or in any particular
The monthly circulation is 4 242
field or fields.

Produced by:
Official Publication of
PROMECH PUBLISHING, THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123 and endorsed by:
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403  CORROSION INSTITUTE OF SA
Email: editorial@promech.co.za  SA PUMP MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Website: www.promech.co.za  SA VALVE AND ACTUATORS MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Managing Editor Susan Custers  THE SA INSTITUTE OF TRIBOLOGY
Editor Kowie Hamman  NUCLEAR INSTITUTE
Advertising Pauline Bouwer  SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Circulation Catherine Macdiva
 NATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLACK ENGINEERS
DTP Zinobia Docrat/Sanette Lehanie
 INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATED MECHANICAL AND
Disclaimer ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS
PROMECH Publishing and The South African Institution of Mechanical
 SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS
Engineering as well as any other body do not take responsibility for
the opinions expressed by individuals.  ASSOCIATION OF SOCIETIES FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
Printed by: Typo Colour Printing, Tel: (011) 402-3468/9 AND HEALTH

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 


THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Technical Consultant
Malcolm Black developer & Presenter of and/or Engineer in a number of companies
“The Engineer As Manager” Workshop
All these positions required the use of management
and the Presenter of the Steam Series
and technical skills in order to get the required
Workshops
tasks done and produce the necessary bottom line
Malcolm Black, B.Sc. (Mech. Eng.) from the results. All management skills were obtained in
University of Witswaterand (1973), Bachelor practical situations and developed with plant and
of Theology (Th.B. ) form Rhodes (1977), business performance in mind.
Government Certificate of Competency
(1982), has worked firstly as a Student Malcolm serves on the KNZ Branch Committee
Engineer - Anglo American Research Labora- and is a highly esteemed honorary consultant to
tories, Crown Mines and then as a Manager SAIMechE on technical training matters.
Malcolm Black

The South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering Training Events Calendar: June - July 2010
Whilst every effort is made to ensure that events take place as scheduled, SAIMechE reserves the right to change the schedule as circumstanc-
es dictate. All events are CPD validated. A registration form and full terms and conditions may be obtained from Carey Evans on E-mail: carey@
saimeche.org.za or Tel. 031-764-7136. Also, detailed individual event programmes are available from Carey. Corporations wishing to book In-
House Workshops may contact Linda Robinson on E-mail: linda@saimeche.org.za or Tel: 031 764 7136.
Event Code Full Title Date - Start Region
F2810 Introduction to Wear & Materials 09-Jun-10 Secunda
D2810 Introduction to Wear & Materials 23-Jun-10 Vereeniging
J2710 Philosophy of Mechanical Maintenance 14-Jul-10 Pretoria
D0410 Steam Trapping; Condensate Removal; Condensate Recovery 14-Jul-10 to 15-Jul-10 Vereeniging
C3610 Project Management - A Review of Essentials 15-Jul-10 Cape Town
D3110 Heat Transfer in Practice - Via Conduction & Convection 21-Jul-10 Vereeniging
F0410 Steam Trapping; Condensate Removal; Condensate Recovery 21-Jul-10 to 22-Jul-10 Secunda
D3210 Heat Transfer in Practice - Evaporative Cooling & Drying Processes; Radiant Heat Transfer 22-Jul-10 Vereeniging

Council 2009/2010 Company Affiliates


Ainsworth Engineering
Office Bearers Alstom Power Service SA
President .................................................. G Barbic (George) Babcock Africa Limited
President Elect ............................................. D Findeis (Dirk) Bateman Engineered Technologies
National Treasurer ................................. K Nyangoni (Kudzai) Bosch Projects
Fluor SA
Branch Chairpersons GEA Air-cooled Systems
Central ...................................................... M Cramer (Mike) Hansen Transmissions SA
Eastern Cape ............................. Prof Dr DG Hattingh (Danie) Hatch Africa
KwaZulu/Natal ........................................... AG Fileczki (Alex) Howden Power
Western Cape ......................... Prof B Collier-Reed (Brandon) Howden Projects
Portfolios: Industrial Water Cooling
Communications .............................................. CD Reay (Chris) KHD Humboldt Wedag SA
Education - Universities................... Prof JL van Niekerk (Wikus) Megchem Eng & Drafting Services
Education: Universities of Technology............... E Zawilska (Ewa) Osborn Engineered Products SA
Membership .................................................... E Zawilska (Ewa) Rotek Engineering
Seminars and Workshops.................................. D Findeis (Dirk) RSD a division of DCD-Dorbyl
Technology Programme ................................. SZ Hrabar (Steve) S.A.M.E Water
Sasol Technologies
SEW Eurodrive
Chief Executive Officer: Vaughan Rimbault
Siemens
National Office Manager: Anisa Nanabhay SNC-Lavalin SA
PO Box 511, Bruma, 2026 Spicer Axle SA
Spirax Sarco SA
Tel: (011) 615-5660, Fax: (011) 388-5356
Thyssenkrupp Engineering
Email: info@saimeche.org.za
Transvaal Pressed Nuts & Bolts
Website: www.saimeche.org.za Ultra-Flow Engineering Services
Membership: Central, Eastern Cape & KZN: Vital Engineering
membership@saimeche.org.za Weir Minerals Africa
Membership: Western Cape: saimeche.wc@vodamail.co.za Winder Controls

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 
MONTHLY COLUMN

Hooked on Bass
Bass has become the second most sought-after game fish in the United and equipped primarily for bass fishing
States where the sport has driven the development of all manner of fish- in freshwater such as lakes, rivers and
ing gear, including rods, reels, lines, lures, electronic depth and fish- streams. The modern bass boat features
finding instruments, drift boats, float tubes, and specialised bass boats. swivel chairs on a flat deck that permits
the angler to cast to any position. It has
plenty of storage bins for fishing tackle and
equipment such as rods and lures, and a
live well with re-circulating water where
caught fish may be stored and kept alive.
Bass boats are usually propelled by two
means, an outboard motor which moves
the boat swiftly from one place to the next
while an electric trolling motor allows for
quiet manoeuvring through a likely area.
Pro fisherman
“SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks to pro-
fessional bass fisherman and boat builder
Allen Fagan of Predator Bass Boats near
Vereeniging about bass boat design in
general. “I’ve been fishing since I could
hold a fishing rod as a youngster and my
dream has always been to design and build
the ultimate bass boat,” he says. “After
Allen Fagan (right) with Shandon Hawman of Boatcenter who sells bass boats through-
out South Africa
re-settling in South Africa from Zimbabwe,
this opportunity presented itself as there

B
ass fish are predators and not easy to simply wasn’t scope for another boat builder in
catch, but once you’ve hooked one it puts Zim, but here it’s a constantly growing industry
up a long and hard fight, adding to the and I seized the opportunity to get into bass boat
excitement that has made it the popular manufacturing.
sport it is today. “My first design, the Rogue, is a 19 foot fibreglass
boat that took about three-and-a-half years to develop
You often have to travel long distances over choppy wa-
ters to get to the right fishing spot
ts
boa
ed
The boat er spe
oth
One of the ‘tools’ bass fisherman rely rom
rs f
on heavily, besides a huge ar- t d i ff e
oa
sb
ray of colourful lures a bas
lo f
that are dipped hul
T he
in any number of
exotic flavours is
the boat. Although
there is no rule
to say you can’t
fish bass from a
small flat-bottom
dinghy, proper
purpose-built bass
boats have be-
come the ultimate
accessory, even for
the casual bass
fisherman.
A bass boat is
a relatively small
vessel designed

 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


MONTHLY COLUMN

before we built the first one,” Allen says. “It sold of the champion bass catches in Zimbabwe, for
immediately and since then business snowballed instance, was caught off a dug-out canoe with an
as local fisherman started looking for high quality ordinary fishing rod.”
workmanship in a dedicated bass boat. From the Allen Fagan, Predator Bass Boats, Tel: 082-650-3379,
beginning, we aimed at reaching the American Email: allen@predatorboats.co.za
standard in finishing as they’re the trend-setters
when it comes to purpose-built boats.”
High performance
“The main difference between a bass
boat and an ordinary speed boat in terms
of design is the fact that the top deck is
usually flat on the bass boat in order to
provide space for the constant casting of
bass fishing,” explains Allen. “In addition,
bass boats are now high-performance
vessels because you often have to travel
long distances over choppy waters to get
to the right fishing spot and you want to
do that quickly but in comfort and without
endangering your life.
“Today’s bass boats can do 140 kilometres
per hour and therefore it’s not a boat you
fool around in just for the fun of showing
off to your friends,” says Allen. “For this
reason we’ve changed the hull’s hydrody-
namics to lift the hull out the water when
The live well is an important feature on a bass boat
travelling at high speed. On the older
designs you lost a lot of power because
the hull forces water outwards, whereas
our design pushes the water down to lift
the hull out the water. Of course you then
have to consider aerodynamics because
the hull is exposed to air.”

Not a boat you fool around in


just for the fun of showing off to
your friends
Gadgets
Of course, the science of bass fishing
requires special tools, so the boat can
be fitted with a wide choice of electronic
gadgets to help the fisherman achieve his
goal. “The main aim of a dedicated boat
is to provide you with comfort while you
troll the fishing area with the electric mo- A comfortable
tor which is steered and controlled by foot seat for a long
pedals,” explains Allen. “However, for those day’s hard work
with enough money there are dedicated
GPS systems, water temperature measure-
ment instrumentation, depth meters, colour
screen scanners and many other gadgets
to make the experience more interesting.
“With these gadgets you can today literally
‘see’ your lure under the water, where the
fish are and whether they’re interested in
your bait,” he adds with a chuckle. “How-
ever, this still does not make you a better
fisherman and ultimately it is each person’s
skill that lands the big one. Ironically, one

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 


LETTER TO EDITOR

Letter to
Editor
An engineer’s view
When I receive “SA Mechanical Engineer” the first article
I read is “An Engineers View” which happens to be on
the second page but I would still read it first if it was
on the back page. I have to congratulate Chris Reay on
his assessment in the latest issue where he slates the
Government for their tardiness and in particular the
Ministers who are supposed make things happen. He is
absolutely right.
The Eskom debacle is one I foresaw happening many years
ago and which has since escalated by the replacement
of experienced personnel with people who do not seem
to have the vaguest idea about what has to be done. It
is no wonder there are problems and indecision.
Perhaps it is not too late to get matters put right but it
will take a lot of pressure from many people like Chris to
bring home that the African way of doing things cannot
work when it comes to sophisticated infrastructure.
It is difficult to see it coming right and it may have
gone too far in view of the lack of available skills. The
Government’s pigheaded attitude by replacing skilled
personnel with incompetent and inexperienced people
who seem to be selected by African standards which
end in disaster and the unsatisfactory situations we are
seeing every day. It goes right down, for example, to the
sub economic housing issue which should be a relatively
straightforward process but it is fraught with problems.
What a mess!!
The dice seems to be stacked against the people who
could make it happen.
David Rose

