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Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary

A comprehensive guide to Wireless Technology

Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary - A
A2DP: Advanced Audio Distribution Profile
The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) in Bluetooth specifies the protocols and procedures that define the distribution of
high quality audio content, in either mono or stereo on Asynchronous Connectionless Link (ACL) channels.
AAS: Adaptive Antenna System
Adaptive Antenna System (AAS), also called Advanced Antenna System, is a technology to enable the network operators to increase
the wireless network capacity. In addition, adaptive antenna systems offer the potential of increased spectrum efficiency, extended
range of coverage and higher rate of frequency reuse. Adaptive antenna systems consist of multiple antenna elements at the
transmitting and/or receiving side of the communication link, whose signals are processed adaptively in order to exploit the spatial
dimension of the mobile radio channel. Depending on whether the processing is performed at the transmitter, receiver, or both
ends of the communication link, the adaptive antenna technique is defined as multiple-input single-output (MISO), single-input
multiple-output (SIMO), or multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO).
A-Band cellular
In the U.S. cellular service industry, A-Band cellular is the alternative carrier to the regional Bell operating company's cellular
Absolute Grant
Absolute Grant (AG), a term used in the mobile wireless channel definition, means the absolute value of the power offset permitted
for the power usage.
Absorption Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is a diagram which shows the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by a material. The material
could be a gas, a solute or a solid. An absorption spectrum is, in a sense, the inverse of an emission spectrum.
A-key is a secret number issued to a cellular phone that is used in conjunction with a subscriber's shared secret data information
for authentication
AC: Authentication Center (or AUC)
The Authentication Centre (AC or AUC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core
network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM
and services described above. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications
(voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network.
ACCH: Associated Control Channel
Associated Control Channel(ACCH) is the GSM signalling channels associated with a user’s traffic channel or dedicated
signalling channel. Two ACCH are defined for GSM Circuit Switched operation. These are SACCH (Slow Associated Control
Channel) and FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel). In GPRS packet operation, an ACCH is allocated in conjunction with a
PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) and is termed as PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel).
ACELP: Algebraic Code Excited Linear Predictive
Algebraic Code Excited Linear Predictive (ACELP) is an algebraic technique used to populate codebooks for CELP speech coders.
This technique results in more efficient codebook search algorithms.
ACIR: Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio
Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio (ACIR) is the ratio of wanted power to the interference power from the adjacent channels.
ACLR: Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) is a measure of transmitter performance for WCDMA. It is defined as the ratio of the
transmitted power to the power measured after a receiver filter in the adjacent RF channel. This is what was formerly called
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio. ACLR is specified in the 3GPP WCDMA standard.
ACPR: Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) is a measurement of the amount of interference, or power, in the adjacent frequency
channel. ACPR is usually defined as the ratio of the average power in the adjacent frequency channel (or offset) to the average
power in the transmitted frequency channel. It is a critical measurement for CDMA transmitters and their components. It
describes the amount of distortion generated due to nonlinearities in RF components. The ACPR measurement is not part of the
cdmaOne standard.
ACS: Adjacent Channel Selectivity
Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS) is a measurement of a receiver's ability to process a desired signal while rejecting a strong signal
in an adjacent frequency channel. ACS is defined as the ratio of the receiver filter attenuation on the assigned channel frequency to
the receiver filter attenuation on the adjacent channel frequency.
ACTS: Advanced Communications Technology and Services
Advanced Communications Technology and Services (ACTS) is an organization in Europe spearheading the development of 3G
technologies in Europe. ACTS succeeded RACE and is focusing on wideband multiple access techniques.
AP: Access point
Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. Access points used in home or small business

networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter.
Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards.
Ad hoc
Ad hoc, also known as Ad hoc mode, refers to a short-term wireless network framework created between two or more wireless
network adapters without going through an access point. In other words, an Ad hoc network allows computers to "talk" (send data)
directly to and from one another. Ad hoc networks are handy for quickly trading files when you have no other way of connecting
two or more computers. For an ad hoc network to work, each computer on the network needs a wireless network card installed,
and you must set your wireless network cards (installed in each computer on the network) to Ad Hoc mode.
Ad hoc mode
Ad hoc mode refers to a wireless network in which devices can communicate directly with one another without using an AP or a
connection to a regular network.
Ad hoc network
Ad hoc network refers to a short-term wireless network framework created between two or more wireless network adapters
without going through an access point. Ad hoc networks are handy for quickly trading files when you have no other way of
connecting two or more computers.
Adaptive array antennas
Adaptive array antenna is a type of advanced smart antenna technology that continually monitors a received signal and
dynamically adapts signal patterns to optimize wireless system performance. The arrays use signal processing algorithms to adapt
to user movement, changes in the radio-frequency environment and multi-path and co-channel interference.
Adaptive Equalizer
Adaptive Equalizer is a channel equalizer whose parameters are updated automatically and adaptively during the transmission of
data. These equalizers are commonly used in fading channels to improve transmission performance.
Adaptive power control
Adaptive power control is a technique employed by wireless infrastructure systems that lowers the power of a signal in a cell site
whenever the site detects that the user's phone is close to the source of the signal. This saves power in the phone, and thus saving
battery life too.
ADC: Analog-to-Digital Converter
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital
numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). ADC can uniquely represents all analog input
values within a specified total input range by a limited number of digital output codes.
Adjacent Channel
Adjacent Channel is a channel or frequency that is directly above or below a specific channel or frequency. First-adjacent is
immediately next to another channel, and second-adjacent is two channels away, and so forth. Information on adjacent channels is
used in keeping stations from interfering with one another.
Adjacent channel interference
Adjacent channel interference refers to signal impairment to one frequency due to presence of another signal on a nearby
ADPCM: Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation(ADPCM) is the process by which analog voice samples are encoded into high-quality
digital signals. The first ADPCM standardized by the CCITT is G.721 for 32 kbps. Later came the standards G.726 and G.727 for
40, 32, 24 and 16 kbps. ADPCM is used to send sound on fiber-optic long-distance lines as well as to store sound along with text,
images, and code on a CD-ROM.
AGC: Automatic Gain Control
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is a system which holds the gain and, accordingly, the output of a receiver substantially constant in
spite of input-signal amplitude fluctuations.
AGCH: Access Grant Channel
Access Grant Channel(AGCH) is a downlink control channel used in GSM systems to assign mobiles to a Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel (SDCCH) for initial assignment.
AGPS: Assisted Global Positioning System
Assisted Global Positioning System (AGPS) is a method used for determining mobile station (MS) location in terms of universal
latitude and longitude coordinates. This capability has been mandated for wireless carriers in the United States by the Federal
Communication Commission, so emergency callers can be easily located in times of crisis. AGPS implies that the mobile not only
has GPS hardware and software but that the wireless network is providing the mobile with short assistance messages.
Air Interface
In wireless communications, the air interface is the radio frequency (RF) part of the network that transmits signals between base
stations and end-user equipment. The air interface is defined by specifications for a specific format such as GSM, cdma2000, GPRS,
or W-CDMA.
AirPort is the Apple's marketing name for its 802.11b wireless networking technology. AirPort, based on IEEE 802.11b, is a local

offering speeds of up to 54 megabits per second and interoperability with older products. Though analog is no longer considered advanced at all. such as electricity or sound waves.11b devices. based in Washington. PCS and cell routing. AM: Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) uses amplitude variation in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal. NMT and ETACS. Lack of an acknowledgement is an indication of a collision and results in a retransmission. Airtime Airtime is the time elapsed between the start of a call achieved by connecting to your service provider's network and the termination of a call achieved by pressing the end button.11g specification is known as AirPort Extreme. The goal is to maximize the resources available in multiple antenna channels by using optimal schemes at all times.area wireless networking system from Apple Computer and certified as compatible with other 802.C. such as busy signals and ringing. or electronic amplifier. D. is commonly used in radio and television transmitters and receivers. thereby optimizing speech quality in various radio channel conditions. The goal is to maximize the resources available in multiple antenna channels by using optimal schemes at all times. and guitar and other instrument amplifiers. the relatively seamless cellular switching technology AMPS introduced was what made the original mobile radiotelephone practical. Mobile analog systems include AMPS. In an adaptive MIMO system. and is usually taken as DSB-LC for commercial broadcast transmissions and DSB-SC for multiplexed systems. AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is an alternative link adaptation method in 3G mobile wireless communication. video and data-using analog signals. 3GPP (under which the next stage GSM speech quality will be realized) has selected the AMR codec as an essential speech codec for the next generation system. and robustness of wireless communications. AIN: advanced intelligent network Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) was Introduced by AT&T Network Systems in 1991 to enable service providers to define. the system parameters are jointly optimized to adapt to the changing channel conditions through link adaptation techniques that can track the time-varying characteristics of the wireless channel. A-Key A-key is a secret number issued to a cellular phone that is used in conjunction with a subscriber's shared secret data information for authentication. representing specialized mobile radio operators. Amplifier Amplifier. high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment. A later family of products based on the IEEE 802. AMC provides the flexibility to match the modulation-coding scheme to the average channel conditions for each user. diversity. ALOHA ALOHA is a packet-based radio access protocol developed by the University of Hawaii where every packet sent is acknowledged. A-MIMO: Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output (A-MIMO or Adaptive MIMO) is a scheme to enhance the MIMO technology by employing adaptive coding and modulation techniques for the purpose of improving channel capacity. and was considered quite advanced at the time. Aliasing Aliasing is a type of signal distortion that occurs when sampling frequency of a signal is less than the Nyquist rate. Network connection time includes signals received prior to voice transmission. the power of the transmitted signal is held constant over a frame interval. and the modulation and coding format is changed to match the current received signal quality or channel conditions. With AMC. AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching Adaptive MIMO Switching (AMS) is a scheme to switch between multiple MIMO modes to maximize spectral efficiency with no reduction in coverage area. Analog System Analog system uses an analog transmission method to send voice. . that are continuously variable rather than discreet units as in digital transmissions. the system parameters are jointly optimized to adapt to the changing channel conditions through link adaptation techniques that can track the time-varying characteristics of the wireless channel. AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System ervice Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Service is the analog mobile phone system standard. introduced in the Americas during the early 1980s. The codec adapts its bit-rate allocation between speech and channel coding. microcomputers and other electronic digital equipment. AMTA: American Mobile Telecommunications Association American Mobile Telecommunications Association (AMTA) is a trade group. AMR: Advanced Multi Rate Codec Advanced Multi Rate Codec (AMR) is a speech codec standardized by ETSI for GSM. In an adaptive MIMO switching system.. For this reason. Analog Transmission Analog Transmission refers to signals propagated through the medium as continuously varying electromagnetic waves. test and introduce new multimedia messaging.

and to establish a secure relationship between network devices. etc. carries wireless system responces from the cell site to the user equipment. usually located in the HLR of a GSM system. Attenuation Attenuation refers to decreasing in signal magnitude between two points. The APS sub-layer is also responsible to determine the responsibilities of the ZDO. usually an isotropic or standard dipole. ARDIS: Advanced Radio Data Information Service Advanced Radio Data Information Service (ARDIS) is a wireless two-way data network jointly owned and operated by Motorola and IBM. These points may be along a radio path. a concept in the mobile WiMAX network. APC: Automatic Power Control Automatic Power Control (APC) is a technique of measuring the performance of a radio channel and adjusting the power of the transmitter to a level appropriate for link characteristics. AWGN: Additive White Gaussian Noise Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is the statistically random radio noise characterized by a wide frequency range with regards to a signal in a communications channel. to initiate/respond to binding requests. ARQ is sometimes used with Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication to guarantee data integrity. ASN: Access Service Network Access Service Network (CSN). APCM: Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation (APCM) is a technique used to share occupied bandwidth among a maximum number of subscribers during peak times by reducing the signal sampling rates of each subscriber. usually an isotropic or standard dipole. Attenuator Attenuator is a device specifically designed to decrease the magnitude of a signal transmitted through it. also known as antenna gain. ARIB: Association of Radio Industries and Businesses Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) is the Japanese standards-setting organization. Quality of Service. is the relative gain of the main beam of an antenna pattern to a reference antenna. seamless handoffs. ARCH: Access Response Channel Access Response Channel (ARCH). Antenna beamwidth Antenna beamwidth. Antenna gain Antenna gain. security and subscriber/connection/resource management. ARFCN: Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers (ARFCN) is a channel numbering scheme used to identify specific RF channels in a GSM radio system. is the relative gain of the main beam of an antenna pattern to a reference antenna. Average power Average power is the peak power averaged over time and is usually applied to pulsed systems where the carrier power is switched on and off. Once the authentication is successful. to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). also known as antenna directivity. a logic sub-channel of SPACH specified in IS-136.Angle diversity Angle diversity is a technique using multiple antenna beams to receive multipath signals arriving at different angles. APS: Application Support Application Support (APS) is a sublayer in the ZigBee protocol stack. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice. is the angle of an antenna pattern or beam over which the relative power is at or above 50% of the peak power. Antenna directivity Antenna directivity.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network. ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is a communication protocol in which the receiving device detects errors and requests retransmissions. . SMS. This process is repeated until the packet is error free or the error continues beyond a predetermined number of transmissions. transmission line or other devices. provides full mobility. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer include maintaining tables for binding to match two devices together based on their services and their needs. the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. also known as the half-power beamwidth. Antenna Antenna is a device which radiates and/or receives radio signals. When the receiver detects an error in a packet. and forwarding messages between bound devices. it automatically requests the transmitter to resend the packet. AUC: Authentication Center The Authentication Center (AUC) is a device.

One of the geopolitical boundaries established to define a WATS (wide-area telephone service) serving area. BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is a downlink-point-to-multipoint logical channel in GSM and cdma2000 systems used to send identification and organization information about common control channels and cell services. B-CDMA: broadband code division multiple access Broadband code division multiple access (B-CDMA) is designed to correct many of the inherent short-falls of IS-95 (narrowband CDMA) and other digital narrowband technologies. BE Service: Best Effort Service Best Effort (BE) Service is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. rtPS (Real time polling Service). . hop selection and Bluetooth security. Each radio channel has a center frequency and additional frequencies above and below this carrier frequency which is used to carry the transmitted information. The range of frequencies between two defined limits which are used for a specific purpose. The 802. B-Band cellular refers to the regional Bell operating company's cellular subsidiary. BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control Function Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF). is a physical layer protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack. A signal received by backscattering is often referred to as "backscatter. It should not be changed by modulation. Some of the technical aspects of the B-CDMA air interface are related to its propagation characteristics.fixed and mobile. and WCDMA systems.16 protocol supports five types of QoS: UGS (Unsolicited grant service). BCH code:Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Code Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) Code is a family of powerful cyclic block forward error correction codes used in the transmission of data. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). resolved along a reference direction (usually horizontal) are oppositely directed. The baseband protocol is implemented as a Link Controller.B Backhaul In wireless technology. 2. cdma2000.S. Bandwidth Bandwidth is the portion of the frequency spectrum required to transmit desired information. Baseband signal Baseband signal is a signal with frequency content centered around DC. backhaul refers to transporting voice and data traffic from a cell site to the switch Backscattering Backscattering is radio wave propagation in which the direction of the incident and scattered waves. which works with the link manager for carrying out link level routines like link connection and power control. B-Band cellular In the U. Baseband Baseband is the transmission of a digital or analog signal signaling at its original frequencies and in its original form. The Baseband layer lies on top of the Bluetooth radio layer in the bluetooth stack. handles packets and does paging and inquiry to access and inquire Bluetooth devices in the area. controls call transfers to and from the public switched telephone network (PSTN)." Band Band in telecommunication refers to the following definitions: 1. Typically it is the modulating signal for an RF carrier. The aim of the Best Effort (BE) service is to provide efficient service to best effort traffic. The range of frequencies from the lowest to the highest used is called the bandwidth. Band Pass Filter Band Pass Filter is a radio wave filter with a specific range of frequencies in which it is designed to pass. BCH: Broadcast Channels Broadcast Channels (BCH) are a group downlink point to multipoint logical channels used by mobiles to synchronize to and receive information necessary to access a cell in GSM. The baseband also manages asynchronous and synchronous links. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). Band Elimination Filter Band Elimination Filter is an electrical device which blinds a receiving unit from recognizing a specific range of frequencies. Bent pipe technology Bent pipe technology is a satellite technology to transmit calls from one point on Earth to a satellite and back down to another point. data whitening. The Baseband in the Bluetooth manages physical channels and links apart from other services like error correction. while rejects frequencies outside the pass-band. nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service).Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . Baseband layer Baseband layer.16 WiMAX. cellular service industry. Resistor-inductor-capacitor circuit is an example of Band Pass Filter. In addition. it is being designed as a long-term solution to both voice and data wireless needs -. also known as baseband packet.

typically using some form of frequency or wave division multiplexing. defined in IEEE 802. BREW: Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) is an open system created by Qualcomm for delivering over-the-air applications and data.5 Mbit/s". typically a few thousand kilometers high. that allows users to check e-mail and voice mail (translated into text). It uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK. switch interconnect. in this figure. Blocking probability Blocking probability is the statistical probability that a telephone connection cannot be established due to insufficient transmission resources in the network. at 0° and 180°. low power. assign control and traffic channels. The hottest use for BREW to date has been downloadable games Broadband Broadband refers to telecommunication that provides multiple channels of data over a single communications medium. cordless phone. Bluetooth Bluetooth.. BPSK: Binary Phase Shift Keying Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) is a type of phase modulation using 2 distinct carrier phases to signal ones and zeros. The term is applied especially to some of the latest generation of communication satellites that support communications using small handheld sets. all connected back to the switch via landline or microwave. Also known as a RIM device. Orbits. BS: Base Station Base station (BS). with high data rates. Block error rate (BLER) is used for W-CDMA performance requirements tests (demodulation tests in multipath conditions. etc. as well as to page other users via a wireless network service. is for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). broadband means "having instantaneous bandwidth greater than around 1 MHz and supporting data rates greater than about 1. BLER: Block Error Rate Block Error Rate (BLER) is a ratio of the number of erroneous blocks to the total number of blocks received on a digital circuit. only able to modulate at 1bit/symbol (as seen in the figure) and so is unsuitable for high data-rate applications. bluesnarf (bluesnarfing) Bluesnarfing is the theft of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection. This modulation is the most robust of all the PSKs since it takes serious distortion to make the demodulator reach an incorrect decision. is the local cellular tower and radio antenna (including the radios. Block code Block code is a family of codes having a one-to-one mapping between k-symbol source words and n-symbol code words. A cellular network is made up of many cell sites or base stations.16-2004 standard. Usually expressed as a percentage or decimal equivalent of calls blocked by network congestion during the busy hour.15. headsets and PDAs within 10-meter range. It is planned to be used in the next few years and is thought to be used up to 40 miles away. controller. etc). Iridium. BlackBerry users must subscribe to a wireless service that allows for data transmission. made by Waterloo. Globalstar. BlackBerry BlackBerry is a two-way wireless device. which has characters such as short-range.) that handles communication with mobile users in a particular area or cell. also called cell site. it has a miniature qwerty keyboard for users to type their messages. BPSK is the simplest form of PSK. BLER is measured after channel de-interleaving and decoding by evaluating the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) on each transport block. e. mobile multifunction devices. broadband wireless access is equivalent to broadband wired access. BSC: Base Station Controller Base Station Controller (BSC) is a device and software associated with a base station that permits it to register mobile phones in the cell. however. such as ADSL or cable modems.Big LEO Big LEO refers to a low-earth orbit satellite system that will offer voice and data services. It is. BSIC: Base Station Identity Code Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) is a unique code contained in messages on the broadcast channels of a cell or base station that uniquely identifies the base station. Mobile broadband PCS services include both voice and advanced two-way data capabilities that are generally available on small. Bluetooth is for wireless transmission between a wide variety of devices such as PCs. From the point of view of connectivity. .through F-Block auctions and used for voice and data. It does not particularly matter exactly where the constellation points are positioned. perform handoff and process call setup and termination.g. Broadband Wireless Access Broadband wireless access is a technology aimed at providing wireless access to data networks. According to 802. low cost. Broadband PCS Broadband PCS is the personal communications services created in the A. and. small networks and communication of devices within a Personal Operating Space. they are shown on the real axis. that are intermediate in size between little LEO (low Earth orbit) and geosynchronous orbits. It uses the SMS protocol.

paging.e.0). CAI: Common Air Interface Common Air Interface (CAI) is a set of open standards describing the physical and logical characteristics of a link between a base station and a mobile station. the frequency of the unmodulated electrical wave at the output of an amplitude modulated. BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier BSSID refers to the MAC address of the Station (STA) in an Access Point (AP) in an infrastructure mode BSS defined by the IEEE 802. CAMEL GSM phase 2+ connects the home and visited mobile networks to various Intelligent Network (IN) platforms used throughout national networks to provide features such as Pre-Paid Calling. Call Diversion Call Diversion is the feature used to divert incoming calls on a mobile phone to any other telephone or to a Mailbox/Combox on a GSM system. BTC is a product code obtained from the concatenation of either two extended or two expurgated Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes. Rand McNally licensed their mapping data to the FCC for ease of designation for site licenses.3. allocation of radio channels to mobile phones. BTAs are grouped into larger areas called MTAs.BSS: Base Station Subsystem The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the section of a GSM network which is responsible for handling traffic and signalling between a mobile phone and the Network Switching Subsystem. or phase modulated transmitter of the output of a transmitter when the modulation is zero. Carrier frequency Carrier Frequency refers to the nominal frequency of a carrier wave. Carrier-to-Noise ratio indicates the difference in amplitude between the desired radio frequency (RF) carrier and the noise in a portion of the spectrum. The universal/local bit of the address is set to 1. In an IBSS. BTA: Basic Trading Area Basic Trading Area (BTA) refers to the area or "footprint" in which an entity is licensed to transmit their frequencies. i. Carrier Carrier means the continuous frequency capable of being modulated or impressed with a second signal.C C/I: Carrier-to-Interference ratio Carrier-to-Interference ratio (C/I) is the ratio of power in an RF carrier to the interference power in the channel. The BSS carries out transcoding of speech channels. As a result. frequency modulated. the center frequency of a frequency modulation signal. CAMEL allows roaming subscribers access to their full portfolio of IN services. CAMEL finds widespread applicability in developing applications for next generation networks converging Phase 2+ GSM/UMTS. CAP CODE CAP CODE is a pager's unique electronic identification number. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . personal Numbering and more complex location dependent services. C/N: Carrier-to-Noise ratio Carrier-to-Noise ratio (C/N) is the ratio of power in an RF carrier to the noise power in the channel. Block Turbo-codes (BTC) are promising forward error correction (FEC) codes providing close-to-optimal coding gain for rather high coding rate (R > 0. This field uniquely identifies each BSS. CAMEL is a relatively inexpensive method of allowing telecom operators to add new services to the existing network infrastructure. CAMEL: Customized Application for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic Customized Application for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) refers to a set of 3rd Generation APIs based on ETSI recommendation TS 129 078 (V3. quality management of transmission and reception over the Air Interface and many other tasks related to the radio network. As a general rule. BTAs are about the size of a cellular MSA and cross state lines in some instances. BT: Bandwidth Time Product Bandwidth Time Product(BT) is the result obtained by multiplying the system bandwidth by the signal duration. the system bandwidth must be approximately equal to the reciprocal of the signal duration to produce an output signal of the same general form as the input. BTC: Block Turbo Code Block Turbo Code (BTC) is a type of turbo codes. BTS: Base Transceiver Station Base Transceiver Station (BTS) effects radio communications with mobile stations (MS) via its respective radio access system and transmits/receives signals to/from connected radio network controllers (RNC) located along transmission routes. These standards are used by infrastructure and handset manufactures to design and build equipment that is capable of interoperating with each other's systems.7) and less subject to an error floor than Convolution Turbo Codes (CTC). BT»1. The individual/group bit of the address is set to 0. the BSSID is a locally administered IEEE MAC address generated from a 46-bit random number.11-1999 Wireless Lan specification. BTAs were established by Rand McNally and are defined as county lines.. .

when not minimized. each retransmission repeats the first transmission or part of it. In the case of TDMA networks. The CDG is comprised of CDMA service providers and manufacturers. CCITT: International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee CCITT is the abreviation of the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee in France. CCI is one of the major limitations in cellular and PCS wireless telephone networks. CCDF: Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) is a method used to characterize the peak power statistics of a digitally modulated signal. CCM: Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code (CCM) is an encryption protocol in the 802. The CCM protocol (CCMP) is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm and utilizes 128-bit keys. China gorvenment sponsored organization to establish a nationally unified standards in the communication technologies.11i standard. CCH: Control Channel Control Channel (CCH) refers the channels that transmit signaling and control information between the network and the mobile stations. application developers and content providers. can be . CDM: Code Division Multiplexing Code Division Multiplexing or Code Division Multiplex (CDM) is a technique in which each channel transmits its bits as a coded channel-specific sequence of pulses. With the approval of the Ministry of Information Industries (MII) and Standardization Administration of China and the Civil Affairs Ministry.Carrier recovery Carrier recovery is a technique for extracting the RF carrier from a modulated signal so that it can be reinserted and used to recover the modulating signal. a technology in the UMTS physical layer. CCI: Co-Channel Interference Co-channel interference (CCI) refers to interference from 2 different radio stations on the same frequency. Co-channel interference. CDG: CDMA Development Group CDMA Development Group (CDG) is an international consortium of companies who have joined together to lead the adoption and evolution of 3G CDMA wireless systems around the world. decreases the ratio of carrier to interference powers (C/I) at the periphery of cells.11i standard. is the connection between Transport Channel and Physical Channel which results in a data stream from encoding and multiplexing of one or several transport channels. In Chase combining. 2002. CCSA: China Communications Standards Association China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) is a P. Chase Combining Chase Combining (CC). and dropped calls. CCMP: Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Protocol Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Protocol(CCMP) is an encryption protocol in the 802. causing diminished system capacity. CCITT is standards body based in Geneva that publishes "recommendations" on standards used throughout the world communication industry. is one of the two fundamental forms of Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). the members help to ensure interoperability among systems. While Chase combining is sufficient to make AMC robust. such as GSM/GPRS or NADC (otherwise known as “IS-136”). This coded transmission typically is accomplished by transmitting a unique time-dependent series of short pulses. IR offers the potential for better performance with high initial code rates and FER operating points at the cost of additional memory and decoding complexity. with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. CCTrCH: Coded Composite Transport Channel Coded Composite Transport Channel (CCTrCH). the co-channel interference is mainly caused by the spectrum allocated for the system being reused multiple times (“frequency reuse†). The CCMP is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm and utilizes 128-bit keys. CBCH: Cell Broadcast Channel Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) is a downlink point-to-multipoint logical channel in a GSM system used to broadcast user information from a service center to mobile stations listening in a given cell area. All channels. By working together. China Communications Standards Association(CCSA) was founded in December 18. The CCDF curve can be used to determine design parameters for CDMA systems (such as the amount of back-off to run in a power amplifier). The other one is an incremental redundancy (IR). R. each with a different code. X. while expediting the availability of 3G CDMA technology to consumers. with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is based on cumulative distribution functions and can be used to test to see whether two empirical distributions are different or whether an empirical distribution is different from an ideal distribution. CBC: Cell Broadcast Center Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) is the functional entity within the mobile network that is responsible for the generation of cell broadcast information. also known as Convolution Code. more frequent handoffs. which are placed within chip times within the larger bit time. CDF: Cumulative Distribution Function Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) describes the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable.

