Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary A comprehensive guide to Wireless Technology


Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary - A
A2DP: Advanced Audio Distribution Profile The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) in Bluetooth specifies the protocols and procedures that define the distribution of high quality audio content, in either mono or stereo on Asynchronous Connectionless Link (ACL) channels. AAS: Adaptive Antenna System Adaptive Antenna System (AAS), also called Advanced Antenna System, is a technology to enable the network operators to increase the wireless network capacity. In addition, adaptive antenna systems offer the potential of increased spectrum efficiency, extended range of coverage and higher rate of frequency reuse. Adaptive antenna systems consist of multiple antenna elements at the transmitting and/or receiving side of the communication link, whose signals are processed adaptively in order to exploit the spatial dimension of the mobile radio channel. Depending on whether the processing is performed at the transmitter, receiver, or both ends of the communication link, the adaptive antenna technique is defined as multiple-input single-output (MISO), single-input multiple-output (SIMO), or multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). A-Band cellular In the U.S. cellular service industry, A-Band cellular is the alternative carrier to the regional Bell operating company's cellular subsidiary Absolute Grant Absolute Grant (AG), a term used in the mobile wireless channel definition, means the absolute value of the power offset permitted for the power usage. Absorption Spectrum Absorption Spectrum is a diagram which shows the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by a material. The material could be a gas, a solute or a solid. An absorption spectrum is, in a sense, the inverse of an emission spectrum. A-Key A-key is a secret number issued to a cellular phone that is used in conjunction with a subscriber's shared secret data information for authentication AC: Authentication Center (or AUC) The Authentication Centre (AC or AUC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network. ACCH: Associated Control Channel Associated Control Channel(ACCH) is the GSM signalling channels associated with a user’s traffic channel or dedicated signalling channel. Two ACCH are defined for GSM Circuit Switched operation. These are SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel) and FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel). In GPRS packet operation, an ACCH is allocated in conjunction with a PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) and is termed as PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel). ACELP: Algebraic Code Excited Linear Predictive Algebraic Code Excited Linear Predictive (ACELP) is an algebraic technique used to populate codebooks for CELP speech coders. This technique results in more efficient codebook search algorithms. ACIR: Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio (ACIR) is the ratio of wanted power to the interference power from the adjacent channels. ACLR: Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) is a measure of transmitter performance for WCDMA. It is defined as the ratio of the transmitted power to the power measured after a receiver filter in the adjacent RF channel. This is what was formerly called Adjacent Channel Power Ratio. ACLR is specified in the 3GPP WCDMA standard. ACPR: Adjacent Channel Power Ratio Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) is a measurement of the amount of interference, or power, in the adjacent frequency channel. ACPR is usually defined as the ratio of the average power in the adjacent frequency channel (or offset) to the average power in the transmitted frequency channel. It is a critical measurement for CDMA transmitters and their components. It describes the amount of distortion generated due to nonlinearities in RF components. The ACPR measurement is not part of the cdmaOne standard. ACS: Adjacent Channel Selectivity Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS) is a measurement of a receiver's ability to process a desired signal while rejecting a strong signal in an adjacent frequency channel. ACS is defined as the ratio of the receiver filter attenuation on the assigned channel frequency to the receiver filter attenuation on the adjacent channel frequency. ACTS: Advanced Communications Technology and Services Advanced Communications Technology and Services (ACTS) is an organization in Europe spearheading the development of 3G technologies in Europe. ACTS succeeded RACE and is focusing on wideband multiple access techniques. AP: Access point Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. Access points used in home or small business

networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards. Ad hoc Ad hoc, also known as Ad hoc mode, refers to a short-term wireless network framework created between two or more wireless network adapters without going through an access point. In other words, an Ad hoc network allows computers to "talk" (send data) directly to and from one another. Ad hoc networks are handy for quickly trading files when you have no other way of connecting two or more computers. For an ad hoc network to work, each computer on the network needs a wireless network card installed, and you must set your wireless network cards (installed in each computer on the network) to Ad Hoc mode. Ad hoc mode Ad hoc mode refers to a wireless network in which devices can communicate directly with one another without using an AP or a connection to a regular network. Ad hoc network Ad hoc network refers to a short-term wireless network framework created between two or more wireless network adapters without going through an access point. Ad hoc networks are handy for quickly trading files when you have no other way of connecting two or more computers. Adaptive array antennas Adaptive array antenna is a type of advanced smart antenna technology that continually monitors a received signal and dynamically adapts signal patterns to optimize wireless system performance. The arrays use signal processing algorithms to adapt to user movement, changes in the radio-frequency environment and multi-path and co-channel interference. Adaptive Equalizer Adaptive Equalizer is a channel equalizer whose parameters are updated automatically and adaptively during the transmission of data. These equalizers are commonly used in fading channels to improve transmission performance. Adaptive power control Adaptive power control is a technique employed by wireless infrastructure systems that lowers the power of a signal in a cell site whenever the site detects that the user's phone is close to the source of the signal. This saves power in the phone, and thus saving battery life too. ADC: Analog-to-Digital Converter Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). ADC can uniquely represents all analog input values within a specified total input range by a limited number of digital output codes. Adjacent Channel Adjacent Channel is a channel or frequency that is directly above or below a specific channel or frequency. First-adjacent is immediately next to another channel, and second-adjacent is two channels away, and so forth. Information on adjacent channels is used in keeping stations from interfering with one another. Adjacent channel interference Adjacent channel interference refers to signal impairment to one frequency due to presence of another signal on a nearby frequency. ADPCM: Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation(ADPCM) is the process by which analog voice samples are encoded into high-quality digital signals. The first ADPCM standardized by the CCITT is G.721 for 32 kbps. Later came the standards G.726 and G.727 for 40, 32, 24 and 16 kbps. ADPCM is used to send sound on fiber-optic long-distance lines as well as to store sound along with text, images, and code on a CD-ROM. AGC: Automatic Gain Control Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is a system which holds the gain and, accordingly, the output of a receiver substantially constant in spite of input-signal amplitude fluctuations. AGCH: Access Grant Channel Access Grant Channel(AGCH) is a downlink control channel used in GSM systems to assign mobiles to a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) for initial assignment. AGPS: Assisted Global Positioning System Assisted Global Positioning System (AGPS) is a method used for determining mobile station (MS) location in terms of universal latitude and longitude coordinates. This capability has been mandated for wireless carriers in the United States by the Federal Communication Commission, so emergency callers can be easily located in times of crisis. AGPS implies that the mobile not only has GPS hardware and software but that the wireless network is providing the mobile with short assistance messages. Air Interface In wireless communications, the air interface is the radio frequency (RF) part of the network that transmits signals between base stations and end-user equipment. The air interface is defined by specifications for a specific format such as GSM, cdma2000, GPRS, or W-CDMA. AirPort AirPort is the Apple's marketing name for its 802.11b wireless networking technology. AirPort, based on IEEE 802.11b, is a local

AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is an alternative link adaptation method in 3G mobile wireless communication. introduced in the Americas during the early 1980s. . representing specialized mobile radio operators. A later family of products based on the IEEE 802. The goal is to maximize the resources available in multiple antenna channels by using optimal schemes at all times. Aliasing Aliasing is a type of signal distortion that occurs when sampling frequency of a signal is less than the Nyquist rate. that are continuously variable rather than discreet units as in digital transmissions. PCS and cell routing. In an adaptive MIMO switching system. diversity.area wireless networking system from Apple Computer and certified as compatible with other 802.. Analog Transmission Analog Transmission refers to signals propagated through the medium as continuously varying electromagnetic waves. and the modulation and coding format is changed to match the current received signal quality or channel conditions. the relatively seamless cellular switching technology AMPS introduced was what made the original mobile radiotelephone practical. For this reason. such as busy signals and ringing. AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System ervice Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Service is the analog mobile phone system standard. such as electricity or sound waves. Airtime Airtime is the time elapsed between the start of a call achieved by connecting to your service provider's network and the termination of a call achieved by pressing the end button. D. Mobile analog systems include AMPS. 3GPP (under which the next stage GSM speech quality will be realized) has selected the AMR codec as an essential speech codec for the next generation system. In an adaptive MIMO system. A-Key A-key is a secret number issued to a cellular phone that is used in conjunction with a subscriber's shared secret data information for authentication. Network connection time includes signals received prior to voice transmission.11b devices. and guitar and other instrument amplifiers.11g specification is known as AirPort Extreme. microcomputers and other electronic digital equipment. is commonly used in radio and television transmitters and receivers. AM: Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) uses amplitude variation in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal. AIN: advanced intelligent network Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) was Introduced by AT&T Network Systems in 1991 to enable service providers to define. AMTA: American Mobile Telecommunications Association American Mobile Telecommunications Association (AMTA) is a trade group. Though analog is no longer considered advanced at all. high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment. the power of the transmitted signal is held constant over a frame interval. With AMC. and robustness of wireless communications. based in Washington. The codec adapts its bit-rate allocation between speech and channel coding. NMT and ETACS. ALOHA ALOHA is a packet-based radio access protocol developed by the University of Hawaii where every packet sent is acknowledged. AMR: Advanced Multi Rate Codec Advanced Multi Rate Codec (AMR) is a speech codec standardized by ETSI for GSM. and was considered quite advanced at the time. and is usually taken as DSB-LC for commercial broadcast transmissions and DSB-SC for multiplexed systems. the system parameters are jointly optimized to adapt to the changing channel conditions through link adaptation techniques that can track the time-varying characteristics of the wireless channel. offering speeds of up to 54 megabits per second and interoperability with older products. Lack of an acknowledgement is an indication of a collision and results in a retransmission. thereby optimizing speech quality in various radio channel conditions. test and introduce new multimedia messaging. The goal is to maximize the resources available in multiple antenna channels by using optimal schemes at all times. video and data-using analog signals. the system parameters are jointly optimized to adapt to the changing channel conditions through link adaptation techniques that can track the time-varying characteristics of the wireless channel. Analog System Analog system uses an analog transmission method to send voice.C. Amplifier Amplifier. or electronic amplifier. AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching Adaptive MIMO Switching (AMS) is a scheme to switch between multiple MIMO modes to maximize spectral efficiency with no reduction in coverage area. AMC provides the flexibility to match the modulation-coding scheme to the average channel conditions for each user. A-MIMO: Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output (A-MIMO or Adaptive MIMO) is a scheme to enhance the MIMO technology by employing adaptive coding and modulation techniques for the purpose of improving channel capacity.

is the relative gain of the main beam of an antenna pattern to a reference antenna.Angle diversity Angle diversity is a technique using multiple antenna beams to receive multipath signals arriving at different angles. ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is a communication protocol in which the receiving device detects errors and requests retransmissions. Antenna gain Antenna gain. security and subscriber/connection/resource management. also known as the half-power beamwidth. ARDIS: Advanced Radio Data Information Service Advanced Radio Data Information Service (ARDIS) is a wireless two-way data network jointly owned and operated by Motorola and IBM. APCM: Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation (APCM) is a technique used to share occupied bandwidth among a maximum number of subscribers during peak times by reducing the signal sampling rates of each subscriber. Antenna beamwidth Antenna beamwidth. and to establish a secure relationship between network devices. seamless handoffs. Attenuation Attenuation refers to decreasing in signal magnitude between two points. a concept in the mobile WiMAX network. also known as antenna directivity. it automatically requests the transmitter to resend the packet. carries wireless system responces from the cell site to the user equipment. ARIB: Association of Radio Industries and Businesses Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) is the Japanese standards-setting organization. This process is repeated until the packet is error free or the error continues beyond a predetermined number of transmissions. is the angle of an antenna pattern or beam over which the relative power is at or above 50% of the peak power. Antenna Antenna is a device which radiates and/or receives radio signals. APS: Application Support Application Support (APS) is a sublayer in the ZigBee protocol stack. ARCH: Access Response Channel Access Response Channel (ARCH). provides full mobility. Quality of Service. a logic sub-channel of SPACH specified in IS-136. These points may be along a radio path. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice. ARQ is sometimes used with Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication to guarantee data integrity. to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful. to initiate/respond to binding requests. . AWGN: Additive White Gaussian Noise Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is the statistically random radio noise characterized by a wide frequency range with regards to a signal in a communications channel. When the receiver detects an error in a packet. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer include maintaining tables for binding to match two devices together based on their services and their needs. Attenuator Attenuator is a device specifically designed to decrease the magnitude of a signal transmitted through it. ARFCN: Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers (ARFCN) is a channel numbering scheme used to identify specific RF channels in a GSM radio system. APC: Automatic Power Control Automatic Power Control (APC) is a technique of measuring the performance of a radio channel and adjusting the power of the transmitter to a level appropriate for link characteristics. the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. The APS sub-layer is also responsible to determine the responsibilities of the ZDO.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network. usually located in the HLR of a GSM system. etc. transmission line or other devices. ASN: Access Service Network Access Service Network (CSN). also known as antenna gain. AUC: Authentication Center The Authentication Center (AUC) is a device. is the relative gain of the main beam of an antenna pattern to a reference antenna. and forwarding messages between bound devices. Antenna directivity Antenna directivity. Average power Average power is the peak power averaged over time and is usually applied to pulsed systems where the carrier power is switched on and off. SMS. usually an isotropic or standard dipole. usually an isotropic or standard dipole.