Engineer Placements

Our job board continues to display a wide


variety of excellent job positions that you can
review and apply for on-line. Keep your
credentials on our secure and
confidential database.
We include the projects for:
Eskom, Gautrain, PBMR, The SA Oil and Gas
expansion, and International options.:
Login to www.engineerplacements.com

10 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


COVER STORY

Coming of
Age

Rikki Maizey, managing


director of Maizey

“Although it was a family


business, the rule from the
beginning was that family
draws a salary like everybody
else in the company and the
balance goes back into the
business to fund growth.
“Over the years we invested
a lot into property, not as a
business in itself but rather to
own the premises we operate
from. We’ve also had a few
lucky breaks over the years,
Products from the engineering workshop
simply by having the right
The tradition of celebrating a 60th birthday, or Diamond Anni- product available when people
started asking for it.”
versary, came into popularity after Queen Victoria celebrated
her Diamond Jubilee. Diamond comes from the Greek word Perspex
‘adamas’ which means unconquerable and enduring, making Rikki’s father joined Rikki’s grandfather at the age
a 60th anniversary a milestone of endurance in the life of any of 16 in the mid-fifties at a time when Perspex
person, relationship or company. emerged as a tough material that could also be used
for more than just aircraft canopies. “Customers

T
started using Perspex in the engraving business
his year the Maizey family’s plastics busi-
as well, and soon we became an agent for the
ness celebrates its 60th anniversary and
manufacturer in England when the local suppli-
to review the milestones “SA Mechanical
ers of Perspex closed down,” explains Rikki. “Our
Engineer” speaks to Rikki Maizey, managing
first shipment from ICI was ten sheets of Perspex
director of Maizey’s (Pty)Ltd, an Engineering Plastic
because that was the minimum you could order at
Products supplier in Pretoria. “What my grandfather
the time as a distributor for the company.”
started as a one-man business in a small handcraft
die-sinking shop on the corner of Boom and Shu- Also at this time, the Pelindaba nuclear facility was
bart streets in Pretoria is today a business of 21 being built east of Pretoria and Maizey’s first order
branches spread across South Africa,” he says. “It for engineering plastics came from this contractor.
is great to be part of such a legacy which we’re all “By word of mouth it had become known that we
very proud of today. were supplying Perspex and other building-related
plastics,” recalls Rikki. “John Maizey, my uncle,
Family draws a salary like everybody else in the had just joined the company from Woolworths
company and was responsible for marketing when he got a
by-chance call from Pottie Potgieter at Pelindaba
The basis who wanted certain plastics that we’d never even
“The success of this business can be ascribed to heard of. John didn’t let the chance slip by and
the financial discipline philosophy my grandfa- made it his business to find out more about what
ther established right from the start,” adds Rikki. they wanted and set about sourcing it.”

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 11


COVER STORY

Support rable milestones was when the technicians in the


“This was our introduction to engineering plastics, engineering workshop came up with a solution to
paving the way for a long relationship with supplier make the bushes for underground locomotives more
Erta Engineering Plastic in Belgium and kick-starting cost effectively. “You had to use a large chunk of
our distribution business in engineering plastics in material and then machine off a lot of material to
South Africa,” says Rkiki. form the large flange of this bush,” he explains. “We
“Erta came out here, trained our staff to understand custom-rigged a friction welding system whereby
the technicalities of engineering plastics and provided a tube could be welded onto the flange, thereby
constant support in many forms over the 30 years saving significantly on waste. Through Erta we
that followed. This boost in the Pretoria business shared this with the international plastics industry
allowed us to expand and we soon opened our and were praised for the concept.”
first branch in Primrose in Johannesburg, a huge
But it wasn’t always plain sailing for Maizey. Rikki’s
move for us. You must understand that Primrose
personal biggest disappointment was when a joint
was miles away in those days.”
venture with another plastics engineering company
Although the concept was good, red tape in the end did not materialise. “This company was ailing already
killed the venture and would have complemented the engineering side
of our business perfectly,” he says in retrospect.
One of the highlights for Rikki stems from a compe- “Although the concept was good, red tape in the
tition a local newspaper ran in the 1992 to list the end killed the venture and led to the engineering
top unlisted companies in South Africa. “We were side of our business declining dramatically with
encouraged by our bankers to enter for this award only the distribution side growing steadily.”
and we ended up in the top ten finalists,” recalls
Rikki. “It was the first and only time we’ve ever Engineering
entered such a competition and just the fact that The engineering side, as in providing a service to
we were in the top ten was good enough for us.” design and machine plastic parts, has always been
Rikki’s passion and over the past two years he has
Ingenuity revived this side of the business by establishing a
In terms of engineering one of Rikki’s most memo- dedicated engineering workshop in Wadeville.
“Maizey Engineering is now an established business
equipped with the engineering expertise that will
re-establish us to bring engineered plastic solutions
to the market,” says Rikki. “I am optimistic that
we’ll see rapid growth in this business especially as
we’ve invested in modern machinery to manufacture
intricate plastic components for all industries.
Capital investment
The new engineering facility is equipped with both
modern CNC routers ; a CNC lathe, and conventional
wood and metal working machines, modified to
Today’s modern Maizey shops
accommodate the specific requirements of machin-
ing engineering plastics. “The establishment of
Maizey Engineering represents a significant capital
investment as part of the Maizey group’s ongoing
commitment to provide a complete service to the
South African market,” says Rikki.
“As an integral part of our comprehensive engineer-
ing plastic’s solutions package, the now established
machining facility allows us to provide finished
components in wide variety of formats and ge-
ometries to close tolerance dimensions, including
design assistance for gears; sheave wheels; pulleys;
bearings; bushes; non standard chain guides and
various other components.
Evolving with the market
“Over the past sixty years we have grown with South
African industry by making changes and evolving
with the market,” says Rikki in conclusion.
Rikki Maizey, Maizey Engineering Plastics, Tel: (012) 352-
The first Maizey shop in Pretoria 2000, Email: rikki@maizey.co.za

12 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


CONSULTING ENGINEERS SA
Procurement policies and guidelines
published by the Construction Industry
Development Board (CIDB) are among

Head-on
the best in the world. However, for a
variety of reasons many clients and
consulting engineers do not apply these
when procuring service providers.

P
rocurement within the South African states, “Some of the issues that are being addressed
infrastructure environment has long include dealing with an inadequate brief; allowing
been a contentious issue with an array of sufficient time from the request for proposals to the
vastly differing policies and procedures closing of the tender; understanding the BBBEE scor-
making it difficult for both consulting engineers ing system; understanding the reason why tenders
as well as their clients to make an informed may not be re-issued within a 6 month period; the
and equitable decision in this regard. issue of unlimited liability; and the implications of
Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) has working at risk.”
embarked on a nationwide campaign, visiting
all nine regions, to inform and educate on
Roll-out
Procurement best practice for members and The CPD accredited technical briefing provides
public sector clients thus ensuring that our delegates with the opportunity to workshop national
taxes are spent effectively. and international best practice with experts. The
briefing unpacks the procurement of consulting
CESA in consultation with the CIDB as well as
engineering services and delegates attending the
industry experts has developed a Best Practice
Zulch Lotter, CESA President briefing will be issued with best practice guidelines
Guideline for the Procurement of Consulting
in this regard. The content of the Manual and the
Engineering Services that is in line with the lat-
est legislation, including the Construction Sector Technical Briefing focuses on the full lifecycle of
Charter. a project as well as the role of both the client and
the consultant. This includes the monitoring of
Working at risk consulting engineering services by the client.
Wally Mayne, CESA’s Contractual Affairs Manager
For the programme details please visit www.cesa.co.za or
Understanding the reason why tenders may not be contact, Graham Pirie, Consulting Engineers South Africa
re-issued within a 6 month period (CESA), Tel: (011) 463-2022, Email: gspirie@cesa.co.za

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 13


afrimold
International Trade Fair for Moldmaking and
Tooling, Design and Application Development

August 16 – 18, 2010


Johannesburg, South Africa
Sandton Convention Centre
afrimold – a unique opportunity to connect with Africa’s top mould-makers. DEMAT GmbH
(Direct Exposition Managing and Trading), one of the most respected exhibition organisers
in Germany and the owner of the highly successful EuroMold, is proud to announce the
launch of afrimold 2010.

afrimold exhibition hall – PLUS – 3 day technical conference

To reserve your exhibition space at afrimold 2010 visit www.afrimold.com and


downoad your application form or contact:

Ron MacLarty

e-mail: ron@afrimold.com
Tel: +27 (0) 72 353 6699

Denis Goffinet
e-mail: denis@afrimold.com
Tel: +27 (0) 79 190 9805 Johannesburg

Media partner:
SA Plastics
www.saplastics.co.za
20 a t
!
10
ol ibit

Endorsed by:
The Toolmaking Association
r im h
d

of South Africa (TASA)


Ex

www.ntipweb.co.za

www.afrimold.com
af

14 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


POWER TRANSMISSION

Smoothing the Way


unit. Yet they had to build a small gearbox to fit
into the confined space available. Also it had to
be extra heavy duty to withstand the erratic varied
loads and high temperatures of a wind turbine while
lasting several years with the absolute minimum
maintenance.
Challenges
In turn, lubrication manufacturers were challenged
to come up with a suitable solution for the gears
and bearings in the specially-developed gearboxes
used in wind turbines that work around the clock in
remote locations where it is very difficult to carry out
regular maintenance. This was promptly done and
today these highly specialised lubricants, originally
developed for wind turbines, are now also available
for general industrial gearboxes.
Special research into lubricants that
could resist grey staining
“SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks to Charles Du Bois,
Charles Du Bois, business development manager at business development manager at Status Industrial
Status Industrial Solutions, a division of Chemserve
Solutions, a division of Chemserve Systems who
Systems
played a core role in developing the new lubricants
New technology invariably has a rippling effect down the line. for wind turbines. “During this development phase,
A static gearbox on a constant power source, for instance, new phenomena in terms of gear wear were dis-
needn’t be as tough as one that has to cope with variable covered,” he says. “One of them is micro pitting,
loads, higher speeds and less maintenance. also called grey staining, found after examining the
gears in wind turbine gearboxes frequently over short

A
s the need for alternative energy sources intervals to try and get to the problem of constant
emerged, for example, and wind turbine failure in this specific application.
technology started evolving to improve Pitting
the performance of these large machines, “Until then, the inspection intervals on the gear
it challenged gearbox manufacturers to come up wear had been too long and the wear too far gone to
with a solution for a dedicated high-performance notice the micro pitting, but when we started doing
more frequent inspections under the microscope,
we found the grey staining on the gears,” Charles
explains. “This turned out to be micro pitting which
prompted the FVA (Forschungsvereinigung Antrieb-
stechnik), the German Transmission Engineering
Research Association, to start special research into
lubricants that could resist grey staining. Through
additive technology, they developed specifications for
these special lubricants which today are the norm
for wind turbine and other heavy duty gearboxes.
“Although there were high performance lubricants
with EP (extreme pressure) and molybdenum disulfide
additives around at the time, these technologies
had reached their limit in terms of resisting micro
pitting.” explains Charles. “The research and devel-
opment departments of Optimol and Tribol opened
up new research paths independent of each other
to search for particularly effective additive systems
and came up with new additive combinations which
generate a smoothing effect in the micro range
A clean sliding surface (left) and on the right a corroded surface called Microflux Trans and TGOA.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 15