Cell Broadcast is designed for simultaneous delivery of messages to multiple users in a specified area. is the local cellular tower and radio antenna (including the radios. also known as Short Message Service . cellular refers most basically to the structure of the wireless transmission networks which are comprised of cells or transmission sites.Point to Point (SMS-PP) is a one-to-one and one-to-a-few service. Within the wireless industry. Cellular is also the name of the wireless telephone system originally developed by Bell Laboratories that used low-powered analog radio equipment to transmit within cells. switch interconnect. which supports 3G services as defined by the ITU 3G standards IMT-2000. The CDVCC is used to determine channel continuity. CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) technology is used by telecommunications carriers to transfer data to users via unused analog cellular networks. The CDP measurement is beneficial in troubleshooting CDMA transmitter designs. as defined by 3GPP. It is added at the base station to the downlink or forward channel and the mobile then detects and returns the code. Cellular Handoff Cellular Handoff refers to the process that a telephone call is switched by computers from one transmitter to the next without disconnecting the signal. Cell In wireless communication.transmitted on the same fiber and asynchronously demultiplxed. A cellular network is made up of many cell sites. overlapping cell sites to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions. Wireless transmission networks are comprised of many hexagonal. Center Frequency Center Frequency refers to the middle frequency of the bandwidth of a channel. This is usually done to make more voice channels available to accommodate traffic growth in the area covered by the original cell. CDMA2000 is the 3rd Generation solution based on IS-95. CDMA2000 has already been implemented as an evolutionary step from cdmaOne as CDMA2000 provides full backward compatibility with IS-95B. Other widely used multiple access techniques are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Cellular In wireless communications. cdmaOne cdmaOne is the commercial name for a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) system defined by the consortium including Qualcomm. Cellular Radio Cellular Radio is the technology that uses radio transmissions to access telephone-company networks. AT&T Wireless and Motorola. is a one-to-many geographically focused messaging service. The terms "cellular phone" or "cell phone" are used interchangeably to refer to wireless phones. and then is automatically told to go to another channel and pick up the transferred transmissions there. controller. also called Base Station. Cell splitting Cell splitting is the process of splitting a mobile cell into several smaller cells. Cell is the geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station (a site containing a radio transmitter/receiver and network communication equipment). Service is provided in a particular area by a low-power transmitter. The IS-95 standard is part of cdmaOne as the air interface. whereas the Short Message Service . . CDMA-2000 Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000 or CDMA-2000) is the 3rd Generation solution based on CDMA IS-95." Cell Broadcast Cell Broadcast (CB). CDVCC: Coded Digital Verification Color Code Coded Digital Verification Color Code (CDVCC) is a unique 12-bit code word used to identify the base station.Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB).is overused. cellis the basis for the term "cellular phone. CDMA technologies are evolving into CDMA2000 to meet the challenges. CDMA2000 defines both an air interface and a core network. Cell Site Cell Site. If one part of the network -. and only one CDVCC is usually assigned to a base station or sector. The mobile remains on a specific channel until signal strength diminishes. cellular is also used to refer to non-PCS products and services. Other widely used multiple access techniques for cellular are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). etc.) that handles communication with subscribers in a particular area or cell. CDPD can automatically reallocate network resources to handle extra traffic. Also. CDP: Code Domain Power Code Domain Power (CDP) is a measurement of the power contained in each Walsh coded channel in CDMA signals.a specific geographic area or "cell" -. as a vehicle moves from cell to cell. Cell Broadcast messaging is also supported by UMTS. CB is a mobile technology feature defined by the ETSI’s GSM committee and is part of the GSM standard. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a second generation (2G) cellular technology defined by Qualcomm in IS-95 and IS-2000. all connected back to the switch via landline or microwave.

background colors and images. which differs with the technology used (i. COLT: Cell Site on Light Truck Cell Site on Light Truck (CPLT) is a mobile site on a vehicle placed at a location to fill in or increase coverage. Codebook Codebook is an ordered collection of all possible values that can be assigned to a scalar or a vector variable. Client Association Client Association is the process by which a wireless client -. image maps. A Radio Frequency (RF) channel is a physical channel. The recovered clock signal is then used to decode and further process the data. style sheets and more than two colors. whereas control and traffic channels within the RF channel would be considered logical channels. and the interference can either be noise or co-channel interference or both. CGSA: Cellular Geographic Service Area Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) describes the physical area over which a cellular carrier is licensed to provide service. The codewords used in digital paging codes include redundant bits that allow a receiver to reconstruct the information if some of the bits were received incorrectly. measured in dB. In order for the signal receiver to be able to decode the signal. cHTML does not support JPEG images.). cHTML: Compact HTML Compact HTML (cHTML) is a subset of HTML for small information devices. CMRS: Commercial Mobile Radio Services Commercial Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) is an FCC designation for any carrier or licensee whose wireless network is connected to the public switched telephone network and/or is operated for profit. CINR: Carrier to Interference + Noise Ratio Carrier to Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (CINR). is modeled by a Gaussian vector chosen from a large stochastic codebook. Channel Channel refers to a one-way telecommunications link or transmission medium through which information or signal is transmitted from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. Coding gain Coding gain is the effective gain. CDMA. such as smart phones and PDAs. . They may be either physical or logical depending on the application. Channel equalization Channel equalization is the process of reducing amplitude. Co-channel interference Co-channel interference is the unwanted interference within a radio channel from another transmitter using the same channel at a different location. and the interference can either be adjacent and co-channel interference. typically 5ms. The carrier is the desired signal. also referred to as coherent demodulation. frames. Channel coding Channel coding is the application of forward error correction codes to an RF channel to improve performance and throughput. expressed in decibels (dBs).connects to an access point. Co-channel interference is very common in a frequency reuse system and must be carefully controlled to prevent problems. Knowledge of the carrier phase improves demodulator performance. Codeword Codewrod means a contiguous set of bits that together form a piece of information. tables. Coherent detection Coherent detection. Coding gain is usually measured as the dB difference in C/N ratios between a coded and uncoded signal producing the same BER. The vector is chosen such that the error between the original and synthesized speech is minimized. expressed in decibels (dBs). CIR is the ratio of C (carrier signal) to the (I) Interference expressed. is a measurement of signal effectiveness. CIR: Carrier to Interference Ratio Carrier to Interference Ratio (CIR). is a technique of phase locking to the carrier wave to improve detection. GSM. along with noise and background effects all detract from the potential quality of the received signal. typically black and white. that coding provides over an uncoded signal. is a measurment of signaling effectiveness. multiple fonts and styles of fonts. Each vector is called a codeword. Clock recovery Clock recovery is the process of extracting the timing signals from a digitally modulated carrier wave. frequency and phase distortion in a radio channel with the intent of improving transmission a laptop computer -. the signal must fall into an acceptable CINR range. CEPT: Committee of European Posts & Telephones Committee of European Posts & Telephones (CEPT) is a European regulatory body responsible for coordinating telecommunications within Europe.CELP: Code-Book Excited Linear Predictive Code-Book Excited Linear Predictive(CELP) is a powerful low-rate coding technique where a short excitation frame. etc. The carrier is the desired signal..e.

data or video signals as part of a telecommunications network. banning win-back efforts specifically aimed at high-usage customers who have quit a network CPP: Calling Party Pays Calling Party Pays (CPP) is the arrangement in which the mobile subscriber does not pay for incoming calls. Signals are transmitted to the satellite from earth station antennas. COW: Cell site On Wheels Cell site On Wheels (COW) is a mobile site placed at a location to fill in or increase coverage. and for each wall. By adding a cyclic prefix. Core network includes a radio access network. foliage. amplified and sent back to earth for reception by other earth station antennas. but has not been regulated in the United States where Mobile Party Pays (MPP) is still predominant. COST-231 COST-231 is ETSI propagation model for 2 GHz applications. CPNI: Customer Proprietary Network Information Customer Proprietary Network Information (CPNI) refers to the carrier's data about a specific customer's service and usage.Communication satellite Communication Satellite refers to a space vehicle launched into orbit to relay audio. refers to the switching part of the UMTS or WCDMA network. This technique is particularly effective in bursty environments. individual materaial properties are taken into account. This reduces sidelobe spectral energy and improves co-channel performance. terminals and applications. which essentially prevents one subcarrier from interfering with another (called intercarrier interference. CQI can be a value (or . Coverage Coverage in wireless communicatons refers to the region within which a paging receiver can receive reliably the transmission of the paging signals. The FCC restricts CPNI use in marketing. Instead. Coverage holes are usually caused by physical obstructions such as buildings. where m/n is the code rate (n >= m) and (b) the transformation is a function of the last k information symbols. a cyclic prefix has been proposed for other modulations to improve the robustness to multipath. With the convolutional code. After discovering the process for OFDM. The use of concatenated codes is most common in space communications and usually involves a convolutional inner code and Reed-Solomon outer code. CP: Cyclic Prefix The cyclic prefix is actually a copy of the last portion of the data symbol appended to the front of the symbol during the guard interval. Concatenated coding Concatenated coding is the use of two codes. and then the coded data is further encoded with the outer code. Convolutional code Convolutional code is a type of forward error correction code using a shift register containing a number of stages to shift the input bits one at a time to produce a coded output. to further improve transmission performance. Using this technique. (a) each m-bit information symbol (each m-bit string) to be encoded is transformed into an n-bit symbol. Coverage area Coverage area is the geographical reach of a mobile communications network or system. the calling party pays for those calls. This is accomplished because the amount of time dispersion from the channel is smaller than the duration of the cyclic prefix. Constellation Constellation is a graphical representation of signal states for a digital system. Satellites are capable of linking two points. a data stream is encoded with the outer code. hills. in a 3G mobile network. It is a definition developed during the implementation of E911 regulations encompasses operators whose networks use intelligent switching capabilities and offer seamless hand-off to customers. Coverage hole Coverage hole is an area within the radio coverage footprint of a wireless system in which the RF signal level is below the design threshold. It provides call control and performs mobility and high-level security functions such as location updating and authentication. where k is the constraint length of the code. the channel can be made to behave as if the transmitted waveforms were from time minus infinite. CPP is offered in many places. CQI: Channel Quality Indicator Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) is a measurement of the communication quality of wireless channels. and thus ensure orthogonality. one point with many others. or multiple locations with other multiple locations. Core Network Core Network. The COST-231 Model is the most sophisticated empirical model. CPM: Continuous Phase Modulation Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) is a phase modulation technique employing smooth transitions between signal states. or ICI). All walls in the vertical plane between transmitter and receiver are considered. an inner and outer code. Covered SMR Covered SMR is a subset of specialized mobile radio operators subject to a particular set of regulations. tunnels and indoor parking garages.

CSCF performs signalling operations for call session control. To fulfil such functionalities. Internet Multimedia and Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast MBS services and voice services. such as Doppler shift. a concept in the mobile WiMAX network. which in turn will forward this message onto its CRNC. CTC: Convolutional Turbo Code Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC) is a type of turbo codes with some of the convolutional schemes used. CTC is the iterative decoding scheme of choice as evidenced by their wide adoption in standards bodies including 3GPP (W-CDMA). such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). CWTS is set up with the purpose of promoting and accelerating the wireless telecommunications standardization process in China. signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR). enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services -. These values and others can be measured for a given channel and then used to compute a CQI for the channel. inter-operator and inter-technology roaming. CRNC: Controlling Radio Network Controller The Controlling Radio Network Controller (CRNC or Controlling RNC) is the RNC (Radio Network Controller) responsible for the configuration of a Node B. the CQI used can also be dependent on receiver type. is at the core of the WiMAX network architecture providing control and management for the Access Service Network (ASN) and subscribers with services such as DHCP server. CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Code Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) is the use of the syndrome of a cyclic block code to detect errors. With CSTD. For its high-performance error correction nature. such as those making use of multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) and space-time coded systems. produce and maintain Chinese wireless telecommunication standards in China. For example. A CQI for a channel can be computed by making use of performance metric. Other factors that may be taken into account in CQI are performance impairments. . a communications system using code-division multiple access (CDMA) can make use of a different CQI than a communications system that makes use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). CWTS was established under the Chinese Standardization Law. channel estimation error. Serving CSCF (S-CSCF) or Interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF). FTP. location-based services.values) representing a measure of channel quality for a given channel. services and other applications. each antenna element in transmit array sends a circularly shifted version of the same OFDM time domain symbol. signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR). Cyclic codes Cyclic codes are a subclass of linear block codes with an algebraic structure that enables encoding to be implemented with a linear shift register and decoding to be implemented without a lookup table.and serve the interests of service providers. CTIA: Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association The Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication -. CT-2: Cordless Telephone 2 Cordless Telephone 2 is a second generation cordless telephone system that allows users to roam away from their home base stations and receive service in public places. and so forth. In more complex communications systems. AAA. Note that each antenna adds a cyclic prefix after circularly shifting the OFDM symbol. and thus the delay-spread protection offered by the cyclic prefix is unaffected by the CSTD. a high value CQI is indicative of a channel with high quality and vice versa. The CSN also includes the Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services support capable of offering Internet access. 3GPP2 (CDMA2000) and DVB-RCS. CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards group China Wireless Telecommunication Standards Group (CWTS) is a non-profit organization. CSN: Connectivity Service Network Connectivity Service Network (CSN). Away from the home base station. interference. the CSCF can act as Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF). with the approval of the Ministry of Information Industry (MII) of China. Typically.cellular. service control and resource allocation. personal communications services. A UE (User Equipment) accessing the system will send an access to a Node B. Cross correlation Cross correlation is the complex inner product of a first sequence with a shifted version of a second sequence. CSCF: Call Session Control Function Call Session Control Function (CSCF) is a functional entity within IP Based Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and part of 3GPP UMTS Reference Architecture. Cross talk Cross Talk refers to the interfering energy transferred from one circuit to another. The CQI for a given channel can be dependent upon the transmission (modulation) scheme used by the communications system. and so forth of the channel. or the unwanted information from one channel to "spill over" into an adjacent channel. the service was one way outbound from the phone to a telepoint within range. CSTD: Cyclic Shift Transmit Diversity Cyclic Shift Transmit Diversity (CSTD) is an adaptation of the idea of delay diversity to OFDM systems. It manages SIP sessions and coordinates with other network entities for session control. Sequences are considered to have good cross correlation properties when there is very little correlation between the sequences as they are shifted against each other. manufacturers and others. which has the responsibility to define.

DCT: Digital Cordless Telephone Digital Cordless Telephone (DCT) is a telephone with a wireless handset which communicates with a base station connected to a fixed telephone landline (POTS) via radio waves and can only be operated close to (typically less than 100 metres of) its base station. such as the PSTN (conventional telephone networks). dBm: deciBels referenced to a milli-Watt deciBels referenced to a milli-Watt (dBm) is a technique for expressing a power measurement in logarithmic form using 1 mW as a reference. dBi: deciBels referenced to an isotropic antenna deciBels referenced to an isotropic antenna (dBi) is a technique for expressing a power gain measurement in logarithmic form using a theoretical isotropic antenna as a reference. dBc: deciBels referenced to the carrier deciBels referenced to the carrier (dBc) is a technique for expressing a power measurement in logarithmic form using the carrier power as a reference. a -3dB loss indicates a 50% loss in power. a technology developed by ComSpace Corp. dBd: deciBels referenced to a dipole antenna deciBels referenced to a dipole antenna (dBd) is a technique for expressing a power gain measurement in logarithmic form using a standard dipole antenna as a reference. Dead Spot Dead Spot is an area within the coverage area of a wireless network in which there is no coverage or transmission falling off. Db: DeciBel Decibel (dB) is an unit for measuring relative power ratios in terms of gain or loss.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . 10 dB indicates an increase (or a loss) by a factor of 10. GSM (mobile phone networks) and more. . is the second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems.D DAC: Digital to Analog Converter Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is a device that takes a digital representation of a signal and transforms it into a facsimile of its original form. DCD: Downlink Channel Descriptor Downlink Channel Descriptor (DCD) is a concept in IEEE 802. 30 dB indicates an increase (or a loss) by a factor of 1000.S. wireless offices and even wireless telephone lines to the home. See also coverage area. It occurs when identical signals arrive via different paths and have different time delays. is used for specialized mobile radio networks that can configure the number and bandwidth of voice and data channels based on a carrier's requirements. 20 dB indicates an increase (or a loss) of a factor of 100.16 (WiMAX) networks to describe a MAC (Medium Access Control) message that describes the physical layer characteristics of a downlink channel. Dead spots are often caused by electronic interference or physical barriers such as hills. DECT has been designed and specified to interwork with many other types of network. The units of dB are expressed in terms of the logarithm to base 10 of a ratio and typically are expressed in watts. The base station continuously monitors the interference in all idle channels and makes an assignment using an algorithm that determines the channel that will produce the least amount of additional interference. DCCH: Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a dedicated channel used to carry signalling information in active GSM and cdma2000 traffic channels. For example. D-AMPS is considered end-of-life. and existing networks are in the process of being replaced by GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000 technologies. such as in and around the house. ISDN (new digital and data phone networks). a +3dB reading is a doubling of power. tunnels and indoor parking garages. DCS 1800: digital cellular system Digital Cellular System 1800 (DCS 1800) is a global Digital Cellular System for mobile communications-based PCS networks used outside of the U. based on the IS-54 and IS-136 standards. D-AMPS: Digital AMPS Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). DCMA: Dynamic Channel Multicarrier Architecture Dynamic Channel Multicarrier Architecture (DCMA). particularly in the United States and Canada. DECT: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) is a digital wireless technology for cordless telephones. Delay spread Delay spread is a type of distortion due to multipath resulting in the spreading out or "smearing" of the received signal.. It is used throughout the Americas. DCA: Dynamic Channel Allocation Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) is an automatic process for assigning traffic channels in a frequency reuse wireless system.

Digital paging Digital Paging. Drift RNC is the place where the mobiles physical layer communications terminate. Distributed antenna system Distributed antenna system is a type of antenna system that is distributed or remotely located away from the transmitter. is the physical channel from layer 2 on which the signalling is transmitted on the uplink by the UE (user equipment) to the Node-B (the base transceiver station). Digital encoding therefore increases the capacity of a given radio frequency. DSFN: Dynamic Single Frequency Network Dynamic Single Frequency Networks (DSFN) is a transmitter macrodiversity technique for. The signal is sampled every T seconds. One or more Drift RNCs communicate with the Serving RNC via the IUr interface. by a high speed pseudorandom code (spreading sequence) to generate a spread spectrum signal. Diversity Reception Diversity Reception refers to a method for improving reception of a radio signal. DSFN is based on the idea of single frequency networks (SFN). DQPSK: Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation uses differential encoding of the digital information stream. Where no soft handover activity is in progress. Furthermore. The original modulating signal is usually the information being transmitted. Access points usually have one or two dipole antennas to increase their gain slightly Dispersive channel Dispersive channel is a radio channel that not only introduces AWGN. OFDM-based cellular networks. DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control CHannel Dedicated Physical Control Channel(DPCCH). typically voice or data. only digitized information can be transported through a noisy channel without degradation. is the most widely used type of paging. less information is needed to transmit a message. but also the effects of multipath and frequency selective fading. Drift RNC: Drift Radio Network Controller Drift Radio Network Controller (DRNC or Drift RNC) is a type of Radio Network Controller (RNC) in a 3G mobile wireless network. Dipola Antenna Dipola Antenna is a type of antenna that offers omnidirectional coverage. using an exclusive OR technique. This technique provides the advantages of CPM techniques and is easily implemented in VLSI. An electronic circuit or software combines or selects from the receive antenna to receive an improved quality signal. the original information content can be perfectly replicated at the receiving end. Differential detection Differential detection is an encoding and detection technique that uses phase changes in the carrier to signal binary "ones" and "zeros". Even if corruption occurs.Demodulation Demodulation is the process of recovering the original modulating signal from a modulated carrier. as long as the one-zero pattern is recognizable. DEMS: digital electronic message service Digital Electronic Message Service (DEMS) is the service in the range at the band 18 GHz originally then move to 24 GHz. Because digital signals are made up only of binary streams. The caller simply calls your pager phone number and enters the number where you can reach them. DPM: Digital Phase Modulation Digital Phase Modulation is a form of CPM in which the shaped symbol pulses are directly applied to the phase modulator. which is a group of radio transmitters that send the same . Digital Signal A digital signal is composed only of electrical pulses representing either zero or one. Diversity Diversity is a technique to reduce the effects of fading by using multiple spatially separated antennas to take independent samples of the same signal at the same time. a Drift RNC may also be the Serving RNC. It is also easier to demodulate than other types of CPM. and a phase change of 180 degrees could be set to be a "zero" and no phase change would then be a "one". DS: Direct Sequence Direct Sequence (DS) is a process of spectrum spreading where the digital information stream is multiplied. for example. also called Numeric Paging. a term from UMTS. Downlink Downlink is the transmission path from the base station down to the mobile station. Such an antenna or series of antennas can be connected via coaxial cable. but not much gain. The theory is that the fading in these signals is uncorrelated and that the probability of all samples being below a threshold at a given instant is low. Doppler Shift Doppler Shift is the magnitude of the change in the observed frequency of a wave due to the relative velocity of a transmitter with respect to a receiver. typically achieved by the use of dual receivers whose antennas are located in physically distinct locations (which can be less than a meter apart). leaky feeder or optical fiber link.

A DTE is the functional unit of a data station that serves as a data source or a data sink and provides for the data communication control function to be performed in accordance with link protocol. DVB-H DVB-H stands for Digital Video Broadcasting . . 2004. network operators. using a QAM modulation with channel coding. Services using DVB standards are available on every continent with more than 120 million DVB receivers deployed. Dual Band Dual Band refers to mobile phones that could work on networks operating on different frequency bands.Handheld. This is useful for mobile phone users who move between areas covered by different networks.Cable. DVB Project The Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Project is an industry-led consortium of over 270 broadcasters.11 and 802. multiple digital transmission systems exist. so dual-mode phone users must ensure that their dual-mode phone will operate on the digital transmission system used by their selected service provider. DVB-H is a technical specification for bringing broadcast services to handheld receivers and was formally adopted as ETSI standard EN 302 304 in November. The concept of DSFN implies that the SFN grouping is changed dynamically over time.. DTE: Data Terminal Equipment Data Terminal Equipment(DTE) refers to an end instrument that converts user information into signals for transmission. The aim is to achieve efficient spectrum utilization for downlink unicast or multicast communication services in centrally controlled cellular systems based on. while the original standard DBV-S was mainly applied to SDTV services. regulatory bodies and others in over 35 countries committed to designing global standards for the global delivery of digital television and data services. ratified by ETSI in March. and Bell ExpressVu in Canada. thereby spreading the energy of the original signal into a much wider band. However. DTX: Discontinuous Transmission Discontinuous Transmission (DT) is a feature in mobile systems where transmitters mute when there is no information to send. as well as for direct broadcast satellite services like Sky TV (UK) via Astra in Europe. This feature prolongs battery life in portable phones and reduces interference in wireless systems. DVB-C DVB-C stands for Digital Video Broadcasting . The DVB-H specification (EN 302 304) can be downloaded from the DVB-H Online website ([1]). the OFDM modulation scheme. A standard for temporally compressed distribution to mobile devices (DVB-H) has been published in November. DVB: Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a suite of internationally accepted. Its transmissions multiply a "noise" signal to the data being transmitted. 2005.S. 2004. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and European Broadcasting Union (EBU). synchronous serial interface (SSI).11b physical layer. All data is transmitted in MPEG-2 transport streams with some additional constraints (DVB-MPEG). For example. DTMF: Dual Tone Multi Frequency Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) is the sounds made by a phone's keypad when a button is pressed. Devices interact with the physical layer via a synchronous parallel interface (SPI). DSSS: Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) is used in WLAN 802. software developers. such as during periods of silence. is the original Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) forward error coding and modulation standard for satellite television and dates from 1995. DVB-S2 DVB-S2 is an improved and updated specification to replace the DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting-Satelite) standard. at a frequency much higher than that of the original signal. The transport stream delivered by DVB-S is mandated as MPEG-2. Dish Network in the U. This system transmits an MPEG-2 family digital audio/video stream. The development of DVB-S2 coincided with the introduction of HDTV and H. or the 800 MHz digital band and the 1900 MHz digital PCS band. It is used via satellites serving every continent of the world. for example. standing for Digital Video Broadcasting-Satelite. The main use for this standard is the distribution of HDTV. Dual Mode Dual Mode refers to a feature of a wireless device that can operate on either an analog or digital transmission network. or reconverts the received signals into user information. and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable. from timeslot to timeslot.signal simultaneously over the same frequency.264 (MPEG-4) video codecs. open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project and published by the Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The major competitor of this technology is DMB. manufacturers. This noise signal is a pseudorandom sequence of 1 and -1 values. DVB-S DVB-S. DVB standards define the physical layer and data link layer of a distribution system. DVB-S is used in both MCPC and SCPC modes for broadcast network feeds. GSM 900 and GSM 1800. Each button emits a sound that is actually the combination of two specific sounds in order to minimize the possibility of an incorrect signal being received by the equipment listening to the press of the buttons. or asynchronous serial interface (ASI).

E-RGCH and E- HICH. This allows the authenticator to request more information before determining the specific authentication mechanism. EAP does not select a specific authentication mechanism at Link Control Phase. The maximum theoretical uplink data rate that can be achieved is 5. which is the physical channel used by E-DCH for the transmission of user data. also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS). significant market shares. EAs are about the size of a cellular MSA and cross state lines in some instances. which controls channels associated with the E-DPDCH providing information to the Node-B on how to decode the E-DPDCH. E-DCH relies on improvements implemented both in the PHY and the MAC layer. EDACS was developed in competition with Motorola's Smartnet trunking system. E-DPDCH: E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Control Channel E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Control Channel (E-DPDCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). is made up of a country code followed by the network code. EAP: Extensible Authentication Protocol Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a general layer 2 protocol for authentication EAP supports multiple authentication mechanisms. For more details on the derivation of the E.214 numbers are composed of two parts. more recently. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). using OFDM modulation with concatenated channel coding (i. This also permits the use of a "back-end" server which actually implements the various mechanisms while the PPP authenticator merely passes through the authentication exchange. E-AGCH tell a UE how to regulate its transmit power level.Terrestrial. E-DPCCH: E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (E-DPCCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). It claimed.214 E.214 number from the IMSI. E-AGCH: E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel(E-AGCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . EAPoW: Extensible Authentication Protocol over Wireless Extensible Authentication Protocol over Wireless (EAPoW) is a term used when EAPoL messages are encapsulated over 802. commercial and economic ties and were first used to license WCS service in the late '90s. and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. The second part of the number is made from the MSIN part of the IMSI which identifies an individual subscriber. This technology works in GSM networks. EAs are a group of counties in metropolitan areas having common financial. but rather postpones this until the Authentication Phase. in the mid-1980s. E-DCH: Enhanced Dedicated Channel Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH) is a transport uplink channel used in the 3G technologies (such as HSUPA) to improve capacity and data throughput and reduce the delays in dedicated channels in the uplink. E-DPCCH. EDGE is a superset to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it. E-AGCH. Eb/N0: Bit Energy-to-Noise Density Bit Energy-to-Noise Density (Eb/N0) is the ratio of bit energy to noise density. As with HSDPA.214 number derived from the IMSI E. and continues to hold. The first. the E.5G General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) networks. which provides an absolute power level above the level for the DPDCH (associated with a DCH) that the UE should adopt.E E. COFDM).164 part. EA: Economic Area Economic Area (EA) is a geographic area over which a WCS operator is licensed to provide service. This system transmits a compressed digital audio/video stream. EAP-TLS: Extensible Authentication Protocol with Transport Layer Security Extensible Authentication Protocol with Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) enables authenticaton between WLAN devices using certificates. see the article about the IMSI. provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrades. is a digital mobile phone technology which acts as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2.6 Mbps. H. This value is used to specify the lower limit of operation in most digital communications systems and is also used to measure radio channel performance.264.e. The adopted source coding methods are MPEG-2 and.DVB-T DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting . EDACS: Enhanced Digital Access Communication System Enhanced Digital Access Communication System (EDACS) is a radio communications protocol and product family invented in the General Electric Corporation. EAs are used by the FCC to define areas of economic interest and are grouped into larger areas called REAGs. GSM1800 and GSM1900 operations. The E. EDGE uses the same spectrum allocated for GSM900.11 wireless frames. The definition of the E-DCH introduces five new physical layer channels: E-DPDCH. .214 is a telephone numbering plan used for delivering mobility management related messages in GSM networks.