which works with the link manager for carrying out link level routines like link connection and power control. BCH code:Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Code Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) Code is a family of powerful cyclic block forward error correction codes used in the transmission of data. Band Elimination Filter Band Elimination Filter is an electrical device which blinds a receiving unit from recognizing a specific range of frequencies. Baseband signal Baseband signal is a signal with frequency content centered around DC. Typically it is the modulating signal for an RF carrier. . 2. The baseband protocol is implemented as a Link Controller.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . The 802. The Baseband in the Bluetooth manages physical channels and links apart from other services like error correction." Band Band in telecommunication refers to the following definitions: 1. it is being designed as a long-term solution to both voice and data wireless needs -.S. In addition. B-CDMA: broadband code division multiple access Broadband code division multiple access (B-CDMA) is designed to correct many of the inherent short-falls of IS-95 (narrowband CDMA) and other digital narrowband technologies. BCH: Broadcast Channels Broadcast Channels (BCH) are a group downlink point to multipoint logical channels used by mobiles to synchronize to and receive information necessary to access a cell in GSM. Baseband Baseband is the transmission of a digital or analog signal signaling at its original frequencies and in its original form. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). controls call transfers to and from the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Bandwidth Bandwidth is the portion of the frequency spectrum required to transmit desired information. rtPS (Real time polling Service). nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). handles packets and does paging and inquiry to access and inquire Bluetooth devices in the area. and WCDMA systems. The baseband also manages asynchronous and synchronous links.B Backhaul In wireless technology. backhaul refers to transporting voice and data traffic from a cell site to the switch Backscattering Backscattering is radio wave propagation in which the direction of the incident and scattered waves.16 protocol supports five types of QoS: UGS (Unsolicited grant service). Band Pass Filter Band Pass Filter is a radio wave filter with a specific range of frequencies in which it is designed to pass. hop selection and Bluetooth security. while rejects frequencies outside the pass-band. BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is a downlink-point-to-multipoint logical channel in GSM and cdma2000 systems used to send identification and organization information about common control channels and cell services. BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control Function Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF). B-Band cellular In the U. The range of frequencies from the lowest to the highest used is called the bandwidth. is a physical layer protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack. Each radio channel has a center frequency and additional frequencies above and below this carrier frequency which is used to carry the transmitted information. The Baseband layer lies on top of the Bluetooth radio layer in the bluetooth stack. It should not be changed by modulation. data whitening. Some of the technical aspects of the B-CDMA air interface are related to its propagation characteristics. The range of frequencies between two defined limits which are used for a specific purpose. A signal received by backscattering is often referred to as "backscatter. One of the geopolitical boundaries established to define a WATS (wide-area telephone service) serving area. BE Service: Best Effort Service Best Effort (BE) Service is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. cdma2000. B-Band cellular refers to the regional Bell operating company's cellular subsidiary. resolved along a reference direction (usually horizontal) are oppositely directed. Bent pipe technology Bent pipe technology is a satellite technology to transmit calls from one point on Earth to a satellite and back down to another point. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE).16 WiMAX. cellular service industry. Resistor-inductor-capacitor circuit is an example of Band Pass Filter. Baseband layer Baseband layer.fixed and mobile. also known as baseband packet. The aim of the Best Effort (BE) service is to provide efficient service to best effort traffic.

Iridium. as well as to page other users via a wireless network service. Bluetooth is for wireless transmission between a wide variety of devices such as PCs. BS: Base Station Base station (BS). perform handoff and process call setup and termination. Broadband PCS Broadband PCS is the personal communications services created in the A. Mobile broadband PCS services include both voice and advanced two-way data capabilities that are generally available on small. BPSK is the simplest form of PSK.16-2004 standard.15. It is. it has a miniature qwerty keyboard for users to type their messages. It uses the SMS protocol. however.) that handles communication with mobile users in a particular area or cell. BSIC: Base Station Identity Code Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) is a unique code contained in messages on the broadcast channels of a cell or base station that uniquely identifies the base station. assign control and traffic channels. BlackBerry users must subscribe to a wireless service that allows for data transmission. The hottest use for BREW to date has been downloadable games Broadband Broadband refers to telecommunication that provides multiple channels of data over a single communications medium. typically a few thousand kilometers high. It does not particularly matter exactly where the constellation points are positioned. cordless phone. Broadband Wireless Access Broadband wireless access is a technology aimed at providing wireless access to data networks. broadband wireless access is equivalent to broadband wired access. which has characters such as short-range. It is planned to be used in the next few years and is thought to be used up to 40 miles away. Block error rate (BLER) is used for W-CDMA performance requirements tests (demodulation tests in multipath conditions. Block code Block code is a family of codes having a one-to-one mapping between k-symbol source words and n-symbol code words. Bluetooth Bluetooth. that are intermediate in size between little LEO (low Earth orbit) and geosynchronous orbits. Globalstar. According to 802. all connected back to the switch via landline or microwave. Also known as a RIM device. Blocking probability Blocking probability is the statistical probability that a telephone connection cannot be established due to insufficient transmission resources in the network. low power. that allows users to check e-mail and voice mail (translated into text). low cost. and. such as ADSL or cable modems.g. Orbits.Big LEO Big LEO refers to a low-earth orbit satellite system that will offer voice and data services. in this figure. BREW: Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) is an open system created by Qualcomm for delivering over-the-air applications and data. It uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK. etc). This modulation is the most robust of all the PSKs since it takes serious distortion to make the demodulator reach an incorrect decision. . also called cell site. e. broadband means "having instantaneous bandwidth greater than around 1 MHz and supporting data rates greater than about 1. Usually expressed as a percentage or decimal equivalent of calls blocked by network congestion during the busy hour.through F-Block auctions and used for voice and data. with high data rates. switch interconnect. mobile multifunction devices. A cellular network is made up of many cell sites or base stations.5 Mbit/s". headsets and PDAs within 10-meter range. BlackBerry BlackBerry is a two-way wireless device. defined in IEEE 802.. BLER: Block Error Rate Block Error Rate (BLER) is a ratio of the number of erroneous blocks to the total number of blocks received on a digital circuit. they are shown on the real axis. etc. The term is applied especially to some of the latest generation of communication satellites that support communications using small handheld sets. at 0° and 180°. From the point of view of connectivity. only able to modulate at 1bit/symbol (as seen in the figure) and so is unsuitable for high data-rate applications. BLER is measured after channel de-interleaving and decoding by evaluating the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) on each transport block. typically using some form of frequency or wave division multiplexing. controller. BSC: Base Station Controller Base Station Controller (BSC) is a device and software associated with a base station that permits it to register mobile phones in the cell. is the local cellular tower and radio antenna (including the radios. small networks and communication of devices within a Personal Operating Space. bluesnarf (bluesnarfing) Bluesnarfing is the theft of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection. BPSK: Binary Phase Shift Keying Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) is a type of phase modulation using 2 distinct carrier phases to signal ones and zeros. is for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). made by Waterloo.

BTA: Basic Trading Area Basic Trading Area (BTA) refers to the area or "footprint" in which an entity is licensed to transmit their frequencies. or phase modulated transmitter of the output of a transmitter when the modulation is zero. BTC: Block Turbo Code Block Turbo Code (BTC) is a type of turbo codes.0). In an IBSS. Carrier Carrier means the continuous frequency capable of being modulated or impressed with a second signal. The universal/local bit of the address is set to 1. The individual/group bit of the address is set to 0. CAI: Common Air Interface Common Air Interface (CAI) is a set of open standards describing the physical and logical characteristics of a link between a base station and a mobile station. Rand McNally licensed their mapping data to the FCC for ease of designation for site licenses. BT: Bandwidth Time Product Bandwidth Time Product(BT) is the result obtained by multiplying the system bandwidth by the signal duration.11-1999 Wireless Lan specification. BTS: Base Transceiver Station Base Transceiver Station (BTS) effects radio communications with mobile stations (MS) via its respective radio access system and transmits/receives signals to/from connected radio network controllers (RNC) located along transmission routes. allocation of radio channels to mobile phones.e. As a general rule. CAP CODE CAP CODE is a pager's unique electronic identification number. CAMEL allows roaming subscribers access to their full portfolio of IN services.C C/I: Carrier-to-Interference ratio Carrier-to-Interference ratio (C/I) is the ratio of power in an RF carrier to the interference power in the channel.BSS: Base Station Subsystem The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the section of a GSM network which is responsible for handling traffic and signalling between a mobile phone and the Network Switching Subsystem. Call Diversion Call Diversion is the feature used to divert incoming calls on a mobile phone to any other telephone or to a Mailbox/Combox on a GSM system. personal Numbering and more complex location dependent services. BTAs were established by Rand McNally and are defined as county lines. paging.. CAMEL GSM phase 2+ connects the home and visited mobile networks to various Intelligent Network (IN) platforms used throughout national networks to provide features such as Pre-Paid Calling.7) and less subject to an error floor than Convolution Turbo Codes (CTC). the center frequency of a frequency modulation signal. quality management of transmission and reception over the Air Interface and many other tasks related to the radio network. BT»1. CAMEL is a relatively inexpensive method of allowing telecom operators to add new services to the existing network infrastructure. i. BTC is a product code obtained from the concatenation of either two extended or two expurgated Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes. frequency modulated. Block Turbo-codes (BTC) are promising forward error correction (FEC) codes providing close-to-optimal coding gain for rather high coding rate (R > 0. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . . This field uniquely identifies each BSS. These standards are used by infrastructure and handset manufactures to design and build equipment that is capable of interoperating with each other's systems. BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier BSSID refers to the MAC address of the Station (STA) in an Access Point (AP) in an infrastructure mode BSS defined by the IEEE 802. BTAs are grouped into larger areas called MTAs. Carrier-to-Noise ratio indicates the difference in amplitude between the desired radio frequency (RF) carrier and the noise in a portion of the spectrum. As a result. the BSSID is a locally administered IEEE MAC address generated from a 46-bit random number. Carrier frequency Carrier Frequency refers to the nominal frequency of a carrier wave. The BSS carries out transcoding of speech channels. C/N: Carrier-to-Noise ratio Carrier-to-Noise ratio (C/N) is the ratio of power in an RF carrier to the noise power in the channel. the system bandwidth must be approximately equal to the reciprocal of the signal duration to produce an output signal of the same general form as the input. the frequency of the unmodulated electrical wave at the output of an amplitude modulated. BTAs are about the size of a cellular MSA and cross state lines in some instances.3. CAMEL: Customized Application for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic Customized Application for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) refers to a set of 3rd Generation APIs based on ETSI recommendation TS 129 078 (V3. CAMEL finds widespread applicability in developing applications for next generation networks converging Phase 2+ GSM/UMTS.

CCI is one of the major limitations in cellular and PCS wireless telephone networks. is the connection between Transport Channel and Physical Channel which results in a data stream from encoding and multiplexing of one or several transport channels. the co-channel interference is mainly caused by the spectrum allocated for the system being reused multiple times (“frequency reuse†). IR offers the potential for better performance with high initial code rates and FER operating points at the cost of additional memory and decoding complexity. In Chase combining. each retransmission repeats the first transmission or part of it. The CDG is comprised of CDMA service providers and manufacturers. CDG: CDMA Development Group CDMA Development Group (CDG) is an international consortium of companies who have joined together to lead the adoption and evolution of 3G CDMA wireless systems around the world. China Communications Standards Association(CCSA) was founded in December 18. CCH: Control Channel Control Channel (CCH) refers the channels that transmit signaling and control information between the network and the mobile stations. All channels. CCDF: Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) is a method used to characterize the peak power statistics of a digitally modulated signal. While Chase combining is sufficient to make AMC robust.Carrier recovery Carrier recovery is a technique for extracting the RF carrier from a modulated signal so that it can be reinserted and used to recover the modulating signal. such as GSM/GPRS or NADC (otherwise known as “IS-136”). causing diminished system capacity. application developers and content providers. With the approval of the Ministry of Information Industries (MII) and Standardization Administration of China and the Civil Affairs Ministry. CDM: Code Division Multiplexing Code Division Multiplexing or Code Division Multiplex (CDM) is a technique in which each channel transmits its bits as a coded channel-specific sequence of pulses. The CCM protocol (CCMP) is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm and utilizes 128-bit keys. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is based on cumulative distribution functions and can be used to test to see whether two empirical distributions are different or whether an empirical distribution is different from an ideal distribution. which are placed within chip times within the larger bit time. X. with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. the members help to ensure interoperability among systems. This coded transmission typically is accomplished by transmitting a unique time-dependent series of short pulses. CCMP: Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Protocol Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Protocol(CCMP) is an encryption protocol in the 802. with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. The CCMP is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm and utilizes 128-bit keys. is one of the two fundamental forms of Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). while expediting the availability of 3G CDMA technology to consumers. CBC: Cell Broadcast Center Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) is the functional entity within the mobile network that is responsible for the generation of cell broadcast information. In the case of TDMA networks. more frequent handoffs. 2002. China gorvenment sponsored organization to establish a nationally unified standards in the communication technologies. The other one is an incremental redundancy (IR). CCITT is standards body based in Geneva that publishes "recommendations" on standards used throughout the world communication industry.11i standard. CCSA: China Communications Standards Association China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) is a P. CCM: Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code (CCM) is an encryption protocol in the 802. and dropped calls. a technology in the UMTS physical layer. CDF: Cumulative Distribution Function Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) describes the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable. Chase Combining Chase Combining (CC). By working together. R. decreases the ratio of carrier to interference powers (C/I) at the periphery of cells. each with a different code.11i standard. when not minimized. CCITT: International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee CCITT is the abreviation of the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee in France. CCI: Co-Channel Interference Co-channel interference (CCI) refers to interference from 2 different radio stations on the same frequency. Co-channel interference. CCTrCH: Coded Composite Transport Channel Coded Composite Transport Channel (CCTrCH). CBCH: Cell Broadcast Channel Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) is a downlink point-to-multipoint logical channel in a GSM system used to broadcast user information from a service center to mobile stations listening in a given cell area. also known as Convolution Code. The CCDF curve can be used to determine design parameters for CDMA systems (such as the amount of back-off to run in a power amplifier). can be .