POWER TRANSMISSION

adds Charles. “At the same time the specific surface


pressure and the coefficient of friction, are both
reduced significantly.”
The stages
The first stage of the process is where a protective
layer forms due to the pressure resistant additive
combination. Stage two is the compression of the
protective layer where an increasing load compresses
Stage one of the formation of a protective layer the layer to become even more pressure resistant
while simultaneously improving the coefficients of
friction. “The third stage consists of micro-smoothing
representing the actual unique performance of these
high performance lubricants,” explains Charles.
“As the pressure further increases, special additive
components migrate from the deposited protective
layer into the structure of the metal surfaces, thus
initiating the micro-smoothing effect.
“At the same time reaction products are produced
which contribute to the formation of extremely
adhesive tribopolymers with excellent sliding
properties. These form an additional, extremely
pressure-resistant protective layer,” says Charles.
Stage two, compression takes place
“During the smoothing effect, the metal surfaces
are leveled which results in a considerable decrease
in the coefficient of friction.”
Repairing
In South African industry, awareness of the charac-
teristics of these high performance lubricants has
grown steadily and many companies are on board,
but lately new characteristics have come to light
which are bound to interest even more people. “It
looks like these oils are ‘repairing’ existing pitting
as well,” says Charles. “The pitting won’t disappear
by using the lubricant, but these new products have
now been proven to smooth the sharp edges in a
Final stage of the micro smoothing process pitting. Normally the sharp edges escalate wear,
but the smoothing effect seems to arrest wear.
New additives “And we have seen this with our own eyes when
“The basic principle behind these additive tech- we changed to high performance lubricants for a
nologies results in the improvement of the surface gearbox in the vertical mill at a South African cement
quality without depositing or removing material,” plant,” adds Charles. “The wear rate was so high
elaborates Charles. “These state-of-the-art ad- the filter had to be changed on a daily basis. Since
ditive technologies adjust themselves even more we changed the oil, this gearbox has been running
selectively to the changing loads in the lubricated for over six years without any of the problems and
failures previously experienced by the client.”
system. The stressed surface is smoothed in the
micro range by an almost non-sacrificial, physical Engineering component
chemical three-stage reaction. When it comes to One of the most common mistakes engineers make
countering the frequent grey staining gear damage, in terms of gearbox problems is to look for the
the micro-smoothing action of these lubricants of- cause in the wrong place. “We had a case where
fers very effective protection.” they were about to fit coolers to the gearboxes on
It looks like these oils are ‘repairing’ existing pitting as a plant at a huge cost due to constant temperature
problems,” says Charles in conclusion. “It turned
well
out to be a lubrication problem where high friction
This three-stage process is also referred to as Sur- increased the temperature. By changing the lubri-
face Engineering (SE) or Plastic Deformation (PD) cant to reduce friction, we saved them millions.
and was confirmed by the FVA in various research Lubricants should be considered as an engineer-
projects. “The high performance lubricants with ing component and not just as a commodity as is
Microflux Trans and TGOA technology of Castrol generally the practice.”
Industrie can increase the load bearing surface area Charles du Bois, Status Industrial Solutions, Tel: (011) 922-
of the lubricated components up to eighty percent,” 1842, Email: charles.dubois@chemsystems.co.za

16 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


POWER TRANSMISSION

Die-hards Survive
Old gearboxes never die, they often get a second or sometimes near Kempton Park. “We work on all makes of
even a third lease on life with brand-new innards and a shiny gearboxes and regularly come across old types
new coat to look like the day they came out the factory forty like the Radicon side-shaft gearboxes that date
or fifty years ago. Some of them are so old that there often from the sixties,” he says. “They were widely used
aren’t any spare gears available to restore the innards, so in underground mining applications and often the
these then have to be made from scratch. owners would rather have them refurbished than

A
replacing them with new ones.
company that specialises in gearbox
rebuilds and refurbishing is Industrial
No spares
“While bearings for the older gearboxes aren’t a
Gearbox Services (IGS). To get the inside
problem, OEMs often don’t have spare gears for the
story, “SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks
older models, so we have them made according to
to Fanie Kruger who runs the factory in Sebenza
the required specifications by specialist machine
Including a couple that are ready to go out to replace shops equipped to do high precision gear cutting,”
fellow cronies that need rejuvenation says Fanie. “Many times the gears are so worn,
especially when it comes to brass gears,
that we have to get a design engineer in to
draw up the specifications for the cut.”
To show us, Fanie walks us through the
workshop where, among other makes, we
see several Radicon gearboxes in various
stages of rebuild, including a couple that
are ready to go out to replace fellow cronies
that need rejuvenation. “Our run-of-the-
mill repair work on gearboxes is replacing
bearings as they fail first when people
neglect maintenance,” he says. “We’ve
opened gearboxes here that don’t have a
drop of oil left, just a thick grimy paste
left behind in the sump. And then people
are surprised that the bearings fail.”
Brakes and motors
Servicing and rebuilding gearboxes isn’t
IGS’s only business. “We have over 22
years experience in the field and take great
pride in our service and strong after sales
support,” says Fanie. “Besides working
with motors and gearboxes that vary from
small, off the shelf units, to specialised,
custom built power station units, we also
remove and refit brake motors, fit forced
ventilations to motors, do the extension
of fan cowls and manufacture belt guards
and base plates for drive installations.
“We go beyond pure repair and refur-
bishment and what we can’t buy, we
manufacture.”
Fans
The company designs and makes forced
ventilation systems for a broad range of
electric motors. Most of the OEM suppliers
of electric motors send their motors to
IGS where they design and fit a cowling,
independent fan and motor to the end
of the electric motor for extra cooling.
New electric motor being fitted with a brake system

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 17


POWER TRANSMISSION

“Forced ventilation motors are used in many ap- the complete unit to each customer’s specific
plications such as underground conveying where requirements.”
temperatures rise above the standard operating
Brakes
conditions,” explains Fanie while pointing out the
IGS supplies the Corbetta range of brakes from
various size motors in the workshop being fitted
Italy to cover light duty through to heavy duty min-
with exterior fan systems.
ing applications. “Generally choosing the correct
“We design the forced cooling unit according to brake or clutch in a mechanical drive is particularly
supplied specifications for each application and important, because they are closely linked to the
make everything for it in-house before painting machine’s good performances and safety features,”
says Fanie. “Brake units operate in various ways and
the choice depends on the application. Mechanical
brakes are for easy installations, smooth engagement
of the machine and when manoeuvring efforts and
response accuracy are not significant.
“Electromagnetically-operated brake systems al-
low quick remote control, change in speed and
programmed control while hydraulic brakes are
used when large loads need to be controlled with
reliability,” explains Fanie. “Pneumatically-operated
brakes offer quick response times, high torque with
simple and versatile control. Ultimately the choice
of the type of brake to be used depends both on
economic and technical factors.”
Friction discs
Power and torque transmitted by the braking unit,
its dimensions, response times and the kind of as-
Fanie Kruger of Industrial Gearbox Services (IGS) sembly depends mainly on the material it’s made

18 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


POWER TRANSMISSION

Forced ventilation motors in for a service

of and the number of friction discs in the brake sensitivity and an excessive increase in the inertia
unit. “As far as the number of discs is concerned, of rotating parts.
it must be noted that by increasing them, you not
Proud stamp
only have a smaller clutch outside diameter, but “Whatever we repair we always put our nameplate
you also have a larger axial space requirement with on the job because we’re proud and assured in our
longer response times and higher stokes of the workmanship,” says Fanie in conclusion. “One good
control parts, especially when they are worn and thing that came out of the recession is that the
consequently requiring frequent adjustments.
Just a thick grimy paste left behind in the sump
“Apart from economic factors, it is important to
point out that choosing a too small unit may lead fly-by-night operators who had given the gearbox
to poor performances, the rapid wear of frictional repair market a bad name, have been thinned out
parts and eventually to a loss of efficiency,” says significantly. They used to approach us on a regular
Fanie about a common mistake often made in basis to do machining work on gearboxes, but lately
terms of brake systems. “If, conversely, a too large the enquiries have dropped significantly.”
unit is chosen, you may face stiff movements of Fanie Kruger, IGS, Tel: (011) 452-7788, Email: sales@
the component parts in the unit resulting in poor igsa.co.za

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 19


20 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010
POWER GENERATION

Produced by:
PROMECH PUBLISHING,
P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (011) 781-1401
Fax: (011) 781-1403
Email: editorial@promech.co.za A complete steam turbine plant in Brazil

Creative
Website: www.promech.co.za

Managing Editor Susan Custers


Editor Kowie Hamman
Advertising Pauline Bouwer
Circulation Catherine Macdiva

Co-Generation
DTP Zinobia Docrat/Sanette
Lehanie
Disclaimer
PROMECH Publishing does not
take responsibility for the
opinions expressed by individuals.
The electricity shortage is on everybody’s lips and one solution is IPPs (Indepen-
Printed by: dent Power Producers). However, the concept of private producers is a complex
Typo Colour Printing subject that boils down to the cost per kilowatt hour to produce electricity, directly
Tel: (011) 402-3468/9
affecting the price that consumers will have to pay in the end for electricity.