Give someone a full birthday wish (with the text. A device is usually placed in the EIR once its operation has been certified for the infrastructure in a laboratory or validation facility. EGSM spectrum is 880-890 MHz paired with 925-935 MHz. EIR: Equipment Identity Register Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database used by GSM and other second generation wireless systems used to identify the customer devices permitted to access the network. CINR/MCS threshold tables) in order to predict the effect of MCS and boosting modification. EHF: Extremely High Frequency Extremely High Frequency (EHF) is the RF spectrum between 30 GHz and 300 GHz. With this. Encoder Encoder is a converter used to create a specific addressed message. the actual song. which include Radio Frequency (RF). The EIRP allows making comparisons between different emitters regardless of type. and a graphic of a birthday cake). EFR: Enhanced Full Rate Enhanced Full Rate is a voice coding algorithm applied in PCS-1900 systems (and now in GSM-900 as well. E-HICH: E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel (E-HIGH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). The EESM method has been shown to yield an accurate estimation of the AWGN-equivalent SINR for frequency selective channels. EMS: Enhanced Messaging Service Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS) utilizes SMS but adds the ability to incorporate simple graphics. EMC: Electro Magnetic Compatibility Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the ability of different items of electrical equipment to work together without suffering the effects of interference. the user can add an actual emotion to his/her message.EESM: Exponential Effective SIR Mapping Exponential Effective SIR Mapping (EESM) is a method to estimate demodulator performance in a channel with frequency selective signal and/or noise. and with knowledge of a real antenna's gain. the EESM is a channel-dependent function that maps power level and MCS level to SINR values in the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel domain. EGPRS uses the modulation technique 8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying) to increase the achievable user data rate. size or form. As an enhancement to GPRS. also known as Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). EGPRS improves spectral efficiency and data rates by adding new modulation and coding schemes. Also. pictures. is the amount of power that would have to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all directions and is a theoretical construct) to produce the peak power density observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain. The additional 10Mhz provides an additional 50 channels. EMC implies that equipment should not generate unacceptable levels of interference which affect the performance of other products designed to operate in an industrial environment. EIRP can take into account the losses in transmission line and connectors and includes the gain of the antenna.g. For a given environment. e. equipment should have sufficient immunity to electrical interference. Equipment should operate without interfering with broadcast and communications signals and be immune to normal levels of such signals. EGPRS: Enhanced General Packet Radio Service Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS) is an enhancement to GPRS that improves spectral efficiency and data rates by adding new modulation and coding schemes. animations and sound. E-GSM: Extended Global System for Mobile EGSM is an extension to the GSM900 spectrum. EIA: Electronic Industry Association Electronic Industry Association (EIA) is a trade association and standards setting organization in the USA. which is just below the original GSM 900 band. it is possible to calculate real power and field strength values. In a sense. EMI: Electromagnetic Interference Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is the interference by electromagnetic signals that can cause reduced data integrity and increased error rates on transmission channels. is a digital mobile phone technology. . EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). This allows using this mapping along with AWGN assumptions (such as effect of an increase in power. that would be the power emitted by an isotropic radiator with an equivalent signal strength. The EIRP is often stated in terms of decibels over a reference power level. on the factory floor. Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum refers to the full range of electromagnetic frequencies. such that the equipment continues to operate in an acceptable manner. which is used by Node-B to send HARQ ACK/NACK messages back to the UE. first system installed in Hong Kong). also known as Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power. From the EIRP. EGPRS: Enhanced General Packet Radio Service Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS). EGSM is a small radio frequency band used in Europe to provide added network capacity for GSM 900 networks.

ETACS: Extended Total Access Communications System Extended Total Access Communications System (ETACS or E-TAGS) is the analog mobile phone network developed in the UK and available in Europe and Asia. Ericsson. is an operating system optimized for mobile phone/PDA uses. messaging and data services. Besides peak data rates of 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in uplink. Nokia. Error vector The error vector is the vector difference between a reference signal and a measured signal and is a complex quantity containing a magnitude and phase component. but could provide PCN- like services within current spectrum allocations. This technique is often used in the mobile wireless communications. ertPS: Extended Real-Time Polling Service Extended Real-Time Polling Service (ertPS) is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. ETSI: European Telecommunications Standard Institute European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) is an independent. Commercial aspects like costs for installing and operating the network form also part of the requirements. E-TDMA: Enhanced or exended TDMA Enhanced or exended TDMA (E-TDMA) is an enhanced version of TDMA which will not only serve cellular. voice. low-latency and packet-optimized system. It was developed by Symbian which is a joint company of Psion. ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of . Motorola and Matsushita (Panasonic). non-profit organization. It allows one wireless network to be clearly distinguishable from another.16 protocol supports five types of QoS -.16 WiMAX. now called Symbian OS. Equalization Equalization is a technique used to compensate for communications channel distortions. Error distribution Error distribution describes how errors in a communications channel are distributed. ESS: Extended Service Set Extended Service Set (ESS) is a set of two or more BSSes working together to form a single network. ETAGS is the Extension of TACS through the allocation of additional radio channels. which provides dispatch. Each mobile phone is assigned a unique ESN. it is the identifying name of a wireless access point. ESSID is one type of SSID (the other being BSSID). E-RGCH: E-DCH Relative Grant Channel E-DCH Relative Grant Channel(E-RGCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). is specified in the 3GPP release 8.UGS (Unsolicited grant service). ERMES: European radio messaging system European radio messaging system is a paging system used in Europe and other parts of the world. ertPS is a scheduling mechanism that builds on the efficiency of both UGS and rtPS. also known as UMTS Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) or Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (EUTRAN). It is a key 3G technology to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS and provide a high-data-rate. EPOC places a lighter load on the processor compared to present PDA operating systems and thus has the capacity to enhance the multimedia capacity of mobile phones. The 802. Error probability Error probability is a computation of the likelihood of an error involving the Probability Density Function (PDF). rtPS (Real time polling Service).EPOC EPOC. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). E-TAGS: Extended Total Access Communication System E-TAGS is Extension of the TACS (Total Access Communications System) system through the allocation of additional radio channels. EPOC turns voice-oriented handsets into Mediaphones and Wireless Information Devices. ESSID: Extended Service Set Identifier Extended Service Set ID (ESSID) is the identifying name of a wireless network -. decrease or keep unchanged the transmit power level of the E-DCH. nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). ESN: Electronic Serial Number Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is a unique unchangeable number that is built into the mobile phone and is transmitted by the phone as a means of identifying itself within the system. The ertPS is designed for realtime traffic with variable data rate (such as VOIP service with silence suppression) over the WiMAX network. Typical distributions are Gaussian (random) and Raleigh (bursty). E-UTRA: Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA or EUTRA). a significant increase in spectrum efficiency and capacity as well as a significant latency reduction are planned.strictly. Error correction Error correction is the process of correcting errors in data transmitted over a radio channel using forward error correction (FEC) techniques. Based in France. ESMR: enhanced specialized mobile radio Enhanced specialized mobile radio (ESMR) is a digital SMR network. whose mission is to produce telecommunications standards for today and for the future. which indicates to the UE whether to increase.

Switching can occur between the same type or different types of access stations. EV-DV: EVolution for Data and Voice EVolution for Data and Voice (EV-DV. fixed length packets (cells) and.000. telegraph and telecommunications) originating in the United States. defined in the IEEE 802.000 and 1. Fading Fading is the variation in signal strength from its normal value. including voice and data services on the same carrier.11f specification. a concept in the WiMAX network. FCC: Federal Communications Commission Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the regulatory body governing communications technologies in the US. is a method by which an MS can change its access station from frame to frame depending on the station selection mechanism. via hardware switching. FASS: Fast Access Station Switching Fast Access Station Switching (FASS).F FACCH: Fast Associated Control Channel Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) is the channel derived by preempting information in a traffic channel.Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. EVDO is based on the 1xRTT standard. It is normally characterized by the distribution of fades. Fast packet switching uses short. The EVDO protocol supports asymmetric communications. It is the root- mean-square (rms) value of the error vector over time at the instants of symbol clock transitions. is a method to allow switching between any type of access stations (like RS. or MMRBS.16-2005 (mobile WiMAX) network. and simultaneous voice and data. The resulting frequency shift seen by the mobile is then used for frequency correction. voice or data. EVDO: Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO or 1xEV-DO) is a high-speed network protocol used for wireless Internet data communications. BS. FBSS: Fast Base Station Switching Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS). FCCH: Frequency Correction Channel Frequency Correction Channel(FCCH) is the logical channel in GSM systems used to transmit a frequency correction data burst of all "zeros". providing data transmission speeds wirelessly up to 3. BS. allocating a majority of this bandwidth to downloads. broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics. FCH: Frame Control Header Frame Control Header (FCH) is a field in the IEEE802. EVM and related measurements can pinpoint exactly the type of degradations present in a signal and can even help identify their sources. networks and handheld devices.1Mbps. Eye diagram Eye diagram is a superposition of segments of a received PAM signal displayed on an oscilloscope or similar instrument. Rician. is capable of speeds between 100. Fast handoff will be made possible with the 802. digital technology that transmits all data in a single packet format whether the information is video. These technologies include telecommunications. or Rayleigh. Fast Packet Switching Fast Packet Switching is a packet-orientated. It is used to send handoff and similar messages. Fast fading Fast fading is the short term component associated with multipath propagation. and regulates interstate communications (wire. or MMR-BS). as amended. The FCH specifies the burst profile and the length of one or more DL bursts that immediately follow the FCH. radio.000 packets/second. established by the Communications Act of 1934. EVM: Error Vector Magnitude Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) is a modulation quality metric widely used in digital RF communications systems. It is for always- on mobile packet data and voice for GPRS-enabled cellular phones. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . 1xEV-DV is backward compatible to IS-95A/B and CDMA2000 1X and enables a simple migration to 1xEV-DV from 1X networks while preserving existing services offered by operators. Fast handoff also makes voice-over-IP possible. Gaussian. Fast Handoff Fast Handoff is a way that access points can let authenticated users roam among different access points without losing authentication. Fading is normally negative and can be either fast or slow. . FAW: Frame Alignment Word Frame Alignment Word (FAW) is a unique digital word used by codecs to allow them to resynchronize to the framing structure in the event of errors. The eye diagram is used to assess impairments in the radio channel. Used properly. telephone. The access station can be an RS. It is influenced by the speed of the mobile terminal and the transmission bandwidth of the signal. EVDV or 1xEV-DV) is the technology that provides integrated voice and simultaneous high- speed packet data multimedia services at high speeds. The MS refers to transmitting/receiving data to/from one of the active stations (the anchor station) during any given frame.16-2004 WIMAX protocol.

resulting in economies which are the motivation for multiplexing. Fixed WiMax Fixed WiMax refers to the fixed wireless broadband services as defined by the IEEE 802. Offered as a way by which wireless carriers can meet FCC enhanced 911 rules and dispatch offices can overcome their current bandwidth limits. It is a sequence of modulated pulses having a pseudorandom selection of carrier frequencies. Forward Error Correction is a method of sending redundant information with the data in order to allow the receiver to reconstruct the data if there was an error in transmission. FH-CDMA: Frequency Hopping .16-2004). lets public-safety dispatch offices receive a 10-digit data stream. FGD is offered as a way by which wireless carriers can meet FCC-enhanced 911 rules and dispatch offices can overcome their current bandwidth limits. conducted. It is used in WLAN 802. users are dynamically allocated a group of frequencies so that the apparent availability is greater than the number of channels. FER: Frame Erasure/Error Rate Frame Erasure/Error Rate is a measure of the number of frames of data that contained errors and could not be processed. FIRFinite Impulse Response Finite Impulse Response (FIR) is a technique used to characterize electrical circuits and networks in the time domain.Code division multiple access Frequency hopping . a receiver does not have the option to request a re-transmission if an error was detected. from digital signal processing to solving partial differential equations to algorithms for quickly multiplying large integers. including the full call-back number. FDCCH includes all downstream signalling and control information from cell site to user equipment. among other things. FHMA: Frequency hopping multiple access Frequency hopping multiple access (FHMA) is a digital technology used in Geotek Communications Inc. FDD: Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Duplex (FDD). In this practice.'s specialized mobile radio network. FFTs are of great importance to a wide variety of applications. alongside wireless 911 calls. FGD: Feature Group D Feature Group D (FGD) is a local exchange carrier network service that. using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. is a radio technology using a paired spectrum. FH: Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping (FH) is a periodic changing of frequency or frequency set associated with transmission. used in cellular communication systems such as GSM.code division multiple access (FH-CDMA) is one of two basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal transmission for CDMA-based wireless systems. FHSS: Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels. It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission. . and demodulates the results individually. FDM: Frequency Division Multiplex Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the carrier bandwidth is divided into sub-channels of different frequency widths -.each carrying a signal at the same time in parallel. each in the manner appropriate for the modulation scheme used for that band or group. FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is a method of allowing multiple users to share the radio frequency spectrum by assigning each active user an individual frequency channel. often to minimize the effectiveness of the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications. All the signals may be amplified. Receivers at the receiving end separates the multiplexed signals by means of frequency passing or rejecting filters. Feature Group D Feature Group D is a local exchange carrier network service that. translated in frequency and routed toward a destination as a single signal.11 physical layer. FFT: Fast Fourier Transform Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse. In one-way communication channels. FDCCH can be divided into a few logic channels such as BCCH. This access group is associated with equal access arrangements which allow the end user to have the same dialing plan (1 plus the telephone number) to reach any predetermined long distance phone companies of their choice. SCF and SPACH.16d (also known as IEEE 802. provides cellular standards for TDMA-based networks. lets public-safety dispatch offices receive a 10-digit data stream.FDCCH: Forward Digital Control CHannel Forward Digital Control Channel (FDDCH). FER is usually expressed as a percentage or exponent. alongside wireless 911 calls. defined in the IS-136. including the full call-back number. among other things. FEC: Forward Error Correction Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a method of increasing the reliability of data communication. FDCCH works together with RDCCH (Reverse Digital Control CHannel) which is for the upstream signaling and controling information. Each channel is 30 kHz.

both via the radio link as well as via USIM card exchange.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -. Forward Channel Forward Channel is used by the base station to communicate with a mobile station.IEEE 802. and then divided by the length of the time interval.g. and hence provides several alternative options for global roaming: either with or without change of handset. FLEX also refers to the FLEX family of protocols: FLEX. the number of occurrences of the event within a fixed time interval are counted.the latter of which delivers full duplex transmission on the same signal if desired. FOMA: Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) is the brand name for the 3G services being offered by Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo. Fringe Area Fringe Area is the outermost range of a cellular system where cellular signals may be weaker. This is a technique used to overcome the effects of multipath fading since the wavelength for different frequencies result in different and uncorrelated fading characteristics. a forward link is the link from a fixed location (e. FOMA was the world's first W-CDMA 3G service when launched in 2001. The mobility features of WiMax are defined in IEEE 802. a base station) to a mobile user. Flat fading Flat fading is a type of fading in a communications channel that attenuates or fades all frequencies in the channel in the same amount. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16d product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. Frequency Frequency is the measurement of the number of times that a repeated event occurs per unit time.16-2005). If the link includes a communications relay satellite. Operators of fixed wireless networks potentially can offer broadband services without having to lay expensive cable systems or deal with the complexities of mobility management. One segment of the cell uses a frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering segment that it does not provide interference problems. Frequency diversity Frequency diversity is the simultaneous use of multiple frequencies to transmit information. InFLEXion and ReFLEX. FLEX FLEX is the Motorola's flexible high-speed paging coding scheme that gives carriers more capacity on their networks and faster transmission time. Forward link In radio communications. FM: Frequency Modulation Frequency Modulation (FM) is a form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of a sine-wave carrier is caused to depart from the carrier frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating wave.. rather than mobile. In FM. the forward link will consist of both an uplink (base station to satellite) and a downlink (satellite to mobile user). Fixed Wireless Fixed wireless refers to the over-the-air transmission of information to and from systems and end-user equipment that are stationary. Frequency re-use in mobile cellular systems means that each cell has a frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering cell that it does not provide interference problems. . 800 MHz systems are seldom deployed in forested areas. Footprint Footprint in wireless communications refers to geographical areas in which an entity is licensed to broadcast its signal.16e (or 802. To calculate the frequency of an event. Frequency selective fading Frequency selective fading is a type of signal fading occurring over a small group of frequencies caused by a strong multipath component at those frequencies. The same frequency is used at least two cells apart from each other. Foliage attenuation Reductions in signal strength or quality is due to signal absorption by trees or foliage obstructions in the signal's line-of-sight path. For example. Frequency reuse is one of the fundamental concepts on which commercial wireless systems are based that involves the partitioning of an RF radiating area (cell) into segments of a cell. This practice enables cellular providers to have many times more customers for a given site license. Frequency reuse Frequency reuse is a technique of reusing frequencies and channels within a communications system to improve capacity and spectral efficiency. signals of different frequencies represent different data values. Fresnel Zone Fresnel Zone is an elliptical area on either side of the straight line of sight that must also be clear for a long-range wireless network to work. FOMA is compatible with standard UMTS. Pine needles-nearly the same length as 800 MHz antennas can negatively affect signal reception in that band.

is a wireless system in which office or home users directly connect with the switching center of the telecommunications carrier or the inter-exchange channel to use the system. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . Fast BS switching (FBSS) was defined in 802. This mechanism is designed to minimize the probability of hits (probably of using the same physical subcarriers in adjacent cells and sectors) between adjacent sectors/cells by reusing subcarriers while frequency diversity minimizes the performance degradation due to fast fading characteristics of mobile environments. The architecture allows two BSS (Base Station Subsystem) to be connected to each other. Geosynchronous Orbit A geosynchronous orbit has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. The higher the gain. short range two-way radio service in the 460 MHz band. This ratio typically is expressed in dBs. in a car. A serving station can be an RS. GEOS: Geo-stationary Earth Orbit Systems Geo-stationary Earth Orbit Systems (GEOS) is a communications system with satellites in geosynchronous orbits -. It has a semi-major axis of 42. FUSC: Fully Used SubChannel Fully Used SubChannel (FUSC). BS. which is a measurement of frequency. or MMR-BS). or MMR-BS.16e.300 miles above the Earth. also known as Fully Used SubCarrier. which has been specified to connect the A. Gaussian channel Gaussian channel is an RF communications channel having the properties of a wide-band uniform noise spectral density resulting in a random distribution of errors in the channel. BS. Switching can be either between a same type of serving stations or between different types of serving stations. FRS: Fixed Relay Station Fixed Relay Station (FRS) refers to a relay station that is permanently installed at a fixed location. Gb and Iu interfaces to the CN (Core Network). GHz: GigaHertz GigaHertz (GHz) is one billion hertz. The most common one is the two-frequency FSK system using the two frequencies to carry the binary ones and zeros.164 km. . Gi interface Gi interface is the reference point between a GPRS network and an external packet data network. the better the antenna receives or transmits but also the more noise it includes. Full user mobility Full user mobility is a wireless classification under which users can access data while in motion. also known as wireless local loop.FRS: Family Radio Service Family Radio Service is a very low power. GAN: Global Area Network Global Area Network (GAN) is a network that is composed of different interconnected computer networks and covers an unlimited geographical area. FSSS: Fast Serving Station Switching Fast Serving Station Switching (FSSS) refers to the serving station switching with which a Moble Station (MS) can change its serving station from frame to frame depending on the serving station selection mechanism. with the intention of implementing half-rate coding as the technology permits to double the capacity of the system. GERAN: GSM (GPRS)/EDGE Radio Access Network GSM(GPRS)/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) is the name given to the 3GPP standards for GSM(GPRS)/EDGE radio access. and the terminology is modified to allow switching between any types of serving stations (RS. The GPRS Core Network is the centralised part of the GPRS system and also provides support for UMTS-based 3G networks. Most frame formats are designed to accommodate full and half-rate channels. FSKFrequency Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) is a form of modulation using multiple carrier frequencies to carry the digital information. FWA: fixed wireless access Fixed wireless access. is a method used in the WiMAX network that uses all the subchannels and employs full-channel diversity by distributing the allocated subcarriers to subchannels using a permutation mechanism.G Gain Gain refers to the ratio of the output amplitude of a signal to the input amplitude of a signal.22. for example. GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a gateway from a cellular network to an IP network that allows mobile cell phone users to access the public data network (PDN) or specified private IP networks. The full-rate codec uses all of the time-slots available. Full rate Full rate refers to voice codecs in a communications system.

of older GSM systems. is the world's most widely used digital network -. GMM: GPRS Mobility Management GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) is a GPRS signaling protocol that handles mobility issues such as roaming. storing. This results in a narrowly occupied spectrum and better adjacent channel interference performance. such as e-mail and Web browsing. The grade of service is usually expressed as percentage of calls attempted by the subscriber during the busy-hour that are blocked due to insufficient network resources. operating personnel. The satellites use simple mathematical calculations to broadcast information that is translated as longitude. GPT: GPRS Tunneling Protocol GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a protocol used by the GPRS backbone network for packet switching. Ground Station Ground Station. The main function of the Session Management (SM) layer is to support PDP context handling of the user terminal. GPS: Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a "constellation" of 24 satellites that orbit the Earth at a height of 10. It is used in Europe. It supports a wide range of bandwidths and is an efficient use of limited bandwidth. or just GSM. . GTP is a protocol defined on both the Gn and Gp interfaces between GSNs in a GPRS network. Gp Interface Gp Interface is the Interface between GSNs within different PLMNs in a GPRS network. as well as large volumes of data. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a protocol defined on both the Gp and Gn interfaces between GSNs in a GPRS network. latitude and altitude by Earth-based receivers. and displaying geographically referenced information.6Kbit/sec. GLONASS: global navigation system Global navigation system (GLONASS) is a Russian satellite location technology similar to global positioning system. also called a downlink station. together with Session Management (GMM/SM) protocol. particularly in Europe and Asia Pacific. refers to the collection of communications equipment designed to receive signals from (and usually transmit signals to) satellites.900 miles. deactivation and modification.GIS: geographic information system Geographical Information System (GIS) refers to a computer system capable of capturing. that is. GSM 900 GSM 900. supports the mobility of user terminal so that the SGSN can know the location of a mobile station (MS) at any time and to activate.. It enables high-speed wireless Internet and other communications such as e-mail. It's particularly suited for sending and receiving small amounts of data. routing area update. location update. The GMM layer uses the services of the Radio Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP) over the Iu interface to provide these services. Practitioners also define a GIS as including the operating in over 100 countries around the world. is a mobile network working on a frequency of 1900 MHz. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a protocol defined on both the Gp and Gn interfaces between GSNs in a GPRS network. It is used in the US and Canada and is scheduled for parts of Latin America and Africa. GSM 1900 GSM 1900. Asia- Pacific and Australia. GMPCS: Global Mobile Personal Communications Services Global Mobile Personal Communications Services (GMPCS) is a mobile satellite systems that will provide global wireless phone service. GOS: Grade of Service Grade of Service (GOS) is a measure of the success a subscriber is expected to have in accessing a network to complete a call. GSM 1800 GSM 1800. modify and deactivate the PDP sessions required by the MS for the user data transfer. GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a modulation technique involving Gaussian filtering of the input data prior to its application to the phase modulator. data identified according to location. and selection of encryption algorithms. GPRS Mobility Management. GPRS: General Packet Radio Service General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology runs at speeds of up to 115Kbit/sec. is a moble network working on a frequency of 1800 MHz. SM comprises of procedures for the PDP context activation. games and applications. also known as DCS 1800 or PCN. compared with the 9. security. Gn Interface Gn Interface is the interface between GSNs within the same PLMN in a GPRS network. GMM/SM: GPRS Mobility Management / Session Management GPRS Mobility Management/Session Management (GMM/SM) protocol supports mobility management functionality of a mobile such as GPRS attach. GPRS detach. also known as PCS 1900. authentication. making it possible for people using ground receivers to determine their geographic location within 10 to 100 meters. and spatial data that go into the system. analyzing.

GSM allows up to eight simultaneous communications on the same frequency. This value is used by the FCC in determining compliance with height limitations and transmitting powers for high sites. with transmissions between 150 and 175 kHz. The entire GWEN system consists of approximately 300 such stations spread across the United States. HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ or Hybrid ARQ) is a sheme wherein information blocks are encoded for partial error correction at receiver and additional. It can be used with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) on the registered port 3386. they are one of the "perfect" codes in that its standard array has all of the error patterns that can exist for single errors. Most frame formats are designed to accommodate full and half-rate channels. This range was selected because its signals travel by means of waves that have a tendency to hug the ground rather than by radiating into the atmosphere. GWEN: Ground Wave Emergency Network Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) is a communications system that the US military constructs. GTP version one is used only on UDP. When the system is completed around 1993. GTP version zero supports both signalling and user data under one generic header. GSM is widely deployed in Europe and some Asian Countries.GSM plus GSM plus is an enhanced version of global system for mobile communications (GSM) technology that will be developed to meet IMT-2000 capabilities GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). It does this by carrying the subscriber's data from the subscriber's current SGSN to the GGSN which is handling the subscriber's session. GSM-R: GSM for Railway networks Global system for mobile communications for Railway networks (GSM-R) uses standard base station and switching infrastructure to provide fast data transmission for railways GSN: GPRS Support Nodes GPRS Support Node (GSN) is a network node which supports the use of GPRS in the GSM core network. origionally known as Groupe Spécial Mobile. Hand Over Hand Over refers to the passing of a call signal from one base station to the next as the user moves out of range or the network software re-routes the call. competing with CDMA which was developed by Qualcomm and deployed mainly in the US. All GSNs should have a Gn interface and support the GPRS tunnelling protocol.H HAAT: Height Above Average Terrain Height Above Average Terrain (HAAT) is a measure of an antenna's height above average terrain. It operates in a very-low- frequency range. GTP: GPRS Tunnelling Protocol GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) allows end users of a GSM or UMTS network to move from place to place whilst continuing to connect to the internet as if from one location at the GGSN. so that a signal can go from coast to coast or from one station to another. The control plane protocol GTP-C (Control) using registered port 2123 and the user plane protocol GTP-U (User) using registered port 2152 GTP Tunnel GTP Tunnel is used to communicate between an external packet data network and a mobile station in a GPRS network. the entire civilian population of the United States will be exposed to the GWEN Transmissions Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . each with a tower 300-500 feet high. uncorrected errors are retransmitted. A GTP tunnel is referenced by an identifier called a TID and is defined by two associated PDP contexts residing in different GSNs. There are two key variants of the GSN: the GGSN and the SGSN. Although not particularly powerful. Guard Band Guard Band is a set of frequencies or band-width used to prevent adjacent systems from interfering with each other. with the intention of implementing half-rate coding as the technology permits to double system capacity. Half rate Half rate is a term used in voice codecs in a communications system.a single GWEN stations transmits in a 360 circle to a distance of 250 to 300 miles. The stations are from 200 to 250 miles apart. Hand Off (Handoff) Hand Off (handoff) is the process of transferring a call in progress from the current base station to another without interruption as the user moves out of range of the current base station. is a digital cellular system defined by ETSI based on TDMA narrowband technology. A tunnel is created whenever an SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request in a GPRS network. This signal drops off sharply with distance -. Guard bands are typically used between different types of systems at the edges of the frequency allocations. The half rate codec uses only half of the time-slots in the frame Hamming code Hamming code is a well known simple class of block codes capable of detecting up to two errors and correcting one. .