Cellular In wireless communications. cellis the basis for the term "cellular phone. Cell Broadcast messaging is also supported by UMTS.Point to Point (SMS-PP) is a one-to-one and one-to-a-few service. This is usually done to make more voice channels available to accommodate traffic growth in the area covered by the original cell. Cell In wireless communication. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a second generation (2G) cellular technology defined by Qualcomm in IS-95 and IS-2000. Other widely used multiple access techniques for cellular are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Cellular is also the name of the wireless telephone system originally developed by Bell Laboratories that used low-powered analog radio equipment to transmit within cells. It is added at the base station to the downlink or forward channel and the mobile then detects and returns the code. CB is a mobile technology feature defined by the ETSI’s GSM committee and is part of the GSM standard. The terms "cellular phone" or "cell phone" are used interchangeably to refer to wireless phones. as a vehicle moves from cell to cell. also known as Short Message Service . Center Frequency Center Frequency refers to the middle frequency of the bandwidth of a channel. and only one CDVCC is usually assigned to a base station or sector. Cellular Handoff Cellular Handoff refers to the process that a telephone call is switched by computers from one transmitter to the next without disconnecting the signal. Cell splitting Cell splitting is the process of splitting a mobile cell into several smaller cells. Cell Broadcast is designed for simultaneous delivery of messages to multiple users in a specified area. also called Base Station.) that handles communication with subscribers in a particular area or cell. Cellular Radio Cellular Radio is the technology that uses radio transmissions to access telephone-company networks. etc. Other widely used multiple access techniques are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). overlapping cell sites to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions. CDMA technologies are evolving into CDMA2000 to meet the challenges." Cell Broadcast Cell Broadcast (CB). whereas the Short Message Service . The CDVCC is used to determine channel continuity. Service is provided in a particular area by a low-power transmitter. Wireless transmission networks are comprised of many hexagonal. cellular refers most basically to the structure of the wireless transmission networks which are comprised of cells or transmission sites. CDMA2000 is the 3rd Generation solution based on IS-95. is a one-to-many geographically focused messaging service.transmitted on the same fiber and asynchronously demultiplxed. CDMA-2000 Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000 or CDMA-2000) is the 3rd Generation solution based on CDMA IS-95. switch interconnect.a specific geographic area or "cell" -. all connected back to the switch via landline or microwave. is the local cellular tower and radio antenna (including the radios.Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). The CDP measurement is beneficial in troubleshooting CDMA transmitter designs.is overused. CDMA2000 has already been implemented as an evolutionary step from cdmaOne as CDMA2000 provides full backward compatibility with IS-95B. CDP: Code Domain Power Code Domain Power (CDP) is a measurement of the power contained in each Walsh coded channel in CDMA signals. CDVCC: Coded Digital Verification Color Code Coded Digital Verification Color Code (CDVCC) is a unique 12-bit code word used to identify the base station. Also. which supports 3G services as defined by the ITU 3G standards IMT-2000. CDPD can automatically reallocate network resources to handle extra traffic. CDMA2000 defines both an air interface and a core network. controller. The IS-95 standard is part of cdmaOne as the air interface. and then is automatically told to go to another channel and pick up the transferred transmissions there. Within the wireless industry. cdmaOne cdmaOne is the commercial name for a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) system defined by the consortium including Qualcomm. as defined by 3GPP. A cellular network is made up of many cell sites. CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) technology is used by telecommunications carriers to transfer data to users via unused analog cellular networks. Cell Site Cell Site. . If one part of the network -. Cell is the geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station (a site containing a radio transmitter/receiver and network communication equipment). cellular is also used to refer to non-PCS products and services. AT&T Wireless and Motorola. The mobile remains on a specific channel until signal strength diminishes.

which differs with the technology used (i. is modeled by a Gaussian vector chosen from a large stochastic codebook. frequency and phase distortion in a radio channel with the intent of improving transmission performance. Coding gain is usually measured as the dB difference in C/N ratios between a coded and uncoded signal producing the same BER. Channel coding Channel coding is the application of forward error correction codes to an RF channel to improve performance and throughput. Codebook Codebook is an ordered collection of all possible values that can be assigned to a scalar or a vector variable. cHTML: Compact HTML Compact HTML (cHTML) is a subset of HTML for small information devices. is a technique of phase locking to the carrier wave to improve detection. whereas control and traffic channels within the RF channel would be considered logical channels. measured in dB. Codeword Codewrod means a contiguous set of bits that together form a piece of information. expressed in decibels (dBs). In order for the signal receiver to be able to decode the signal.CELP: Code-Book Excited Linear Predictive Code-Book Excited Linear Predictive(CELP) is a powerful low-rate coding technique where a short excitation frame. CIR is the ratio of C (carrier signal) to the (I) Interference expressed. frames. background colors and images. The recovered clock signal is then used to decode and further process the data. CIR: Carrier to Interference Ratio Carrier to Interference Ratio (CIR). A Radio Frequency (RF) channel is a physical channel.e. The codewords used in digital paging codes include redundant bits that allow a receiver to reconstruct the information if some of the bits were received incorrectly. CMRS: Commercial Mobile Radio Services Commercial Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) is an FCC designation for any carrier or licensee whose wireless network is connected to the public switched telephone network and/or is operated for profit. that coding provides over an uncoded signal. multiple fonts and styles of fonts. CEPT: Committee of European Posts & Telephones Committee of European Posts & Telephones (CEPT) is a European regulatory body responsible for coordinating telecommunications within Europe. image maps. The vector is chosen such that the error between the original and synthesized speech is minimized. CGSA: Cellular Geographic Service Area Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) describes the physical area over which a cellular carrier is licensed to provide service. along with noise and background effects all detract from the potential quality of the received signal.). also referred to as coherent demodulation. CDMA. The carrier is the desired signal. tables. and the interference can either be adjacent and co-channel interference. expressed in decibels (dBs). such as smart phones and PDAs.. the signal must fall into an acceptable CINR range. Coding gain Coding gain is the effective gain. and the interference can either be noise or co-channel interference or both. Channel equalization Channel equalization is the process of reducing amplitude. is a measurment of signaling effectiveness. . They may be either physical or logical depending on the application. Co-channel interference is very common in a frequency reuse system and must be carefully controlled to prevent problems.connects to an access point. Knowledge of the carrier phase improves demodulator performance. Each vector is called a codeword. Co-channel interference Co-channel interference is the unwanted interference within a radio channel from another transmitter using the same channel at a different location. CINR: Carrier to Interference + Noise Ratio Carrier to Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (CINR). etc. style sheets and more than two colors. is a measurement of signal effectiveness. typically black and white. cHTML does not support JPEG images. GSM. Clock recovery Clock recovery is the process of extracting the timing signals from a digitally modulated carrier wave. Coherent detection Coherent detection. Channel Channel refers to a one-way telecommunications link or transmission medium through which information or signal is transmitted from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver.like a laptop computer -. COLT: Cell Site on Light Truck Cell Site on Light Truck (CPLT) is a mobile site on a vehicle placed at a location to fill in or increase coverage. The carrier is the desired signal. Client Association Client Association is the process by which a wireless client -. typically 5ms.

terminals and applications. Coverage area Coverage area is the geographical reach of a mobile communications network or system. where k is the constraint length of the code. Constellation Constellation is a graphical representation of signal states for a digital system. Coverage hole Coverage hole is an area within the radio coverage footprint of a wireless system in which the RF signal level is below the design threshold. The FCC restricts CPNI use in marketing. the calling party pays for those calls. CPNI: Customer Proprietary Network Information Customer Proprietary Network Information (CPNI) refers to the carrier's data about a specific customer's service and usage. This technique is particularly effective in bursty environments. amplified and sent back to earth for reception by other earth station antennas. an inner and outer code. This reduces sidelobe spectral energy and improves co-channel performance. Using this technique. individual materaial properties are taken into account. to further improve transmission performance. a data stream is encoded with the outer code. It is a definition developed during the implementation of E911 regulations encompasses operators whose networks use intelligent switching capabilities and offer seamless hand-off to customers. which essentially prevents one subcarrier from interfering with another (called intercarrier interference. COST-231 COST-231 is ETSI propagation model for 2 GHz applications. Instead. the channel can be made to behave as if the transmitted waveforms were from time minus infinite. or ICI). CPP is offered in many places. or multiple locations with other multiple locations. banning win-back efforts specifically aimed at high-usage customers who have quit a network CPP: Calling Party Pays Calling Party Pays (CPP) is the arrangement in which the mobile subscriber does not pay for incoming calls. and for each wall. hills. (a) each m-bit information symbol (each m-bit string) to be encoded is transformed into an n-bit symbol. Convolutional code Convolutional code is a type of forward error correction code using a shift register containing a number of stages to shift the input bits one at a time to produce a coded output. CP: Cyclic Prefix The cyclic prefix is actually a copy of the last portion of the data symbol appended to the front of the symbol during the guard interval. With the convolutional code. It provides call control and performs mobility and high-level security functions such as location updating and authentication. Signals are transmitted to the satellite from earth station antennas. After discovering the process for OFDM. CPM: Continuous Phase Modulation Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) is a phase modulation technique employing smooth transitions between signal states. Coverage holes are usually caused by physical obstructions such as buildings. Covered SMR Covered SMR is a subset of specialized mobile radio operators subject to a particular set of regulations. and thus ensure orthogonality. COW: Cell site On Wheels Cell site On Wheels (COW) is a mobile site placed at a location to fill in or increase coverage. tunnels and indoor parking garages. CQI: Channel Quality Indicator Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) is a measurement of the communication quality of wireless channels. Satellites are capable of linking two points. Core Network Core Network. Coverage Coverage in wireless communicatons refers to the region within which a paging receiver can receive reliably the transmission of the paging signals. data or video signals as part of a telecommunications network. in a 3G mobile network. Core network includes a radio access network. The COST-231 Model is the most sophisticated empirical model. but has not been regulated in the United States where Mobile Party Pays (MPP) is still predominant. All walls in the vertical plane between transmitter and receiver are considered.Communication satellite Communication Satellite refers to a space vehicle launched into orbit to relay audio. By adding a cyclic prefix. a cyclic prefix has been proposed for other modulations to improve the robustness to multipath. The use of concatenated codes is most common in space communications and usually involves a convolutional inner code and Reed-Solomon outer code. CQI can be a value (or . one point with many others. where m/n is the code rate (n >= m) and (b) the transformation is a function of the last k information symbols. Concatenated coding Concatenated coding is the use of two codes. This is accomplished because the amount of time dispersion from the channel is smaller than the duration of the cyclic prefix. foliage. and then the coded data is further encoded with the outer code. refers to the switching part of the UMTS or WCDMA network.