A
t the current price of electricity, IPPs the resources to meet the demand. The country
simply won’t be able to produce will need the participation of IPPs.
Copyright electricity cost-effectively as it still “Cogeneration is potentially a quick and ef-
All rights reserved. No edi- costs more per kilowatt hour to
torial matter published in fective response as there are many potential
generate electricity in any form other than participants already in the economy,” he added.
“Power Generation Today” Eskom’s current power stations. Eskom, being
may be reproduced in any “By Eskom’s own estimation, about 900 MW
the principle buyer of electricity from IPPs, can be generated from industrial cogeneration.
form or language without
written permission of the will obviously not pay more for electricity from The advantage of IPPs is that these plants are
publishers. While every effort an outside supplier when they are generating not on Eskom’s balance sheet. Further, IPPs
is made to ensure accurate it themselves for less, which is probably one share the risk in the transaction. When Eskom
reproduction, the editor, au- of the main reasons that IPPs have not got builds plants, all risk is passed through to the
thors, publishers and their off the ground in South Africa. consumer and taxpayer. IPPs can also build
employees or agents shall
It is clear that Eskom, on its own, and operate faster and more cost-effectively
not be responsible or in any
than Eskom.”
way liable for any errors, does not have the resources to
omissions or inaccuracies Technologies
meet the demand
in the publication, whether
In the rest of the world, IPPs are a reality where
arising from negligence or
IPPs special equipment for co-generation and various
otherwise or for any conse-
quences arising therefrom. Doug Kuni, managing director of the newly- types of independent generation methods with
The inclusion or exclusion of formed South African Independent Power a variety of fuels has already gone through the
any product does not mean Producers Association (SAIPPA), recently development phase to bring a number of viable
that the publisher or editorial stated in the press that South Africa needs technologies to the market. “SA Mechanical
board advocates or rejects its IPPs and industrial co-generation as part of Engineer” speaks to James Blakemore, the
use either generally or in any the solution to our generation capacity crisis. chairman of the Zest Group of companies which
particular field or fields. are now offering several of these proven tech-
“Looking at the future supply-side require-
ments of the economy of South Africa, it is nologies to the South African market.
clear that Eskom, on its own, does not have “We got more involved in power generation

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 21


POWER GENERATION

Permanent generation
Zest’s range of power generating equipment
was extended even further a year ago to
include a full range of equipment for per-
manent power generation. “We established
Zest Energy after acquiring shares in a
company that has been providing power
generating equipment into South Africa for
many years,” explains James.
“Principally this will give us an opening in
the co-generation market for which there
are huge opportunities in Africa, especially
in the sugar industry that stretches as far
up across the continent as Sudan.”
Other options
James adds, “Coenraad Vrey, managing
director of Zest Energy, has also brought
other technology to the table such as gas
engine technology from Spain which utilises
landfill gas, sewerage gas, process gas or
natural gas as a fuel,” adds James. “Through
WEG, whose electric motors we distribute,
we have access to hydro power generation
technology. They build hydro power generator
stations ranging from 3 to 50 MW, which
are small compared with the co-generation
A TG320 steam turbine being inspected at a plant in Brazil technology we bring in from Brazil.
“Although South African terrain generally
equipment after acquiring IMS in Cape Town,” isn’t suitable for hydro power generation, there
James says. “Since the sixties they’ve specialised are opportunities to install this technology in other
in generator sets for emergency use. We’ve always African countries.”
had alternators in our stable, but when IMS came
Co-generation
up for sale about four years ago, we decided to buy
Although the company is targeting the sugar cane
100% of the business. Since then the business
industry with their co-generation equipment, the
has extended to building large gen-sets of up to
mining industry, where Zest has had huge success
12 megawatt for hospitals, telephone companies
in terms of standby power generating equipment,
and computer centres.
is also seriously looking at all the alternative ways
Move the whole generator set to where there is a of generating supplementary power. “Although the
gen-sets we provide are mini-power stations, it still
shortage of power
is uneconomical to run a diesel generator to generate
Gen-sets power on a permanent basis,” says James.
“Shopping centres, mining plants and factories want “However, significant opportunity exists in the form
to secure their supply of electricity by having gen-sets of co-generation where extra power generated by
installed to supplement the supply from the grid or a privately-owned power generating plant can be
when there is load shedding,” says James. “A 12 sold back into the grid by using an alternative fuel
MW plant which we built for a mine, for example, such as bagasse from sugar production or waste
consists of several generators of 1 to 1.5 MW each. gas from landfills.. Although these technologies
These units are then synchronised to provide a and economics can only be explored in full once
single supplementary source of power that kicks in IPPs are a reality in South Africa, there has been
a couple seconds after a power failure occurs. Some a keen interest from all industries in the products
shopping centres have rolled out such installations we are bringing in from Brazil.”
at all their centres across the country. “In Brazil, the sugar industry is self-sufficient and
“The latest we’ve built for standby power on a mine generates all of the power required to support its
are four mobile trailer units, with each trailer unit operations. The additional power is then sold to
generating 2.5 MW. With this type of solution, the utility, which contributes towards more than
they can move the whole generator set to where 4% (2GW) of the total power generation capacity
there is a shortage of power and run the sets in of the country,” says Coenraad Vrey, managing
a synchronised mode to complement the shortfall director of Zest Energy. “All the steam driven mills
of electricity.” and centrifuges on their sugar processing plants

22 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


POWER GENERATION

have been converted to more effective electrical


A TMC steam turbine rotor
drives, while the steam generation plants have
been upgraded to the higher pressure needed for
turbine power generation.
Filling the gap
“South Africa is currently in the same position that
Brazil found itself about nine years ago,” adds
Coenraad. “Brazil was dependant on hydropower
(91%), but severe droughts at the time caused a
dramatic shortfall of energy and led to the develop-
ment of alternative power generation systems. Now
the average sugar processing plant easily generates
between 25 to 50 MW and since these plants only
use about 40% of this power, it presents an ideal
opportunity for them to participate in the genera-
tion and distribution of power, thereby combating
power shortages throughout the country.”
The steam turbine units the Brazilian supplier,
TGM, manufactures can generate up to 150 MW
and for more power, units can easily be combined
to increase the output.
Only have accessible bagasse for about we need electricity to facilitate these efforts and
eight months of the year achieve our future objectives.”
“Normally sugarcane estates only have accessible James Blakemore, Zest, Tel: (011) 723-6000, Email: james@
bagasse for about eight months of the year. To zest.co.za or Coenraad Vrey, Zest Energy, Tel: (011) 723-
deliver constant power, we can now install dual 6000, Email: coenraadv@zestenergy.co.za
boilers that can also run on coal for those short
periods when no bagasse is available. In Brazil
this translates to more than 97% power generation
availability throughout the year, which is what we
are now offering the local market.”
Gas engines
Equally viable are the gas engines Zest Energy is
marketing. However, in South Africa this market is
directly dependent on IPPs becoming a reality so
that electricity can be sold back to the municipality
or to the utility. “There are opportunities where we
can look at sewerage gas as well as landfill gas,
but the infrastructure for this is not there yet,”
says Coenraad. “We have clients that have other
alternative fuels to burn in engines like this, but it
is still too expensive to implement the technology
because power from Eskom is still cheaper. Even
if Eskom’s price increases to meet the cost of run-
ning gas engines, you will still need an IPP through
which to sell the power.”
Despite all the hurdles, industries across Africa are
seriously considering the various technologies Zest
Energy is offering. “I cannot reveal the detail of the
projects, but we are in various stages of negotiation
for three different projects in Africa. The first project
is for the sugar industry, the second is a gas project
and the third is a supplementary power generation
system,” says James. “The point is, the interest
is there to bring the technology used across the
globe to address the serious power problems we
are facing in Africa. Essentially, Africa has plenty
of natural resources waiting to be explored, but

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 23


POWER GENERATION NEWS

Energy source of the future


Hatch principal power consultant Dieter
Matzner says that there is still ample
opportunity to transform South Africa’s
energy supply from what it is today - at
95% coal-fired power supply - to 80%
renewable power supply in the next 40
to 50 years.
Dieter notes that the African continent
has an abundance of solar energy, hydro-
power and to a lesser extent wind power.
Currently only 7% of the potential of
hydropower in Africa is being developed.
At least another 230 000 MW of power
supply can be economically extracted from
the current river systems. As far as solar
power is concerned ‘the sky is the limit’
and power supply capacity is essentially
determined by governments’ political will
to include it in the energy mix.
“I believe there is no reason why South
Africa cannot achieve the renewable en-
ergy status of the international world. If
South Africa were to follow international
Included in Ai-Tec’s range of industrial and commercial equipment, are robust, low noise trends, we should in the next ten years,
generators, available from 2 kVA to 2 500 kVA - suitable for industrial, commercial and
have the capacity to supply up to between
domestic applications
15% and 20% of our current power supply
Special acoustics
Included in Ai-Tec’s range of industrial and commercial equip- with renewable
ment, are low noise generators, available from 2 kVA to 2 energies,” ex-
500 kVA - suitable for industrial, commercial and domestic plains Dieter.
applications. He foresees that
“What sets these generator sets aside in a highly competi- solar power in
tive market is the specially-designed acoustic enclosure that South Africa in
significantly reduces noise levels,” says Arnold Retief, director, the next 10 -
Ai-Tec. “This robust enclosure, which contains the generator 15 years, will
unit, is able to withstand operation in harsh outdoor environ- achieve grid
ments, including the mining, marine and chemical sectors. parity. This
“The need for dependable standby power to enable contin- means that the
ued business in the event of a power outage means standby cost of supply
generators have become a necessity - particularly for those will become
industries that rely on electricity to survive. An emergency competitive
power supply is also essential for maintaining safety and to clean coal -
security standards.” carbon capture
and sequestra-
The acoustic design of Ai-Tec’s generators meets the require-
ments of EU legislation 2000/14/EC. This is achieved by the tion technology
extensive use of a rock wool and perforated zintec steel lining, implemented -
enhanced by the efficient management of cooling air. The and even nu- Dieter Matzner
exhaust noise is minimised by a silencer which is mounted clear power.
within the base frame. Also integrated within the base frame “I believe that the real cost of power generated in the South
are the filler, gauge and accessory points. The fuel tank allows African grid by 2020 in today’s value is going to be about
eight hours running of the generator, at 75% load. R1,50 per kWh. This will be comparative with solar power
Arnold Retief, Advanced Industrial Technology (Ai-Tec), Tel: (032) and wind power in the next 10 - 15 years,” he adds.
552-2658, Web: www.ai-tec.co.za Website: www.hatch.ca

Contact Pauline Bouwer on Tel: (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403 or


Email: editorial@promech.co.za with all your advertising bookings

24 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


POWER GENERATION NEWS

Laser cladding perfected the application of lasers extends much further than could
Researchers at the CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial have been foreseen when they were first demonstrated a
Research) have demonstrated a world-first laser cladding few decades ago,” he adds. “The application of lasers also
system that offers a permanent solution to sealing leaks and extends to all aspects of modern manufacturing, especially
repairing cracks at power stations. in the technology of refurbishment and maintenance.”
The patented laser beam-welding and leak-sealing technology, The state-of-the art laser welding and cladding system is
which was developed for Eskom in collaboration with Eskom mobile and able to reach multi-storey heights with the laser
welding engineers, will aid in the power unit located firmly on the ground. The system func-
maintenance of South Africa’s tions by remote control provided
power stations, particularly in by an operator on the ground.
the sealing and repair of leaking “We have designed a system
water coolers in situ. that is completely mobile and
During the demonstration to can execute maintenance and
Eskom and other external stake- repairs on site,” says NLC opera-
holders, the CSIR National tions manager, Hardus Greyling.
Laser Centre head, Dr Ndumiso Laser cladding is a remarkably
Cingo, says, “This is a world- accurate and an effective process
first technology designed and whereby weld overlays of layers
developed in South Africa by as thin as 0,1 mm can be ap-
South Africans.” plied, with minimal distortion
to original components. This
The impact of this development
is specifically valuable when
will be fully appreciated only
performing maintenance weld-
much later, he says. “The technol-
ing on components.
ogy breakthrough coincides with
the 50th anniversary of the laser. Mzimasi Gcukumana, Research
The design and development of Communications: National Laser
this technology has proved that Centre, Tel: (012) 841-2535

Industry; a tough business that can only A partner able to play a significant role in every
succeed when the suppliers it chooses and the project or expansion.
equipment it specifies meet the challenge.
A partner capable of delivering dependable
ZEST; more than just products. More than support for both original equipment
MV and LV motors, matched drives, diesel manufacturers (OEMs) and end users.
generators up to 2000kVA, transformers up to
200 MVA, switchgear, vacuum ring main units, A partner that backs hundreds of man years’
static and portable MCCs solutions and cable. experience with an intense commitment to
stock, a comprehensive network of branches,
ZEST is the partner Africa’s industries need. agents and professional projects management.