each node is within the communication range of the Access Point. HomePNA is primarily useful for bridging wireless networks across obstacles (like brick walls) that block radio waves. This language is derived from hypertext markup language (HTML). used in CDMA systems. High-gain antennas are necessary for long- range wireless networks. The hard hand-off is a break before make hand-off just like in other wireless systems and must be used where the current and hand-off candidate base stations do not use the same RF channel. is used to predict signal strength levels in land-mobile systems.Hard Hand Off Hard Hand Off.up to 57 kilobits per second -. It presents the HDML to the HDML interpreter in an appropriate format. that offers Wi-Fi access. describes a hand-off involving a frequency change. and the activity status of the mobile user. is the spreading technique used in the reverse link of 3G systems to reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the signal by reducing zero crossings and 0 degree phase transitions. The hard hand-off is a break before make hand-off just like in other wireless systems and must be used where the current and hand-off candidate base stations do not use the same RF channel. HLR: home location register Home Location Register (HLR) is a database residing in a local wireless network that checks the identity of a local subscriber. HR/DSSS PHY: High Rate / Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Physical Layer High Rate/Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Physical Layer (HR/DSSS PHY) is the enhanced physical layer defined by IEEE 802. . including the service profile. Hidden Node Problem The hidden node problem occurs in the wireless networking when a node is visible from a wireless hub. and streaming media into a single wireless signal. HDML: Handheld Device Markup Language Handheld Device Markup Language(HDML) Specifications allow Internet access from wireless devices such as handheld personal computers and smart phones. HHO: Hard Hand-Off Hard Hand Off. See also soft hand-off. HRPD: High Rate Packet Data High Rate Packet Data (HRPD). HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) is a circuit-linked technology for higher transmission speeds -. the location information. High-gain Antenna High-gain Antenna is a type of antenna that significantly increases signal strength. not each node can communicate with each other. HomeRF HomeRF is a networking standard for home wireless communication. such as a hotel.11b which supports data transfer at up to 11Mbps. Hertz Hertz(Hz) is the measure of frequency which means cycles per second. also known as the Okamura-Hata model. which a VLR manages). HomePNA HomePNA is a networking standard that uses standard telephone wiring. HLR contains information about subscribers to a mobile network and registers subscribers for a particular service provider.primarily in GSM systems.0 runs at 10 Mbps. which is a competitor to Wi-Fi that integrates voice. HDTP: Handheld Device Transport Protocol Handheld Device Transport Protocol (HDTP) is optimized for HDML. also known as Orthogonal Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OCQPSK). HR/DSSS uses complementary code keying which divides the chip stream into a number of 8-bit code symbols. either free or for a fee. Hot spot or hotspot Hot spot (hotspot) is an area. describes a hand-off involving a frequency change. but not from other nodes communicating with said hub. Unlike the earlier versions of IEEE 802.164 km. Take a physical star topology with an Access Point with many nodes surrounding it in a circular fashion.0 runs at 128 Mbps. however.11 which supported data rates of up to 2Mbps. is a packet data protocol in the 3G mobile communicaitons network based on CDMA2000. This leads to difficulties in media access control. See also soft hand-off. Hata Model Hata Model. HPSK: Hybrid Phase Shift Keying Hybrid Phase Shift Keying (HPSK). HomePNA 2. restaurant or airport. It has a semi-major axis of 42. and the just-defined HomePNA 3. used in CDMA systems. HCI: Host Controller Interface A geosynchronous orbit has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. The HLR stores "permanent" subscribers' information (rather than temporary subscribers' data. Hidden nodes in a wireless network refer to nodes which are out of range of other nodes or a collection for nodes. data. also known as TIA/EIA IS-856 or 1xEV-DO.

such as the high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH). refers to a system including the master user database and software that supports IMS network entities that handle calls and sessions. HS-DPCCH: High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) was introduced in the 3GPP release 5 of WCDMA as a new uplink code channel for control purposes. is a transport channel shared among all users that are using HSPDA for their interactive/background radio access bearer.e. Do not confuse it with Infrastructure BSS. which provides enhanced supports for interactive. background and. HSS contains user profiles. streaming services. HSS: Home Subscriber Service Home Subscriber Service (HSS).8 Mbit/s. HSS is similar to the GSM Home Location Register. Hz: HERTZ HERTZ (Hz) is a measurement of frequency in cycles per second. IMSEI: International Mobile Station Equipment Identity International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMSEI) is an identification number assigned to GSM mobile stations that .11 network comprising a collection of stations that communicate with each other. iDEN: Integrated Digital Enhanced Network Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a Motorola-enhanced mobile radio network technology that integrates two-way radio. The access point forwards information to target stations or to a fixed network.5G (or "3½G"). HS-DSCH can be mapped onto one or several physical channels (also known as codes) all using spreading factor 16.75G or sometimes 4G. HSUPA is considered 3. The entities that communicate with the HSS are the application server (AS) that hosts and executes services in the IMS environment. and data transmission into a single network. specified in 3GPP Release 5. It is an 802. telephone. The S-CSCF will receive the profile in a User-data Attribute Value Pair (AVP) format. a channel added to UMTS to increase downlink data rates that is defined in Release 5 of the UMTS specifications. the HSDPCCH is not continuously transmitted and is not necessarily time aligned with the other WCDMA uplink channels. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . M is the number of bits per modulation symbols i. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). also called 3. HS-SCCH: High-Speed Shared Control Channel High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) is a channel added to UMTS to increase downlink data rates that is defined in Release 5 of the UMTS specifications and is part of HSDPA.HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). HS-PDSCH: High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) is channel added to UMTS to increase downlink data rates that is defined in Release 5 of the UMTS specifications and is part of HSDPA. IF: Intermediate Frequency Intermediate Frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. to some extent. HSUPA: High-Speed Uplink Packet Access High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a data access protocol for mobile phone networks with extremely high upload speeds of up to 5.11 network comprising an access point and stations. HSDPA implementations include Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC). is a new mobile telephony protocol. and can provide information about the physical location of user. As a result. Besides being the 3rd uplink code channel. The User Profile contains information about the current user when a user is registering on the network. iDEN wireless handsets are utilized in a variety of work environments ranging from manufacturing floors to executive conference rooms as well as mobile sales forces. Similar to HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access). HSPA: High Speed Packet Access High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). and advanced receiver design. IBSS: Infrastructure BSS Infrastructure BSS (IBSS) is an 802. An HS-PDSCH may use QPSK or 16QAM modulation symbols. In the figure above. text messaging. Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ). a key component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). performs authentication and authorization of the user. fast scheduling. and the Call State Control Function servers (CSCF). but not with a network infrastructure. varying power relations to the dedicated uplink channels (DPCCH and DPDCH) are obtained. also known as an ad hoc network. HS-DSCH: High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH). fast cell search. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA downlink with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbit/s (and 20 Mbit/s for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. One Hertz is one cycle per second. extends WCDMA with additional transport and control channels. Intermediate electromagnetic frequencies is generated by a superheterodyne radio receiver.I IBSS: Independent Basic Service Set Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). M=2 for QPSK and M=4 for 16QAM.

For example. is the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) service and user data repository. a single phone-number for an entire family). . bearer control. The IMEI number is used by the GSM network to identify valid devices and therefore can be used to stop a stolen phone from accessing the network.Home Subscriber Service (IM-HSS). mobile subscriber identification number. It can support media conversion. the IMSI is sent as rarely as possible and a randomly generated TMSI is sent instead. The number is stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). (2) Maintains IMS subscriber profile(s) independent of access types. IMPU: IP Multimedia Public Identity IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU) is one of the two identities used by an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). like sip:name@domain.. using codecs. final assembly code and serial number. The other one is the IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU). It uses a Voice-over-IP (VoIP) implementation based on a 3GPP standardised implementation of SIP. is a popular wireless Internet service by NTT DoCoMo Inc. can terminate bearer channels from a switched circuit network and media streams from a packet network. IMSI: International Mobile Station Identity International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI) is a unique 15-digit number assigned to a mobile station at the time of service subscription. It plays a key role in provisioning. and managing handheld devices. like sip:name@domain. This renders the phone useless. if a mobile phone is stolen. It contains a mobile country code. In order to avoid the subscriber being identified and tracked by eavesdroppers on the radio interface. IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardised Next Generation Networking (NGN) architecture for telecom operators that want to provide mobile and fixed multimedia services. echo cancellers. also known as HSS. The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. It is usually found printed on the phone underneath the battery and can also be found by dialling the sequence *#06# into the phone. IMTA: International Mobile Telecommunications Association International Mobile Telecommunications Association (IMTA) is a trade group serving specialized mobile radio and public access mobile radio carriers around the world. that can be digits (a tel-uri. and a national mobile subscriber identity. regardless of whether the phone's SIM is changed. Both are not phone numbers or other series of digits. It's based on a simplified form of HTML and delivers packet-based information -. I-Mode or iMode I-Mode. The IM-HSS: (1) Supports IMS level authentication and authorization. and payload processing (e. The other one is the IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI). a single phone-number for an entire family). The BTS looks for the IMSI in the HLR. enabling subscriber data. The MS sends the IMSI to a BTS for identification of the MS in the GSM network. e-mail and even business applications -. so both can be reached with the same identity (for example. (4) Keeps track of currently assigned S-CSCF and (5) Supports CSCF and AS access. a mobile network code. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a sip-uri. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a sip-uri. in Japan. The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. so both can be reached with the same identity (for example. IMPI: IP Multimedia Private Identity IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI) is one of the two identities used by an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). or conference bridges). The IMPI is unique to the phone. IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is a unique number that is associated with all GSM and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network mobile phone users. IMTS: Improved Mobile Telephone Service Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) is the commercial form of mobile telephone service preceding cellular that allowed users to place and receive their own calls through the use of a dial or keypad on the telephone. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 3G architecture. but service creation.g. the owner can call his or her network provider and instruct them to "ban" the phone using its IMEI number. IMS-MGW: IP Multimedia Subsystem Media Gateway IP Multimedia Subsystem Media Gateway (IMS-MGW). IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. roaming and interconnection. and runs over the standard Internet Protocol (IP). but URIs. The IMPI is unique to the phone.Home Subscriber Service The IP Multimedia . Both are not phone numbers or other series of digits.such as games. and you can have multiple IMPU per IMPI (often a tel-uri and a sip-uri). that can be digits (a tel-uri. IMT-2000: International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) is a group of technologies defined by ITU-T for the third generation mobile telephony. It is a 15-digit serial number that contains a type approval code.uniquely identifies each one. (3) Maintains service-specific data. also known as iMode. It can also be applied to mobile telephone standards that meet a number of requirements in terms of transmission speed and other factors. Existing phone systems (both packet- switched and circuit-switched) are supported. and you can have multiple IMPU per IMPI (often a tel-uri and a sip-uri). IM-HSS: IP Multimedia . It is sent by the mobile phone to the network and is also used to acquire other details of the mobile in the Home Location Register (HLR) or as locally copied in the Visitor Location Register.

that allows for voice paging. If the data is not decoded properly. IS-634 is deployed worldwide in the cdmaOne mobile wireless networks. i.IN: Intelligent Network Intelligent Network (IN) often referred to as the Advanced Intelligent Network. IS-54 IS-54. IrDA: Infrared Data Association Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is an industry organization that creates standards for hardware and software used in infrared communications. is employed in short-range communications among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. software and protocols used to implement features on the network and support switching and control functions.9 GHz wireless spread spectrum radio-frequency access technology developed by Omnipoint Corp. InFLEXion InFLEXion is the narrowband PCS technology developed by Motorola Inc. IS-2000 IS-2000. i. IS-136 (TDMA) and CDMA technologies. IS-136 uses Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA) as an air interface. IS-661. This interface uses the services provided by Connection Oriented SCCP for its transport layer. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam. this is a network of equipment. IS-41 IS-41. data. in most cases. no redundant data.S. This standard was replaced by the IS-136 digital standard in 1996. is a standard for current CDMA systems providing a migration path to 3G services. IRC: Infrared communication InfraRed Communication (IRC). If data is retransmitted using a different puncture or coding scheme.e. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density. IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in adjoining rooms. IrOBEX: Infrared OBject Exchange Infrared OBject EXchange (IrOBEX) or OBEX) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. IS-95 Interim Standard 95 (IS-95). for which Omnipoint was awarded a pioneer's preference license for the New York City market. Digital Cellular (USDC). more recently. One of OBEX's earliest popular applications was in the Palm III personal digital assistant. an EIA Interim Standard for U. It used digital traffic channels but retained the use of analog control channels. increasing the amount of redundant data and the likelihood of recovering from the errors. This PDA and its many successors use OBEX to exchange business cards. The brand name for IS-95 . The company says IS-661 reduces infrastructure costs and allows higher data speeds than mainstream GSM or TDMA platforms. GSM and WCDMA networks use a different standard known as MAP for the same purpose. is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. Infrared Infrared is the electromagnetic waves whose frequency range is above that of microwaves. It works by first sending only the minimum amount of redundant data. and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. and routing calls on mobile phone networks based on MPS (analog). it is then recombined with the first transmission to increase redundancy. have become available for many embedded applications. the system will resend the same data using a different puncture or coding scheme. IS-634 The IS-634 interface is a standard defined by TIA/EIA that defines the messaging interface between a TDMA Base Station (BS) and a Mobile Switching Center (MSC). is based on a composite of code division multiple access and time division multiple access technologies. is a specification for identifying and authenticating users. but below that of the visible spectrum. to encode the data. as opposed to radio waves. also known as ANSI-41 since it is a standard defined by ANSI. is the original TDMA digital standard implemented in 1992. and calls are routed when roaming across different networks. These devices usually conform to standards published by IrDA. IS-661 IS-661 is a North American standard for 1. It is maintained by the Infrared Data Association but has also been adopted by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group and the SyncML wing of the OMA. It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter. This standard was the first to permit the use digital channels in AMPS systems. IS-136 IS-136. switched on and off. Most TV remote controls use infrared. IrDA standards have been implemented on various computer platforms and. The beam is modulated. IR: Incremental Redundancy Incremental redundancy (IR) is the feature used by EDGE (EGPRS) systems to get maximum performance out of the available bandwidth. replacing IS-54 of the original tDMA standard.e. Information is transferred via rays of light. The standard also defines how users are identified. Interferance Interferance is the effect that occurs when undesired signals inhibits or degrades the reception of a desired signal. also known as EIA Interim Standard 2000. even applications. the Infrared Data Association. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. is the second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems used in the D-AMPS.

an EIA Interim Standard 95. IWF: Interworking Function Interworking Function (IWF) is a technique for interfacing data between a wireless system and the telephone network. JTAPI is part of the JavaPhone API. kpbs: Kilobits per second kpbs (Kilobits per second) is a measurement of data rate. KHz: KiloHertz One kHz (KiloHertz) is equal to 1. The services include those needed in a consumer device up to those of enterprise call centers. Jamming Jamming refers to the interference with the air radio transmission. It is intended specifically for the programming requirements of mobile phones. is the original digital mobile telephony standard based on CDMA technology. It is a much easier text input method than the traditional multi- tapping. also known as T9 TM text input. It usually involves the use of modems or data terminal adapters to convert the data transmitted over the air interface and mobile network to a format that can be recognized and carried by the public telecommunications network. It contains parameters for identifying and authenticating the user to the IMS. to send voice. The ISIM application can co-exist with SIM and USIM on the same UICC making it possible to use the same smart card in both GSM networks and earlier releases of UMTS. JTAPI: Java Telephony API The Java Telephony API (JTAPI) is an extensible API that offers an interface to all call control services. Ku-Band Ku-Band refers to the bandwidth of electromagnetic wave between 12 GHz to 14 GHz. call control. iTAP iTAP. data services for 2G operates at maximum speed of 9. ISI: Inter-Symbol Interference Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) is an interference effect where energy from prior symbols in a bit stream is present in later cdmaOne. IS-95 is also known as TIA-EIA-95. which is a measurement of frequency. JavaPhone JavaPhone is a Java API specification controlling contacts. Key Pulse Signal Key-pulse signal is the first signal in an multifrequency outpulsing format. . IS-95a IS-95a.6kbps.000 Hertz. which is primarily used in satellites operating at 30 GHz uplink and 20 GHz downlink for mobile voice communications. for example. power management. data and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile telephones and cell sites. JTACS or J-TAGS: Japanese Total Access Communication System Japanese Total Access Communication System (JTAGS) is a 1G technology deployed in Japan based on the European TACS system. is a application installed on wireless phones and handheld devices that allows you to type messages with just one key press per letter using the keypad. It may be used by people who is trying to disturb the receiver from receiving the radio signal at a target frequency. a multiple access scheme for digital radio. ISIM: IP Multimedia Services Identity Module IP Multimedia Services Identity Module (ISIM) is an application running on a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) smart card in a 3G mobile telephone in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Ka-Band Ka-Band refers to the bandwidth of electromagnetic wave between 33 GHz to 36 GHz. It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . which is a control signal used to prepare the remote customer installation to receive digits. It is applied in the cdmaOne mobile network IS-95b IS-95b is an upgraded version of IS-95a for the cdmaOne mobile network that increases the maximum data rate to 115. Micro Edition Java 2 Platform Micro Edition (J2ME) is a technology that allows developers to use the Java programming language to create applications for mobile wireless devices.J K J2ME: Java 2 Platform. JTAGS is operating in the 900-MHz band. and phone book management.2 kb/s. ITU: International Telecommunications Union International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is a United Nations agency that deals with telecommunications issues. which is primarily used in satellites operating at 14 GHz uplink and 11 GHz downlink in supporting braodband TV and Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) system (DSS). ISI is normally caused by filtering of the data streams.

075 B 31. is used within the Bluetooth protocol stack at the data link layer.3 GHz) has been allocated for LMDS to deliver broadband services in a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint configuration to residential and commercial customers. LEAP is one of several protocols used with the IEEE 802. the Shannon Limit.225 B 31. Currently. This tutorial details the underlying technology inherent in offering voice. data.L L2CAP: Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol. This is used for billing and sub-net operation purposes. LASCDMA: Large Area Synchronized Code Division Multiple Access Large Area Synchronized Code Division Multiple Access (LASCDMA) is a technology developed by LinkAir that offers a higher spectral efficiency and moving speed for better mobile-application support. transmitters. While LDPC and other error correcting codes cannot guarantee perfect transmission.3 MHz of bandwidth (27.225 GHz. Internet. and 31.1 B 29. 31 B 31. LDPC was the first code to allow data transmission rates close to the theoretical maximum. Link budget Link budget is a calculation involving the gain and loss factors associated with the antennas. Basically. its asymmetric traffic. In the United States. It passes packets to either the Host Controller Interface (HCI) or on a hostless system. authentication.25 GHz. LMDS: Local Multipoint Distribution System Local multipoint distribution system (LMDS) is the broadband wireless technology used to deliver voice. typically short as L2CAP. higher throughput. and video services over LMDS through integration with the wireline environment.075 GHz. To perform its service provider role. and smaller delay provide improved IP support. LMP carries out link setup. LEAP provides username/password-based authentication between a wireless client and a RADIUS server like Cisco ACS or Interlink AAA. Internet. transmission lines and propagation environment used to determine the maximum distance at which a transmitter and receiver can successfully operate. 1. LMDS systems use a cellular-like network architecture though services provided are fixed. not mobile. See HLR and VLR. Lee's model Lee's model is a slope-intercept propagation prediction model developed at Bell Laboratories and popularized by William Lee. directly to the Link Manager. It discovers other remote Link Manager (LM) and communicates with them via the Link Manager Protocol (LMP). the probability of lost information can be made as small as desired. LAI: Location Area Identity Location Area Identity (LAI) is the information carried in the SIM of GSM handsets that identify the subscriber's home area. LMP: Link Manager Protocol Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is a data link layer protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack.Also. 29. also known as Cisco-Wireless EAP. LEAP: Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP). and video services in the 25-GHz and higher spectrum (depending on licensing). is a Cisco security technology that builds on Wi-Fi's WEP encryption.1X standard for LAN port access control. LNA: Low Noise Amplifier Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is a receiving preamplifier having very low internal noise characteristics placed very near the antenna of a receiver to capture the C/N before it can be further degraded by noise in the receiving system. it changes the WEP key dynamically during a session to make it less likely that a snooper will be able to derive the key. LEO: Low Earth Orbit Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is the orbit between 700 and 2. . Wireless portability is expected to become a reality by the end of 2003. The model assumes an initial condition at a short distance from a base station and uses that as one end of a slope intercept model to predict path loss between a base station and a mobile unit. 31. LDPC code: Low-Density-Parity-Check code A low-density parity-check code (LDPC code) is an error-correcting code and a method of transmitting a message over a noisy transmission channel. A LAS- CDMA TDD variant is compatible with systems such as TD-SCDMA. LNP: Local Number Portability Local Number Portability (LNP) is the capability that allows wireless customers to switch carriers but retain the same phone number. Location registration Location registration is one of several computer databases used to maintain location and other information on mobile subscribers. Location Server Location Server allows end users to connect real-time location information from mobile service operator with mapping and routing information.000 kilometers above the Earth for Mobile communications satellite. data. As a result of the propagation characteristics of signals in this frequency range. link configuration and other protocols. the LM uses the services of the underlying Link Controller (LC). LAS-CDMA is being considered as phase 2 of the 1xEV standards. Location server enables mobile service providers to provide their end-users with personalized contents that are location-dependent.5 B 28.35 GHz.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .

The other three are Uu. lub Lub is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. but can.e. The lu interface is an external interface that connects the RNC to the Core Network (CN). Lu is the standardized interface between a Radio Network Controller Network and Packet Subsystem (e. When a network uses a MAC table. MAI: Multiple Access Interference Multiple Access Interference (MAI) is a type of interference caused by multiple cellular users who are using the same frequency allocation at the same time. Every wireless 802. Uu. lub and lur. similar to the way human voice is produced. and lub. . Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .g. or Non Line of Sight. is the 3GPP radio technology evolution architecture.11 device has its own specific MAC address hard-coded into it. The lub is an internal interface connecting the RNC with the Node B. RF channel. MANET: Mobile Ad Hoc Network Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) refers to a type of mobile network in which each node has the ability to act as a router. also known as macrocell. The feedback is usually in the form of signal level and quality measurements on the downlink and signal level measurements from neighbor cells. LPA: Linear Power Amplifier Linear Power Amplifier (LPA) is the final amplification stage in a multicarrier transmitter that has been designed and optimized to produce a linear response. Lub is the interface between a Base Station and Radio NetworkController. is a large cell in a wireless system capable of covering a large physical area. The other three are Uu. Its full name is UTRA-UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE). MACRO Cell MACRO Cell. is the bit having the least numerical value. Macrocells are used in rural areas and other areas where subscriber or traffic densities are low. The other three are lu. LPC: Linear Predictive Coding Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) is a speech encoding scheme that uses periodic pulses to excite a filter. i. lu and lur. lu Lu is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. The opposite to LOS is NLOS. Different users can use the same frequency in the same cell except that they must transmit at different times.Logic Channel Logic Channel is a communications channel derived from a physical channel. in a binary coding scheme. each user is then given a pair of frequencies (uplink and downlink) and a time slot during a frame. lur Lur is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. but can. sometimes also referred to as 3G LTE or Super-3G. The lur connects two RNCs with each other. By operating in the linear mode. The lur interface which is an internal interface most of the time. Analogous to the units position in a decimal number. LOS: Loss of Signal Loss of signal (LOS) is a condition where the received signal drops below threshold due to a terrain obstruction or other phenomenon increasing the link budget loss beyond design parameters.M MAC address MAC address (Media Access Control address) is the address associated with every hardware device on the network. the amplifier reduces the non-linear effects that produce intermodulation products and side-lobe spectra that cause adjacent channel interference. This multiple-access interference can present a significant problem if the power level of the desired signal is significantly lower (due to distance) than the power level of the interfering user. LTE: Long Term Evolution Long Term Evolution (LTE). only the 802. RNC-3GSGSN). These usually include multiple control and traffic channels. In both 2G and 3G moble networking. LOS: Line of Sight Line of Sight (LOS) describes an unobstructed radio path or link between the transmitting and receiving antennas of a communications system. exceptionally be an external interface too for some network architectures.The code is predictive in that it uses knowledge of past data (represented as vectors) to predict future values in a feed forward manner. This unique identifier can be used to provide security for wireless networks. MAHO: Mobile Assisted Handoff Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO) is a handoff technique involving feedback from the mobile station as part of the handoff process. A physical channel. exceptionally be an external interface for some network architectures. too.11 radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table are able to get onto the network. LSB: Least Significant Bit Least Significant Bit (LSB). And at last there is the lur interface which is an internal interface most of the time. typically carries a data stream that contains several logical channels.

Master Access Point Master Access Point is the primary access point in a wireless network that uses WDS to extend range. MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) is a broadcasting service that can be offered via existing GSM and UMTS cellular networks.complex conjugate impulse response of the combined transmitter filter-channel impulse response. MCD: Mobile Computing Device Mobile Computing Devices (MCD) are the computer devices such as notebook that can access to the network through mobile access. or relay access points." MExE classmark 1 is based on WAP. MBS provides radio coverage restricted to a small area (e. and truly mobile broadband wireless networks. allows for the implementation of the mobile network (GSM) signaling infrastructure. and classmark 3 on J2ME CLDC and MIDP. MExE does this by defining different technology requirements called "classmarks. They are therefore less obtrusive than the usual masts and antennae used for these purposes and meet with less public opposition. under the name or WiMedia Alliance to align goals more fully. Other classmarks may be defined in the future.20 group to define the interface that allows the creation of low-cost.permitting adaptable multihop communications. The master access point shares the Internet connection with the rest of the remote. one of the protocols in the SS7 suite. Matched filter Matched filter is the receiver filter with impulse response equal to the timereversed. GSM and GPRS connectivity. MExE specifies additional requirements for all classmarks. MBS: Mobile Broadband Systems Mobile Broadband Systems (MBS) are extensions of the wired B-ISDN system. The infrastructure offers an option to use an uplink channel for interaction between the service and the user. along with all the wireless clients. Each antenna point contains a 63-65 GHz wireless unit alongside a large memory store providing proxy and cache services. and logical link control (LLC) layers. MAP: Mobile Application Part The Mobile Application Part (MAP). The air interface will operate in bands below 3. with a master database. The establishment and maintenance of these routes. MBWA: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA). MBOA: MultiBand OFDM Alliance MultiBand OFDM Alliance (MBOA) was an industrial association with a focus on the Ultra WideBand wireless communication technologies. typically means the combination of three IS-95 carriers to form one wideband carrier. MDSS: Mobile Data Synchronization Service Mobile Data Synchronization Service (MDSS) is the ability to synchronize data on client devices with data stored in an enterprise database.g. The Multi-Band OFDM Alliance and the WiMedia Alliance were merged in 2005. which is not a straightforward issue in usual broadcast networks. MBMS uses multicast distribution in the core network instead of point-to-point links for each end device. for instance. as for example conventional digital television is only a one-way (unidirectional) system. user interface personalization. always-on. a security environment. capability and content negotiation. is severely affected by the stochastic nature of wireless communications. is an IEEE standard defined by the 802. Mcps: Mega Chips Per Second Mega Chips Per Second (Mcps) is a measure of the number of bits (chips) per second in the spreading sequence of direct sequence spreading code. television studio) and supports communications between MBS mobile terminals and terminals directly connected to the B-ISDN at up to 155 Mbit/s. sports arena. making it diffcult to implement such nets in practice. nicknamed as Mobile-Fi. This may be any type of device from a hand-held type of unit to a host computer. medium access control (MAC). MC-CDMA MC-CDMA. factory. MexE: Mobile Station Application Execution Environment Mobile Station Application Execution Environment (MexE) is a framework to ensure a predictable environment for third-party applications in GSM or UMTS handsets. classmark 2 on PersonalJava and JavaPhone. MDA: Microconnect Distributed Antennae Microconnect Distributed Antennae (MDA) are small-cell local area (200–300 metre range) transmitter-receivers usually fitted to lampposts and other street furniture in order to provide Wireless LAN. It is an evolution of IS-95 for third generation systems. A handset can support multiple classmarks. called the Home Location Register (HLR). management of services and virtual home environment. however. The HLR is consulted during the processing of an incoming call. The premise behind MAP is to connect the distributed switching elements. called mobile switching centers (MSCs). A common protocol has been developed that will eventually allow a variety of clients to synchronize with a variety of databases. also called CDMA2000. a user profile. The scope of the MBWA standard consists of the physical (PHY). MED: Message Entry Device Message Entry Device (MED) is a device which sends information into a paging network using TDP. . The HLR dynamically stores the current location and profile of a mobile network subscriber.5 GHz and with a peak data rate of over 1 Mbit/s.