In more complex communications systems. Away from the home base station.and serve the interests of service providers. such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The CSN also includes the Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services support capable of offering Internet access. Cross correlation Cross correlation is the complex inner product of a first sequence with a shifted version of a second sequence. channel estimation error. . For example.values) representing a measure of channel quality for a given channel. Serving CSCF (S-CSCF) or Interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF). Note that each antenna adds a cyclic prefix after circularly shifting the OFDM symbol. CWTS is set up with the purpose of promoting and accelerating the wireless telecommunications standardization process in China. a communications system using code-division multiple access (CDMA) can make use of a different CQI than a communications system that makes use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).cellular. CSN: Connectivity Service Network Connectivity Service Network (CSN). CTIA: Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association The Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication -. A UE (User Equipment) accessing the system will send an access to a Node B. or the unwanted information from one channel to "spill over" into an adjacent channel. CSCF: Call Session Control Function Call Session Control Function (CSCF) is a functional entity within IP Based Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and part of 3GPP UMTS Reference Architecture. signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR). Internet Multimedia and Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast MBS services and voice services. signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR). such as Doppler shift. services and other applications. is at the core of the WiMAX network architecture providing control and management for the Access Service Network (ASN) and subscribers with services such as DHCP server. which in turn will forward this message onto its CRNC. the CQI used can also be dependent on receiver type. CTC is the iterative decoding scheme of choice as evidenced by their wide adoption in standards bodies including 3GPP (W-CDMA). CRNC: Controlling Radio Network Controller The Controlling Radio Network Controller (CRNC or Controlling RNC) is the RNC (Radio Network Controller) responsible for the configuration of a Node B. CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Code Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) is the use of the syndrome of a cyclic block code to detect errors. inter-operator and inter-technology roaming. a high value CQI is indicative of a channel with high quality and vice versa. Sequences are considered to have good cross correlation properties when there is very little correlation between the sequences as they are shifted against each other. service control and resource allocation. enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services -. Other factors that may be taken into account in CQI are performance impairments. A CQI for a channel can be computed by making use of performance metric. Cyclic codes Cyclic codes are a subclass of linear block codes with an algebraic structure that enables encoding to be implemented with a linear shift register and decoding to be implemented without a lookup table. The CQI for a given channel can be dependent upon the transmission (modulation) scheme used by the communications system. CTC: Convolutional Turbo Code Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC) is a type of turbo codes with some of the convolutional schemes used. CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards group China Wireless Telecommunication Standards Group (CWTS) is a non-profit organization. which has the responsibility to define. CSCF performs signalling operations for call session control. location-based services. Cross talk Cross Talk refers to the interfering energy transferred from one circuit to another. a concept in the mobile WiMAX network. Typically. and so forth of the channel. 3GPP2 (CDMA2000) and DVB-RCS. To fulfil such functionalities. CWTS was established under the Chinese Standardization Law. FTP. With CSTD. These values and others can be measured for a given channel and then used to compute a CQI for the channel. CT-2: Cordless Telephone 2 Cordless Telephone 2 is a second generation cordless telephone system that allows users to roam away from their home base stations and receive service in public places. It manages SIP sessions and coordinates with other network entities for session control. For its high-performance error correction nature. the service was one way outbound from the phone to a telepoint within range. each antenna element in transmit array sends a circularly shifted version of the same OFDM time domain symbol. the CSCF can act as Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF). and thus the delay-spread protection offered by the cyclic prefix is unaffected by the CSTD. manufacturers and others. CSTD: Cyclic Shift Transmit Diversity Cyclic Shift Transmit Diversity (CSTD) is an adaptation of the idea of delay diversity to OFDM systems. interference. and so forth. produce and maintain Chinese wireless telecommunication standards in China. with the approval of the Ministry of Information Industry (MII) of China. such as those making use of multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) and space-time coded systems. AAA. personal communications services.

a technology developed by ComSpace Corp.S. a -3dB loss indicates a 50% loss in power. a +3dB reading is a doubling of power. such as the PSTN (conventional telephone networks). See also coverage area. Db: DeciBel Decibel (dB) is an unit for measuring relative power ratios in terms of gain or loss. For example. is the second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems. The base station continuously monitors the interference in all idle channels and makes an assignment using an algorithm that determines the channel that will produce the least amount of additional interference. based on the IS-54 and IS-136 standards. is used for specialized mobile radio networks that can configure the number and bandwidth of voice and data channels based on a carrier's requirements.16 (WiMAX) networks to describe a MAC (Medium Access Control) message that describes the physical layer characteristics of a downlink channel. tunnels and indoor parking garages. DCMA: Dynamic Channel Multicarrier Architecture Dynamic Channel Multicarrier Architecture (DCMA).Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . Dead spots are often caused by electronic interference or physical barriers such as hills. DCS 1800: digital cellular system Digital Cellular System 1800 (DCS 1800) is a global Digital Cellular System for mobile communications-based PCS networks used outside of the U. 20 dB indicates an increase (or a loss) of a factor of 100. DCD: Downlink Channel Descriptor Downlink Channel Descriptor (DCD) is a concept in IEEE 802. . DCT: Digital Cordless Telephone Digital Cordless Telephone (DCT) is a telephone with a wireless handset which communicates with a base station connected to a fixed telephone landline (POTS) via radio waves and can only be operated close to (typically less than 100 metres of) its base station. DCCH: Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a dedicated channel used to carry signalling information in active GSM and cdma2000 traffic channels. wireless offices and even wireless telephone lines to the home. D-AMPS is considered end-of-life. particularly in the United States and Canada. DCA: Dynamic Channel Allocation Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) is an automatic process for assigning traffic channels in a frequency reuse wireless system. GSM (mobile phone networks) and more. Delay spread Delay spread is a type of distortion due to multipath resulting in the spreading out or "smearing" of the received signal. dBm: deciBels referenced to a milli-Watt deciBels referenced to a milli-Watt (dBm) is a technique for expressing a power measurement in logarithmic form using 1 mW as a reference. and existing networks are in the process of being replaced by GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000 technologies. Dead Spot Dead Spot is an area within the coverage area of a wireless network in which there is no coverage or transmission falling off. DECT has been designed and specified to interwork with many other types of network. It occurs when identical signals arrive via different paths and have different time delays. DECT: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) is a digital wireless technology for cordless telephones.. 30 dB indicates an increase (or a loss) by a factor of 1000. It is used throughout the Americas. dBd: deciBels referenced to a dipole antenna deciBels referenced to a dipole antenna (dBd) is a technique for expressing a power gain measurement in logarithmic form using a standard dipole antenna as a reference. dBi: deciBels referenced to an isotropic antenna deciBels referenced to an isotropic antenna (dBi) is a technique for expressing a power gain measurement in logarithmic form using a theoretical isotropic antenna as a reference. dBc: deciBels referenced to the carrier deciBels referenced to the carrier (dBc) is a technique for expressing a power measurement in logarithmic form using the carrier power as a reference. 10 dB indicates an increase (or a loss) by a factor of 10.D DAC: Digital to Analog Converter Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is a device that takes a digital representation of a signal and transforms it into a facsimile of its original form. D-AMPS: Digital AMPS Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). The units of dB are expressed in terms of the logarithm to base 10 of a ratio and typically are expressed in watts. ISDN (new digital and data phone networks). such as in and around the house.

which is a group of radio transmitters that send the same . Even if corruption occurs. also called Numeric Paging. only digitized information can be transported through a noisy channel without degradation. Drift RNC is the place where the mobiles physical layer communications terminate. less information is needed to transmit a message. leaky feeder or optical fiber link. but also the effects of multipath and frequency selective fading. the original information content can be perfectly replicated at the receiving end. by a high speed pseudorandom code (spreading sequence) to generate a spread spectrum signal. Access points usually have one or two dipole antennas to increase their gain slightly Dispersive channel Dispersive channel is a radio channel that not only introduces AWGN. typically achieved by the use of dual receivers whose antennas are located in physically distinct locations (which can be less than a meter apart). Dipola Antenna Dipola Antenna is a type of antenna that offers omnidirectional coverage.Demodulation Demodulation is the process of recovering the original modulating signal from a modulated carrier. The caller simply calls your pager phone number and enters the number where you can reach them. The original modulating signal is usually the information being transmitted. DS: Direct Sequence Direct Sequence (DS) is a process of spectrum spreading where the digital information stream is multiplied. It is also easier to demodulate than other types of CPM. Digital paging Digital Paging. OFDM-based cellular networks. DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control CHannel Dedicated Physical Control Channel(DPCCH). An electronic circuit or software combines or selects from the receive antenna to receive an improved quality signal. using an exclusive OR technique. is the physical channel from layer 2 on which the signalling is transmitted on the uplink by the UE (user equipment) to the Node-B (the base transceiver station). DEMS: digital electronic message service Digital Electronic Message Service (DEMS) is the service in the range at the band 18 GHz originally then move to 24 GHz. The theory is that the fading in these signals is uncorrelated and that the probability of all samples being below a threshold at a given instant is low. DSFN: Dynamic Single Frequency Network Dynamic Single Frequency Networks (DSFN) is a transmitter macrodiversity technique for. a term from UMTS. Digital encoding therefore increases the capacity of a given radio frequency. Distributed antenna system Distributed antenna system is a type of antenna system that is distributed or remotely located away from the transmitter. DQPSK: Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation uses differential encoding of the digital information stream. but not much gain. Differential detection Differential detection is an encoding and detection technique that uses phase changes in the carrier to signal binary "ones" and "zeros". DSFN is based on the idea of single frequency networks (SFN). as long as the one-zero pattern is recognizable. and a phase change of 180 degrees could be set to be a "zero" and no phase change would then be a "one". Because digital signals are made up only of binary streams. Furthermore. Doppler Shift Doppler Shift is the magnitude of the change in the observed frequency of a wave due to the relative velocity of a transmitter with respect to a receiver. The signal is sampled every T seconds. a Drift RNC may also be the Serving RNC. is the most widely used type of paging. Such an antenna or series of antennas can be connected via coaxial cable. Drift RNC: Drift Radio Network Controller Drift Radio Network Controller (DRNC or Drift RNC) is a type of Radio Network Controller (RNC) in a 3G mobile wireless network. Diversity Diversity is a technique to reduce the effects of fading by using multiple spatially separated antennas to take independent samples of the same signal at the same time. for example. Downlink Downlink is the transmission path from the base station down to the mobile station. This technique provides the advantages of CPM techniques and is easily implemented in VLSI. Where no soft handover activity is in progress. typically voice or data. Digital Signal A digital signal is composed only of electrical pulses representing either zero or one. DPM: Digital Phase Modulation Digital Phase Modulation is a form of CPM in which the shaped symbol pulses are directly applied to the phase modulator. Diversity Reception Diversity Reception refers to a method for improving reception of a radio signal. One or more Drift RNCs communicate with the Serving RNC via the IUr interface.

at a frequency much higher than that of the original signal. 2005. The DVB-H specification (EN 302 304) can be downloaded from the DVB-H Online website ([1]). The development of DVB-S2 coincided with the introduction of HDTV and H. DVB-S is used in both MCPC and SCPC modes for broadcast network feeds.Handheld. A standard for temporally compressed distribution to mobile devices (DVB-H) has been published in November. This is useful for mobile phone users who move between areas covered by different networks. It is used via satellites serving every continent of the world. DTX: Discontinuous Transmission Discontinuous Transmission (DT) is a feature in mobile systems where transmitters mute when there is no information to send. thereby spreading the energy of the original signal into a much wider band. DVB-H is a technical specification for bringing broadcast services to handheld receivers and was formally adopted as ETSI standard EN 302 304 in November. GSM 900 and GSM 1800. Dish Network in the U. For example. Devices interact with the physical layer via a synchronous parallel interface (SPI). Each button emits a sound that is actually the combination of two specific sounds in order to minimize the possibility of an incorrect signal being received by the equipment listening to the press of the buttons.Cable. The concept of DSFN implies that the SFN grouping is changed dynamically over time. Services using DVB standards are available on every continent with more than 120 million DVB receivers deployed. and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable.S. from timeslot to timeslot. such as during periods of silence. so dual-mode phone users must ensure that their dual-mode phone will operate on the digital transmission system used by their selected service provider. However. standing for Digital Video Broadcasting-Satelite. DTE: Data Terminal Equipment Data Terminal Equipment(DTE) refers to an end instrument that converts user information into signals for transmission. DVB Project The Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Project is an industry-led consortium of over 270 broadcasters. Dual Mode Dual Mode refers to a feature of a wireless device that can operate on either an analog or digital transmission network. DVB-H DVB-H stands for Digital Video Broadcasting . software developers. network operators. This feature prolongs battery life in portable phones and reduces interference in wireless systems. and Bell ExpressVu in Canada. for example. The aim is to achieve efficient spectrum utilization for downlink unicast or multicast communication services in centrally controlled cellular systems based on. The main use for this standard is the distribution of HDTV. open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project and published by the Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). DVB-C DVB-C stands for Digital Video Broadcasting . regulatory bodies and others in over 35 countries committed to designing global standards for the global delivery of digital television and data services. All data is transmitted in MPEG-2 transport streams with some additional constraints (DVB-MPEG). 2004. multiple digital transmission systems exist. This system transmits an MPEG-2 family digital audio/video stream. is the original Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) forward error coding and modulation standard for satellite television and dates from 1995. DTMF: Dual Tone Multi Frequency Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) is the sounds made by a phone's keypad when a button is pressed. while the original standard DBV-S was mainly applied to SDTV services.11b physical layer. DVB standards define the physical layer and data link layer of a distribution system. as well as for direct broadcast satellite services like Sky TV (UK) via Astra in Europe. Its transmissions multiply a "noise" signal to the data being transmitted. . This noise signal is a pseudorandom sequence of 1 and -1 values. 2004.signal simultaneously over the same frequency. manufacturers.. or reconverts the received signals into user information. Dual Band Dual Band refers to mobile phones that could work on networks operating on different frequency bands.11 and 802. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and European Broadcasting Union (EBU). A DTE is the functional unit of a data station that serves as a data source or a data sink and provides for the data communication control function to be performed in accordance with link protocol. The major competitor of this technology is DMB. DSSS: Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) is used in WLAN 802. DVB-S2 DVB-S2 is an improved and updated specification to replace the DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting-Satelite) standard. The transport stream delivered by DVB-S is mandated as MPEG-2.264 (MPEG-4) video codecs. DVB-S DVB-S. using a QAM modulation with channel coding. DVB: Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a suite of internationally accepted. ratified by ETSI in March. the OFDM modulation scheme. or asynchronous serial interface (ASI). or the 800 MHz digital band and the 1900 MHz digital PCS band. synchronous serial interface (SSI).