On show at
Electra Mining 2010
Stand G30
Hall 6

Johannesburg (011) 723 6000 • Cape Town (021) 551 2710 • Durban (031) 569 7260
Port Elizabeth (041) 486 1262/1396 • Middelburg (013) 246 2849 • Rustenburg (014) 594 0450
Richards Bay (035) 751 1607 • Trichardt (017) 638 1571 • Pomona (011) 723 6000

www.zest.co.za
Peripheral 2010108

IRU6$0(LQGG 
THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 25
NUCLEAR INSTITUTE (SA BRANCH)

A Sense of Unreality
A further item of essential reading in the great IRP2 energy debate has appeared in the form of ‘Generating
the Future’, a report by the UK Royal Academy of Engineering. The UK’s Climate Change Act of 2008 commits
to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by no less than ‘at least 80%’ of 1990 emissions by 2050. The Acad-
emy report presents four scenarios and considers how this might be achieved in each scenario – at least in the
case of carbon dioxide.

T
he first and least demanding The contention that biomass can provide 45 GW(av)
scenario assumes zero increase (contributing to transport, electricity generation
in total energy demand between and the provision of low grade heat) is surprising.
now and 2050. The fourth is According to J C MacKay’s ‘Sustainable energy
based on an overall reduction of some – without the hot air’ discussed in February’s issue,
46% in total energy demand. Because 45 GW(av) would use up of the order of 10 000
it’s hard to imagine a developing country km2 of arable land.
targeting zero load growth, let alone load In the supply side analysis, nuclear generation and
diminution, the following has to do only fossil-fired plant equipped with carbon capture and
with the first scenario. storage are lumped together to provide 77 GW(av)
Currently, the UK total average power of base-load energy. I wish CCS researchers every
John Walmsley supply is evidently 207,5 GW(average) of success but personally find it hard to believe, for
which a mere 20% is electrical. In 2050, example, that tens of millions of tons of CO2 per
with the same total energy demand, the predicted year per power station can be captured and hidden
electrical energy contribution has risen to a startling under the North Sea for ever. If CCS does not work,
66%. The increase is driven largely by a switch the 77GW(av) will all have to come from about sixty
from fossil fuels to heat pumps for low grade heat new Generation III+ reactors. Since the feasibility of
and to electricity for transportation. To repeat, the CCS will take years to establish the Brits (opposed
Academy concludes that, if the total energy demand by the Scots) are preparing to build nukes now, as
remains constant, the nation’s electrical energy we must for the same reason.
generation must at least triple if the 80% target is The report suggests an answer to a question that
to be met. Hence the title of this article. continues to bother me about wind energy. A few
I wish CCS researchers every success but personally find percent of wind energy can clearly be ‘hidden’ in
the system. When the wind drops simply run other
it hard to believe
plant a little harder. Woolly economic thinking
perhaps but feasible. But when does intermittent
The report is concerned almost entirely with what energy really start to become a nuisance on the
must happen if imposed scenario requirement are grid, and what is the maximum? Figure 5 of the
to be met, rather than what is technically and eco- report shows a maximum credible 33 GW(av) of
nomically feasible. It does suggest, however, that ‘intermittent renewables’, very largely wind, feeding
the necessary strengthening of the transmission into the 127 GW(av) grid. The answer therefore
and distribution systems would alone cost many appears to be around 25%.
billions of pounds.
Weather forecasting
Too immature As well as much more muscular, the national grid
One of the requirements is to maximise the use will have to become ‘smart’ to deal with instabil-
of renewables. The renewables contribution is ity and to incorporate weather forecasting and
therefore the same for all four scenarios, being the demand-side management. The ‘smart’ grid is
‘highest levels that could realistically be delivered described as a ‘hugely complex issue … currently
by 2050’. Their total predicted average power con- being investigated’.
tribution (omitting biomass) is 33,2 GW(av). The
major contributors are on-shore wind 6,5 GW(av) The report stresses the enormity of the engineer-
(from 24 GW installed - implying a generous 27% ing effort required. The only parallel is the 1940s
capacity factor), off-shore wind 11,4 GW(av) (from wartime effort. Which brings to mind another
38 GW installed), and solar PV 7,2 GW(av) (from thought. What if the sceptics are right and global
72 GW installed). Biomass contributes 45 GW(av) warming has nothing to do with CO2? How amaz-
thermal. Grievously, concentrated solar power with ing would that be?
energy storage punted in the free NIASA video John Walmsley
‘Energy Security – the Nuclear Contribution’(1) is To obtain a free copy of the NIASA video ‘Energy Security
considered too immature a technology for inclusion - the Nuclear Contribution’Email: info@vdw.co.za specify-
in the analysis. ing ‘summary disc’ and a postal address

26 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


FILTERS & FILTRATION

Half Price
is Half
Performance
Allen Cockfield, managing director of Artic Driers “Some look-alike filter elements are designed to
price level, often substantially deviating from the
Many maintenance engineers are under pressure to cut costs, original design to achieve this objective,” he says.
so they buy generic replacement filter elements at half the “Low-cost elements have a shorter life because they
price of the original. Yet they’re surprised when they only get simply don’t have the same filtration area in the
half the life out of these look-alike cartridges. The look-alike form of pleated media inside the element.”
elements are often well made, externally appearing to be one Air filters
and the same as the original, just in a different colour, but on The coalescing and particle compressed air filters
the inside it’s a different story altogether. in question are manufactured by OEMs to exacting

T
standards and casings are fitted with high capac-
o make matters worse the look-alike elements ity filter elements that use pleated filter media
are regularly palmed off as the original and to provide large filtration surface areas with low
sold at the same price, giving the seller a pressure drops. “Pleating of the multiple layered
fat margin for something that simply isn’t as filtration media provides a high surface area that
effective as the original. “SA Mechanical Engineer” is 300 to 400% greater than any ordinary spiral
speaks to Allen Cockfield, managing director of wound cartridge,” explains Allen. “This provides
Artic Driers about this phenomenon plaguing the low operational pressure drops using less power
South African market. while service intervals are longer, leading to lower
Tends to blind over faster than a pleated element operating costs.

The real thing on the left, with the look-alike filter element on the right

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 27


FILTERS & FILTRATION

“The look-alike spiral wound element has a smaller


surface area and tends to blind over faster than
a pleated element,” adds Allen. “This also leads
to higher differential pressures and subsequent
energy wastage. Another point to be considered is
the filtration efficiency. Rarely, if ever, do look-alike
suppliers provide data sheets for the elements they
sell and the question is, are you getting the same
performance?”

Pointing out differences between


effective filtration and low-cost filtration
is certainly not a personal vendetta

The real thing


For twelve years Artic Driers has been the dis-
tributor for the BEA Technologies range of filters
made in Italy. To explain the in’s and out’s of the
genuine article, Allen describes some of the salient
features. “Manufactured in die cast aluminium or
as a fabricated casing, we have a range of flow
capacities from 15 to 33 000 cubic metres per
hour. All casings are fitted with high capacity filter
elements that use pleated filter media to provide
large filtration surface areas with low pressure
drops,” he says.
“The filtration media is sandwiched between an
inner and outer layer of perforated stainless steel
The JDM level-controlled drain

28 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


FILTERS & FILTRATION

that guarantees element and dirt-holding integrity and pipe scale with zero chance of a malfunction,”
under all standard operational conditions. The explains Allen. “Electronically-controlled level
elements are available in four colour-coded filter drains eliminate expensive compressed air from
grades from 10 to 0.01 micron with an activated escaping by only draining when the bowl is full of
carbon element that provides oil removal down waste condensate.”
to 0.003 ppm.
Drain valve is signalled to close before expensive
Not a vendetta compressed air is wasted to atmosphere
“For over a decade Bea Technology has not changed
the element system and still markets the same The electronic capacitive level sensor monitors
screwed filter casing design that has been in use the level of condensate in the bowl and signals a
for more than 12 years,” says Allen. “The original 12 volt heavy duty drain valve to open when the
VIP casing design with many practical features upper limit is reached. Once in the open cycle, the
has been imitated by many and still represents level of condensate drops and the capacitive level
a brilliant design standard in the compressed air sensor keeps the drain valve open until a lower
industry. level is reached. At this point, the drain valve is
signalled to close before expensive compressed
“Pointing out the differences between effective
air is wasted to atmosphere. The JDM units are
filtration and low-cost filtration is certainly not a
available for pressure from 3 bar to 50 bar work-
personal vendetta, there are other original equip-
ing pressures
ment suppliers who are also affected by the flood
of ‘cheap’ filtration elements,” says Allen. “We’re Payback
trying to help people save money, not only in running Just like the filter elements, the drains do cost a
costs, but also in terms of energy consumption.” bit more initially, but the payback time is dramati-
cally shortened just from the energy saved by the
Energy saving
system. “Initial purchase price should not be the
With the rising cost of energy in mind, Artic Driers
sole criteria,” says Allen in conclusion. “In fact,
is now also offering a new product to the South
low cost is often a precursor to a long term supply
African market that helps to save precious com-
problem. Filtration equipment should only be sourced
pressed air. “Compressed air is already expensive
from suppliers who are able to consistently back
but, with power costs rising, the cost of compressed
up the supply chain and have a long established
air is bound to double in future,” says Allen.
track record in the compressed air industry.
“The use of intelligent level controlled drains on air
“Many suppliers, with these pre-requisites, will
filtration systems is an effective way of reducing
also offer compressed air quality audits for dew
compressed air wastage and power costs. We now
point, oil carry over, air flow and pressure to en-
have a range of JDM level-controlled drains, built
sure long term air quality performance and client
for the harsh realities of industry where a lot of
satisfaction.”
air goes to waste with traditional timer-controlled
drains.” Allen Cockfield, Artic Driers, Tel: (011) 425-3484, Email:
allen@articdriers.co.za
The system
“In this system, the air enters the coated aluminium
bowl via a full length
internal screen to ensure
the valve can tolerate the
ingress of heavy solids

The range of drains

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 29


SEW-EURODRIVE - Driving the world

We don’t develop products


we develop solutions.

Suppliers of geared motors, industrial gears, frequency inverters, drive electronics, servo technology and services.
Naturally, as the leading drive-technology specialists, we consistently develop new products that are above all reliable,
energy-efficient and produced cost-efficiently. Moreover, our know-how and experience allows us to go a step further than
the rest – providing solutions that you can build on. That’s what we call Drive 360o – Seeing the big picture: from the system
availability to problem-solving competence, achieving lower operating costs through energy-efficiency right through to
finished systems. We can fulfill all your needs.