MIMO technology uses multiple antennas to collect and organize signals arriving via these paths. Single Output Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) is a smart antenna technology that uses multiple transmitters and a single receiver on a wireless device to improve the transmission distance. more commonly. The MIDP specification addresses such issues as user interface.11n standard. which occurs when a radio transmission starts out at point A and then reflects off or passes through surfaces or objects before arriving. The MIMO technology takes advantage of a characteristic called multipath. The MMDS band uses microwave frequencies from 2 GHz to 3 GHz in range. See also TMSI. m-law companding M-law companding is a type of non-linear (logarithmic) quantizing. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). In the case of analog cellular. Microbrowser Microbrowser is a modified Web browser that allows users to get Internet data on a handheld wireless device Microcell Microcell is a very small cell used in densely populated areas where traffic volume is high. MISO technology can be applied in areas such as Digital TeleVision (DTV). is a measurement of frequency. also known wireless cable. MIN: Mobile Identification Number Mobile Identification Number (MIN) is a unique identification number given to a mobile unit. The implementation of MISO would include multiple antennas at the source. and application model MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) refers to using multiple antennas in a Wi-Fi device to improve performance and throughput. Microwave-based networks are an evolving technology gaining favor due to high bandwidth and relatively low cost. MMDS is used usually in sparsely populated rural areas. in which one MHz is equal to one million Hertz. Microwave Microwave is the electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 1 to 30 GHz. MHz: Megahertz MHz or Megahertz. There is no official definition of what cell radius distinguishes a small cell from a microcell. Reception of MMDS-delivered television signals is done with a special rooftop microwave antenna and a set-top box for the television receiving the signals. this number is the telephone number of the handset. It provides a basic J2ME application runtime environment targeted at mobile information devices. the MIN is used to route the call. companding and encoding techniques for speech signals based on the m-law. networking. MHS: Message Handling System Message Handling System (MHS) is a general-purpose system used for receiving. MMM: Mobile Media Mode Mobile Media Mode (MMM. used for general-purpose broadband networkings or. The receiver box is very similar in appearance to an analog cable television receiver box. It performs protocol conversion between ISDN User Part (ISUP) and the IMS call-control protocols.MFN: Multi-Frequency Network A Multi-Frequency Network (MFN) is a type of radio network that operates several transmitters on a number of different frequencies. and sending messages with a consistent set of protocols to connect to external devices. is a wireless telecommunications technology. as an alternative method of cable television programming reception. In most second generation system. or transmitter. MIDP: Mobile Information Device Profile Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is a set of Java APIs that is generally implemented on the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC). persistent storage. storing. and mobile communications. MISO: Multiple Input. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). In most cases. also marked as WWW:MMM). such as mobile phones and two-way pagers. . the system assigns temporary numbers to the handset to route calls as a security precaution. This type of companding uses a m factor of 255 and is optimized to provide a good signal-to-quantizing noise ratio over a wide dynamic range. and the destination. MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF). Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). Other forms of smart antenna technology include Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). at point B. MMDS: Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS). is a marketing icon comprising a unifying industry-wide marketing symbol representing web-based mobile products and services. The technology is included the 802. or receiver. has only one antenna -- the antennas are combined to minimize errors and optimize data speed. MLD: Maximum Likelyhood Detection Maximum Likelyhood Detection (MLD) is an optimal scheme for detecting the spatially multiplexed signals in a mobile network. communicates with the Call Session Control Function (CSCF) and controls the connections for media channels in an IMS-MGW. where laying cables is not economically viable. via multiple paths.

Mobile multihop relay is supported only for the OFDMA mode of IEEE Standard 802. 802. The purpose of enabling relay is to enhance coverage. and Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio.16e (formally known as 802. that is used to access network services. When the mobile moves to a new location. Geographic service coverage is anticipated to be larger than most PCS services and may be worldwide.frequency. range. Licensed spectrum is used for relay. such as a mobile handset or computer. and potentially video messages among computers. Mobile Data service Mobile data service is a personal communications service that is expected to provide two-way wireless communication of text. MOS: Mean Opinion Score Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is a statistical rating and scoring technique used to rate the performance of telephone connections by users. GPRS networks support three classes of mobile station. MMR-BS: MMR Base Station Mobile Multihop Relay Base Station (MMR-BS) refers to a base station that is compliant with amendments IEEE 802. two IP addresses are provided for each computer: home IP address which is fixed and care-of IP address which is changing as the computer moves. which brings together two of the world's most powerful technologies -. based on an existing WiMax standard 802.16e-2005.MMR: Mobile Multihop Relay Mobile Multihop Relay (MMR) refers to the concept of relaying user data and possibly control information between an MMR base station and an IEEE Standard 802. Mobile WiMax allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access). In Mobile IP. and other rich media between cell phones. Mobile IP Mobile IP is the key protocol to enable mobile computing and networking. and throughput and possibly capacity of an MMRBS and to enable very low power devices to participate in the network.16e-2005 and has been enhanced by amendment IEEE 802.16e-2005. Relay stations that support a particular MMR-BS are managed by that MMR-BS. voice messages. An MMR-BS is fully compliant with IEEE Standard 802. It is expected that Mobile Satellite services will offer enhanced features such as call waiting and voice mail. handheld phones. which has extended functionality to support MMR as defined in 802.16j to support mobile multihop relay.the Internet and mobile communication. frequency or phase of a radio signal in order to transmit information. mobile satellite. Mobile WiMAX Mobile WiMax refers to the technologies defined in the IEEE 802.16a. MPE: Multi-Pulse Excited Multi-Pulse Excited (MPE) is a multi-pulse process for determining the position and amplitude of sample pulses in a speech codec. personal digital assistants. Modulation Modulation refers to carring information on a signal by varying one or more of the signal's basic characteristics -. . For example. Mobile data services can be provided by a number of technologies such as cellular. a Class A MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and GSM services. MMSE estimators are commonly described as optimal.16j through IEEE 802. it must send its new address to an agent at home so that the agent can tunnel all communications to its new address timely. and wireless modems incorporated into devices such as notebook computers.16j. Personal Telecommunications Services. Mobile Satellite Mobile Satellite is a personal communications service that is anticipated to provide two-way voice and data communications using satellites. as well as networks. Modulate Modulate refers to varying the amplitude. Mobile Station Mobile Station (MS) refers generically to any mobile device. adds WiMax mobility in the 2 to 6 GHz licensed bands. sounds. provides an improvement on the modulation schemes stipulated in the original (fixed) WiMAX standard. The adjective œmobile used here refers to the fact that both mobile subscriber stations and mobile relay stations are supported. amplitude and phase. Each cell is served by a radio base station from where calls are forwarded to and received from your mobile phone by wireless radio signals. and databases. MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) allows users to send messages containing text. which describe the type of operation supported within the GPRS and the GSM mobile wireless networks.16e.16-2005). Different modulation carries the information as the change from the immediately preceding state rather than the absolute state. pictures. It is possible to establish multiple communications paths between the MMR-BS and an MS and to communicate the same user data and/or control/management information through both paths to improve communications reliability. Mobile phone network Mobile phone network is a network of cells.16 compliant mobile station through one or more relay stations. MMSE: Minimum Mean Squared Error Minimum mean-square error (MMSE) relates to an estimator having estimates with the minimum mean squared error possible. which addresses mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax).

It was conceived as a substitute for conventional cable television (TV). MSC: Mobile Switching Center Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is the place that provides telephony switching services and controls calls between telephone and data systems. refers to the 15-digit number that is used to refer to a particular mobile station. MSISDN: Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Number Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Number (MSISDN). resulting in lower side lobes and less adjacent channel interference performance. commercial and economic ties and were first used to license cellular service in the early '80s. MSAs cross state lines in some instances.of Commerce to collect economic data. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number. MSS: Mobile Satellite Service Mobile satellite services (MSS) refers to the communications satellites network for mobile and portable wireless telephones services. MTA: Message Transfer Agent Message Transfer Agent (MTA) is the portion of a Message Handling System (MHS) that deals with moving messages within the Message Handling System (MHS). The ITU-T recommendation E. reassigns frequencies for hand-offs. MSA: Metropolitan Statistical Area Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is a geographic area over which a cellular operator is licensed to provide service.7 GHz. etc. data and vedio.164 defines the international numbering plan that MSISDN is based on. MSK: Minimum Shift Keying Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is a modulation technique using sinusoidal shaped input data pulses to drive the phase modulator. a computer or a switch. it also has applications in telephone/fax and data communications.MRFC: Multimedia Resource Function Controller Multimedia Resource Function Controller (MRFC). MSO: Multi-Services Operator Multi-Services Operator (MSO) is a service provider which provides multiple services such as voice (mobile and fixed line). MSB: Most Significant Bit Most Significant Bit (MSB). amongst other variants. MRS mobility is constrained by the same limits as an Mobile Staton (MS) in IEEE Std 802. MTSO: Mobile Telephone Switching Office Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO). in a binary coding scheme. MSAs were first used by the Dept. Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Multichannel multipoint distribution service is a broadcasting and communications service that operates in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) portion of the radio spectrum between 2. interconnects calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies. compiles billing information. The MTSO assigns frequencies to each call. is the bit having the greatest numerical value. Multipath Multipath is a propagation phenomenon characterized by the arrival of multiple versions of the same signal from different locations shifted in time due to having taken different transmission paths of varying lengths. Mobile Station ISDN Number. However. . The MSC switches all calls between the mobile and the PSTN and other mobiles. MRS: Mobile Relay Station Mobile Relay Station (MRS). This results in a linear phase change over conventional QPSK. An MRS may be installed in a bus or train for use by IEEE Std 802. Every cellular system has one or more MTSOs or switches. MS: Mobile Station Mobile Station refers to the customer terminal including hardware and software in a wireless network.16-2005 subscribers.16e-2005.1 and 2. LMSS (land MSS). is the brains of a cellular system. the mobile equivalent of ISDN. MSAs are groups of counties in metropolitan areas having common financial. There are three major types of MSS: AMSS (aeronautical MSS). is a relay station that is intended to function while in motion. a concept in the mobile WiMAX network. MRFP is where the actual media processing resources reside. is the element responsible for taking SIP requests from the Application Server (AS) and translating them to messages that control the media processing resources residing in the Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP). The acronym MSISDN has a number of different expansions when used to refer to the value: Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number. The mixing of the various conference participants media streams is performed by the MRF (Media Resource Function) which comprises of the MRFC (Media Resource Function Controller) and the MRFP (Media Resource Function Processor). Analogous to the left-most numeric position in a decimal number. Multichannel multipoint distribution service is also known as wireless cable. and MMSS (maritime MSS). MRFP: Multimedia Resource Function Processor Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP) is a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).

are sufficiently spread over enough blocks as to be corrected by the outer layer. (4) Access network configuration. and.g. based on user profile. and finding and mapping WLAN installations. Nationwide Paging Nationwide Paging is a method of national or regional paging in which a single frequency is used throughout the nation (region) for sending messages to a paging system subscriber. NMC: Network Management Center Network Management Center (NMC) is an operations center used to manage network resources such as the MSC. The standard specifies a way for the devices to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network to exchange data. also known as near-line-of-sight or obstructed path/pathway. using DHCP). (2) User authentication. NetStumbler NetStumbler is a freely available Windows utility for wireless LAN discovery. CDMA. including parts of Russia. and in the Middle East and Asia. trees. home system ID and other information. Finland and Denmark in the early 1980s. provides the following functionalities: (1) Dynamic provision of IP address and other user equipment configuration parameters (e. Typical multiple access technologies include FDMA. . NFC: Near Field Communication Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity standard jointly developed by Philips and Sony that uses magnetic field induction to enable communications between devices when they're touched together. (3) Authorisation of network access. mountains. high voltage electric power lines. It is useful for site surveys. It is useful for site surveys.not able to be corrected by the inner code -. NLOS: Non Line of Sight Non Line of Sight (NLOS). detecting rogue access points. The third generation is CDMA2000 and more. in some cases. The result is three times more voice channel capacity than the traditional AMPS system provides. NASS: Network Attachment Subsystem The Network Attachment Subsystem (NASS). and they are compatible with traditional AMPS systems.450 (NMT-450) is an early cellular system developed and operated in northern Europe utilizing the 450 MHz band. detecting rogue access points. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . NAMPS is a cellular call-handling system that uses digital signalling techniques to split the existing 30 kHz wideband voice channels into three 10 kHz narrowband voice channels. NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephony Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) is the common Nordic standard for analog mobile telephony as established by the telecommunications administrations in Sweden. NADS: North American Digital Standards North American Digital Standards (NADS) refers to the North America cellular standards: the first generation is TDMA and has been in service since 1992.Multiple access Multiple access is the process of allowing multiple radio links or users to address the same radio channel on a coordinated basis. and FHMA. NAMPS cellular phones are manufactured for dual mode operation. is a term used to describe radio transmission across a path that is partially obstructed. to varying degrees. on line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. NMT is operated in 450 MHz and 900 MHz bands. The second generation is CDMA which was accepted by the TIA2. Norway. NAM: Number Assignment Module Number Assignment Module (NAM) is the programmable module in an AMPS analog phone used to contain the MIN. TDMA. location registers and base stations. ESN.N NACN: North American Cellular Network North American Cellular Network (NACN) is an organization of cellular providers that facilitates cellular calls across the country to be linked for seamless roaming. NMT-450: Nordic Mobile Telephony . NetStumbler NetStumbler is a freely available Windows utility for wireless LAN discovery. hills. based on user profile. and finding and mapping WLAN installations.450 Nordic Mobile Telephony . Many types of radio transmissions depend. (5) Location management. or brought within a few centimeters of each other. NMT systems have also been installed in some European countries. Nested codes Nested codes is a type of concatenated block code where the layers (inner and outer) are amalgamated in such a way that burst errors -. Obstacles that commonly cause NLOS conditions include buildings. usually by a physical object in the Fresnel zone. prior or during the IP address allocation procedure. NAMPS: Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service (NAMPS) is an improved version of AMPS systems.48 as a standard in 1992. a component in the IP Multimedia Susbsystem (IMS).

data. or modulating. The caller simply calls your pager phone number and enters the number where you can reach them. The 802. is being considered as a modulation and multiple access method for 4th generation wireless networks. NRZ: Non Return to Zero Non Return to Zero (NRZ) is a type of data stream where successive data pulses "ones" are continuous over several clock cycles without returning to the "zero" state between successive "ones". ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing. The rate must be at least twice the highest frequency of interest in the waveform being sampled. Okamura model Okamura model is a propagation prediction model for land-mobile communications developed by Yoshi Okamuar et al.O OBEX: OBject Exchange OBject EXchange (OBEX or IrOBEX) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. Nyquist filter Nyquist filter is an ideal low pass filter with a cutoff frequency equal to the sampling rate. nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). The service offers unicast polls on a regular basis.11a/g wireless LAN (WiFi) and IEEE 802. 802. which assures that the flow receives request opportunities even during network congestion. The BSS and OSS complete the major components of the network. OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). . 802. a concept in the WiMAX network. Nyquist rate Nyquist rate is the minimum sampling rate proposed by Nyquist for converting a band limited waveform to digital pulses.16a/d/e wireless broadband access systems (WiMAX). An NRS may rely solely on battery power in some instances. also known as HPSK. Noise figure Noise figure is a figure of merit for receivers and preamplifiers representing the amount of excess noise added to the signal by the amplifier or receiving system itself. which is currently the modulation of choice for high speed data access systems such as IEEE 802. Numeric Paging or alphanumeric-paging Numeric Paging is the most widely used type of paging.16 (WiMAX) technologies use OFDM as the physical layer communication standard. such as high bandwidth FTP. rtPS (Real time polling Service). On the other hand. The Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS) is designed to support non real-time service flows that require variable size Data Grant Burst Types on a regular basis. OFDMA is an extension of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The lower the noise figure. the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). the less excess noise is added to the signal. It is maintained by the Infrared Data Association but has also been adopted by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group and the SyncML wing of the OMA. The group is working towards a way of harmonisation between CDMA2000 and W-CDMA. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .16 WiMAX.16 protocol supports five types of QoS — UGS (Unsolicited grant service). text paging allows callers to send the receiver a short message that you can act on immediately. This number appears on the receiver's pager. and the receiver can call the sender. NSS: Network Switching Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem is a portion of a GSM network that manages the connections and communications within the network. This technique is used to convert PAM pulses to an analog signal in D/A converters. also referred to as Multiuser-OFDM. nrtPS: Non-Real-Time Polling Service Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS) is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. One of OBEX's earliest popular applications was in the Palm III personal digital assistant. NRS: Nomadic Relay Station Nomadic Relay Station (NRS). This PDA and its many successors use OBEX to exchange business cards. OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an FDM modulation technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a radio wave. OFDM works by splitting the radio signal into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies to the receiver. OHG: Operators Harmonization Group Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) is a group of industry operators established to meet on harmonization issues. even applications. OCQPSK: Orthogonal Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Orthogonal Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OCQPSK).11a WLAN. An NRS is not permanently installed. in the late 1960s.Noise Noise refers to any undesirable communication channel signals. is a relay station that is intended to function from a location that is fixed during periods of time comparable to that of a user session.

OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Function Orthogonal Variable Spreading Function (OVSF) is a set of spreading codes derived from tree-structured set of orthogonal codes and are used to channelize the IMT-2000/ULTRA system. You may also see them called "patch antennas. OSA describes how services are architected in a UMTS network. OQPSK: Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK). . PAN allows devices to work together and share information and services. OMA was formed in June. conferencing and many more unknown services can be implemented with the help of these APIs. Packet radio networks use the AX. of regularly recurrent signal pulses. Using Bluetooth wireless technology. sometimes called Staggered QPSK (SQPSK). ORFS is a critical GSM transmitter measurement. In other words. information technology companies and content and service providers.25 protocol suite and designed for amateur radio use. PACS: Personal Access Communications System Personal Access Communications System (PACS) is a low mobility low power wireless system designed for residential use.25 data link layer protocol. Panel antennas are commonly used for point-to-point situations. OMC: Operations & Maintenance Center Operations & Maintenance Center (OMC) is a location used to operate and maintain a wireless network. 2002. The standards for OSA are being developed as part of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). PAN: Personal Area Network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communications among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person within a few meters. Panel Antenna Panel Antenna is an antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. Parabolic antennas offer the highest gain for long-range point-to-point situations. which allows multiple virtual circuits to coexist on a single radio channel. The APIs are guaranteed to be secure. it offers the ability to wirelessly synchronize with your desktop to access your e-mail and Internet/intranet from remote locations. and even in your car. Various services like VPN. A power amplifier is usually the final stage of amplification in a transmitter. using OQPSK increases the temporal efficiency of normal QPSK. ORFS: Output Radio Frequency Spectrum Output Radio Frequency Spectrum (ORFS) is a measurement for GSM signals that tests for interference in the adjacent frequency channels (ARFCNs) and results from two effects: modulation within the bursts and the power that ramps up and down. or train. PAM is used less frequently than PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation). device and network suppliers. independent of vendor specific solutions and also independent of programming language by use of Object Oriented techniques like CORBA. This network enables everyday devices to become smart. OSA: Open System Architecture Open System Architecture (OSA) is part of the 3rd generation (3G) UMTS mobile telecommunications network.OMA: Open Mobile Alliance Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is the leading industry forum for developing market-driven. Its name is a reference to the use of packet switching between network nodes. Paging Paging refers to deliver a message to someone when their location is unknown through a wireless device usually known as a pager. in your home. or switching transients. is a type of QPSK modulation that offsets the bit streams on the I and Q channels by a half bit.P Q PA: Power Amplifier Power Amplifier (PA) is a device for taking a low or intermediate-level signal and significantly boosting its power level. PAM: Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is a form of signal modulation in which the data is encoded in the amplitude of a series. interoperable mobile service enablers. Paring Paring is the process of engaging two Bluetooth devices to each other so they can communicate. The OSA provides APIs to access the network functions like authentication and authorization of the user." Parabolic Antenna Parabolic Antenna is an antenna type that radiates a very narrow beam in a specific direction. by nearly 200 companies including the world’s leading mobile operators. The fact that the whole value chain is represented in OMA marks a change in the way specifications for mobile services are done. Packet Radio Packet radio is a form of digital data transmission used in amateur radio to construct wireless computer networks. For example. derived from the X. Personal Area Networks can be created in public places. This reduces amplitude fluctuations and helps improve spectral efficiency. tetherless devices--working and communicating together. SOAP etc. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . in your office.

PCS services include next generation wireless phone and communication services.e. PCH: Paging Channel Paging Channel (PCH). but for packet data. it can be at the SGSN site. used primarily to notify the mobile that it has an incoming call. uplink 893-958 MHz). is a logical channel in GSM.Parity Parity is a simple error detection scheme. Path loss Path loss is the amount of loss introduced by the propagation environment between a transmitter and receiver. legislation. low-powered handsets. The air interface is defined in RCR STD-27 and the core network MAP by JJ-70. PCN: Personal Communications Network Personal Communications Network (PCN) is a standard for digital mobile phone transmissions operating at a frequency of 1800 MHz (also referred to as GSM 1800). PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) is used in UMTS 3G network to map higher-level protocol characteristics onto the characteristics of the underlying radio-interface protocols. PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) has defined a standardized technology used to develop a expansion for portable devices (i. but once a channel is allocated to the PCU. PCU: Packet Control Unit The Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard. inexpensive walk-around communications service with lightweight. providing protocol transparency for higher-layer protocols. PCS: Personal Communication Service Personal Communication Service (PCS) describes a wide variety of two-way digital wireless service offerings in North America operating at 1900 MHz. PDC: Personal Digital Cellular Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a TDMA-based 2G mobile phone standard developed and used exclusively in Japan. uplink 1429-1453 MHz) bands. also called password. . and 1.. Power loss that occurs when RF waves are transmitted through the air. notebooks) In paging these credit card sized devices support wireless connectivity. and W-CDMA systems used to send messages to mobile station. PCIA: Personal Communications Industry Association Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA) is an international trade association representing the personal communications services (PCS). private radio and other wireless users and carriers. giving you access to schedules and contact lists. 3 time slots. Certain electromagnetic frequencies (very high and non-commercial) are completely blocked or filtered by the atmosphere. the PCU takes full control over that channel. data messages.6 kbit/s (half-rate) voice codecs. pi/4-DQPSK modulation and low bit-rate 11. you may see passphrase used in place of "password" to indicate that you can enter more than a single word. wireless local loop. This loss occurs because the atmosphere provides a filtering effect to the signal. The PCU can be built into the base station. built into the BSC.2 kbit/s and 5. More generically. The allocation of channels between voice and data is controlled by the base station. PDC is implemented in the 800 MHz (downlink 810-888 MHz.10. A Personal Communications System refers to the hardware and software that provide communications services. in-building wireless LAN service for business. The term is often used interchangeably with PIM (personal information manager). enhanced paging service as well as wireless services integrated with wired networks. Passphrase Passphrase. The method usually involves counting the '1' bits in a codeword and then setting an additional bit to either '1' or '0' depending on whether the original number of '1' bits was even or odd. PDCP also provides protocol control information compression. is the words you must enter to authenticate both sides of the connection when pairing Bluetooth devices. Its primary objective is to advance regulatory policies. PDC uses 25 kHz carrier. It is used in Europe and Asia Pacific. PCM: Pulse Code Modulation Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is the most predominant type of digital modulation in use today. Partial Response Signalling Partial Response Signalling is a signalling technique in which a controlled amount of intersymbol interference is introduced at the transmitter to shape the transmitted spectrum. It performs some of the processing tasks of the Base Station Controller (BSC). SMR. PCM performs an analog to digital conversion of the speech waveform through a sampling process and encodes and transmits the samples in a serial bit stream as 8- bit digital words. It also acts as an electronic organizer. PDA: Personal Digital Assistant Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is a small. handheld wireless device for transmitting pages. faxes and e-mails. The 3Com PalmPilot is an example of a PDA or PIM.5 GHz (downlink 1477-1501 MHz. or even in some proposed architectures. PCIA: Personal Communications Industry Association Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA) is a trade group representing PCS. private radio and other wireless users and carriers. and technical standards in this industry. in-building cordless voice services for business. cdma2000.

It allows the mobile stations to acquire the timing of the forward channel. PIN: Personal Identification Number Personal Identification Number (PIN) is a code used for all GSM-based phones to establish authorization for access to certain functions or information. Parameters α and β tune the fairness of the scheduler. is it fair to all stations giving them equal bandwidth or is the scheduler maximizing the throughput of the channel. Pico cell Pico cell is a very small cell in a mobile network for boosting capacity within buildings. PLMN is the mobile equivalent of the PSTN. where T denotes the data rate potentially achievable for the station at the present moment (in the present time slot). controls traffic entering the packet-switched network by allocating or denying IP bearer resources. and how it is decoded when received. flexible range of internal frequency dividers which allow the designer the ability to create a synthesizer to match design requirements. R is the average data rate of this station. Physical channel Physical channel is the actual radio channel that carries the various logical and traffic channels in a wireless system. PHS is a lightweight portable wireless telephone that functions as a cordless phone at home and as a mobile phone elsewhere. that is. PLMN: Public Land-Mobile Network Public Land-Mobile Network (PLMN) is a European term used to describe all mobile wireless networks that use earth-based stations rather than satellites. Phase jitter Phase jitter is the amount of uncertainty introduced in digital demodulation caused by the rapid fluctuation of the frequency of the transmitted signal. Pilot pollution Pilot pollution is a type of co-channel interference in CDMA systems caused when the pilot code from a distant cell or base station is powerful enough to create an interference problem. Peak power Peak power is the maximum instantaneous power radiated by a pulsed or bursted transmitter. . phase is the current position in the cycle of something that changes cyclically. The Proportional Fair algorithm is an algorithm that schedules the channel for the station that has the maximum of the priority function. serves as a phase reference for demodulation.PDF: Probability Density Function In mathematics. It is more efficient in terms of the number of bytes transmitted and the size of the generated encoder and decoder. PDP Context Packet data protocol (PDP) context is a term used in the mobile wireless network indicating a logical association between an MS (Mobile Station) and PDN (Public Data Network) running across a GPRS network. a probability density function can be seen as a "smoothed out" version of a histogram: if one empirically measures values of a continuous random variable repeatedly and produces a histogram depicting relative frequencies of output ranges. and video signals. Pilot code Pilot code is a logical channel in a CDMA system characterized by an unmodulated direct sequence spread-spectrum signal continuously monitored by each base station. PDF: Policy Decision Function Policy Decision Function (PDF). The PIN code is delivered together with your subscription. typically due to imperfections in the clock recovery timing. QoS (Quality of Service). Billing etc. Informally. a probability density function (pdf) represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. PER is a successor to the Basic Encoding Rules (BER). and allows the mobile to search out the best (strongest) base stations for acquisition and hand- off. PER: Packed Encoding Rules Packed Encoding Rules (PER) is a set of rules that specifies how ASN. Phase Generally speaking. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Security. The context defines aspects such as Routing. The Personal Handyphone also handles voice. PHS: Personal HandyPhone System Personal HandyPhone System (PHS) was developed in Japan as a cordless telecommunication system operating within the band 1895MHz to 1918MHz. fax. PHP: Personal Handy Phone Personal Handy Phone (PHP) is the mobile handset used with the Japanese Personal Handy Phone system.1-defined information is encoded when transmitted. It is the power radiated while the transmitter is keyed or operated. PFS: Proportional Fair Scheduling Proportional Fair Scheduling (PFS) is a scheme for wireless communication for both a single antenna system and multiple transmit and receive antennas. PLL: Phase Locked Loop Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is a major component in the frequency synthesizer scheme. This device provides a wide. then this histogram will resemble the random variable's probability density.