EDGE uses the same spectrum allocated for GSM900. also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS). provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrades. The E. E-AGCH. E-DPDCH: E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Control Channel E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Control Channel (E-DPDCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). As with HSDPA.6 Mbps. but rather postpones this until the Authentication Phase.5G General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) networks. Eb/N0: Bit Energy-to-Noise Density Bit Energy-to-Noise Density (Eb/N0) is the ratio of bit energy to noise density. and continues to hold.11 wireless frames. The adopted source coding methods are MPEG-2 and. COFDM). EAs are used by the FCC to define areas of economic interest and are grouped into larger areas called REAGs. using OFDM modulation with concatenated channel coding (i. This technology works in GSM networks. This system transmits a compressed digital audio/video stream. E-AGCH tell a UE how to regulate its transmit power level. is made up of a country code followed by the network code.DVB-T DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting . For more details on the derivation of the E. EAP: Extensible Authentication Protocol Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a general layer 2 protocol for authentication EAP supports multiple authentication mechanisms. see the article about the IMSI. This also permits the use of a "back-end" server which actually implements the various mechanisms while the PPP authenticator merely passes through the authentication exchange. The first. EA: Economic Area Economic Area (EA) is a geographic area over which a WCS operator is licensed to provide service. E-DCH relies on improvements implemented both in the PHY and the MAC layer. which provides an absolute power level above the level for the DPDCH (associated with a DCH) that the UE should adopt. EDGE is a superset to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it. This value is used to specify the lower limit of operation in most digital communications systems and is also used to measure radio channel performance.e. significant market shares. which controls channels associated with the E-DPDCH providing information to the Node-B on how to decode the E-DPDCH. EAs are a group of counties in metropolitan areas having common financial.214 is a telephone numbering plan used for delivering mobility management related messages in GSM networks. The maximum theoretical uplink data rate that can be achieved is 5. The definition of the E-DCH introduces five new physical layer channels: E-DPDCH. E-DCH: Enhanced Dedicated Channel Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH) is a transport uplink channel used in the 3G technologies (such as HSUPA) to improve capacity and data throughput and reduce the delays in dedicated channels in the uplink.214 number derived from the IMSI E. The second part of the number is made from the MSIN part of the IMSI which identifies an individual subscriber. E-DPCCH. EDACS was developed in competition with Motorola's Smartnet trunking system. E-AGCH: E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel(E-AGCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH).214 number from the IMSI. GSM1800 and GSM1900 operations.Terrestrial.164 part. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . EAP does not select a specific authentication mechanism at Link Control Phase. and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. .214 numbers are composed of two parts. the E. EAs are about the size of a cellular MSA and cross state lines in some instances. commercial and economic ties and were first used to license WCS service in the late '90s. E-DPCCH: E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (E-DPCCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). EAP-TLS: Extensible Authentication Protocol with Transport Layer Security Extensible Authentication Protocol with Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) enables authenticaton between WLAN devices using certificates. more recently. It claimed. EDACS: Enhanced Digital Access Communication System Enhanced Digital Access Communication System (EDACS) is a radio communications protocol and product family invented in the General Electric Corporation.264. EAPoW: Extensible Authentication Protocol over Wireless Extensible Authentication Protocol over Wireless (EAPoW) is a term used when EAPoL messages are encapsulated over 802.E E. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). which is the physical channel used by E-DCH for the transmission of user data.214 E. This allows the authenticator to request more information before determining the specific authentication mechanism. H. E-RGCH and EHICH. is a digital mobile phone technology which acts as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2. in the mid-1980s.

which is just below the original GSM 900 band. For a given environment. such that the equipment continues to operate in an acceptable manner. E-GSM: Extended Global System for Mobile EGSM is an extension to the GSM900 spectrum. The EESM method has been shown to yield an accurate estimation of the AWGN-equivalent SINR for frequency selective channels. that would be the power emitted by an isotropic radiator with an equivalent signal strength. EGSM spectrum is 880-890 MHz paired with 925-935 MHz. equipment should have sufficient immunity to electrical interference. EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). EFR: Enhanced Full Rate Enhanced Full Rate is a voice coding algorithm applied in PCS-1900 systems (and now in GSM-900 as well. pictures. on the factory floor. EGPRS uses the modulation technique 8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying) to increase the achievable user data rate. which is used by Node-B to send HARQ ACK/NACK messages back to the UE. EMC implies that equipment should not generate unacceptable levels of interference which affect the performance of other products designed to operate in an industrial environment. EMS: Enhanced Messaging Service Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS) utilizes SMS but adds the ability to incorporate simple graphics. Also. the EESM is a channel-dependent function that maps power level and MCS level to SINR values in the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel domain. This allows using this mapping along with AWGN assumptions (such as effect of an increase in power. Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum refers to the full range of electromagnetic frequencies. In a sense. Encoder Encoder is a converter used to create a specific addressed message. A device is usually placed in the EIR once its operation has been certified for the infrastructure in a laboratory or validation facility. . EGPRS improves spectral efficiency and data rates by adding new modulation and coding schemes. e. From the EIRP. animations and sound. also known as Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). The EIRP is often stated in terms of decibels over a reference power level. EGPRS: Enhanced General Packet Radio Service Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS). As an enhancement to GPRS. With this. EGPRS: Enhanced General Packet Radio Service Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS) is an enhancement to GPRS that improves spectral efficiency and data rates by adding new modulation and coding schemes. is a digital mobile phone technology. Equipment should operate without interfering with broadcast and communications signals and be immune to normal levels of such signals. the user can add an actual emotion to his/her message. is the amount of power that would have to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all directions and is a theoretical construct) to produce the peak power density observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain. the actual song. EIA: Electronic Industry Association Electronic Industry Association (EIA) is a trade association and standards setting organization in the USA. E-HICH: E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel (E-HIGH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). EMI: Electromagnetic Interference Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is the interference by electromagnetic signals that can cause reduced data integrity and increased error rates on transmission channels. it is possible to calculate real power and field strength values.EESM: Exponential Effective SIR Mapping Exponential Effective SIR Mapping (EESM) is a method to estimate demodulator performance in a channel with frequency selective signal and/or noise.g. which include Radio Frequency (RF). EHF: Extremely High Frequency Extremely High Frequency (EHF) is the RF spectrum between 30 GHz and 300 GHz. CINR/MCS threshold tables) in order to predict the effect of MCS and boosting modification. The additional 10Mhz provides an additional 50 channels. EIRP can take into account the losses in transmission line and connectors and includes the gain of the antenna. The EIRP allows making comparisons between different emitters regardless of type. also known as Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power. size or form. EIR: Equipment Identity Register Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database used by GSM and other second generation wireless systems used to identify the customer devices permitted to access the network. EGSM is a small radio frequency band used in Europe to provide added network capacity for GSM 900 networks. and with knowledge of a real antenna's gain. Give someone a full birthday wish (with the text. first system installed in Hong Kong). EMC: Electro Magnetic Compatibility Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the ability of different items of electrical equipment to work together without suffering the effects of interference. and a graphic of a birthday cake).

Error probability Error probability is a computation of the likelihood of an error involving the Probability Density Function (PDF). non-profit organization. Based in France. low-latency and packet-optimized system. it is the identifying name of a wireless access point. now called Symbian OS. E-TDMA: Enhanced or exended TDMA Enhanced or exended TDMA (E-TDMA) is an enhanced version of TDMA which will not only serve cellular. It is a key 3G technology to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS and provide a high-data-rate. Motorola and Matsushita (Panasonic). is specified in the 3GPP release 8. The ertPS is designed for realtime traffic with variable data rate (such as VOIP service with silence suppression) over the WiMAX network. Typical distributions are Gaussian (random) and Raleigh (bursty). Nokia. Ericsson.strictly. which provides dispatch. Equalization Equalization is a technique used to compensate for communications channel distortions. Error distribution Error distribution describes how errors in a communications channel are distributed. ESMR: enhanced specialized mobile radio Enhanced specialized mobile radio (ESMR) is a digital SMR network. a significant increase in spectrum efficiency and capacity as well as a significant latency reduction are planned. ETAGS is the Extension of TACS through the allocation of additional radio channels. is an operating system optimized for mobile phone/PDA uses. The 802.UGS (Unsolicited grant service). ETACS: Extended Total Access Communications System Extended Total Access Communications System (ETACS or E-TAGS) is the analog mobile phone network developed in the UK and available in Europe and Asia.16 WiMAX. It allows one wireless network to be clearly distinguishable from another. ETSI: European Telecommunications Standard Institute European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) is an independent. also known as UMTS Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) or Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (EUTRAN). This technique is often used in the mobile wireless communications. voice. Besides peak data rates of 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in uplink. E-UTRA: Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA or EUTRA). decrease or keep unchanged the transmit power level of the E-DCH. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). E-RGCH: E-DCH Relative Grant Channel E-DCH Relative Grant Channel(E-RGCH) is one of the five Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCH). nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). ertPS: Extended Real-Time Polling Service Extended Real-Time Polling Service (ertPS) is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802.16 protocol supports five types of QoS -. ESS: Extended Service Set Extended Service Set (ESS) is a set of two or more BSSes working together to form a single network. rtPS (Real time polling Service). whose mission is to produce telecommunications standards for today and for the future.EPOC EPOC. ESSID: Extended Service Set Identifier Extended Service Set ID (ESSID) is the identifying name of a wireless network -. ESSID is one type of SSID (the other being BSSID). Error vector The error vector is the vector difference between a reference signal and a measured signal and is a complex quantity containing a magnitude and phase component. ertPS is a scheduling mechanism that builds on the efficiency of both UGS and rtPS. Error correction Error correction is the process of correcting errors in data transmitted over a radio channel using forward error correction (FEC) techniques. ESN: Electronic Serial Number Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is a unique unchangeable number that is built into the mobile phone and is transmitted by the phone as a means of identifying itself within the system. messaging and data services. ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of . EPOC places a lighter load on the processor compared to present PDA operating systems and thus has the capacity to enhance the multimedia capacity of mobile phones. Each mobile phone is assigned a unique ESN. which indicates to the UE whether to increase. E-TAGS: Extended Total Access Communication System E-TAGS is Extension of the TACS (Total Access Communications System) system through the allocation of additional radio channels. ERMES: European radio messaging system European radio messaging system is a paging system used in Europe and other parts of the world. EPOC turns voice-oriented handsets into Mediaphones and Wireless Information Devices. It was developed by Symbian which is a joint company of Psion. but could provide PCNlike services within current spectrum allocations. Commercial aspects like costs for installing and operating the network form also part of the requirements.

Fast Handoff Fast Handoff is a way that access points can let authenticated users roam among different access points without losing authentication. EV-DV: EVolution for Data and Voice EVolution for Data and Voice (EV-DV. telegraph and telecommunications) originating in the United States. is a method to allow switching between any type of access stations (like RS. Fast Packet Switching Fast Packet Switching is a packet-orientated.16-2004 WIMAX protocol.1Mbps. EVM: Error Vector Magnitude Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) is a modulation quality metric widely used in digital RF communications systems. EVDV or 1xEV-DV) is the technology that provides integrated voice and simultaneous highspeed packet data multimedia services at high speeds. and regulates interstate communications (wire. Fast packet switching uses short. The EVDO protocol supports asymmetric communications.16-2005 (mobile WiMAX) network. fixed length packets (cells) and. networks and handheld devices. FAW: Frame Alignment Word Frame Alignment Word (FAW) is a unique digital word used by codecs to allow them to resynchronize to the framing structure in the event of errors. as amended. Used properly. 1xEV-DV is backward compatible to IS-95A/B and CDMA2000 1X and enables a simple migration to 1xEV-DV from 1X networks while preserving existing services offered by operators. broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics. The resulting frequency shift seen by the mobile is then used for frequency correction. digital technology that transmits all data in a single packet format whether the information is video. radio. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .000 and 1. EVDO is based on the 1xRTT standard. The FCH specifies the burst profile and the length of one or more DL bursts that immediately follow the FCH. Rician.Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. including voice and data services on the same carrier. BS. or MMRBS.F FACCH: Fast Associated Control Channel Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) is the channel derived by preempting information in a traffic channel. via hardware switching. It is influenced by the speed of the mobile terminal and the transmission bandwidth of the signal. established by the Communications Act of 1934.000. telephone.11f specification. These technologies include telecommunications. or Rayleigh. FBSS: Fast Base Station Switching Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS).000 packets/second. FCCH: Frequency Correction Channel Frequency Correction Channel(FCCH) is the logical channel in GSM systems used to transmit a frequency correction data burst of all "zeros". Gaussian. is capable of speeds between 100. Fading is normally negative and can be either fast or slow. defined in the IEEE 802. voice or data. Eye diagram Eye diagram is a superposition of segments of a received PAM signal displayed on an oscilloscope or similar instrument. Fading Fading is the variation in signal strength from its normal value. Fast fading Fast fading is the short term component associated with multipath propagation. allocating a majority of this bandwidth to downloads. and simultaneous voice and data. It is for alwayson mobile packet data and voice for GPRS-enabled cellular phones. The access station can be an RS. providing data transmission speeds wirelessly up to 3. Switching can occur between the same type or different types of access stations. EVM and related measurements can pinpoint exactly the type of degradations present in a signal and can even help identify their sources. . It is the rootmean-square (rms) value of the error vector over time at the instants of symbol clock transitions. BS. EVDO: Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO or 1xEV-DO) is a high-speed network protocol used for wireless Internet data communications. is a method by which an MS can change its access station from frame to frame depending on the station selection mechanism. or MMR-BS). FCH: Frame Control Header Frame Control Header (FCH) is a field in the IEEE802. The MS refers to transmitting/receiving data to/from one of the active stations (the anchor station) during any given frame. It is normally characterized by the distribution of fades. a concept in the WiMAX network. The eye diagram is used to assess impairments in the radio channel. FASS: Fast Access Station Switching Fast Access Station Switching (FASS). It is used to send handoff and similar messages. Fast handoff also makes voice-over-IP possible. Fast handoff will be made possible with the 802. FCC: Federal Communications Commission Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the regulatory body governing communications technologies in the US.