SEW-Eurodrive (Pty) Ltd


PO Box 90004 l Bertsham 2013
Tel: +2711 248-7000
Fax: +27 11 248-7289

30 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER


www.sew.co.za VOL 60 May 2010
FILTERS & FILTRATION

Every Drop
Counts
It takes only one litre of oil to render a million litres of water contaminated beyond human and, in many cas-
es, even industrial use. As South Africa is a water-scarce country, it’s crucial for industry to pay special atten-
tion to the spillage of waste oils.

E
lectricity was first, it’s now expected that even a backwash does not remove the oil particles
water will become more expensive in once they’re impregnated on the membrane,” adds
future. It’s also important to preserve the Jacques. “The RO system at one of our client’s
environmental integrity of this precious premises is used to reclaim waste water from all
commodity. Although many industries are aware over the plant, but a lot of this waste comes from
of the laws against spilling waste oil, their facili- the vehicle washbays and the workshops where
ties aren’t always sufficient to effectively remove gearboxes are overhauled and serviced.”
oil from waste water so they buy more processed
water instead of re-using the water they have.

Buy more processed water instead of re-using the water


they have

A company that specialises in filtration technologies


to remove oil from waste water is Procon Environ-
mental Technologies in Witbank and Pretoria. To
learn more about the benefits of these systems, “SA
Mechanical Engineer” speaks to Jacques Steyn, the
company’s environmental engineer. “Prevention is
better than cure, it is much better to avoid pollution
at the source rather than trying to fix it later on.
Slightest bit of oil
“Accidents do happen, so we have solutions to clean Jacques Steyn, Procon’s environmental engineer
up the mess and help prevent the accident from
happening again. In addition we have technologies The system
that have been proven to save companies money, All this waste water drains to sumps from where it
not only in terms of re-using waste water, but also goes through the purifying system. “At the sumps
to extend the life of water purifying systems further we installed our Ultraspin hydro-cyclone systems
down the line,” says Jacques. “A good example is to remove the core large particles of oil from the
installing our Mycelx filtration system prior to a water,” says Jacques.
reverse osmosis system, purely to extend the life of
“The water coming out of this system still contains
the very expensive membranes in the RO plant.
small oil particles of about 10 parts to a million
“The slightest bit of oil on the membranes of an and these are then removed by the Mycelx filtration
RO system renders the membrane useless because system before it goes to the RO system.”

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 31


FILTERS & FILTRATION

The Mycelx filtration system

Fraction of the cost three-phase process that gets rid of diesel which is
The filters are only replaced every four to six months water-soluble and can’t be removed by the hydro
at a fraction of what is used to cost the plant to cyclone or the filtration system which is installed
replace the membranes of the RO system on a in varying degrees depending on the level of con-
regular basis. “To ensure minimum downtime to tamination.
replace filters, we designed a dual filtration system,” “This ‘Star-Track’ design is a complete containment
says Jacques. system with a comprehensive arrangement of drains
We are literally saving the plant millions in terms of that captures and directs the oil spillages to our
lifecycle costs treatment system.”
Growing awareness
“In parallel to the in-duty filtration system, we
Procon is the sole distributor of this technology in
have a complete standby system so that the client
Africa and has engineered many solutions ranging
simply switches to standby filtration while filters
across all industries, from large mining plants to
are being replaced on the duty system. On this 70
railways yards, vehicle washbays, refineries and
cubic metre per hour filtration system, we are liter-
many other industries where oil is used. “In our
ally saving the plant millions in terms of lifecycle
experience there seems to be a growing awareness
costs as our system costs comes in at around 10%
in industry for the need to protect the environment
of their previous running costs.”
by considering sustainable solutions to oil pollution,”
Remote locations says Jacques. “South Africa has had comprehensive
A similar waste water solution was designed for environmental legislation in place for many years,
the Transnet railway service depots. “These depots but enforcing it has always been a problem because
are usually remotely located where there isn’t any the department doesn’t have enough teeth to go
access to the usual process water disposal through after the culprits.
a sewerage network,” explains Jacques. “Having said that, over the last couple of years some
“The law requires that waste water discharged into people have been sent to prison for oil and chemical
the environment should contain less than 2.5 mil- pollution offences,” says Jacques in conclusion. “The
ligram solids per litre and this in itself is a problem amalgamation of the departments of water affairs
for these depots where the grease, diesel and oil and environmental affairs has proven to be a good
spill from rail cars and locomotives being serviced, move as law enforcement will now be co-ordinated
severely contaminates all the waste water. much more effectively. On a daily basis, we now
receiving enquiries, and many of those who have
“We are so confident in our solution that we offer a
merely made enquiries in the past, are calling us
money-back guarantee should the discharge water
to order the equipment.”
from our system contain more than 2.5 milligram
per litre,” says Jacques. “Our solution includes Jacques Steyn, Procon Environmental Technologies, Tel:
special treatment for diesel contamination. It’s a (086) 6666-33, Email: jsteyn@pro-enviro.co.za

32 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS

Saving on Process
Energy and Steam
The concept of outsourcing a process energy
or steam generating plant to an entity that
specialises in running and maintaining process
energy and steam generating systems has been
alive and well for over a decade. The creation
of a whole new market known as Contract
Energy Management or CEM has since been
embraced by various industries including the
food, textile, metal, paper, timber, chemical
and para-statal sectors.

AES has proven expertise in biomass based steam and electricity genera-
tion

A
lthough CEM staffing, operations and efficiency, maintenance,
is well-es- environmental and occupational health and safety
tablished management processes. Through the application
and widely of these processes, we are able to provide value
used in Europe, Britain where energy plant operation and management
and America, it is a skill sets are lacking.”
fairly new concept Essentially the benefits and identified savings to the
Dennis Williams to the South African client are embodied within the energy supply charges
market, instituted by and efficiency of operation, where the client buys
Associated Energy Services (AES) in the early nineties useful energy from the CEM company in the form
and today steadily growing into general practice. “SA and quantity required. The focussed application
Mechanical Engineer” speaks to marketing director of professional plant operation and maintenance
of AES in Cape Town, Dennis Williams. procedures provides operational benefits such as
improved reliability and availability, improved ef-
Proven over and over that these resources cannot be ficiency, reduced environmental risk and extended
cost-effectively managed by individual companies plant life for the client.
How Does CEM Work?
“The formation of a stand alone company enabled “We are able to offer CEM services to either exist-
AES to become the local market leader in combus- ing energy plant operations, or alternatively to fund
tion-based CEM following its initial pioneering work and install new Greenfield energy plant installations
done on outsourced energy plant operation,” Dennis under a CEM contract,” elaborates Dennis. “We as-
explains. “We operate and manage a variety of energy sume full responsibility for staffing, management,
installations and generate steam, thermal oil, hot maintenance and control of the energy plant on
air/gas and electricity for supply to clients. behalf of the client and charge the client on the
CEM concept basis of a fixed monthly charge together with a per
“We’ve developed in-house management systems unit energy charge applied to the monthly energy
covering the key areas of energy plant opera- consumption.
tion,” he adds. “These include technical review, “For example, purchasing steam will be charged in

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 33


STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS

ment personnel across a number of energy opera-


tions. It has been proven over and over that these
resources cannot be cost-effectively managed by
individual companies that simply use energy/steam
as a utility to their core business.”
Sawmilling operation
As a practical example, Dennis sketches a case
study. “In 2004, AES began negotiations with the
operator of a sawmill in the Eastern Cape for the full
outsourcing of the entire power station operations
at the site,” he says. “The site required substantial
technical skills and operations input to enable the
selection of updated control system technologies,
as well as the design and implementation of furnace
and fuel feed system adjustments.
“We secured a five-year contract to manage the
The use of sawmill residue as fuel ensures that the timber resources of the entire power generation station at the site covering
client are utilised in an optimal and sustainable manner generation and supply of high pressure superheated
and low pressure saturated steam,” he elaborates.
R/tonne of steam and electricity in c/kWh,” explains “This included the generation of electricity for use
Dennis. “The monthly consumption of energy is on the site via steam turbine generators.”
measured by appropriate logging instrumentation
and the client is billed for the energy usage. All The operation
costs associated with energy generation are borne The site plant includes a steam de-superheating
by AES. station and a combination of fully- condensing and
pass-out turbines which enables AES to balance
“Our business
197731 Poweroil 130x210.pdf 9/23/08
model enables the leveraging of high
4:26:22 PM the site steam requirements based on demand
level, high value energy engineering and manage- for low pressure process steam and high pressure

34 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS

superheated steam for power generation. AES has has been increased focus on renewable energy and
been responsible for implementing various changes its expanded use to enable the reduction of South
related to boiler and furnace control systems, fuel Africa’s reliance on fossil based energy. The operation
sizing and pre-screening and refractory installation, I’ve just described is an example of how industry
design and maintenance on the existing boilers. can further these clean energy ideals.
The company has also been responsible for project With the shortage of engineering skills in South Africa,
managing the installation of an additional low pressure
the CEM concept has become a solution to a critical
boiler and step grate furnace to generate additional
low pressure steam, while making the current high problem
pressure, superheated steam generation capacity Skills
available for additional power generation. “Today, with the shortage of engineering skills in
Renewable energy South Africa, the CEM concept has become a solu-
“In addition, we worked closely with this client on the tion to a critical problem,” says Dennis in conclu-
site to review the generation of steam and electricity sion. Companies are finding it difficult to maintain
in light of the client’s participation in the Eskom production at previous levels due to the lack of
Pilot National Cogeneration Programme (PNCP),” energy management expertise for the operation
says Dennis. “At the time AES was a registered of utilities and the training of the utility operating
participant in the PNCP and the later Medium Term personnel, such as boiler house staff. AES employ
Power Purchase Programme (MTPPP) and as such, more than 150 staff including skilled operations
provided input with regard to future plant operation, staff and 11 engineers.
availability and cost assessments. “Companies should be focussing their efforts on
“Opportunities related to the generation of carbon processes directly related to the production of their
credits in terms of the United Nations Framework core business while the boiler house receives the
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the management and financial attention of professionals
site operations were reviewed and we were able in order to ensure an efficient operation.”
to offer support in terms of reviews of the site Dennis Williams, AES, Tel: (021) 532-3381, Email:
registration process,” says Dennis. “Recently there d.williams@aes-africa.com, Website: www.aes-africa.com

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 35


Are You
Doing
Your
Bit?

Green This prestigious award recognises

Supply
people, projects and products
that have gone above and
beyond the call of duty to
enhance the environment in which

Chain
they operate.

The inaugural awards in 2009

Awards
enjoyed a wonderful response
from the supply chain community
and everything is on track to make
this year’s event one of the indus-
try’s most prestigious accolades.

Come and see who walks away


with the coveted trophies and
enter your product or project for
this year’s event.

Entries for this year’s event close in


June and the awards ceremony is
being planned for 26 August 2010.