PSD: Power spectral density Power spectral density (PSD) refers to the amount of power per unit (density) of frequency (spectral) as a function of the frequency. Users no longer need to make several calls to coordinate with a group. in dB. By knowing the power spectral density and system bandwidth. PoC: Push to Talk over Cellular Push To Talk Over Cellular (PoC) is a walkie-talkie type service provided over a cellular phone network. usually the ratio of the spreading rate to the information rate. PSK: Phase Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is a broad classification of modulation techniques where the information to be transmitted is contained in the phase of the carrier wave. Propagation Propagation is the process an electromagnetic wave undergoes as it is radiated from the antenna and spreads out across the physical terrain. horizontal and vertical. A single press reaches an active talk group. i. to extend battery life. Although it seems to lack any definite pattern. There are proprietary implementations.. Processing gain Processing gain is the amount of gain. and the Open Mobile Alliance defines standards for PoC.Phase Modulation Phase Modulation (PM) is the scheme of modulation that the phase of the carrier signal is modulated in accordance with the message signal PMP: Paging Message Processor Paging Message Processor (PMP) is a Radio Paging Terminal or equivalent message processing system. POCSAG is gradually being replaced by FLEX. PQA: Palm Query Applications Palm Query Applications (PQA) is an Internet clipping application developed from HTML code and run on Palm PDAs. and includes everything that influences the propagation between the two antennas. is a digital signal having framing information and using pseudo-noise in the individual traffic channels. are used to provide diversity reception. The antennas take advantage of the multipath propagation characteristics to receive separate uncorrelated signals. is a signal similar to noise which satisfies one or more of the standard tests for statistical randomness. a user can reserve a time slot for future uses. PN: Pseudo-Noise Pseudo-Noise (PN). POCSAG: Post Office Code Standard Advisory Group Post Office Code Standard Advisory Group (POCSAG). See also propagation channel. Propagation channel Propagation channel is the physical medium electromagnetic wave propagation between the transmit and receive antennas. commonly used to performance test PCM systems. Power control Power control is a technique for managing the transmit power in base stations and mobiles to a minimum level needed for proper performance. PRBS: Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS). also known as RPC1 (a CCIR standard taken directly from POCSAG). The application is designed to streamline the flow to the PDA to minimize the number of kilobytes sent and ultimately paid for. A push to talk over a cellular system typically supports telephony services. Push to talk calls are half duplex communications -. 1200. PNCQPSK is used in 3G mobile wireless technologies. the other(s) listen. PNCQPSK: Pseudo-Noise Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Pseudo-Noise Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (PNCQPSK) is the spreading technique that uses basic complex scrambling and Pseudo-Noise (PN) signals for Is and Qs. describes how the power (or variance) of a time series is distributed with frequency. Downlink power control applies to base stations and uplink power control to mobiles. Power control is used in nearly all wireless systems to manage interference. PMR: Private Mobile Radio Private Mobile Radio (PMR) is for use within a defined user group such as the emergency services or by the employees of a mining project. and in the case of mobiles. pseudorandom noise consists of a deterministic sequence of pulses that will repeat itself after its period. A push-to-talk connection is typically connected virtually instantaneously. and 2400 bits per second. .e. also known as pseudorandom noise (PRN). Polarization diversity Polarization diversity is a diversity technique where antennas of different polarizations. The code that they designed is now implemented by most pager manufacturers and is the most widely used code to date. PRMA: Packet Reservation Multiple Access Packet Reservation Multiple Access (PRMA) is a packet-based TDMA concept where the users contend for the time slots. The POCSAG code can be operated at three speeds. 512.while one person speaks. is a group formed by the British Post Office to design a non-proprietary digital paging code. provided by the spreading code in a CDMA system. The power spectral density. the total power can be calculated. PSD. In situations where the system is not near capacity.

radio is generally refered to as electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are between 10 kHz and 300 GHz. Telecommunications&Telegraph (PTT) is typically the Ministry of Post. sometimes called Partially Used Sub-Channel.PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched telephone networks. Use of FUSC. The RAB may be compared to a threshold to determine a mode of reverse link data rate determination. Basically. This is extremely useful with long codes. RACH: Random Access Channel Random Access Channel (RACH) is the channel used by mobiles in GSM and W-CDMA systems to gain access to the system when first attaching to it.R RAB: Reverse-Link Activity Bit Reverse-Link Activity Bit (RAB) is for determining the data rate of a reverse link communication of a mobile communication system. in practice. providing commercial telephony services. shown in the diagram with Gray coding to minimize the BER. QPSK uses four points on the constellation diagram. QPSK: Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing. The mode defines a set of criteria for an aggressiveness level of increasing or decreasing the reverse link communication data rate. QCIF consumes less memory while still achieving an acceptable level of clarity on small displays such as those incorporated in mobile phones. dominant operator in a country. in which each combination of phase and amplitude represents one of sixteen four-bit patterns. and passing a non-busy state value of the RAB to the digital filter when the access terminal is in the idle mode.000 GHz as defined in Article 2 of the Radio Law in general. PUSC: Partially Used Sub-Carrier Partially Used Sub-Carrier (PUSC). PTT: Post. The processor. Telecommunications and Telegraph. mainly in the DownLink. the PSTN is now almost entirely digital and includes mobile as well as fixed telephones. the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). determines the data rate based on the filtered reverse activity bit in accordance with the determined mode. RACE:Research in Advanced Communications Equipment Research in Advanced Communications Equipment (RACE) is an ETSI research project that has subsequently been replaced by ACTS. Telecommunications&Telegraph Post. therefore. the amplitude of two waves. Although resolution is courser than CIF. was first defined in the IEEE802. With four phases.16d (Fixied WiMAX) for the OFDMA PHY layer. However. many of which are being or have been privatized. Q-Band Q-Band. Originally as a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems. Punctured code Punctured code is a technique used in convolutional decoders that allows a limited number of coded bits to be deleted to greatly simplify processing in the codec. Radio Radio is the electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are below 3. the IEEE802. is a radio bandwidth range between 40 GHz t0 50 GHz. Quantizing Quantizing is the process of assigning values to waveform samples by comparing the samples to discrete steps. Quadrature-Phase The quadrature phase channel in a phase shift keyed system having more that 2 phase states. . Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . or modulating. equispaced around a circle. 90 degrees out-of-phase with each other (in quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data signal. QPSK can encode two bits per symbol. Sometimes known as quaternary or quadriphase PSK or 4-PSK. QCIF: Quarter CIF Quarter CIF (QCIF) is a video image format which employs 176 horizontal pixels and 144 vertical lines. It is also a term to describe the incumbent. also known as V-Band. A processor in the access terminal may determine whether the access terminal is in an idle mode. Specifically for QAM. QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is a type of modulation where the signalling information is carried in the phase and amplitude of the modulated carrier wave. and PUSC in both DL and UL as defined in 16d or 16e with Reuse 1 will endow the WRAN system with the needed capability and flexibility to configure the WRAN in different scenarios with manageable interference among the Base Stations where different Service Providers may deploy the system in the same region using the same free TV channel.16e (Mobile WiMAX) uses the same OFDMA sub-channelization structure and its extension to address mobility has retained the OFDMA concept for FUSC (Fully Used Sub-carrier) and PUSC.

2. an replacement of Emergency Braodcast System. RDCCH: Reverse Digital Control Channel Reverse Digital Control CHannel (RDCCH). allows radio stations to send text messages.2 kbps data rates and operates at Spread Rate 1 (SR1). (4) Digital television / DVB. the propagation channel and receiving system. RC3 is a cdma2000 specific configuration based on 9. including access. transparent connection to the public switched telephone network and the Internet. RAN: Radio Access Network Radio Access Network (RAN) is the ground-based infrastructure required for delivery of third-generation (3G) wireless communications services.Radio link Radio link refers to the equipment and transmission path (propagation channel) used to carry on communications.6 kbps. REAGs are very large. and 1. It includes 9. RC1 is the backwards-compatible mode of cdmaOne for 9. RCC: Radio Common Carrier Radio Common Carrier (RCC) refers to a service provider for public mobile service. Each RC specifies a set of data rates based on either 9. while supporting data at 19. The RAN must be able to manage a wide range of tasks for each 3G user. and Quality of Service (QoS) management for data and Web connections. Reed Solomon code Reed-Solomon codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. RDCCH works together with FDCCH which provides the downstream signaling and control information in such a system.7. Receive diversity Receive diversity is the process of providing two independent receiving systems and spatially separated antennas to overcome fading effects on the radio signal.8.4. REAGs are a group of economic areas (EAs) and were first used to license WCS service in the late 1990s. 1.6. with 6 REAGs covering the entire continental United States. Radio propagation Radio propagation refers to the electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies as they radiate from a transmitting antenna. barcodes. cDSL.6 or 14. REAG Region REAG Region is a geographic area over which a WCS operator is licensed to provide service.6 kbps that also supports 4. It is responsible for functions including the setting up of a RAB (Radio Access Bearer) between the CN (Core Network) and the RNC (Radio Network Controller).4 kbps. Reflection Reflection is a process that occurs when a propagating electromagnetic wave impinges upon a obstruction whose dimensions are .8. It includes the transmitting system. (5) High-speed modems such as ADSL. RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) is the Radio Network Layer signaling protocol used in a UMTS system on the Iu interface. defined in the IS-136. etc) (3) Satellite communications.2. 2. Random access Random access is a technique for radio access to a network where an access message is not coordinated or administered by the network and can collide with other attempts by others to access the network over the same channel. RC3 also operates at SR1. DVD. Rayleigh fading Rayleigh fading is a type of signal fading caused by independent multipath signals having a Rayleigh PDF. Reed-Solomon codes are used to correct errors in many systems including: (1) Storage devices (including tape. Radio port Radio port is a unit that supports transmission of signals over the air interface. is for the upstream signaling and control information from user equipment to cell site in a TDMA-based system.6 kbps voice traffic. etc. Rake receiver Rake receiver is a radio receiver having multiple "fingers" and utilizing off-sets of a common spreading code to receive and combine several multipath (time delayed) signals. and 153. microwave links.8. including high-speed mobile access to the Internet. Receiver Receiver is a device on a transmission path which converts the signals as received from the transmission system into the signals required by the destination equipment. Rayleigh channel Rayleigh channel is a communications channel having a fading envelope in the form of the Rayleigh Probability Density Function. 38. such as emergency warning and traffic alerts to radios installed with special display screens.5 kbps for voice. roaming. RC: Radio Configuration Radio Configuration (RC) defines the physical channel configuration of cdma2000 (IS-2000) signals. 76.4. 4. Compact Disk. RBDS: Radio Broadcast Data System Radio Broadcast Data System (RBDC). etc) (2) Wireless or mobile communications (including cellular telephones. in effect using "time diversity" to overcome deep fades.

So-called passive RFID chips do not have a power source. is a type of network device that regenerates incoming electrical. RFID chips may be attached to objects. also known as relay access points. RF licenses typically are purchased from the government (FCC in the US) on an auction basis. in mobile wireless. but active RFID chips do. injected into objects. providing emulated RS232 serial ports (up to sixty simultaneous connections of a bluetooth device at a time). The Rician PDF reduces to the Rayleigh PDF for the special case when s = 0. also known as frequency reuse factor. These chips feature an antenna to transmit and receive radio signals. If the link includes a communications relay satellite. access points function as repeaters when operating in so-called "repeater mode. Remote access points connect to a master access point. The government (FCC) provides licenses to ensure maximum competition in a free market and spectral efficiency.000 GHz. RFID works using small (sometimes smaller than a fingernail) pieces of hardware called RFID chips. RFID uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a transponder (tag) at distances ranging from one inch to 100 feet. Reuse factor Reuse factor. Registration Registration. It is used to model the mobile radio propagation. radio frequency is below 3. Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel. ReFLEX 25 supports outbound transfer rates of up to 6. Active hubs are repeaters. and they increasingly serve as electronic keys for everything from autos to secure facilities.very large when compared to the wavelength. RFID tags are used to track assets. In Wi-Fi. RFID: Radio frequency identification Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a system for tagging and identifying mobile objects such as store merchandise. The license tightly governs the design parameters of an RF system and its use. data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades.constructively or destructively at the receiver. Rician PDF Rician PDF is a type of signal fading caused by independent multipath signals.400 bits per second in a 25 kHz channel and 12. also known as network repeater. also known as return link. the reverse link will consist of both an uplink (mobile station to satellite) and a downlink (satellite to base station). and vice versa. RLC: Radio Link Control Radio Link Control (RLC) is a link-layer protocol that is responsible for error recovery and flow control in 3G (UMTS) cellular . wireless or optical signals. Radio frequencies can be used for communications between a mobile telephone and an antenna mast. according to the Article 2 of th Radio Law. is the number of distinct frequency sets used per cluster of cells. RFI: Radio Frequency Interference Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) refers to the noise caused by other Radio Frequency that interferes with information being transmitted across unshielded copper cable. is the link from a mobile user to a fixed base station. ReFLEX ReFLEX is a two-way paging protocols developed by Motorola for enhanced paging services." In moble wireless. This fading characteristic exhibits a Rician PDF (Probability Density Function). manage inventory and authorize payments. repeater receives radio signals from the base station and then amplified and retransmitted to areas where radio shadow occurs. The Bluetooth Serial Port Profile is based on this protocol. Rician channel Rician channel is a transmission channel that may have a line-of-sight component and several scattered of multipath components. RFCOMM: Radio Frequency Communication Radio Frequency Communication (RFCOMM) is a Bluetooth protocol which is a simple set of transport protocols. RFCOMM is sometimes called Serial Port Emulation. RF License: Radio Frequency License Radio Frequency (RF) License is the purchased right to transmit RF waves over a given BTA for typically periods of 10 years. Formally. Reflections from the surface of the earth and from buildings or walls produce reflected waves which may interfere. is one of a number of secondary access points in a wireless network that uses Wireless Distribution System (WDS) to extend its range.800 bits per second in a 50 kHz channel. Reverse link In radio communications. Rician fading Rician fading is a type of signal fading having a characteristic similar to the Rician PDF (Probability Density Function). With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi. is the process by which a mobile station informs the immediate service provider of its presence in the network and its desire to receive service. Remote Access Point Remote Access Point. RF: Radio Frequency Radio Frequency generally refers to wireless communications with frequencies below 300 GHz. or in the case of some passive RFID systems. postal packages and sometimes living organisms (like pets). Repeater Repeater. which is another way of stating efficient use of the RF spectrum. the reverse link.

Your home network is then responsible for re-routing the call to the host network. that is to say. There are three types of RNCs: C-RNC (Controlling RNC). is a station with the following functions: (1) to relay user data and possibly control information between other stations. but they may have some control of relay functions within their neighborhood. Roaming Roaming refers to the movement of a mobile device from one wireless network location to another without interruption in service or loss in connectivity. RLP: Radio Link Protocol Radio Link Protocol (RLP) is a link layer protocol used for 2G (GSM and cdmaOne) and CDMA-2000 (3G) network-based error corrections to ensure robust data transmission. handling all processes without priority. RSAs cross state lines in some instances and were developed during a public rule making process at the FCC in 1987 and 1988. and (2) to execute processes that indirectly support mobile multihop relay. All RSs are managed by an MMR-BS. RRC: Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Control (RRC) is a sublayer of Layer 3 on the UMTS 3G radio interface. RS: Relay Station Relay Station (RS). RPE-LTP: Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term Prediction Regular Pulse Excited Long Term Prediction (RPELTP) is a type of speech coding using regularly spaced pulses in an excitation frame and a long-term predictor to model the fine structure (pitch).. Cellular networks such as GSM and CDMA use different variations of RLP. Round-robin scheduling is both simple and easy to implement. RNC: Radio Network Controller The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is the governing element in the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) responsible for control of the Node Base Stations (BS). the base stations which are connected to the controller. which assigns time slices to each process in equal portions and in order. When a call is made to a roaming mobile. i. RRD: RF Receiving Device RF Receiving Device (RRD) receives over the air data and forwards it to the mobile computer. RRI: Reverse Rate Indicator Reverse Rate Indicator (RRI) is a parameter in a 3G wireless network provided by the reverse link. Round-robin scheduling can also be applied to other scheduling problems. Compared with its counterpart developed for CDMA-2000 systems. RSSI: Relative Signal Strength Indicator Relative Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a measurement of radia signals at the point in which they are received and measured. the public telephone network will route the call to your service provider's network since that is where your phone number terminates..16j for the WiMAX network. RLP terminates at the Mobile Station (MS) and the Interworking Function (IMF) generally located at the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). Round- robin is one of the simplest scheduling algorithms for processes in an operating system. a concept in the mobile wireless network. Since many stations share one channel in a wireless network. RLC is a more advanced protocol and can support different QoS requirements desired by the users. RRC exists in the control plane only and provides information transfer service to the NAS (Non Access Stratum). RPC reduces unnecessary power consumption in the WLL system and improves the reliability of the communication system. D-RNC (Drift RNC) and S-RNC (Serving RNC). RSA: Rural Service Area Rural Service Area (RSA) is a geographic area in the US over which a cellular operator is licensed to provide service. such as network scheduling. RSAs are a group of rural counties having common financial.e. RRC is responsible for controlling the configuration of UMTS radio interface Layers 1 and 2. The RRI is included as the preamble for reverse link frames. this algorithm provides every station to transmit or receive on the shared channel at a regular interval. RRS: Round Robin Scheduling Round Robin Scheduling (RRS) is a scheduling scheme used in wireless network. Radio Link Protocol (RLP). which aids the Access Point in determining the rate at which the reverse link is sending data. The RNC connects to the Circuit Switched Core Network through Media Gateway (MGW) and to the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) in the Packet Switched Core Network. RTG: Receive/transmit Transition Gap Receive/transmit Transition Gap (RTG). Rogue Access Point Rogue Access Point is an unauthorized access point installed on a network that may provide an entry point for unauthorized network access. in which the number of times of power control value transmission is reduced to 1. indicating the rate at which the data was sent. some of the mobility management functions and is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to and from the mobile. is a gap between the last sample of the uplink burst and the first sample of the subsequent downlink burst at the antenna port of the BS in a time division duplex (TDD) . commercial and economic ties and were used to license cellular services together in the latter and starvation-free. RPC: Reverse Power Control Reverse Power Control (RPC) is a method for a Wireless Local Loop (WLL). a concept defined in the IEEE 802. The RNC carries out radio resource management.

the BS is not transmitting modulated data but simply allowing the BS transmitter carrier to ramp up. and the transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) antenna switch to actuate. Both specifications share some common functionality. See also carrier-to- interference ratio. periodic. but is designed for networks other than GSM such as CDMA. Internet communications. which meet the flow’s real-time needs and allow the SS to specify the size of the desired grant. making speech and traditional data I/O more interchangeable.16 WiMAX. Satellite communications offer high bandwidth and a cost that is not related to distance between earth stations. S/N: Signal-To-Noise Ratio Signal-To-Noise Ratio (S/N) is a measure of the power of a signal versus noise. SAT: Set-up Audio Tone Set-up Audio Tone (SAT) is an audio tone in the 6 kHz range added to the downlink or forward channel in analog cellular systems. nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). or broadcast capability. They are used for such diverse purposes as weather forecasting. SALT: Speech Application Language Tags The Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) specification largely overlaps the VoiceXML specification and both are under review by the same W3C working group. SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) is a GSM signalling channel that provides a relatively slow signalling connection. such as voice waveforms. The SAT tone is used to determine channel continuity. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . This gap allows time for the base station (BS) to switch from receive to transmit mode. A higher ratio means that there is more signal relative to noise. During this gap. Satellite Internet Satellite Internet refers to utilize telecommunications satellites in Earth orbit to provide Internet access to consumers. the long delays required to transmit data between the satellite and the ground stations tend to create high network latency. and the Global Positioning System. but supports variable grant sizes for optimum data transport efficiency. long propagation delays. This service requires more request overhead than UGS. The SACCH is associated with either a traffic or dedicated channel. however. Satellite Internet service covers areas where DSL and cable access is unavailable. and only one SAT tone is usually assigned to a base station or sector. television broadcast. rtPS (Real time polling Service). rtPS: Real-Time Polling Service Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS) is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. VPN and online gaming may not function properly over satellite Internet connections due to these latency issues.S S/I: Signal-to-interference ratio Signal-to-interference ratio (S/I) is the ratio of power in a signal to the interference power in the channel. Satellite Communication Satellite Communication refers to the use of orbiting satellites to relay data between multiple earth-based stations. The Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS) is designed to support real-time service flows that generate variable size data packets on a periodic basis. Network applications like VOIP. is similar to a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The service offers real-time. traffic information. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE).transceiver. SABP: Service Area Broadcast Protocol Service Area Broadcast Protocol (SABP) is a 3G UMTS protocol for information broadcasting services. amateur radio communications. Sampling Sampling is the process performed in the conversion of analog waveforms to a digital format. The term is usually applied to lower frequency signals. but SALT includes multi-modal capabilities for inputting and outputting data. which allows cellular operators to deliver information such as stock prices. The mobile detects and returns the tone. . It converts a continuous time signal into a discrete time signal or sequence of numbers. weather reports and emergency alerts to mobile users within selected cells of the network.16 protocol supports five types of QoS: UGS (Unsolicited grant service). but can also be used to describe the carrier wave. unicast request opportunities. Satellite offers less network bandwidth compared to DSL or cable. The SACCH can also be used to transfer Short Message Service (SMS) messages if associated with a traffic channel. also known as UIM. In addition. causing a sluggish performance experience in some cases. The 802. R-UIM: Removable User Identity Module Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM). such as MPEG video. R-UIM cards support roaming between CDMA and GSM networks. Satellite A satellite is a specialized wireless receiver/transmitter that is launched by a rocket and placed in orbit around the earth.

The concept of sectors was developed to improve co-channel interference in cellular systems. However. an SGSN is actually considerably more complex since it also does the full set of interworking with the connected radio network. also known as Bluetooth SDP. SCH is used in GSM. in some sense. Shadow fading Shadow fading is a phenomenon that occurs when a mobile moves behind an obstruction and experiences a significant reduction in signal power. cdma2000. SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access Space Division (or Diversity) Multiple Access (SDMA). An SFN may also increase the coverage area and decrease the outage probability in comparison to an MFN since the total received signal strength may increase to positions midway between the transmitters. The lower the spreading factor the higher the data rate. and most wireless systems use three sector cells. SCCH: Signaling Control Channel Signaling Control Channel (SCCH) is a logical channel used in the PDC system to convey signalling information between the mobile and the network. the multiple access interference in the network is greatly reduced. Scattering Scattering is a phenomenon that occurs when the medium through which a radio wave travels consists of objects with dimensions small compared to the wavelength and diffuses the wave as it propagates through it. Such systems have the ability of providing service to the oceans and other remote areas of the globe. SF: Spreading Factor The Spreading Factor (SF) is the ratio of the chips to baseband information rate. The SDP defines how a Bluetooth client’s application shell acts to discover available Bluetooth servers’ services and their characteristics. Analogue FM and AM radio broadcast networks as well as digital broadcast networks can operate in this manner. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem. Service area Service area is the specified area over which the operator of a wireless communications network or system provides services. SFHMA: Slow Frequency Hopped Multiple Access Slow Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (SFHMA) is a spread-spectrum system where the hop (dwell) time is much greater the information symbol period. SFN: Single Frequency Network A single-frequency network (SFN) is a broadcast network where several transmitters simultaneosly send the same signal over the same frequency channel. The SDP provides means for discovery of new services becoming available when the client enters an area where a Bluetooth server is operating. SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is the node which. allowing a higher number of radio and TV programs in comparison to traditional multi-frequency network (MFN) transmission. also known as multiple beam frequency reuse. and W-CDMA systems SDCCH: Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) is used in the GSM system to provide a reliable connection for signalling and Short Message Service (SMS) messages. When hopping is coordinated with other elements in the network. SGF: Signaling Gateway Function Signaling Gateway Function (SGF). employs spot beam antennas to reuse frequencies by pointing the antenna beams using the same frequency in different directions. SCH: Synchronization Channel Synchronization Channel (SCH) is a logical channel used by mobile stations to achieve time synchronization with the network. Spreading factor in dBs indicates the process gain. This means that the functions carried out by the SGSN vary quite considerably between GSM and UMTS. The protocol defines how client can search for a service based on specific attributes without the client knowing anything of the available services. the Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). The SDP also provides functionality for detecting when a service is no longer available. The Slow Associated Control Channel(SACCH) is used to support this channel. Sector Sector is a coverage area associated with a base station having its own antennas. SDP: Service Discovery Protocol In the Bluetooth protocol stack. . The aim of SFNs is efficient utilization of the radio spectrum. provides special means for applications in the Bluetooth environment to discover which services are available and to determine the characteristics of those available services. Spreading factors vary from 4 to 512 in FDD UMTS. Multiple sector antennas are commonly used in point- to-multipoint situations. carries out the same function as the Local Agent in Mobile IP. radio ports and control channels.Satellite phone Satellite phone is a type of wireless mobile telecommunications system using satellites as base stations. Sector Antenna Sector Antenna is an antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. provides signaling conversion (in both directions) between Signaling System 7 (SS7) and IP networks.

An early form of SIMO. Under certain conditions. SM offers linear increase in spectrum efficiency with the number of antennas. hold addresses and take voice mail and can also access information on the Internet and send and receive e-mail and fax transmissions. has been used by military. known as diversity reception. SLF: Subscription Locator Function Subscription Locator Function (SLF). an e-mailbox and an Internet browser into a handheld information device with rapid data-transfer capability. Signal Strength Signal Strength is the strength of the radio waves in a wireless network. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Simulcast Simulcast refers to broadcasting a message over multiple transmitters throughout a geographical region at precisely the same time. Signal loss is measured in decibels. SINR: Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) is the ratio of the received strength of the desired signal to the received strength of undesired signals (noise and interference). SiGe: Silicon-Germanium Technology Silicon-Germanium Technology (SiGe) makes it possible to design complex chips that integrate the functions of a cellular telephone. SIMO: Single Input Multiple Output Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) is a form of smart antenna technology for wireless communications in which a single antenna at the transmitter and multiple antennas are used at the destination (receiver). It can apply to both incoming and outgoing signals. Signal Booster Signal Booster compensates for loss of effect (weakening of the signal in the coaxial cable) between the outer antenna and the phone. which discretely notifies individuals of incoming pages. Silent Alert Silent Alert is the non-audible signal in a beeper. commercial.SHF: Super High Frequency Super High Frequency (SHF) is the RF spectrum between 3 GHz and 30 GHz. Slow fading Slow fading is a long-term fading effect changing the mean value of the received signal. Signal Diversity Signal Diversity is a process by which two small dipole antennas are used to send and receive. Site survey Site survey is a survey conducted at the location for a new WLAN in an effort to avoid what could be time-consuming and costly problems down the road. amateur. Smart phones can handle wireless phone calls. checking the building and testing the equipment. and free space. Slotted ALOHA Slotted ALOHA is an access technique synchronizing the transmitters to time-slots in the channel and having the transmitter wait until the next available slot to send its packet. It involves diagramming the network. SM: Spatial Multiplexing Spatial Multiplexing (SM) is a transmission technology developed by Stanford University and Iospan Wireless in California exploiting multiple antennas at both the BS and CPE to dramatically increase the bit rate in a wireless radio link with no additional power or bandwidth consumption. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Multiple Input Single Output (MISO). and shortwave radio operators at frequencies below 30 MHz since the First World War. SMATV: Satellite Master Antenna Television Satellite Master Antenna Television (SMATV) refers to the transmission of television programming to a Satellite Master Antenna . SIM Card Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Card is used in the GSM phones to carry all critical information about the phone and subsriber. Slow fading is usually associated with moving away from the transmitter and experiencing the expected reduction in signal strength. SIM: Subscriber Identity Module Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) is a component of a Mobile System (MS) in a GSM network that contains all the subscriber information. locates the database containing subscriber data in response to queries from the I-CSCF (Interrogating-Call Session Control Functions) or application server (AS). connectors. Signal loss Signal loss is the amount of signal strength that's lost in antenna cable. combining their results for better effect. typically by vibration. The other forms of smart antenna technology include Single Input Single Output(SISO). SISO: Single Input Single Output Single Input Single Output (SISO) is a form of antenna technology for wireless communications in which a single antenna at both the transmitter and at the destination (receiver) are used. Smart phone Smart phone is a wireless phone with text and Internet capabilities.