. SCF and SPACH. Receivers at the receiving end separates the multiplexed signals by means of frequency passing or rejecting filters. FFTs are of great importance to a wide variety of applications. a receiver does not have the option to request a re-transmission if an error was detected. Each channel is 30 kHz. FGD is offered as a way by which wireless carriers can meet FCC-enhanced 911 rules and dispatch offices can overcome their current bandwidth limits. conducted. used in cellular communication systems such as GSM.FDCCH: Forward Digital Control CHannel Forward Digital Control Channel (FDDCH).11 physical layer. FDD: Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Duplex (FDD). including the full call-back number. FHMA: Frequency hopping multiple access Frequency hopping multiple access (FHMA) is a digital technology used in Geotek Communications Inc.each carrying a signal at the same time in parallel. Fixed WiMax Fixed WiMax refers to the fixed wireless broadband services as defined by the IEEE 802.code division multiple access (FH-CDMA) is one of two basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal transmission for CDMA-based wireless systems.16-2004). FH-CDMA: Frequency Hopping . FEC: Forward Error Correction Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a method of increasing the reliability of data communication. All the signals may be amplified. users are dynamically allocated a group of frequencies so that the apparent availability is greater than the number of channels. alongside wireless 911 calls. In this practice. among other things. FER: Frame Erasure/Error Rate Frame Erasure/Error Rate is a measure of the number of frames of data that contained errors and could not be processed. is a radio technology using a paired spectrum. and demodulates the results individually. Feature Group D Feature Group D is a local exchange carrier network service that. Forward Error Correction is a method of sending redundant information with the data in order to allow the receiver to reconstruct the data if there was an error in transmission. FH: Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping (FH) is a periodic changing of frequency or frequency set associated with transmission. In one-way communication channels. alongside wireless 911 calls. translated in frequency and routed toward a destination as a single signal. FDCCH can be divided into a few logic channels such as BCCH. FGD: Feature Group D Feature Group D (FGD) is a local exchange carrier network service that. lets public-safety dispatch offices receive a 10-digit data stream. lets public-safety dispatch offices receive a 10-digit data stream. provides cellular standards for TDMA-based networks. defined in the IS-136.Code division multiple access Frequency hopping . FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is a method of allowing multiple users to share the radio frequency spectrum by assigning each active user an individual frequency channel.16d (also known as IEEE 802. using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. FDCCH includes all downstream signalling and control information from cell site to user equipment. among other things. each in the manner appropriate for the modulation scheme used for that band or group. It is a sequence of modulated pulses having a pseudorandom selection of carrier frequencies. FFT: Fast Fourier Transform Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse. FHSS: Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels. It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission. Offered as a way by which wireless carriers can meet FCC enhanced 911 rules and dispatch offices can overcome their current bandwidth limits. resulting in economies which are the motivation for multiplexing. including the full call-back number. often to minimize the effectiveness of the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications. FDM: Frequency Division Multiplex Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the carrier bandwidth is divided into sub-channels of different frequency widths -. FIRFinite Impulse Response Finite Impulse Response (FIR) is a technique used to characterize electrical circuits and networks in the time domain. from digital signal processing to solving partial differential equations to algorithms for quickly multiplying large integers.'s specialized mobile radio network. FDCCH works together with RDCCH (Reverse Digital Control CHannel) which is for the upstream signaling and controling information. FER is usually expressed as a percentage or exponent. This access group is associated with equal access arrangements which allow the end user to have the same dialing plan (1 plus the telephone number) to reach any predetermined long distance phone companies of their choice. It is used in WLAN 802.

FLEX also refers to the FLEX family of protocols: FLEX. . FOMA was the world's first W-CDMA 3G service when launched in 2001. FOMA: Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) is the brand name for the 3G services being offered by Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo. Frequency reuse Frequency reuse is a technique of reusing frequencies and channels within a communications system to improve capacity and spectral efficiency. Frequency re-use in mobile cellular systems means that each cell has a frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering cell that it does not provide interference problems. Operators of fixed wireless networks potentially can offer broadband services without having to lay expensive cable systems or deal with the complexities of mobility management. Frequency Frequency is the measurement of the number of times that a repeated event occurs per unit time.the latter of which delivers full duplex transmission on the same signal if desired. Footprint Footprint in wireless communications refers to geographical areas in which an entity is licensed to broadcast its signal. One segment of the cell uses a frequency that is far enough away from the frequency in the bordering segment that it does not provide interference problems. the forward link will consist of both an uplink (base station to satellite) and a downlink (satellite to mobile user). signals of different frequencies represent different data values. Fresnel Zone Fresnel Zone is an elliptical area on either side of the straight line of sight that must also be clear for a long-range wireless network to work. FM: Frequency Modulation Frequency Modulation (FM) is a form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of a sine-wave carrier is caused to depart from the carrier frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating wave.16-2005). the number of occurrences of the event within a fixed time interval are counted. and hence provides several alternative options for global roaming: either with or without change of handset.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -. This is a technique used to overcome the effects of multipath fading since the wavelength for different frequencies result in different and uncorrelated fading characteristics. Fringe Area Fringe Area is the outermost range of a cellular system where cellular signals may be weaker. Pine needles-nearly the same length as 800 MHz antennas can negatively affect signal reception in that band. a base station) to a mobile user. If the link includes a communications relay satellite. This practice enables cellular providers to have many times more customers for a given site license. a forward link is the link from a fixed location (e. To calculate the frequency of an event. The same frequency is used at least two cells apart from each other. Frequency reuse is one of the fundamental concepts on which commercial wireless systems are based that involves the partitioning of an RF radiating area (cell) into segments of a cell. FLEX FLEX is the Motorola's flexible high-speed paging coding scheme that gives carriers more capacity on their networks and faster transmission time. Forward link In radio communications. 800 MHz systems are seldom deployed in forested areas.16d product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. In FM. Forward Channel Forward Channel is used by the base station to communicate with a mobile station. Fixed Wireless Fixed wireless refers to the over-the-air transmission of information to and from systems and end-user equipment that are stationary. Frequency diversity Frequency diversity is the simultaneous use of multiple frequencies to transmit information. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16e (or 802.. and then divided by the length of the time interval.IEEE 802. rather than mobile. For example. Frequency selective fading Frequency selective fading is a type of signal fading occurring over a small group of frequencies caused by a strong multipath component at those frequencies. both via the radio link as well as via USIM card exchange. Flat fading Flat fading is a type of fading in a communications channel that attenuates or fades all frequencies in the channel in the same amount. FOMA is compatible with standard UMTS. Foliage attenuation Reductions in signal strength or quality is due to signal absorption by trees or foliage obstructions in the signal's line-of-sight path. The mobility features of WiMax are defined in IEEE 802. InFLEXion and ReFLEX.g.

FUSC: Fully Used SubChannel Fully Used SubChannel (FUSC). is a method used in the WiMAX network that uses all the subchannels and employs full-channel diversity by distributing the allocated subcarriers to subchannels using a permutation mechanism. BS. The GPRS Core Network is the centralised part of the GPRS system and also provides support for UMTS-based 3G networks. GERAN: GSM (GPRS)/EDGE Radio Access Network GSM(GPRS)/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) is the name given to the 3GPP standards for GSM(GPRS)/EDGE radio access. The full-rate codec uses all of the time-slots available.300 miles above the Earth. is a wireless system in which office or home users directly connect with the switching center of the telecommunications carrier or the inter-exchange channel to use the system. Full user mobility Full user mobility is a wireless classification under which users can access data while in motion. or MMR-BS. with the intention of implementing half-rate coding as the technology permits to double the capacity of the system. The most common one is the two-frequency FSK system using the two frequencies to carry the binary ones and zeros. the better the antenna receives or transmits but also the more noise it includes. FSSS: Fast Serving Station Switching Fast Serving Station Switching (FSSS) refers to the serving station switching with which a Moble Station (MS) can change its serving station from frame to frame depending on the serving station selection mechanism. Fast BS switching (FBSS) was defined in 802. FRS: Fixed Relay Station Fixed Relay Station (FRS) refers to a relay station that is permanently installed at a fixed location. short range two-way radio service in the 460 MHz band. The architecture allows two BSS (Base Station Subsystem) to be connected to each other. Switching can be either between a same type of serving stations or between different types of serving stations. This ratio typically is expressed in dBs. Most frame formats are designed to accommodate full and half-rate channels. FSKFrequency Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) is a form of modulation using multiple carrier frequencies to carry the digital information. . GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a gateway from a cellular network to an IP network that allows mobile cell phone users to access the public data network (PDN) or specified private IP networks. Gb and Iu interfaces to the CN (Core Network). Full rate Full rate refers to voice codecs in a communications system. also known as wireless local loop. GHz: GigaHertz GigaHertz (GHz) is one billion hertz. in a car. GAN: Global Area Network Global Area Network (GAN) is a network that is composed of different interconnected computer networks and covers an unlimited geographical area. FWA: fixed wireless access Fixed wireless access. Geosynchronous Orbit A geosynchronous orbit has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth.FRS: Family Radio Service Family Radio Service is a very low power. A serving station can be an RS. for example. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . The higher the gain.16e. This mechanism is designed to minimize the probability of hits (probably of using the same physical subcarriers in adjacent cells and sectors) between adjacent sectors/cells by reusing subcarriers while frequency diversity minimizes the performance degradation due to fast fading characteristics of mobile environments. or MMR-BS). Gaussian channel Gaussian channel is an RF communications channel having the properties of a wide-band uniform noise spectral density resulting in a random distribution of errors in the channel. which is a measurement of frequency. BS. which has been specified to connect the A.22.164 km.G Gain Gain refers to the ratio of the output amplitude of a signal to the input amplitude of a signal. also known as Fully Used SubCarrier. and the terminology is modified to allow switching between any types of serving stations (RS. Gi interface Gi interface is the reference point between a GPRS network and an external packet data network. It has a semi-major axis of 42. GEOS: Geo-stationary Earth Orbit Systems Geo-stationary Earth Orbit Systems (GEOS) is a communications system with satellites in geosynchronous orbits -.