Contact: Catherine Larkin on


Tel: (011) 789-7327/787-9127,
Cell: 083 300 0331, Fax: (011) 787-7865
Email: cvlarkin@ciltsa.org.za

30
36 Supply Chain AFRICAN
THE SOUTH Today Jan 2010
MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010
Market Forum
cope smoothly under these
very grueling conditions.
Mining operations can pro-
ceed smoothly without any
concern about unplanned
down time caused by
premature electric motor
failure,” concludes Tony.
Jane Goldwyer, CMG Electric
Motors, Tel: (011) 453-1930,
Fax: (011) 453-9560, Email:
jane.goldwyer@cmggroup.
co.za, Website: www.cmg-
group.co.za

The housing issue


SKF has developed a wide
range of bearing hous-
ings to ensure the right
solution for virtually any
application. Some of the
Substantial savings latest housings designs available from SKF to assist with
A leading Middelburg-based coal operator has recorded sig- improved reliability and reduced costs include SNL plummer
nificant savings on capital expenditure, repair and downtime block housings, SONL plummer block housings and FNL
over a relatively short period, following the installation of flanged housings.
CMG PPA electric motors. SNL plummer (pillow) block housings are SKF’s most popular
The mine is currently operating approximately 50 CMG Premium housings. Because of their versatility it is seldom necessary
Efficiency PPA electric motors and the reliable performance to resort to tailored housings for specific applications, mini-
of these rugged units has lead to the mine standardising on mising costs and production downtime.
the PPAs and the replacement of all existing motors with Warren Walker, SKF Engineering Manager, says that the
these high efficiency motors is in progress. housings are horizontally split and have two or four at-
Branch Manager, Tony Campbell, says that CMG’s class tachment bolt holes in the base as standard. The basis
“H”, IP66, TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) PPA motors of the SNL plummer block housing system consists of a
are supplied with standard features to meet all customer number of housings of the same design but in different
specifications. He adds that numerous CMG PPA motors sizes. Walker explains that by combining these housings
are successfully operating at seven of the group’s coal min- with different standard seals, a wide variety of housing vari-
ing projects. ants can be supplied, all belonging to the standard range.
“Electric motors are one of the most important components to SNL plummer blocks (up to size 32) can accommodate
any production line and the customer found that a tremendous shaft diameters ranging from 20 to 160 mm making them
amount of time and money was being expended on repairing a flexible solution.
and replacing old faulty motors,” states Tony. SKF’s SONL plummer block housings, which replace the
Tony discusses the application of the electric motors and former SOFN housings, are intended for oil lubrication and
says that the motors are used to feed pumps in the mine’s are designed for bearings operating at high speeds and at high
basement, an extremely harsh location due to water and temperatures. Primary applications include fans, flywheels
spillages. “As a result, motors simply did not last and had and emergency power installations.
to be replaced every three to four months, a very high cost FNL flanged housings are manufactured by SKF in two de-
exercise. However, after replacing the existing motors with signs depending on size. Smaller sizes up to and including
our PPA electric motors over two years ago, the customer size 13 have a triangular flange; larger sizes have a square
has not lost a single motor since installation, despite the flange. The housings are equipped with double-lip seals. FNL
necessary regular wash down and motor start up which can housings are equipped with two drilled and tapped holes for
be as frequent as ten times per every nine hour shift. relubrication as standard.
“The customer reports that CMG motors far outclass other The SNL grease guiding system is also used in FNL hous-
electric motors currently available to local industry as they ings and Walker explains that this feature guides the grease

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 37


Market Forum
into the bearing when lubricating self-aligning ball
bearings or CARB toroidal roller bearings.
To simplify mounting and make alignment more
accurate, centre lines to indicate the housing
bore axis and vertical axis are cast into the hous-
ing flange. As a variant, the FNL housing can be
supplied with a machined recess that can be used
to centre the housing on an appropriate spigot on
the machine wall. As such, Walker points out that
the attachment bolts are not subjected to shear
forces. The spigot can be provided by machining
the wall accordingly, or attaching an appropriate
guide ring to the wall.
Joubert – MarComm Assistant - SKF SA, SKF South Africa
(Pty) Ltd, Tel: (011) 821-3500, Fax: (011) 821-3501, Email:
samantha.joubert@skf.com, Website: www.skf.co.za

Many different capacities


The Case range of wheel loaders includes many
units with different capacities, but three high
performance models – the 621E, 821E and 921E
series – are available in Southern Africa from CSE
The SKF range og bearing housings

B:51T[cCT]bX^]BhbcT\
0]X]]^ePcXeT
b^[dcX^]c^
bd__^acQT[cSaXeTb
8cXbR^\\^]Z]^f[TSVTcWPcQT[cb]TTSc^QTRWP]VTS
aTVd[Pa[hP]SbW^d[SWPeTcWTR^aaTRccT]bX^]P]S
P[XV]\T]c6^^SQT[c\PX]cT]P]RTST\P]SbcX\T
P]STUU^ac

CWTB:51T[cCT]bX^]BhbcT\_a^eXSTbP`dXRZP]STPbh
QT[c\PX]cT]P]RTb^[dcX^]

1T]T
cbU^acWTQT[ccT]bX^]bhbcT\) AT[XPQX[XchU^acWTfW^[TbhbcT\)
~ 0bbdaTSaT_TPcPQ[T\PX]cT]P]RT`dP[Xch ~ ATSdRTSR^bcbSdTc^_a^[^]VTSQT[c[XUT
~ @dXRZP]SaT[XPQ[TcT]bX^]RWTRZb ~ 7XVWTad_cX\T^UcWTfW^[TbhbcT\SdTc^[TbbcX\TR^]bd\X]V
~ 4Pbh_aTeT]cXeT\PX]cT]P]RT QaTPZS^f]b
~ BPUTbX\_[TP]SUPbcQT[caT_[PRT\T]c ~ ;TbbeXQaPcX^]bP]ScWTaTU^aTP[b^WXVWTaTU
RXT]RhSdTc^R^aaTRc
QT[ccT]bX^]
~ 4Pbh\PX]cT]P]RT_a^RTSdaTcWTaTQh\X]X\XbX]VcWTaXbZ^U
X]YdaXTb

CWT?^fTa^U:]^f[TSVT4]VX]TTaX]V
B:5B^dcW0UaXRP?ch;X\XcTS
CT[)!& '! "$5Pg)!& '! "$
4\PX[)bP[TbiP/bZUR^\FTQ)fffbZUR^iP

38 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


Market Forum

The Case range of wheel loaders includes many units with different capacities, but three high performance models – the 621E, 821E
and 921E series – are available in Southern Africa from CSE Equipment Company

Equipment Company. New prison boiler


The largest Case wheel loader obtainable locally is the 921E Mpumalanga Steam & Boiler Works, specialists in the
machine, with enhanced power for efficient operation in installation, repair and service of heat generation, waste
arduous applications in construction, quarrying, mining and management and energy production systems, has recently
related industries. completed the installation of a new steam boiler at the
Nelspruit Prison in Mpumalanga.
“This robust wheel loader has a maximum operating weight
of 22 962 kg, an engine rating of 221 kW and bucket capac- “This 1,8 ton coal fired steam boiler is designed for the
ity of up to 4,60m³,” says Rod Watson divisional director of generation and reticulation of sufficient steam throughout the
CSE Equipment’s construction division. building for the efficient heating of water for food preparation
“The 921E series is powered by an electronically
controlled Tier III engine, with an 11 litre capacity.
This machine has multiple power curves – economy,
standard and maximum – that provide the correct
power rating for each specific task, like loading and
digging, with low fuel consumption for lighter stock-
piling duties.
“The auto working mode automatically adjusts the
engine power to meet the exact needs in diverse
operating conditions, enabling the wheel loader to
move the maximum amount of material per litre of
fuel. Electronic fuel injection, with high injection
pressures, allows cleaner, more efficient burning for
increased output, efficient fuel consumption and an
overall reduction in emissions.”
Rod Watson, CSE Equipment Company, Tel: (011) 922-2000, Mpumalanga Steam & Boiler Works, has recently completed the installation
Fax : (011) 922-2108, Email: rodw@cse.co.za, Website: www. of a new steam boiler for Nelspruit Correctional Services in Mpumalanga.
The new steam boiler is being unloaded here for Nelspruit Correctional
cse.co.za Services

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 39


Market Forum
in the kitchen and to supply hot water to the ablution and of tar from as high as 1000 mg/l down to 50 mg/l in the
laundry facilities at the prison,” says Nkosinathi Nkwan- coal water stream. In doing so there is an overall reduction
yana, director, Mpumalanga Steam & Boiler Works, part of in contamination being fed to the hydrogen sulphide scrub-
Advanced Industrial Technology (Ai-Tec).” bers and downstream heat exchangers, which will lead to
Because efficient boiler operation is critical for the smooth increased efficiency of these systems.
running of facilities like prisons and hospitals, the Department The reduction in contaminants will also significantly reduce
of Public Works, in conjunction with Mpumalanga Steam & the number of maintenance intervals currently required on the
Boiler Works, has embarked on a training programme for distillation columns, thus reducing the water consumption and
boiler operators. Training operations include lighting the fire downtime required for cleaning the distillation columns.
for the boiler, raising steam pressure, de-ashing, emergency VWS Envig will be designing, manufacturing, constructing and
shutdowns, blowdown procedures and the safe maintenance commissioning the
of steam pressure. plant. The project
Nkosinathi Nkwanyana, Mpumalanga Steam & Boiler Works, is currently in pro-
Advanced Industrial Technology (Ai-Tec), Tel: (013) 246-1722, curement phase,
Email: info@mpsteam.co.za, Web: www.ai-tec.co.za with commission-
ing expected in
the third quarter
of 2010.
Stuart Lawry, Project
Engineer, VWS Envig
(Pty) Ltd., Tel: 011
Tender awarded 663 3600, Fax: 011
VWS Envig has announced the award of a tender to 608 4772, Email:
supply ArcelorMittal South Africa Newcastle Works info.vwsenvig@veo-
with a tar removal filtration plant. The plant will be liawater.com
the first of its kind in South Africa.
The filters are designed to reduce the concentration Stuart Lawry

Certainty that everything is running smoothly.