installed on top of an apartment building, a hotel, or at another central location from where it serves a private group of viewers.
The transmission usually is done in C-band to 1.5 or 2 meter dishes.
SMG: Special Mobile Group
Special Mobile Group (SMG) is a standards body within ETSI that develops specifications related to mobile networking
technologies, such as GSM and GPRS.
SMLC: Serving Mobile Location Center
Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC), either a separate network element or integrated functionality in the Base Station
Controller(BSC), contains the functionality required to support Location Services (LCS). The SMLC manages the overall
coordination and scheduling of resources required for the location of a mobile unit. The SMLC may control a number of Location
Measurement Unit (LMU) for the purpose of obtaining radio interface measurements to locate or help locate Mobile Station (MS)
subscribers in the area that it serves.
SMLCPP: Serving Mobile Location Center Peer-to-Peer Protocol
Serving Mobile Location Center Peer-to-Peer Protocol (SMLCPP) is a transport protocol for the communication between the
Serving Mobile Location Centers (SMLCs). The main functions of SMLCPP are: (1) allowing an SMLC to ask for and obtain
information about Radio Interface Timing (RIT), as known from measurements done by LMUs not under its direct control; (2)
allowing an SMLC, that controls deciphering keys in the location area, to sent them to other SMLCs in the same location area.
SMPP: Short Message Peer to Peer
Short Message Peer to Peer (SMPP) is a protocol for exchange short messages between SMS peer entities such as short message
service centers. SMPP is often used to allow third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organisations) to submit
messages, often in bulk.
SMR: Specialized Mobile Radio
Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) is a dispatch radio and interconnect service for businesses, covering frequencies in the 220 MHz,
800 MHz and 900 MHz bands.
SMS: Short Message Service
Short Message Service (SMS) refers to the service that allows the transmission of short text messages among mobile devices such
as cell phones, fax machines and BlackBerry devices. SMS was originally designed as part of GSM, but is now available on a wide
range of networks, including 3G networks. There are two forms of SMS: Short Message Service - Point-to-Point (SMS-PP) and
Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). The message length is 140 bytes. Larger contents (known as long SMS or
concatenated SMS) can be sent segmentedly over multiple messages, in which case each message will start with a user data header
(UDH) containing segmentation information.
SMS-CB: Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast
Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB), a form of Short Message Service for the delivering of short messages over the
mobile networks, allows messages (advertising, public information, etc.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified
geographical area.
SMS-PP: Short Message Service - Point to Point
Short Message Service - Point to Point (SMS-PP), a form of Short Message Service for the delivering of short messages over the
mobile networks, provides, allows messages to be sent from an individual to another.
SNIR: Signal to Noise + Interference Ratio
Signal-to-Noise + Interference Ratio (SNIR) is the ratio of usable signal being transmitted to the undesired signal (noise) plus
interference from other or the same channels. It is a measure of transmission quality. The ratio of good data (signal) to bad (noise
+ intereference) on a line is expressed in decibels (dB).
SNR: Signal-to-noise Ratio
Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) is the ratio of usable signal being transmitted to the undesired signal (noise). It is a measure of
transmission quality. The ratio of good data (signal) to bad (noise) on a line is expressed in decibels (dB).
S-OFDMA: Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (SOFDMA or S-OFDMA) is a flavor of the Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM), which is a technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a radio wave.
SHO: Soft Handoff
Soft Handoff (SHO) refers to two base stations -- one in the cell site where the phone is located and the other in the cell site to
which the conversation is being passed, but both are held on the call until the handoff is completed. The first cell site does not cut
off the conversation until it receives information that the second is maintaining the call.
Software Access Point
Software Access Point is a wireless-enabled computer running special software that enables it to act exactly like an wireless access
Space diversity
Space diversity is a diversity technique widely used in wireless systems since the very beginning. It consists of two receiving
antennas physically (spatially) separated to provide de-correlated receiving signals.
SPACH: SMS Point-to-point CHannel
SMS Point-to-point Channel (SPACH) is a logical channel as a part of FDCCH (Forward Digital Control Channel) used to send

signaling and control information from the cell site to the user receiver. SPACH can be further divided into three logical channels:
Spectrum refers to a continuous range of frequency for electromagnetic waves.
Spectrum Allocation
Spectrum Allocation refers to that government designation of a range of frequencies for a category of use or uses. Allocation,
typically accomplished in years-long FCC proceedings, tracks new technology development. However, the FCC can shift existing
allocations to accommodate changes in spectrum demand. As an example, some UHF television channels were recently reallocated
to public safety.
Spectrum Assignment
Spectrum Assignment refers to the government authorization for use of specific frequencies or frequency pairs within a given
allocation, usually at stated geographic location(s). Mobile communications authorizations are typically granted to private users,
such as oil companies, or to common carriers, such as cellular and paging operators.
Spectrum Reuse
Spectrum Reuse means re-applying the already assigned over-the-air spectrum to Cable TV programs. Historically, the over-the-air
spectrum has been assigned to many purposes other than that of carrying TV signals. This has resulted in an inadequate supply of
spectrum to serve the needs of viewers. Cable can reuse spectrum that is sealed in its aluminum tubes.
Spectrum spreading
Spectrum spreading is the process of increasing the occupied spectrum of a signal well beyond the needed to transmit the
Speech coding
Speech coding is an electronic process of sampling and digitizing a voice signal.
Spread spectrum
Spread spectrum is a form of wireless communications in which a signal's frequency is deliberately varied. This increases
bandwidth and lessens the chances of interruption or interception of the transmitted signal.
SR: Spread Rate
Spread rate (SR), also known as the chip rate, is the rate of the digital code used to spread the information. The spreading rate is
typically at least 100 times the information rate.
SRNC: Serving Radio Network Controller
Serving Radio Network Controller (SRNC or Serving RNC) is a type of Radio Network Controller (RNC) in a 3G mobile wireless
network. The key functons of the Serving RNC: terminates the mobile link layer communications, terminates the IU, and exerts
Admission Control over new mobiles or services attempting to use the Core Network over its IU interface. Admission Control
ensures that mobiles are only allocated radio resources (bandwidth and signal/noise ratio) up to what the network has available.
SS: Subscriber Station
A Subscriber Station (SS) refers to a generalized equipment set providing connectivity between subscriber equipment and a Base
Station in the mobile wireless network.
SSB: Single-sideband modulation
Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is a refinement of the technique of amplitude modulation designed to be more efficient in its
use of electrical power and bandwidth. It is closely related to vestigial sideband modulation (VSB). To produce an SSB signal, a filter
removes one of the sidebands. Most often, the carrier is reduced (suppressed) or removed entirely. Assuming both sidebands are
symmetric, no information is lost in the process. What remains still contains the entire information content of the AM signal,
using substantially less bandwidth and power, but cannot now be demodulated by a simple envelope detector.
SSD: Shared Secret Data
Shared Secret Data (SSD) is part of an encryption process supporting authentication of mobile phones. It uses an encryption key
installed in the phone at the time of activation and known to the system through an entry in the HLR, that protects signalling and
identity information. It can also be used to establish a voice privacy key.
SSI: Service Set Identifier
A Service Set Identifier (SSI) is a sequence of characters unique to a specific network or network segment that's used by the
network and all attached devices to identify themselves and allow devices to connect to the correct network when more than one
independent networks are operating in nearby areas.
SSID: Service Set Identifier
Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a set of 32 characters that give a unique name to a WLAN. All wireless devices on a WLAN must
employ the same SSID in order to communicate with each other. The SSID on wireless clients can be set either manually, by
entering the SSID into the client network settings, or automatically, by leaving the SSID unspecified or blank. A network
administrator often uses a public SSID, that is set on the access point and broadcast to all wireless devices in range. Some newer
wireless access points disable the automatic SSID broadcast feature in an attempt to improve network security.
STAP: Space-Time Adaptive Processing
Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique that enhances the ability of radars to detect targets that
might otherwise be obscured by clutter or by jamming. To implement STAP requires sampling the radar returns at each element of

an antenna array, over a dwell encompassing several pulse repetition intervals. STAP is for applications such as Sensor Craft,
Targets Under Trees, and space-based radar programs.
STBC: Space Time Block Coding
Space time block coding (STBC) is a technique used in wireless communications to transmit multiple copies of a data stream across
a number of antennas and to exploit the various received versions of the data to improve the reliability of data-transfer. The fact
that transmitted data must traverse a potentially difficult environment with scattering, reflection, refraction and so on and, as well
as, be corrupted by thermal noise in the receiver means that some of the received copies of the data will be "better" than others.
This redundancy results in a higher chance of being able to use one or more of the received copies of the data to correctly decode
the received signal. In fact, STBC combines all the copies of the received signals in an optimal way to extract as much information
from each of them as possible.
STC: Space Time Coding
Space Time Coding (STC) is a method employed to improve the reliability of data transmission in wireless communication systems
using multiple transmit antennas. STCs rely on transmitting multiple, redundant copies of a data stream to the receiver in the
hope that at least some of them may survive the physical path between transmission and reception in a good enough state to allow
reliable decoding.
STD: Selective Transmit Diversity
Selective Transmit Diversity (STD) is a transmit diversity technique using multiple base stations to originate the signal and provide
spatial diversity on the downlink. In STD, the transmitter selection is based on a QoS measurement made at the mobile station.
See also transmit diversity, TDTD and TSTD.
STTC: Space–Time Trellis Coding
Space–Time Trellis Coding (STTC) is a type of space–time coding (STC) used in multiple-antenna wireless communications.
This scheme transmits multiple, redundant copies of a trellis (or convolutional) code distributed over time and a number of
antennas ("space"). These multiple, "diverse" copies of the data are used by the receiver to attempt to reconstruct the actual
transmitted data. For a STC to be used, there must necessarily be multiple transmit antennas, but only a single receive antennas is
required; nevertheless multiple receive antennas are often used since the performance of the system is improved by so doing.
Sub Network
Sub Network is a way of denoting a group of network layers that appear as one to a higher protocol layer.
Supplementary services
Supplementary services is a group of network layer protocol functions that provide call independent functions for mobile phones.
These include: call forwarding, follow-me, advice of charge, reverse charging, etc.
Symbian is a software licensing company that develops and supplies the advanced, open, standard operating system -- Symbian OS
-- for data-enabled mobile phones.
Based on XML, SyncML enables data synchronization between mobile devices and networked services. SyncML is transport, data
type and platform independent. SyncML works on a wide variety of transport protocols, including HTTP and WSP (part of WAP),
and with data formats ranging from personal data (such as vCard and vCalendar) to relational data and XML documents. The
SyncML consortium was set up by IBM, Nokia and Psion and is sponsored by Symbian.

Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary - T
TACS: Total Access Communication System
Total Access Communication System (TACS) is the European version of AMPS -- the 1G technology for mobile wireless. ETACS was
an extended version of TACS with more channels. TACS and ETACS are now obsolete in Europe, having been replaced by the more
scalable and all-digital GSM system.
TAMS: Track and Manage Service
Track and Manage Service (TAMS) offers scheduled reporting on the status reports of industry standard sensors, GPS position and
other event status reports.
TAP: Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol
Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a simple protocol dedicated to the forwarding of alphanumeric pages. Although the
features and capabilities of TAP are in TDP, the TAP protocol may co-exist with TDP. The TAP protocol may be utilized to forward
binary data to RF-linked computers if input is formatted and processed.
TCH/F: Traffic Channel - full rate
Traffic Channel - full rate (TCH/F) is a traffic channel using full rate voice coding.
TCH/H: Traffic Channel - half rate
Traffic Channel - half rate (TCH/H) is a traffic channel using half rate voice coding.
TCH: Traffic Channel
Traffic Channel (TCH) is a logical channel that allows the transmission of speech or data. In most second generation systems, the
traffic channel can be either full or half rate.

In a Time Division Duplex system. It is developed and used primarily in China. 3) At the office. Through the use of a rake receiver. Telematics Telematics means the integration of wireless communications. Time diversity Time diversity is the technique used by CDMA systems to overcome the effects of multipath fading. TDTD: Time Division Transmit Diversity Time Division Transmit Diversity (TDTD) is a technique utilizing multiple transmit stations to originate the downlink signal and improve performance. including TME. It also controls the device mobility management procedures. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) divides a radio frequency available to a network into time slots and then allocates slots to multiple calls. TCS: Telephony Control Protocol Specification The Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) is a protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack that defines ways to send audio calls between Bluetooth devices. is used to identify a GTP tunnel between two GSNs in a GPRS network. a cordless phone connected to a PSTN via a gateway or base station. It can be used to create a three-in- one phone: 1) On the move. and new detection and interference cancellation schemes. individual elements or fingers can be offset in time to account for different arrival times of multipath signals. The set is compromised of several protocols. TinyOS TinyOS is an open source component-based operating system and platform targeting wireless sensor networks. TFC: Telocator Format Conversion Telocator Format Conversion (TFC) describes how binary data messages may be forwarded to RF-linked computers through the use of TAP protocol. through a paging system. an intercom. using bandwidth more efficiently than earlier technologies. The transmit station used can be determined by either a fixed pattern or based on a QoS measurement made at the mobile. So one frequency can support multiple. TCP: Telocator Conversion Processor Telocator Conversion Processor (TCP) is a front end processor which executes the Telocator Format Conversion (TFC) process. these protocols define the flow of messages from input devices through several processing steps until the entire message is received by an RF-linked computer. simultaneous data channels. TDMA is used by the GSM digital cellular system. a common carrier is shared between the uplink and downlink. containing an MM Context ID and an NSAPI. Available in 800-MHz or 1900-MHz frequencies. combining time division multiplexing with CDMA techniques. a mobile phone connected to a cellular network. TD-CDMA: Time Division. TD-SCDMA is part of the ITU 3G standard harmonization and will likely be adopted by some operators in China. TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is one of the Telecommunications standards setting bodies in the United States. Code Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA) is a 3G proposal combining elements of TDMA and CDMA.6 MHz wide and uses multiple timeslots. This proposed standard is 1. to a mobile receiving computer.TCM: Trellis Code Modulation Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) is one of the coded modulation techniques used in digital communications. TD-SCDMA: Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) is a new technology developed by Siemens and the China Academy of Telecommunication Technology (CATR). Time dispersion Time dispersion is a manifestation of multipath propagation that stretches the signal in time so that the duration of the received signal is greater than the transmitted signal. See also STD and TSTD. and TMC. TDN: Temporary Directory Number Temporary Directory Number (TDN) is a temporary identification number assigned to a mobile while attached to the network. TRT. Code Division Multiple Access Time Division. TID: Tunnel Identifier Tunnel Identifier (TID). TDP: Telocator Data Protocol Telocator Data Protocol (TDP) is a suite of protocols used for sending messages from a computer. It combines the choice of a modulation scheme with that of a convolutional code together for the purpose of gaining noise immunity over encoded transmission without expanding the signal bandwidth or increasing the transmitted power. 2) At home. Together. vehicle monitoring systems and location devices. TDD: Time Division Duplex Time Division Duplexing (TDD) refers to a transmission scheme that allows an asymmetric flow for uplink and downlink transmission which is more suited to data transmission. Users are allocated one or more timeslots for uplink and downlink transmission. A tunnel is created whenever an SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request in a GPRS network. TinyOS is an . the resource being switched in time. synchronous CDMA.

which is the ultimate recipient of data sent from the Message Entry Device (MED). and planning. and 800MHz analog cellular -. CDMA and TDMA tri-band phones work on 1900MHz and 800MHz digital frequencies. as well as translation of IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. Specialized equipment is needed at the base station. The number is local to a location area. Transmit power is generally measured in milliwatts. such as an XML to HTML. TM-UWM: Time-Modulated Ultra-Wide Band Time-Modulated Ultra-Wide Band (TM-UWM). . TrGW: Translation Gateway Translation Gateway (TrGW) is a component used in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network. and tracked by eavesdroppers on the radio interface. as a set of cooperating tasks and processes. TMSI: Temporary Mobile Station Identity Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI) is an identification number assigned to a mobile station while it is attached to the network. and TOA can be used with legacy handsets. It is also a code number that the wireless service company assigns to represent a single frequency or set of frequencies. in order to avoid the subscriber from being identified. Tri-band Tri-band refers to a wireless phone that works on three bands.11i encryption standard for wireless LANs security. each time the mobile moves to a new geographical area. The network can also change the TMSI of the mobile at any time. TKIP is the next generation of WEP (Wired Equivalency Protocol). Transmitter Transmitter is a device that generates radio waves and sends them to the antenna. coded pulses transmitted over a wide range of frequencies. deployment. Tri-band GSM phones are all digital. Transmit Power Transmit Power is the amount of power used by a radio transceiver to send the signal out. uses short. TOA: Time OF Arrival Time OF Arrival (TOA) is a location technique that uses GSM timing to triangulate the position of a handset relative to active base stations. which provides translation of IPv4/IPv6 address and port numbers. thus fixing the flaws of WEP. written in NesC programming language. so the output will be displayed in an appropriate manner for the device Transmission Frequency Transmission Frequency is the rate in hertz at which a radio transmitter repeats a signal pattern. TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is the identity that is most commonly sent between the mobile and the network. TKIP utilizes RC4 stream cippher with 128 bit key for encryption and 64 bit key for authentication. TMC: Telocator Mobile Computer Protocol Telocator Mobile Computer Protocol (TMC) is the protocol that operates between the Radio Frequency (RF) receiver and the mobile computer. This number is maintained in the VER and SIM while the mobile is attached to the network and is used to route calls to and from the mobile. operating on 1900Mhz in the United States and 1800Mhz and 900Mhz in other countries. TNPP: Telocator Network Paging Protocol Telocator Network Paging Protocol (TNPP) is a protocol used for moving pages from one paging system to another over the standard lines. Accuracy is good indoors and in areas of dense base-station coverage. Transcoding Transcoding refers to the operation of changing data from one format to another. It is designed to be able to incorporate rapid innovation as well as to operate within the severe memory constraints inherent in sensor networks. TME: Telocator Message Entry Protocol Telocator Message Entry Protocol (TME) defines the protocol operating between the Message Entry Device (MED) and Paging Message Processor (PMP). TIPP: Telocator Interswitch Paging Protocol Telocator Interswitch Paging Protocol (TIPP) is a TCP/IP-based inter-PMP protocol utilized to move information across a network of PMP's TKIP: Temporal Key Integrirty Protocol Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is part of the IEEE 802.embedded operating system.popular standards in the United States. Allows operation of the phone in the existing analog system at 800 MHz and in digital systems at both 800 MHz and 1900 MHz. making it useful for a broad range of applications from networking to through-the-wall radar and secure communications. and maintenance costs can be high. TKIP provides per-packet key mixing. however. developed by Time Domain. And it normally does so. a message integrity check and a re-keying mechanism. It is a randomly allocated number that is given to the mobile at the moment it is switched on. and so it has to be updated. Tri-mode: Triple mode (tri-mode) Triple mode (Tri-mode) is a combined analog and digital mobile phone. It is intended to be incorporated into smartdust. which you can convert to dBm.

is a gap between the last sample of the downlink burst and the first sample of the subsequent uplink burst in a time division duplex (TDD) transceiver.WAY Communication Two . The 802. The stations may be in fixed locations. receive-only antennas to receive data via satellite. The service offers fixed-size grants on a real-time periodic basis. which are quite different since they use different component codes. the UICC contains the USIM application and also provides a platform for other IC Card applications. or in any combination. TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) is a telecommunications standards setting body in Korea. TTI refers to the length of an independently decodable transmission on the radio link. It ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal data. See also STD and TDTD. The manner in which this data is inserted into any particular radio pager encoding format is specific to the particular manufacturer's radio receiver. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . and the BS receiver section to activate.UGS (Unsolicited grant service). rtPS (Real time polling Service). TTG: Transmit/receive Transition Gap Transmit/receive Transition Gap (TTG). modulation and coding combination) and preamble length for each UL burst. The transmit station used is determined by a fixed selection pattern similar to frequency hopping.. mobile or portable ones.16 protocol supports five types of QoS -.16 (WiMAX) network. Turbo Code Turbo code is a class of high-performance error correction codes finding use in deep-space satellite communications and other wireless communication applications where designers seek to achieve maximal information transfer over a limited-bandwidth communication link in the presence of data-corrupting noise. the BS is not transmitting modulated data but simply allowing the BS transmitter carrier to ramp down. nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). a concept in the mobile wireless networking. .e. UGS: Unsolicited Grant Service Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) is one of the five QoS service types defined in the IEEE 802.TRT: Telocator Radio Transport protocol Telocator Radio Transport protocol (TRT) describes the format of data which is forwarded to RF receivers. The Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) is designed to support real-time service flows that generate fixed-size data packets on a periodic basis. UE: User Equipment User Equipment (UE) refers to eqiment in a wireless network that enables users to communicate through wireless communication networks. UICC: USIM Integrated Circuit Card USIM Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) is the chip card used in mobile terminals in 3G telecom network systems. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). UHF: Ultra High Frenquency Ultra High Frenquency (UHF) refers to the RF spectrum between 300 MHz and 3 GHz. the transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) antenna switch to actuate. TWO . TTI: Transmission Time Interval Transmission Time Interval (TTI) is a parameter in UMTS (and other digital telecomunication networks) related to encapsulation of data from higher layers into frames for transmission on the radio link layer. The TTI is related to the size of the data blocks passed from the higher network layers to the radio link layer. such as T1/E1 and Voice over IP without silence suppression. which describes the uplink burst profile (i. which eliminate the overhead and latency of SS requests and assure that grants are available to meet the flow’s real-time needs. TSTD: Time Switched Transmit Diversity Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) is a technique utilizing multiple transmit stations to originate the downlink signal and improve performance. The UICC is an essential component for UMTS. just as the SIM for GSM.Way Communication occur between communications of radio stations. UDLP: UniDirectional Link Protocol UniDirectional Link Protocol (UDLP) is used by inexpensive.U UCD: Uplink Channel Descriptor Uplink Channel Descriptor (UCD) is a concept in the IEEE 802. each having a transmitter and receiver. During this gap. This gap allows time for the base station (BS) to switch from transmit to receive mode. Extending the concept of the SIM card. There are two types of turbo codes. enabling secure support for all kinds of multi-application schemes. Block Turbo Codes (BTCs) and Convolutional Turbo Codes (CTCs). different concatenation schemes and different SISO algorithms. This transport style protocol allows a receiver to collect several separate message inside different pages and then piece them together into one proper message. TTC: Telecommunications Technology Committee Telecommunications Technology Committee (TTC) is a private-sector corporate body established in 1985 to prepare domestic standards relevant to Japanese telecommunications.16 WiMAX.

is an enhanced version of the SIM card.3 for transmitting digital data over a wide swath of the radio frequency spectrum with very low power. and will be connected to an IP-optimized core network through a UTRAN Gateway. UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) is a term used for UMTS radio access solution. USIM: Upgrade SIM Upgrade SIM (USIM). particularly in urban areas where AMPS did not provide adequate channel capacity. UTRAN LTE: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long Term Evolution UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long Term Evolution (UTRAN LTE). USIM: Universal Subscriber Identity Module Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM). was developed to replace the AMPS standard. It is equivalent to the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) in the GSM 2G wireless network. Also specifying the future development of the standard and facilitating roaming agreements between IS-136 operators. built around an IP-optimized core network carrying all traffic types. as well as subscription information.15. is the SIM card equivalent planned for W-CDMA handsets. traditional radios broadcast continuously on tiny bits of spectrum. a type of Mobile Switching Center (MSC). Urban cells Urban cells is the coverage provided by base stations located in urban areas. text messages and other information. high-bandwidth support. Ultra Wideband is commonly abbreviated to UWB. It . UTRAN will support both UTRA Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) radio interfaces allowing flexible. which is for use with IMT-2000/UMTS 3G network. USDC allows the co-existence of AMPS so that providers can gradually phase out AMPS as needed. The apparatus can range from a simple circuit to a complex subsystem such as a mobile phone. USDC utilizes TDMA to offer phone and paging service over a 25 kHz channel divided into two time slots.UIM: User Identity Module User Identity Module (UIM). is the place that provides UMTS 3G wireless telephony switching services and controls calls between telephone and data systems. is a wireless technology defined in IEEE 802. applied to W-CDMA and TD-CDMA . It can carry large amounts of data (maximum bandwidth of 1Gbps) and can be used for multimedia content transfer. The radius of these cells is usually much smaller than suburban and rural cells due to the more difficult propagation environment USDC: United States Digital Cellular United States Digital Cellular (USDC). ground- penetrating radar. high-resolution radar. In comparison. is a component in the UMTS 3G network that securely stores the key identifying a mobile phone service subscriber. base station or MSC. sometimes also referred to as 3G LTE or Super-3G. UIM supports roaming between CDMA and GSM networks. and radio locations systems. UWC: Universal Wireless Consortium Universal Wireless Consortium (UWC) is an organization of vendors and operators promoting and implementing the IS-136 digital standard. preferences. UWC-136 Universal Wireless Communications 136 (UWC-136) is proposed by the TIA and adopted by the ITU for 3G TDMA standard. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a 3G cellular network technology that uses WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technologies. UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is the radio access network based on the UTRA standard term describing the Radio Network Controllers and Node Base stations of a UMTS network. Ultra Wideband Ultra Wideband is a wireless networking approach that broadcasts millions of tiny pulses at trillionth-of-second intervals using very low power over enormous swaths of spectrum. UWB: Ultra-Wide-Band Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB). The transmission rates range from a theoretical 384K bit/sec for mobile phones to 2M bit/sec for stationary devices. UL: Uplink Uplink (UL) is the transmission path from the mobile station up to the base station. The UMTS network. also known as Universal Subscriber Identity Module. also called digital pulse. UPT: Universal Personal Telecommunications Universal Personal Telecommunications (UPT) is a set of standards developed by the CCITT for wireline personal communications. UUT: Unit Under Test Unit Under Test (UUT) refers to some type of electrical apparatus connected to test instrumentation. UMSC: UMTS Mobile Switching Center UMTS Mobile Switching Center (UMSC). also known as R-UIM. also known as IS-54 (Interim Standard 54). Because of the low power requirement. also known as Upgrade SIM. saved telephone numbers. it can carry signals through doors and other obstacles that tend to reflect signals at more limited bandwidths and a higher power. is the 3GPP radio technology evolution architecture.

The standard uses a wideband TDMA technique. delay variation. UWCC: Universal Wireless Communications Consortium Universal Wireless Communications Consortium (UMCC) is an industry group supporting IS-136 time division multiple access and IS-41 wireless intelligent network technology. This is also known as maximum likelihood decoding. the IEEE is developing the 802. V-Band V-Band. All devices supporting vCard can exchange information such as phone numbers and addresses. Television broadcasts (regardless of NTSC. Voice Channel Voice Channel is a channel used for transmission of voice data from a base station to a cellular phone (forward voice channel) or from a cellular phone to a base station (reverse voice channel). The VMAC estimates key MAC level statistics related to service quality such as delay. Proprietary standards like Spectralink Voice Priority (SVP) are today's solution. a user with a vCard-aware phonebook application on a handheld computer can easily transfer names and phone numbers to a vCard-aware mobile phone. in conjunction with DTX reduces power consumption in the mobile station and RF interference in the system by muting the transmitter when there is no voice to transmit. VoWIP: Voice over Wireless IP Voice over Wireless IP (VoWIP) is the combination of VoIP with 802. packet collision. or SECAM analog video format) use this method if the video is transmitted in AM. Voice Activated Dialing Voice Activated Dialing is a feature that permits you to dial a phone number by speaking it to your wireless phone instead of punching it in yourself. The Milgo 4400/48 modem used vesitigial sideband and phase-shift keying to provide 4800 bit/s transmission over a 1600 Hz channel. It may also be used in digital transmission. VoxML: Voice Markup Language Voice Markup Language (VoxML) is a technology from Motorola for creating a voice dialog with a Web site in which a user can call a Web site by phone and interact with it through speech recognition and Web site responses.allows the US TDMA community to migrate from 1st (IS-136) to 3rd (UWC-136) generation systems. PAL.11 wireless LANs to create a wireless telephone system. Vocoder Vocoder refers to a voice encoder which is a device that codes and decodes the human voice (sound waves) into digital transmission. Higher vocoder speeds offer enhanced sound quality. For instance. .V VAD: Voice Activity Detector Voice Activity Detector (VAD) is the device that detects voice activity and allows DTX to operate. Portions of one of the redundant sidebands are removed to form a vestigial sideband signal.11e standard for quality of service as a long-term solution. VAD. and packet loss. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . VSB: Vestigial Sideband Vestigial sideband (VSB) is a type of amplitude modulation technique that encodes data by varying the amplitude of a single carrier frequency. VoWIP enables businesses to leverage their wireless LANs to add voice communications. pitch filter and two codebooks. vCARD vCARD is a standard defining the format of an electronic business card. The feature contributes to convenience as well as driving safety. such as the ATSC-standardized 8-VSB. also known as Q-Band. VMAC: Virtual Media Access Control Virtual Media Access Control (Virtual MAC or VMAC) is an algorithm that passively monitors the radio channel and estimates locally achievable service levels. due to the enormous bandwidth used. however. Viterbi algorithm Viterbi algorithm is a technique for searching a decoding trellis to yield a path with the smallest distance. VoWIP applications require some reservation of bandwidth to support the real-time nature of voice. VSELP was used in the IS-54 standard and operated at a rate of 8 kbps. VHF: Very High Frequency Very High Frequency (VHF) is the RF spectrum between 30 MHz and 300 MHz. is a radio bandwidth range between 40 GHz t0 50 GHz. VSELP: Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive (VSELP) is a type of speech coding using an excitation signal generated from three components: the output of a long-term. VLR: Visitor Location Register Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains all subscriber data required for call handling and mobility management for mobile subscribers currently located in the area controlled by the VLR. enabling companies to deploy and manage voice and data over a single wireless backbone. The VLR communicates with the HLR of the subscriber to request data about that subscriber.