supports the mobility of user terminal so that the SGSN can know the location of a mobile station (MS) at any time and to activate. is the world's most widely used digital network -. refers to the collection of communications equipment designed to receive signals from (and usually transmit signals to) satellites. The grade of service is usually expressed as percentage of calls attempted by the subscriber during the busy-hour that are blocked due to insufficient network resources. SM comprises of procedures for the PDP context activation. GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a modulation technique involving Gaussian filtering of the input data prior to its application to the phase modulator. also known as DCS 1800 or PCN. storing. It enables high-speed wireless Internet and other communications such as e-mail. GMM/SM: GPRS Mobility Management / Session Management GPRS Mobility Management/Session Management (GMM/SM) protocol supports mobility management functionality of a mobile such as GPRS attach. . GPT: GPRS Tunneling Protocol GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a protocol used by the GPRS backbone network for packet switching. Gp Interface Gp Interface is the Interface between GSNs within different PLMNs in a GPRS network. and spatial data that go into the system. This results in a narrowly occupied spectrum and better adjacent channel interference performance. location update. Gn Interface Gn Interface is the interface between GSNs within the same PLMN in a GPRS network. GPS: Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a "constellation" of 24 satellites that orbit the Earth at a height of 10. The main function of the Session Management (SM) layer is to support PDP context handling of the user terminal. that is. such as e-mail and Web browsing. and displaying geographically referenced information. games and applications. GSM 1900 GSM 1900. GSM 900 GSM 900. Ground Station Ground Station. The GMM layer uses the services of the Radio Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP) over the Iu interface to provide these services. compared with the 9. deactivation and modification. latitude and altitude by Earth-based receivers. analyzing. It is used in the US and Canada and is scheduled for parts of Latin America and Africa. data identified according to location. particularly in Europe and Asia Pacific. The satellites use simple mathematical calculations to broadcast information that is translated as longitude. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a protocol defined on both the Gp and Gn interfaces between GSNs in a GPRS network.6Kbit/sec. It is used in Europe. making it possible for people using ground receivers to determine their geographic location within 10 to 100 meters. Practitioners also define a GIS as including the procedures. operating personnel. routing area update.. GMPCS: Global Mobile Personal Communications Services Global Mobile Personal Communications Services (GMPCS) is a mobile satellite systems that will provide global wireless phone service. is a mobile network working on a frequency of 1900 MHz. GOS: Grade of Service Grade of Service (GOS) is a measure of the success a subscriber is expected to have in accessing a network to complete a call. is a moble network working on a frequency of 1800 MHz. authentication. It's particularly suited for sending and receiving small amounts of data. as well as large volumes of data. modify and deactivate the PDP sessions required by the MS for the user data transfer.GIS: geographic information system Geographical Information System (GIS) refers to a computer system capable of capturing. security. of older GSM systems. GSM 1800 GSM 1800. together with Session Management (GMM/SM) protocol. GPRS: General Packet Radio Service General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology runs at speeds of up to 115Kbit/sec. GLONASS: global navigation system Global navigation system (GLONASS) is a Russian satellite location technology similar to global positioning system. also called a downlink station. AsiaPacific and Australia. also known as PCS 1900. GMM: GPRS Mobility Management GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) is a GPRS signaling protocol that handles mobility issues such as roaming. GPRS Mobility Management. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a protocol defined on both the Gp and Gn interfaces between GSNs in a GPRS network. It supports a wide range of bandwidths and is an efficient use of limited bandwidth. GTP is a protocol defined on both the Gn and Gp interfaces between GSNs in a GPRS network. GPRS detach. or just GSM.900 miles.now operating in over 100 countries around the world. and selection of encryption algorithms.

GTP: GPRS Tunnelling Protocol GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) allows end users of a GSM or UMTS network to move from place to place whilst continuing to connect to the internet as if from one location at the GGSN. Guard Band Guard Band is a set of frequencies or band-width used to prevent adjacent systems from interfering with each other. When the system is completed around 1993. The control plane protocol GTP-C (Control) using registered port 2123 and the user plane protocol GTP-U (User) using registered port 2152 GTP Tunnel GTP Tunnel is used to communicate between an external packet data network and a mobile station in a GPRS network. with transmissions between 150 and 175 kHz. competing with CDMA which was developed by Qualcomm and deployed mainly in the US. with the intention of implementing half-rate coding as the technology permits to double system capacity. so that a signal can go from coast to coast or from one station to another. GTP version one is used only on UDP. There are two key variants of the GSN: the GGSN and the SGSN. It can be used with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) on the registered port 3386. Half rate Half rate is a term used in voice codecs in a communications system. This range was selected because its signals travel by means of waves that have a tendency to hug the ground rather than by radiating into the atmosphere. GWEN: Ground Wave Emergency Network Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) is a communications system that the US military constructs. is a digital cellular system defined by ETSI based on TDMA narrowband technology. Hand Off (Handoff) Hand Off (handoff) is the process of transferring a call in progress from the current base station to another without interruption as the user moves out of range of the current base station. The entire GWEN system consists of approximately 300 such stations spread across the United States.GSM plus GSM plus is an enhanced version of global system for mobile communications (GSM) technology that will be developed to meet IMT-2000 capabilities GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ or Hybrid ARQ) is a sheme wherein information blocks are encoded for partial error correction at receiver and additional. GSM-R: GSM for Railway networks Global system for mobile communications for Railway networks (GSM-R) uses standard base station and switching infrastructure to provide fast data transmission for railways GSN: GPRS Support Nodes GPRS Support Node (GSN) is a network node which supports the use of GPRS in the GSM core network. GTP version zero supports both signalling and user data under one generic header. Most frame formats are designed to accommodate full and half-rate channels. Guard bands are typically used between different types of systems at the edges of the frequency allocations. GSM allows up to eight simultaneous communications on the same frequency. The half rate codec uses only half of the time-slots in the frame Hamming code Hamming code is a well known simple class of block codes capable of detecting up to two errors and correcting one. GSM is widely deployed in Europe and some Asian Countries. A GTP tunnel is referenced by an identifier called a TID and is defined by two associated PDP contexts residing in different GSNs. The stations are from 200 to 250 miles apart. A tunnel is created whenever an SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request in a GPRS network. they are one of the "perfect" codes in that its standard array has all of the error patterns that can exist for single errors. It does this by carrying the subscriber's data from the subscriber's current SGSN to the GGSN which is handling the subscriber's session. Hand Over Hand Over refers to the passing of a call signal from one base station to the next as the user moves out of range or the network software re-routes the call.a single GWEN stations transmits in a 360 circle to a distance of 250 to 300 miles.H HAAT: Height Above Average Terrain Height Above Average Terrain (HAAT) is a measure of an antenna's height above average terrain. It operates in a very-lowfrequency range. Although not particularly powerful. the entire civilian population of the United States will be exposed to the GWEN Transmissions Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . This signal drops off sharply with distance -. uncorrected errors are retransmitted. each with a tower 300-500 feet high. This value is used by the FCC in determining compliance with height limitations and transmitting powers for high sites. All GSNs should have a Gn interface and support the GPRS tunnelling protocol. origionally known as Groupe Spécial Mobile. .

0 runs at 128 Mbps. HR/DSSS uses complementary code keying which divides the chip stream into a number of 8-bit code symbols. also known as Orthogonal Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OCQPSK). however. HRPD: High Rate Packet Data High Rate Packet Data (HRPD). but not from other nodes communicating with said hub. is used to predict signal strength levels in land-mobile systems. Hertz Hertz(Hz) is the measure of frequency which means cycles per second. HDTP: Handheld Device Transport Protocol Handheld Device Transport Protocol (HDTP) is optimized for HDML. See also soft hand-off. This leads to difficulties in media access control. HHO: Hard Hand-Off Hard Hand Off. . each node is within the communication range of the Access Point. HomePNA is primarily useful for bridging wireless networks across obstacles (like brick walls) that block radio waves. Hidden nodes in a wireless network refer to nodes which are out of range of other nodes or a collection for nodes.primarily in GSM systems. High-gain antennas are necessary for longrange wireless networks. not each node can communicate with each other. and the activity status of the mobile user. HCI: Host Controller Interface A geosynchronous orbit has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. The hard hand-off is a break before make hand-off just like in other wireless systems and must be used where the current and hand-off candidate base stations do not use the same RF channel. Hata Model Hata Model.11 which supported data rates of up to 2Mbps. HLR: home location register Home Location Register (HLR) is a database residing in a local wireless network that checks the identity of a local subscriber. is a packet data protocol in the 3G mobile communicaitons network based on CDMA2000. Unlike the earlier versions of IEEE 802. also known as the Okamura-Hata model. HLR contains information about subscribers to a mobile network and registers subscribers for a particular service provider. the location information. describes a hand-off involving a frequency change. The hard hand-off is a break before make hand-off just like in other wireless systems and must be used where the current and hand-off candidate base stations do not use the same RF channel. HomeRF HomeRF is a networking standard for home wireless communication. such as a hotel.11b which supports data transfer at up to 11Mbps. See also soft hand-off. HomePNA 2. HPSK: Hybrid Phase Shift Keying Hybrid Phase Shift Keying (HPSK). restaurant or airport.up to 57 kilobits per second -.0 runs at 10 Mbps. which is a competitor to Wi-Fi that integrates voice. Take a physical star topology with an Access Point with many nodes surrounding it in a circular fashion.Hard Hand Off Hard Hand Off. HDML: Handheld Device Markup Language Handheld Device Markup Language(HDML) Specifications allow Internet access from wireless devices such as handheld personal computers and smart phones. also known as TIA/EIA IS-856 or 1xEV-DO. It has a semi-major axis of 42. Hidden Node Problem The hidden node problem occurs in the wireless networking when a node is visible from a wireless hub. data. The HLR stores "permanent" subscribers' information (rather than temporary subscribers' data. used in CDMA systems. HR/DSSS PHY: High Rate / Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Physical Layer High Rate/Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Physical Layer (HR/DSSS PHY) is the enhanced physical layer defined by IEEE 802. HomePNA HomePNA is a networking standard that uses standard telephone wiring. HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) is a circuit-linked technology for higher transmission speeds -. is the spreading technique used in the reverse link of 3G systems to reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the signal by reducing zero crossings and 0 degree phase transitions. and streaming media into a single wireless signal. This language is derived from hypertext markup language (HTML). and the just-defined HomePNA 3. High-gain Antenna High-gain Antenna is a type of antenna that significantly increases signal strength. describes a hand-off involving a frequency change. used in CDMA systems. It presents the HDML to the HDML interpreter in an appropriate format. Hot spot or hotspot Hot spot (hotspot) is an area. either free or for a fee.164 km. that offers Wi-Fi access. including the service profile. which a VLR manages).

but not with a network infrastructure.HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). background and. such as the high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH). HSS contains user profiles. An HS-PDSCH may use QPSK or 16QAM modulation symbols. The access point forwards information to target stations or to a fixed network. text messaging. It is an 802. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). HSUPA: High-Speed Uplink Packet Access High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a data access protocol for mobile phone networks with extremely high upload speeds of up to 5. The S-CSCF will receive the profile in a User-data Attribute Value Pair (AVP) format. HS-DPCCH: High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) was introduced in the 3GPP release 5 of WCDMA as a new uplink code channel for control purposes. Similar to HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access). IMSEI: International Mobile Station Equipment Identity International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMSEI) is an identification number assigned to GSM mobile stations that . IBSS: Infrastructure BSS Infrastructure BSS (IBSS) is an 802. M is the number of bits per modulation symbols i. which provides enhanced supports for interactive.e. refers to a system including the master user database and software that supports IMS network entities that handle calls and sessions.8 Mbit/s. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA downlink with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbit/s (and 20 Mbit/s for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. a key component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). varying power relations to the dedicated uplink channels (DPCCH and DPDCH) are obtained. HS-DSCH can be mapped onto one or several physical channels (also known as codes) all using spreading factor 16. is a new mobile telephony protocol. also known as an ad hoc network. HSDPA implementations include Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC). the HSDPCCH is not continuously transmitted and is not necessarily time aligned with the other WCDMA uplink channels. HS-DSCH: High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH). also called 3.I IBSS: Independent Basic Service Set Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). and the Call State Control Function servers (CSCF). fast cell search. performs authentication and authorization of the user. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . a channel added to UMTS to increase downlink data rates that is defined in Release 5 of the UMTS specifications. specified in 3GPP Release 5.75G or sometimes 4G. Besides being the 3rd uplink code channel. In the figure above. HS-SCCH: High-Speed Shared Control Channel High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) is a channel added to UMTS to increase downlink data rates that is defined in Release 5 of the UMTS specifications and is part of HSDPA. extends WCDMA with additional transport and control channels. M=2 for QPSK and M=4 for 16QAM. Hz: HERTZ HERTZ (Hz) is a measurement of frequency in cycles per second. One Hertz is one cycle per second. Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ).11 network comprising an access point and stations. is a transport channel shared among all users that are using HSPDA for their interactive/background radio access bearer. HSS: Home Subscriber Service Home Subscriber Service (HSS).11 network comprising a collection of stations that communicate with each other. IF: Intermediate Frequency Intermediate Frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. HSUPA is considered 3. The entities that communicate with the HSS are the application server (AS) that hosts and executes services in the IMS environment.5G (or "3½G"). HS-PDSCH: High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) is channel added to UMTS to increase downlink data rates that is defined in Release 5 of the UMTS specifications and is part of HSDPA. streaming services. and can provide information about the physical location of user. Intermediate electromagnetic frequencies is generated by a superheterodyne radio receiver. and data transmission into a single network. Do not confuse it with Infrastructure BSS. As a result. and advanced receiver design. The User Profile contains information about the current user when a user is registering on the network. HSS is similar to the GSM Home Location Register. telephone. to some extent. fast scheduling. iDEN wireless handsets are utilized in a variety of work environments ranging from manufacturing floors to executive conference rooms as well as mobile sales forces. iDEN: Integrated Digital Enhanced Network Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a Motorola-enhanced mobile radio network technology that integrates two-way radio. HSPA: High Speed Packet Access High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).