That‘s what moves us.
ai_allg_13.0.1_en aik

Hairmann Hayak,
Regional Service Manager,
Voith Turbo Singapore

The efficient conversion of primary energy into mecha­ one of the largest manufacturers worldwide of indus­
nical power – this is the world of Voith Turbo Industry. trial drives, we have the right solution for any task.
We are your reliable partner when it comes to systems Hydrodynamic, mechanical, electronic or hydrostatic:
competence, quality and innovative products. From power transmission systems from Voith Turbo are
variable­speed drives and control components in the efficient, save energy and reduce emissions – reliably
power generating and the petrochemical industry, and safely all over the world.
start­up components in materials handling in the min­
ing industry, to cardan shafts and connecting coup­ Voith Turbo (Pty) Ltd.
lings for steel and the mechanical engineering indus­ Tel. +27 11 418 4000
try, to highly flexible couplings and hydraulic systems info.vtza@voith.com
in construction, toolmaking and marine industry. As www.rsa.voithturbo.com

40 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


Market Forum
The onboard filter which is
standard on all units is used for
the efficient filling and empty-
ing of fluid. Different size flat
face, quick connect couplings
prevent particle ingress and
ensure the correct oil is pumped
into the appropriate machine.
Electrically operated pumps
are an option to standard hand
pumps.
Robust rubber wheels en-
sure easy mobility over rough
surfaces. Specially designed
carbon steel wheels are avail-
able for underground mining
applications. These trolleys,
which are manufactured using
97% local components, are
Paul Combe, new GM of Goscor equipped with carefully selected
Compressed Air Systems filtration systems suitable for
most fluids.
Anton van Deventer, BMG Filtra-
Compressed air company re-organisation tion, Bearing Man Group, Tel: (011) 620-1500, Fax2Email: 086-532-
In line with the group’s strategy of maintaining highly focused 2177, Email: antonv@bmgworld.net, Website: www.bmgworld.net
business units, leading equipment supplier, Goscor, has
spun off its compressed air business into a separate
business unit.
Formerly part of Goscor Power Products (GPP), the
new division, which includes the Sullair range of
products, will be known as Goscor Compressed Air
Systems (GCAS).
New GCAS GM, Paul Combe says: “Everyone is under
pressure to be as efficient as possible and in Sullair
we have a significant competitive advantage in this
regard.”
Goscor Compressed Air Systems, Paul Combe, Tel: (011)
230.2600, Fax: (011) 976.4807, E.Mail: pcombe@goscor.
co.za, Website: www.goscor.co.za

Robust transfer trolley


BMG’s specialist filtration division has launched a
new robust transfer trolley which transfers oil safely
from the oil store to the plant, without the lubricator
having to touch the fluid.
“This efficient transfer system, which is convenient
for users in diverse industries, including the mining
sector, ensures safe and clean transfer and filtration
of lubricating fluids up to 680 cST,” says Anton van
Deventer, product manager, BMG Filtration, part of
the Bearing Man Group. “This system has an easy to
operate colour coded facility that virtually eliminates
oil cross contamination.” BMG’s specialist filtration division has launched a new robust transfer
trolley which transfers oil safely from the oil store to the plant, without the
For optimum cleanliness, the fluid is filtered twice. lubricator having to touch the fluid.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 41


Market Forum
company will also provide Xstrata with
a maintenance and pump replacement
service on all pumps.
“We supplied all the vertical spindle
pumps as well as horizontal pumps
from the 75 DMP through to Warman
14/12 F AH pumps, and this was done
over a five month period to dovetail
with the project requirements,” Nico
Smit, branch manager Weir Minerals
Africa Witbank, says.
All pumps are equipped with the
Warman E-Base (Efficiency Base)
system. “This is the first time that the
E-Base has been installed on vertical
spindle pumps and essentially means
that by eliminating slippage on the
v-belts, significant savings in energy
consumption will be achieved. In ad-
dition, it will shorten the changeout
on v-belts as it is not necessary to
Weir Minerals Africa is committed to maintaining plant uptime realign the motor with the pump,”
Smit says.
Innovative world first
Not only will the supply of 52 pumps by Weir Minerals Africa Smit says it is an innovative world first approach to pump
to Xstrata’s Goedgevonden plant in Ogies be the largest slurry v-belt drives, which ensures the correct belt tension, as speci-
pump installation in the Mpumalanga coalfields area, but the fied by belt manufacturers, is applied throughout the life of

42 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


Market Forum
the system. “Correct tensioning on the v-belt is maintained is required and operating costs are reduced making these
without the need for constant and continual adjustment.” submersible pumps a very attractive alternative to vertical
“This is achieved through the use of a simple, highly ef- spindle sump pumps,” Klint concludes.
fective self-tensioning device known as the OST torsioning Lanelle Wheeler, Itt Water & Wastewater, Tel: (011) 966-9300, Web-
element,” Nico says. It consists of four precision moulded site: www.flygt.co.za
rubber mounts which store energy that is released as the
belts stretch and wear.
Rene Calitz, Weir Minerals Africa (Pty) Ltd, Tel: ( 011) 929-2622,
Website: www.weirminerals.com

Little attention
Slurry handling is considered one of the most demand-
ing applications for any pump, and one of the costliest
in terms of wear and tear, maintenance
and downtime. Finding a solution to this
problem will result in increasing efficiencies
and productivity as well as an exponential
reduction in costs.
According to Klint Bawden, dewatering
applications engineer at ITT Water &
Wastewater, there is a market trend
away from vertical spindle sump
pumps towards submersible slurry
pumps. “This is because these pumps
are more user-friendly, require less
infrastructure, are quiet in operation
and more efficient when compared
with vertical spindle pumps.”
He points out that because the
submersible pump operates directly
in the slurry it requires no support
structure and occupies less space.
In addition, the motor and volute is A new level in design
an integrated unit, making it com- Jetmaster (Pty) Ltd. exports products to Australia, New Zea-
pact and easy to install. Another land, UK and other countries. Their unique gas barbecues
advantage because it operates are optimised to suit the traditional South African style. The
underwater is the reduced product has to be on a new level in terms of functionality,
noise level and, in some manufacturability and aesthetics.
instances, silent operation
is guaranteed. This is accomplished by using PTC’s Pro/ENGI-
NEER Wildfire for the complete design including
“Add to this, the Victau- basic aesthetics, pressed parts, customised
lic flange and coupling injection molded components, and assembly
on the Flygt 5100/5150 and manufacturing.
Series pumps allows fast,
easy connection to a wide The overall time from concept to product was re-
range of commonly avail- duced by at least 50%, and due to the ease of creating
able fittings.” components, assemblies and mechanisms, the company
had more time to spend on design refinement. Full struc-
“Once installed, the Flygt tural analysis allowed for optimised material usage and the
submersible slurry pumps variety of features available enabled Jetmaster to design
require little attention. each component completely and to pay special attention
Since there are no long or to even the smallest of them.
exposed links between
ProductOne, Tel: (012) 673-9300, Email: prodone@prodone.
the motor and the vo-
com, Website: prodeone.com
lute, less maintenance The Flygt submersible slurry pump

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 43


44 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010
Market Forum
three different modules with the magnetic
separators installed in all three modules.
Bernadette Wilson, Multotec Group, Tel:+27 011
923 6193, Email: marketing@multotec.co.za,
Website: www.multotec.com

The opposite side


Spirax Sarco’s PN9000 series diaphragm
actuators are designed for spring return
(failsafe) action. Versions are available for
both spring extend and spring retract spindle.
The control air pressure supplied acts on
the opposite side of the diaphragm to the
springs, compressing the springs to move
the spindle to the required control position.
The control air pressure can be supplied
for on/off or modulating control.
One of the five self-leveling wet drum separators supplied to New Clydesdale Coal by
Multotec Magnetics The PN9000 series pneumatic diaphragm
actuators are a compact range of linear
Ideal for fluctuations actuators that are available in three diaphragm sizes for
Five self-leveling wet drum separators have been commis- matching the requirements of valves at various differential
sioned at New Clydesdale Coal by Multotec Magnetics, and pressures.
are achieving 99.1 % efficiency at this Exxaro mine which Each actuator is fitted with a mechanical travel indicator
exports 95% of its coal product. and incorporates a fully rolling diaphragm, which provides
Developed and introduced to the South African market by good linearity over the operating stroke.
Multotec Magnetics, these self leveling wet drum separa- Various types are available including standard, electroless
tors are capable of handling fluctuating flow rates and were nickel-plated, stainless steel, spring-extended and spring-re-
considered suitable for the New Clydesdale Coal plant as tracted. Operating in a -20°C to +110°C temperature range,
feed rates vary to the plant. The mine was started in 1949 the actuators have a maximum operating inlet pressure of
and the coal washing plants are ten years old. 6 bar g (600 kPa) and a maximum 30 mm actuator travel.
Mark Whitter, New Clydesdale Coal plant manager, says Air supply connection is ¼” NPT (6,35 mm).
that magnetite is used as a medium to separate coal at the Emily Heath, Spirax Sarco, Tel: (011) 230-1300, Fax: (011) 393-1922,
plant and the old separators were no longer considered to E-mail: info@za.spiraxsarco.com, Http://www.spiraxsarco.com/za
be efficient.
“The magnetite consumption was high
as a result of the age of the previous
magnetic separators, and the magnets
were starting to decay.
The mine took a decision to install new
separators instead of repairing the old
machines. Whittier says that a numbers
of factors including financial aspects
were considered prior to making the final
decision.
“Although cost was an important consid-
eration other factors such as technical
service and support were also critical
issues for us,” Mark says. “Multotec
Magnetics was able to offer superior
technical support, both during installation
and commissioning.”
The 550 tph plant, which operates 24
hours a day, six days a week, is split into

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 45


On the Move
Subscription

Please fax us if you wish to subscribe to “SA Mechanical En-


gineer” at R400,00 (incl postage and VAT) per year; R945,00
per year for Africa/Overseas. We will post you an invoice on
receipt of your fax.

Donovan Moss Ryno Eskteen Bill Yeo PROMECH PUBLISHING Fax No: (011) 781-1403

From:......................................................................................

(insert your name)

Title: ......................................................................................

Company: ..............................................................................

Bheki Mhlanga Jacques van Wyk Brenton Kemp Address: ...............................................................................

Donovan Moss has been appointed ...............................................................................................


managing director of Becker Mining
Africa, part of the Becker Group of ...................................................................Code: ..................
Companies.
Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd, part of the Telephone: ( ) ....................................................................
B & A Group, has appointed Ryno
Eskteen as senior project manager Fax: ( ) ................................................................................
and Bill Yeo as technology director.
Email:.....................................................................................
Riaan Erasmus has been appointed Shaun Collins
as the financial director at SA French
Limited.
Bheki Mhlanga has been appointed new buyer at SEW
Eurodrive. Index to Advertisers
Advanced industrial technology (Ai-Tec), specialists in
the design, manufacture, installation and maintenance AES 42
of an extensive range of industrial and commercial Afrimold 14
equipment, has appointed Jacques van Wyk as health Artic Driers 10
and safety manager. AST Inside Front Cover
Criterion Equipment, a wholly owned subsidiary of Invicta Axiom Hydraulics Outside Back Cover
Holdings Limited, has made the following appointment Bearings International 20
announcements, Brenton Kemp is general manager and BMG 28
Shaun Collins is national sales manager. Bonfiglioli Inside Back Cover
Chorus Call 23
Clyde Bergemann 35
Engen 34
Engineer Placements 46
Engineer Placements Hansen Transmissions 13
Maizey Plastics Outside Front Cover
Our job board continues to display a wide variety of
SEW 30
excellent job positions that you can review and apply for
SKF 38
on-line. Keep your credentials on our secure and
Steinmuller 4
confidential database. We include the projects for: Eskom,
Voith 40
Gautrain, PBMR, The SA Oil and Gas expansion,
Wearcheck 18
and International options:
Yellotec 10, 19
Login to www.engineerplacements.com
Zest 25

46 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010


THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010 47
48 THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 60 May 2010