WAP Forum The WAP Forum has consolidated into the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) and no longer exists as an independent organization. WAP browsers are intended to be implemented on small mobile devices such as cell phones. images. A WBMP image is identified using a TypeField value. a compact representation of XML. Walsh codes are the backbone of CDMA systems and are used to develop the individual channels in CDMA. and the remaining codes are available for traffic channels. Many WAPs can be connected together to create a larger network that allows "roaming". here are 64 codes available. WBXML significantly improves the efficiency of transmitting XML over narrow bandwidth networks. WAP was designed to work within the constraints of these devices: a limited memory and CPU size. is a device that "connects" wireless communication devices together to create a wireless network. developed by the WAP Forum. Its mission is to advance the interests of the wireless systems that provide data (including Internet and e-commerce). WAPs act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter. For cdma2000. pagers. Walsh Code Walsh Code is a group of spreading codes having good autocorrelation properties and poor crosscorrelation properties. WAP developers use WML and WMLScript.telephony services and programming interfaces as well as content formats including well-defined data formats. For IS-95. War driving War driving (wardriving) is the process of traveling around looking for wireless access point signals that can be used to get network access. that lets developers using Wireless Markup Language build networked applications designed for handheld wireless devices. and animation) and determines image characteristics according to WAP documentation. Codes 2 through 7 are also available for traffic channels if they are not needed. WAE provides the operators and service providers an interoperable environment on which they can build applications and services for handheld client devices. Code 0 is used as the pilot and code 32 is used for synchronization. which combines both the WWW and Mobile Telephony technologies. there exists a multitude of Walsh codes that vary in length to accommodate the different data rates and Spreading Factors of the different Radio Configurations. WCA: Wireless Communications Association The Wireless Communications Association (WCA) represents the fixed broadband wireless access industry worldwide. . tagging nearby pavement to allow others to tap in and steal bandwidth from those hotspots. These access points are typically found through war driving. Some computer hackers are content to simply map any open. generally measured from crest to crest or from trough to trough of successive waves. W-ATM: Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode network Wireless ATM network (W-ATM) was a concept of using wireless as physical layer to transmit ATM cells. Codes 1 though 7 are used for control channels. but also Wireless Telephony Application. WAP: Wireless Access Point A wireless access point (WAP). monochrome screens. Wavelength Wavelength is the length of one complete wave of an alternating or vibrating phenomenon. War chalking War chalking refers to marking buildings or sidewalks with chalk to show others where it's possible to access an exposed company wireless network. low bandwidth and erratic connections. WAP: Wireless Application Protocol The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a set of specifications. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards. and PDAs. which describes encoding information (such as pixel and palette organization. is part of the presentation logic in Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small. This concept never took off. Instead of developing content in HTML and JavaScript. WBXML: WAP Binary XML WAP Binary XML (WBXML). also known as Access Point (AP). namely WTA and WTAI -. unsecured WLANs they find.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . compression. and radio transmitter.W WAE: Wireless Application Environment The Wireless Application Environment (WAE) is the top most level in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. phone book records and calendar information. WBMP: Wireless Bitmap Wireless Bitmap (WBMP) is WAP graphic format optimized for mobile computing devices. antenna. where data size is of paramount importance. WAE includes the micro-browser that contains functionality for using not only WML and WML Script as previously stated. WASP: wireless application service provider Wireless Application Service Provider (WASP) provides hosted wireless applications so that companies will not have to build their own sophisticated wireless infrastructures. voice and video services on a subscription basis through land-based towers to fixed reception/transmit devices. small. Others have adopted the practice of warchalking.

originally Nick named for 802.11 family of wireless networking standards.16 wireless metropolitan- area network standard. Research has shown that 40-bit WEP encryption is too easy to decode. In February. The original implementations of WEP supported the so-called 40-bit encryption.11 wireless networking standards and compatibility. now refers to the entire wireless LAN technologies including 802.11b for wireless LAN with bandwith up to 11 Mbps. not 128 bits) or better.000 products have received Wi-Fi certification since the certification began in March of 2000. WIM provides security services for WAP applications. SIM cards with security module are provided by the SIM card issuer WiMax WiMax. WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol The Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP).11 specification. WDF: Wireless Data Forum Wireless Data Forum (WDF) is an industry group based in New Zealand dedicated to promote and educate New Zealand companies on many options and solutions available to them through the use of Wireless Data. Internet access and video conferencing.11b. WDP offers to the upper layers an invisible interface independent of the underlying network technology used. is a 3G standard for GSM in Europe. covers the Transmission Layer Protocols in an Internet model. It's also the principal alternative being discussed in Asia. Data rates for WiMax can reach up to 75 Mbps (Fixed) or 15 Mbps (Mobile). The goal of the Wi-Fi Alliance's members is to enhance the user experience through product interoperability. and allows you to use digital signature. global interoperability can be acquired using mediating gateways. WiMax also offers an alternative to satellite Internet services. and in late 2004. WIM: WAP Identity Module WAP Identity Module (WIM) is the security module implemented in the SIM card for WAP applications. A number of wireless signaling options exist ranging anywhere from the 2 GHz range up to 66 GHz. It supports very high-speed multimedia services such as full-motion video.16-2005 for mobile WiMAX.3 GHz band. standing for Wireless Broadband. 802. Japan and the United States. Wi-Fi is actually the industry name for wireless LAN (WLAN) communication technology related to the IEEE 802. WiMax technology can deliver high-speed Internet access to rural areas and other locations. abreviated from Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. 802.WCDMA: Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access Wideband Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access(W-CDMA or WCDMA). WiMax is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable-access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line.5G wireless cellular technology. 2002. In consequence of the interface common to transport protocols. offering data speeds of up to 2 Mbps. for up to 100 kbit/s of bandwidth.11g and 802. . As a general transport service. the Korean government allocated 100 MHz of electromagnetic spectrum in the 2. and consequently product vendors today employ 128-bit encryption (having a key length of 104 bits. including both 802.16-2004 for fixed WiMAX and 802. specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard. 802. Currently. Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity Wireless Fidelity (WiFi or Wi-Fi). WEP is based on a security scheme called RC4 that utilizes a combination of secret user keys and system- generated values. and over 1. By letting only the transport layer deal with physical network-dependent issues. that is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired LAN. WiMax has a range of up to 31 miles. WiBro WiBro.11a. WDS: Wireless Distribution System Wireless Distribution System (WDS) is a technology that enables access points to communicate with one another in order to extend the range of a wireless network. WEP: Wired-Equivalent Privacy Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol. WDS is appearing in 802. It uses one 5-MHz channel for both voice and data. is a wireless broadband internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry. having a key of length 40 bits and 24 additional bits of system-generated data (64 bits total). WiDEN allows compatible subscriber units to communicate across four 25 kHz channels combined. WECA: Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) is the former name of the Wi-Fi Alliance of vendors promoting 802. Wi-Fi Alliance Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit international association formed in 1999 to certify interoperability of WLAN products based on the IEEE 802. WiBro Phase 1 was standardized by the TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association) of Korea. The protocol is generally considered as a 2. WiDEN: Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network (WiDEN) is a software upgrade developed by Motorola for its iDEN-enhanced specialised mobile radio (or ESMR) wireless telephony protocol. a protocol in WAP architecture. the Wi-Fi Alliance has over 200 member companies from around the world.11g-based access points.11n etc. also known as UMTS in Europe.11b. is a popular name of the 802. the upper layer protocols of the WAP architecture can operate independent of the underlying wireless network.

WML also includes features that tailor it for the relatively small display sizes of today's wireless devices. maintain.11n. A wireless bridge functions in the same way but can be used in situations in which running a wire or cable would be impractical or prohibitively expensive. 802.11g and 802. WLAN provides Ethernet connections over the air and operate under the 802. LNP. WISP: Wireless ISP Wireless ISP (WISP) is a company that provides wireless Internet access for public. multimedia-capable personal-area connectivity in the PC.11a.15. handheld computers and cell phones. For example. to provide a neutral and open forum for multiple industry segments to establish requirements. delivers Internet content to small wireless devices. Wireless Gateway Wireless Gateway is a device that can share an Internet connection. Wireless Channel Wireless Channel refers to dividing allocated spectrum into sub-spectrums. and to develop. low bandwidth and restricted user-input capabilities. such as creating a 10-mile point-to-point link. WLANs are built by attaching a device called the access point (AP) to the edge of the wired network.11b. WMF: Wireless Message Format Wireless Message Format (WMF) is a standard format for presenting data received through a paging system to mobile computers." Wireless Network Adaptor Wireless Network Adaptor is the inerface that connects a PC with wireless network. which typically have very small displays.15.11b and 802. based on HTML and XML. Although WML strips some features from HTML and co-opts others. WIN: Wireless Intelligent Network Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) refers to a set of advanced services provided on a wireless network such as Prepaid. and bridge between wired and wireless networks. also known as wireless 1394. 802.1 bridging standards to the high bandwidth wireless network connectivity enabled by IEEE 802. Clients communicate with the AP using a wireless network adapter similar in function to a traditional Ethernet adapter. namely. hotels and other public businessplaces.3 (UWB) Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). CE and mobile market segments.11 family of specifications developed by the IEEE. and events.11g devices have three nonoverlapping channels. serve DHCP. These hotspots provide Internet access and local area network (LAN) printing for mobile network devices like laptops. tasks.3. . Another combination is to build a DSL or cable modem with the wireless access point. also called radio in the loop (RITL) or fixed-radio access (FRA) or fixed-wireless access (FWA). for example. specifications and best practices for usability and interoperability. The wireless 1394 specification adapts the IEEE 1394 and P1394.11. WLL: Wireless Local Loop Wireless Local Loop (WLL).11 family of specifications. The WLAN technology is defined by the IEEE 802. is the use of wireless connections as the last mile for delivering plain old telephone service (POTS) to customers. 802. in which the wireless access point is used to communicate with local PCs and other devices and the DSL and cable modem will communicate with the Inernet. All use the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance instead of CSMA/CD) for path sharing. is a wireless version of the high speed FireWire communications protocol defined in the IEEE 1394. WML: Wireless Markup Language Wireless Markup Language (WML). etc. WML also incorporates some powerful programming constructs not found in HTML like variables. WML implements a stricter tag syntax than HTML and includes a DTD for use with XML parsers WOS: Wireless Office Systems Wireless Office Systems (WOS) is a technology that allows the user to transfer calls to a mobile telephone. limited memory capacity.11a devices have eight nonoverlapping channels. to promote worldwide UWB spectrum regulations. WML and HTML differ in significant ways. This information is received completely intact by the MCD. Wireless router Wireless routers are actually routers with Ethernet plus wireless access points so that they have both wired and/or wireless at the same time. a wireless NIC is a wireles adaptor. WISPs typically install Wi-Fi wireless hotspots in airports. slow CPUs. enhance and reference technical specifications. which extends an existing wired local area network. It allows multiple FireWire devices to communicate wirelessly over IEEE 802.WiMedia Alliance WiMedia Alliance is an industrial association with a focus on UWB (Ultra WideBand) wireless technologies to promote and enable the rapid adoption and standardization of UWB worldwide for high-speed wireless. 802. Wireless Gateway may also be called as "wireless router. The application at the MED uses this format to encode binary data and control information to be sent to a remote device. such as browser- equipped cellular phones and handheld devices. WML demands less memory and processing power from browsers than HTML and JavaScript. 802. Wireless FireWire Wireless FireWire." or "base station. WLAN: Wireless local-area networks (Wireless LAN) Wireless local-area networks (WLAN or wireless LAN) use radio waves to connect a user device to a LAN. 802. Wireless Bridge Wireless Bridge is a networking bridge used to connect two or more separate networks.

192-bit and 256-bit keys. operates efficiently over either secure or non-secure wireless datagram networks. which allows the user to send and receive data via mobile wireless.3. namely. These cellular technologies are offered regionally.metropolitan areas. HomeRF. AES supports 128-bit. Technologies enabling WPAN include Bluetooth. 2004. or even globally and are provided by a wireless service provider. and 110 Mbps at up to 10 meters. ZigBee. W-TDMA: Wideband Time Division Multiple Access Wideband Time Division Multiple Access (W-TDMA) is a technique based on time division transmission which is similar to that used by GSM but provides a much higher transmission rate.11 wireless networks that replaces the weaker WEP. The WPABX is capable of interfacing to a telephone central office with trunk groups and routing calls based on a 3. WTLS detects the misuse and rejects the data in order to make many typical denial- of-service attacks harder to accomplish. . WRAN: Wireless Regional Area Network Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) technology targets at wireless broadband (remote) access for geographically dispersed. rural or non. The reach of a PAN is typically within 10 meters. When that happens.6 GHz band-range and spreads communications over an ultra-wideband of frequencies. It provides three different kinds of transaction services. WPABX: Wireless Private Automatic Branch Exchange Wireless Private Automatic Branch Exchange (WPABX) is a customer premise telephone switching system using wireless technology to link the individual user stations to the central switching unit. provides the Wireless Application Environment a consistent interface with two services: connection-oriented service to operate above the Transaction Layer Protocol (WTP) and a connectionless service that operates above either secure or non-secure datagarm service (WDP). The transmission range can be up to 100Km. Ultra-wideband(UWB).or 4-digit telephone extension number.15. a common facility for reliable and unreliable data push as well as a protocol feature negotiation. It uses the Advanced Encryption Standard instead of TKIP (see above). Various computers now have integrated WWAN capabilities with a cellular radio (GSM/CDMA) built in. with the benefit of easier administration and use. unreliable one-way. Wireless USB. It operates in the 3. WPAN: Wireless Personal-Area Network Wireless Personal-Area Network (WPAN) is a personal area network using wireless connections. a protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. long lived session state with session suspend-and-resume capabilities. WPA2: Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) is an enhanced version of WPA. the feature of delaying acknowledgements can be used. it improves on WEP by using dynamic keys.11i standard that was ratified by the IEEE in June. IrDA. sparsely populated areas. a protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security The Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) protocol.1 functionality and semantics in a compact encoding. WPA provides roughly comparable security to VPN tunneling with WEP. is capable of sending 480 Mbps or even higher bandwidth at distances up to 3 meters.WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a data encryption specification for 802. computer and its accessories. These protocols are optimised to be used in low-bandwith bearer networks with relative long latency in order to connect a WAP client to a HTTP server. Created by the WiFi Alliance before a 802. as well as personal digital assistants. This layer also includes optional user-to-user reliability by triggering the confirmation of each received message.11i security standard was ratified by the IEEE. nationwide. within a short range. Non Line of Sight (NLOS) due to use of TV broadcast bands as License Exempt (LE) spectrum. protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. To reduce the number of messages sent. WWAN: Wireless WAN Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) is a wireless network that uses cellular network technologies such as GPRS / CDMA2000 / GSM / CDPD / Mobitex to transfer data. The WRAN technology is useful for remote access to grid computer sites and to independent telcos operating in developing countries. authentication and denial-of-service protection. The latter is needed in cases when data is replayed or not properly verified. WUSB: Wireless USB Wireless USB (WUSB) is the wireless extension to USB (Universal Serial Bus) intended to combine the speed and security of wired technology with the ease-of-use of wireless technology. It is the official 802. is based on Transport Layer Security (TLS) or formely known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). WRAN specifications are defined by the IEEE802. WSP: Wireless Session Protocol The Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). based on Ultra-WideBand (UWB) defined by IEEE 802. Extensible Authentication Protocol to secure network access. but was rejected. WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol The Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP).1–10. etc. It is designed to be used with other WAP protocols and to support narrow-band networks. It uses data encryption with a method that is negotiated at the start of the session to provide privacy. reliable one-way and reliable two-way transactions. and an encryption method called Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) to secure data transmissions. data integrity. Currently.22 working committee. It was submitted as a solution for UMTS radio interface. WPAN is used for communications among devices such as telephones. the protocols of the WSP family provide HTTP/1.

Numbers 0G 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone).. By moving to a higher-order constellation. Since in digital telecommunications the data is usually binary. It is a digital communication allowing e-mail and simple Web browsing. Eastern Europe and Russia.4. 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO. 128-QAM and 256-QAM. which uses the digital technologies for the mobile communication. which usually is used by military satellites.X Y Z X-Band X-band is the bandwith between 7 GHz to 8 GHz. C-Netz in West Germany. ZDO has its own profile. Analog cellular service is being phased out in most places worldwide. known as the ZigBee Device Profile (ZDP). one of the forms of QAM. The ZDO is like a special application object that is resident on all ZigBee nodes. voice-only cellular telephone standard. networks and handheld devices.). used in Nordic countries. this results in a higher bit-error rate and so higher-order QAM can deliver more data less reliably than lower- order QAM. HSDPA (High . Radiocom 2000 in France. However.1Mbps. Its bandwidth is up to 3. is responsible for overall device management. the transceiver (transmitter-receiver) is mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial. and security keys and policies. also known as Evolution Data Optimized (EV-DO). TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom. display. 3. building automation industrial automation. which the application end points and other ZigBee nodes can access. 1G: First Generation wireless technology First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog. also known as Evolution Data/Voice (EV-DV). Zone Paging Zone Paging is a feature in many paging systems that allows you to page a specific department or an area without disturbing other people. is a third-generation (3G) cellular data technology for GPRS-enabled cellular phones. is a third-generation (3G) cellular data technology for GPRS-enabled cellular phones. Since QAM is usually square. Typically.5G The 3. the constellation points are usually arranged in a square grid with equal vertical and horizontal spacing. It allows slow data communications. 64-QAM. RTT stands for Radio Transmission Technology. a protocol in the ZigBee protocol stack. if the mean energy of the constellation is to remain the same (by way of making a fair comparison). in addition to voice. Currently. it is possible to transmit more bits per symbol.5G 2. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States. Yagi Antenna Yagi Antenna is an antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. developed in the 1980s. In QAM.4. These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks. although other configurations are possible. Yagi antennas are used only in point-to-point situations. Its bandwidth is up to 3.5G generally refers to the technologies beyond the well defined 3G wireless/mobile technologies. is a modulation scheme.15. 1xRTT has a theoretical maximum of 144 Kbps of bandwidth. the most common forms of QAM are 16-QAM. the number of points in the grid is usually a power of 2 (2. 1xEV-DV 1xEV-DV. 2G: Second Generation Wireless Technology 2G stands for the second generation of mobile wireless communication technology. ZigBee ZigBee.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .1Mbps. networks and handheld devices. ZDO: ZigBee Device Object ZigBee Device Object (ZDO). is the technology used in the low data rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) for home control. and RTMI in Italy. 2.8. and handset) mounted near the driver seat 16QAM: 16ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 16ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM). 1xRTT 1xRTT is a cellular data technology for CDMA networks. but its primary focus is voice.. defined in the IEEE 802. JTAGS in Japan. ZigBee covers up to 330 feet (about 100 meters) in the bandwidth of 20 to 250 kbps. The key technologies include GPRS and WiDEN.5G refers to the bridging technologies between second (2G) and third generation (3G) wireless communications. but achieves a practical throughput of only 50 to 70 Kbps in the real world. 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based (GSM) and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. the points must be closer together and are thus more susceptible to noise and other corruption.

The scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT- 2000 project. 802.11g 802. 3GPP2: The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December. allowing wireless functionality comparable to Ethernet. 802.11b uses only DSSS. WCDMA. It is a key 3G technology to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS and provide a high-data-rate.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a fallback to 5.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band. an IEEE standard.Speed Downlink Packet Access) is considered the primary 3. 802.15.11 Media Access Control (MAC) layer. 802. actually newer than 802.11b 802. CCSA (China).4 GHz band.11b. 802.11 which offers wireless transmission over relatively short distances at 20 – 54 Mbps in the 2.11 is a group of wireless specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless local area network (WLAN) communications. now generally known as the UMTS system. 1998.11b and has a shorter range than 802. The scope of 3GPP2 is to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. 4G will be designed for new data services and interactive TV through mobile network. IEEE802. the 802. 802. The core technology that enables the 3GSM is called Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).11g is compatible with older 802. Commercial aspects like costs for installing and operating the network form also part of the requirements. the set of 3G standards based on earlier 2G CDMA technology. in particular. is an extension to IEEE 802. 4G: Fourth generation of wireless communications 4G is the name for the next generation of technology for high-speed wireless communications that is currently in research and development stage.11g also uses the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme. 3G: Third Generation Wireless Technology 3G stands for the third generation of wireless communication technologies.5G technology which is a software upgrade of WCDMA and provides high-speed broadband wireless access. CCSA (China).11a uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS.11i 802. Likewise.11n. 1998. Main 3G standards include CDMA2000. offers significantly more radio channels than the 802.4 GHz band. Some common specifications include the following: 802.11g is an extension to IEEE 802. also known as Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA or EUTRA) or UMTS Long Term Evolution. TIA (North America) and TTA (South Korea).11a 8802. Besides peak data rates of 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in uplink. The standard is considered of critical importance for delay-sensitive applications. 802. The 802. is the quality-of-service specification over a LAN.4 (ZigBee) -standard based networks.11g. 802. 802. 802. 3GPP specifications are based on the evolved GSM specifications. also called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2).11e 802. 3GPP LTD 3GPP Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE). In practice.11i. It's a co- operation between ARIB/TTC (Japan). more specifically over IEEE802.11b. 802.11a is an extension to IEEE 802.11b was a ratification to the original 802. a significant increase in spectrum efficiency and capacity as well as a significant latency reduction are planned.5. is specified in the 3GPP release 8. 802. 2 and 1 Mbps) in the 2. 802.11g. 3GPP2 is the standardization group for CDMA2000.4/ZigBee devices provide sensing communication-ability in the wireless domain. etc. is the standard for WLAN security.11e.11b. etc. also referred to as 802.15. 6lowpan is the paragon that is aimed at allowing IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from PANs.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi.11 WiFi standard.11b. 802.11b. It's a co- operation between ETSI (Europe). UMTS. data and multi-media communications over wireless networks.11 802. such as Voice-over-Wireless IP and Streaming Multimedia. which support broadband voice. 3-Way Calling 3-Way Calling is a feature in voice communications which allows you to conduct a conference call among three parties. WPA 2 supports the 128-bit-and-above .11a. It details a wireless interface between devices to manage packet traffic to avoid collisions. ARIB/TTC (Japan).11 standard. 6lowpan: IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks 6lowpan is the IETF working group to define the standards of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 3GPP: The 3rd Generation Partnership Project? The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December. The protocol enhances the IEEE 802. ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea).11a. 3GPS: 3G Service Provider 3GPS (3G Service Provider) is the mobile operator that has 3G license to provide 3G services to customers 3GSM: Third generation GSM network Third generation GSM (3GSM) is the combination of the 3G nature of the technology and the GSM standard. low-latency and packet-optimized system. It isn't compatible with 802.

Other standards in the family (c–f. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16-2005 802.11x standard. along with 802. which is also branded as WiMAX.11n technology is also known as Multiple Input.3 is also called UWB. Multiple Output (MIMO). which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). 802.11n 802.15.16a. It may. better distribute traffic loads across access points or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference. 802.16e. 802. 802.15.15.16d (802.11 family of standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs) for 4.3 802. j) are service enhancements and extensions or corrections to previous specifications.4 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is used for short range network monitoring and control applications. 802. 802.11x should not be mistaken for any one of its elements because there is no single 802. IEEE 802.11x 802.16-2005 is sometimes called “Mobile WiMAX†.16-2004.16a 802.15. also known as 802.4 is also called Zigbee. The 802. It also uses TKIP (Temporal Kye Integrity Protocol) which rotates key periodically to improve WLAN security. 802. also known as 802.11x refers to a group of evolving wireless local area network (WLAN) standards that are elements of the IEEE 802.3 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is used for short range network monitoring and control applications.11r The 802. and g amendments to the original standard. 802.16-2004) and 802. IEEE 802.11a and 802.4 (ZigBee).15 is a group of IEEE standards that specifies communications for wireless personal area networks (WPAN) based on the Bluetooth tehnologies.2 (UWB) and 802. a. followed by 802.15 802.11n is another new modulation technique.15.11s 802. security was originally included and was later enhanced via the 802.11g. 802. This is especially important in applications that need low latency and high quality-of-service. and to cover a range up to 400 meters. This wireless broadband access standard provides the missing link for the "last mile" connection in metropolitan area networks where DSL. 802.11s standard is designed to deal with mesh networking in wireless communication. h.16a has been replaced by later standards in the family 802.the latter of which delivers full duplex transmissions on the same signal if desired.11i amendment.15.15. 802.11 family currently includes six over-the-air modulation techniques that all use the same protocol.16 refers to a group of standards that defines wireless communications between a subscriber site and a core network such as the public telephone network (PSTN) and the Internet.11k The 802. 802. 802.16 The IEEE 802. The most popular (and prolific) techniques are those defined by the b. 802.1 is an IEEE wireless technology standard based on the Bluetooth technology. . 802.11 family of specifications.16-2004 802. is an IEEE standard for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax).1 (Bluetooth).15.11j is the IEEE standard to the 802.11k is the Radio Resource Management standard to provide measurement information for access points and switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently. The 802.15 family are: 802.16a standard was developed for wireless MANs operating between 2 GHz and 11 GHz at data speeds of up to 75 megabits per second (Mbps).15. is an IEEE standard addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax).16e (802. 802.1x authentication and key management features.11r is the Fast Roaming standard to address maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to another.5 GHz frequency use of WLAN systems in Japan. for example. adds WiMax mobility in the 2-to-6GHz-licensed bands. IEEE 802.11j 802.16-2005. which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). based on an existing WiMax standard 802.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -.15.Advanced Encryption Standard. It is predicted to be ratified in mid-2008. 802. Mobile WiMAX will do the same. The current technologies included in the IEEE 802.16d.16-2004 product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. Cable and other broadband access methods are not available or too expensive.4 802.15. 802. It is used for short range network monitoring and control applications.16 or WiMAX.16a is an IEEE wireless communications specification for metropolitan area networks (MANs) as part of a set of standards known as 802.1 802. which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). 802. after the WiMAX forum for interoperability. 802.9 GHz .16-2005).11b was the first widely accepted wireless networking standard. It is called Wireless MAN technology.16-2005. 802.11n is the IEEE Standard for WLAN enhancements for higher throughput designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. 802.

16e allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access).16a.16d 802. Signals at these frequencies can propagate 40 km or more from a well-sited base station. wireless regional area networks that operate on unused channels in the VHF/UHF TV bands between 54 and 862 MHz.1X. is an IEEE standard for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax).5GHz and with a peak data rate of over 1 Mbit/s. is an IEEE standard addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax).16d product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. 802. IEEE 802.16e 802.16d. .16a. depending on terrain.16-2004. 802. authenticator (switch or access point). there are three roles: the supplicant (client). aims for operation in licensed bands below 3.16-2005. 802. after the WiMAX forum for interoperability.22 specifies a cognitive air interface for fixed. point-to-multipoint. 802.16e.20. like a user name and password. IEEE 802.1x is an IEEE authentication specification that allows a client to connect to a wireless access point or wired switch but prevents the client from gaining access to the Internet until it provides credentials. adds mobility in the 2-to-6 GHz-licensed bands.16e is sometimes called “Mobile WiMAX†.16e. also known as 802.20 802.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -.22 802. In 802.802. 802. 802. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16e.the latter of which delivers full duplex transmission on the same signal if desired.1x 802. 802. adds WiMax mobility in the 2-to-6 GHz-licensed bands. also known as 802. that are verified by a separate server. while 802.20 is a competing standard with 802. 802. based on 802.16e. based on an existing WiMax standard 802.22 is an IEEE standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN). IEEE 802. a brand new standard.20 is an IEEE standard of Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) by specifying new mobile air interfaces for wireless broadband. and authentication server.