also known as HSS. It plays a key role in provisioning. It is a 15-digit serial number that contains a type approval code. It contains a mobile country code. The IMEI number is used by the GSM network to identify valid devices and therefore can be used to stop a stolen phone from accessing the network. like sip:name@domain. . IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is a unique number that is associated with all GSM and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network mobile phone users. so both can be reached with the same identity (for example. IMS-MGW: IP Multimedia Subsystem Media Gateway IP Multimedia Subsystem Media Gateway (IMS-MGW). IMSI: International Mobile Station Identity International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI) is a unique 15-digit number assigned to a mobile station at the time of service subscription. It is usually found printed on the phone underneath the battery and can also be found by dialling the sequence *#06# into the phone. Existing phone systems (both packetswitched and circuit-switched) are supported.com). The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. The number is stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). and payload processing (e. a single phone-number for an entire family). and a national mobile subscriber identity. in Japan. if a mobile phone is stolen. It can support media conversion. service creation. IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardised Next Generation Networking (NGN) architecture for telecom operators that want to provide mobile and fixed multimedia services. IM-HSS: IP Multimedia . that can be digits (a tel-uri. that can be digits (a tel-uri. using codecs. IMPU: IP Multimedia Public Identity IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU) is one of the two identities used by an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). The MS sends the IMSI to a BTS for identification of the MS in the GSM network. For example. a mobile network code.Home Subscriber Service (IM-HSS). final assembly code and serial number. IMT-2000: International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) is a group of technologies defined by ITU-T for the third generation mobile telephony. It's based on a simplified form of HTML and delivers packet-based information -. e-mail and even business applications -. a single phone-number for an entire family). IMPI: IP Multimedia Private Identity IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI) is one of the two identities used by an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). and runs over the standard Internet Protocol (IP). regardless of whether the phone's SIM is changed. IMTA: International Mobile Telecommunications Association International Mobile Telecommunications Association (IMTA) is a trade group serving specialized mobile radio and public access mobile radio carriers around the world. enabling subscriber data.. roaming and interconnection. This renders the phone useless. The IMPI is unique to the phone.g. The IMPI is unique to the phone. (3) Maintains service-specific data. It is sent by the mobile phone to the network and is also used to acquire other details of the mobile in the Home Location Register (HLR) or as locally copied in the Visitor Location Register. like sip:name@domain. is a popular wireless Internet service by NTT DoCoMo Inc. and managing control. The other one is the IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI). It can also be applied to mobile telephone standards that meet a number of requirements in terms of transmission speed and other factors. echo cancellers. In order to avoid the subscriber being identified and tracked by eavesdroppers on the radio interface. The IM-HSS: (1) Supports IMS level authentication and authorization. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 3G architecture. but URIs. mobile subscriber identification number. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a sip-uri. (4) Keeps track of currently assigned S-CSCF and (5) Supports CSCF and AS access.uniquely identifies each one. so both can be reached with the same identity (for example. is the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) service and user data repository. bearer control. and you can have multiple IMPU per IMPI (often a tel-uri and a sip-uri). It uses a Voice-over-IP (VoIP) implementation based on a 3GPP standardised implementation of SIP. but URIs. Both are not phone numbers or other series of digits. The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. The other one is the IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU). IMTS: Improved Mobile Telephone Service Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) is the commercial form of mobile telephone service preceding cellular that allowed users to place and receive their own calls through the use of a dial or keypad on the telephone. Both are not phone numbers or other series of digits.com). I-Mode or iMode I-Mode. also known as iMode.such as games. the owner can call his or her network provider and instruct them to "ban" the phone using its IMEI number. the IMSI is sent as rarely as possible and a randomly generated TMSI is sent instead. can terminate bearer channels from a switched circuit network and media streams from a packet network. (2) Maintains IMS subscriber profile(s) independent of access types. The BTS looks for the IMSI in the HLR. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a sip-uri. and you can have multiple IMPU per IMPI (often a tel-uri and a sip-uri). or conference bridges).Home Subscriber Service The IP Multimedia .to handheld devices. IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone.

an EIA Interim Standard for U. even applications. IS-634 is deployed worldwide in the cdmaOne mobile wireless networks. no redundant data. the system will resend the same data using a different puncture or coding scheme. This PDA and its many successors use OBEX to exchange business cards. Digital Cellular (USDC). IR: Incremental Redundancy Incremental redundancy (IR) is the feature used by EDGE (EGPRS) systems to get maximum performance out of the available bandwidth. IS-136 uses Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA) as an air interface.S. the Infrared Data Association. also known as EIA Interim Standard 2000. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density. IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in adjoining rooms. One of OBEX's earliest popular applications was in the Palm III personal digital assistant.IN: Intelligent Network Intelligent Network (IN) often referred to as the Advanced Intelligent Network.9 GHz wireless spread spectrum radio-frequency access technology developed by Omnipoint Corp. is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. also known as ANSI-41 since it is a standard defined by ANSI.e. replacing IS-54 of the original tDMA standard. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. software and protocols used to implement features on the network and support switching and control functions. for which Omnipoint was awarded a pioneer's preference license for the New York City market. but below that of the visible spectrum. It used digital traffic channels but retained the use of analog control channels. data. is the second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems used in the D-AMPS. GSM and WCDMA networks use a different standard known as MAP for the same purpose. The brand name for IS-95 . IrDA: Infrared Data Association Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is an industry organization that creates standards for hardware and software used in infrared communications. If data is retransmitted using a different puncture or coding scheme. IS-95 Interim Standard 95 (IS-95). IS-136 IS-136. is a standard for current CDMA systems providing a migration path to 3G services.e. Interferance Interferance is the effect that occurs when undesired signals inhibits or degrades the reception of a desired signal. InFLEXion InFLEXion is the narrowband PCS technology developed by Motorola Inc. The beam is modulated. The company says IS-661 reduces infrastructure costs and allows higher data speeds than mainstream GSM or TDMA platforms. It is maintained by the Infrared Data Association but has also been adopted by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group and the SyncML wing of the OMA. that allows for voice paging. IS-634 The IS-634 interface is a standard defined by TIA/EIA that defines the messaging interface between a TDMA Base Station (BS) and a Mobile Switching Center (MSC). Infrared Infrared is the electromagnetic waves whose frequency range is above that of microwaves. Most TV remote controls use infrared. this is a network of equipment. This interface uses the services provided by Connection Oriented SCCP for its transport layer. This standard was the first to permit the use digital channels in AMPS systems. The standard also defines how users are identified. This standard was replaced by the IS-136 digital standard in 1996. and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. and routing calls on mobile phone networks based on MPS (analog). It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter. have become available for many embedded applications. and calls are routed when roaming across different networks. more recently. i. IS-54 IS-54. is a specification for identifying and authenticating users. IS-661. These devices usually conform to standards published by IrDA. If the data is not decoded properly. it is then recombined with the first transmission to increase redundancy. IS-661 IS-661 is a North American standard for 1. switched on and off. IrDA standards have been implemented on various computer platforms and. i. IS-2000 IS-2000. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam. It works by first sending only the minimum amount of redundant data. increasing the amount of redundant data and the likelihood of recovering from the errors. to encode the data. as opposed to radio waves. IS-41 IS-41. is employed in short-range communications among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. in most cases. IrOBEX: Infrared OBject Exchange Infrared OBject EXchange (IrOBEX) or OBEX) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. is based on a composite of code division multiple access and time division multiple access technologies. Information is transferred via rays of light. IS-136 (TDMA) and CDMA technologies. IRC: Infrared communication InfraRed Communication (IRC). is the original TDMA digital standard implemented in 1992.

It contains parameters for identifying and authenticating the user to the IMS.is cdmaOne. Micro Edition Java 2 Platform Micro Edition (J2ME) is a technology that allows developers to use the Java programming language to create applications for mobile wireless devices.6kbps. JTAGS is operating in the 900-MHz band. Jamming Jamming refers to the interference with the air radio transmission. is the original digital mobile telephony standard based on CDMA technology. kpbs: Kilobits per second kpbs (Kilobits per second) is a measurement of data rate. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . It is applied in the cdmaOne mobile network IS-95b IS-95b is an upgraded version of IS-95a for the cdmaOne mobile network that increases the maximum data rate to 115. call control. JTAPI: Java Telephony API The Java Telephony API (JTAPI) is an extensible API that offers an interface to all call control services. and phone book management. Ka-Band Ka-Band refers to the bandwidth of electromagnetic wave between 33 GHz to 36 GHz. IWF: Interworking Function Interworking Function (IWF) is a technique for interfacing data between a wireless system and the telephone network. It is intended specifically for the programming requirements of mobile phones. for example. JTACS or J-TAGS: Japanese Total Access Communication System Japanese Total Access Communication System (JTAGS) is a 1G technology deployed in Japan based on the European TACS system. It usually involves the use of modems or data terminal adapters to convert the data transmitted over the air interface and mobile network to a format that can be recognized and carried by the public telecommunications network. JavaPhone JavaPhone is a Java API specification controlling contacts. which is a measurement of frequency.J K J2ME: Java 2 Platform. ISIM: IP Multimedia Services Identity Module IP Multimedia Services Identity Module (ISIM) is an application running on a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) smart card in a 3G mobile telephone in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). a multiple access scheme for digital radio. JTAPI is part of the JavaPhone API.000 Hertz. . data services for 2G operates at maximum speed of 9.2 kb/s. to send voice. which is a control signal used to prepare the remote customer installation to receive digits. ITU: International Telecommunications Union International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is a United Nations agency that deals with telecommunications issues. It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA. It is a much easier text input method than the traditional multitapping. IS-95 is also known as TIA-EIA-95. Key Pulse Signal Key-pulse signal is the first signal in an multifrequency outpulsing format. Ku-Band Ku-Band refers to the bandwidth of electromagnetic wave between 12 GHz to 14 GHz. The services include those needed in a consumer device up to those of enterprise call centers. ISI: Inter-Symbol Interference Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) is an interference effect where energy from prior symbols in a bit stream is present in later symbols. The ISIM application can co-exist with SIM and USIM on the same UICC making it possible to use the same smart card in both GSM networks and earlier releases of UMTS. data and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile telephones and cell sites. an EIA Interim Standard 95. also known as T9 TM text input. which is primarily used in satellites operating at 14 GHz uplink and 11 GHz downlink in supporting braodband TV and Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) system (DSS). KHz: KiloHertz One kHz (KiloHertz) is equal to 1. power management. It may be used by people who is trying to disturb the receiver from receiving the radio signal at a target frequency. IS-95a IS-95a. ISI is normally caused by filtering of the data streams. iTAP iTAP. which is primarily used in satellites operating at 30 GHz uplink and 20 GHz downlink for mobile voice communications. is a application installed on wireless phones and handheld devices that allows you to type messages with just one key press per letter using the keypad.

LEO: Low Earth Orbit Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is the orbit between 700 and 2. 1. The model assumes an initial condition at a short distance from a base station and uses that as one end of a slope intercept model to predict path loss between a base station and a mobile unit. In the United States. and 31. To perform its service provider role.Also. typically short as L2CAP. 31.000 kilometers above the Earth for Mobile communications satellite. authentication. Location registration Location registration is one of several computer databases used to maintain location and other information on mobile subscribers.225 B 31. LASCDMA: Large Area Synchronized Code Division Multiple Access Large Area Synchronized Code Division Multiple Access (LASCDMA) is a technology developed by LinkAir that offers a higher spectral efficiency and moving speed for better mobile-application support.1 B 29. higher throughput. Lee's model Lee's model is a slope-intercept propagation prediction model developed at Bell Laboratories and popularized by William Lee. LMP: Link Manager Protocol Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is a data link layer protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack.225 GHz. As a result of the propagation characteristics of signals in this frequency range. Internet. Currently. data. LAI: Location Area Identity Location Area Identity (LAI) is the information carried in the SIM of GSM handsets that identify the subscriber's home area. While LDPC and other error correcting codes cannot guarantee perfect transmission. its asymmetric traffic. This is used for billing and sub-net operation purposes. LMDS systems use a cellular-like network architecture though services provided are fixed. LMDS: Local Multipoint Distribution System Local multipoint distribution system (LMDS) is the broadband wireless technology used to deliver voice.5 B 28. LNA: Low Noise Amplifier Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is a receiving preamplifier having very low internal noise characteristics placed very near the antenna of a receiver to capture the C/N before it can be further degraded by noise in the receiving system. and smaller delay provide improved IP support.075 GHz.35 GHz.L L2CAP: Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol. Internet. Basically.25 GHz. LDPC was the first code to allow data transmission rates close to the theoretical maximum. Location Server Location Server allows end users to connect real-time location information from mobile service operator with mapping and routing information. . the probability of lost information can be made as small as desired. LMP carries out link setup. LEAP: Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP). directly to the Link Manager. also known as Cisco-Wireless EAP. is used within the Bluetooth protocol stack at the data link layer. Wireless portability is expected to become a reality by the end of 2003. 31 B 31.1X standard for LAN port access control. Link budget Link budget is a calculation involving the gain and loss factors associated with the antennas. transmitters. data. and video services over LMDS through integration with the wireline environment.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . LNP: Local Number Portability Local Number Portability (LNP) is the capability that allows wireless customers to switch carriers but retain the same phone number.075 B 31. the LM uses the services of the underlying Link Controller (LC). LEAP is one of several protocols used with the IEEE 802. and video services in the 25-GHz and higher spectrum (depending on licensing). Location server enables mobile service providers to provide their end-users with personalized contents that are location-dependent. it changes the WEP key dynamically during a session to make it less likely that a snooper will be able to derive the key. LEAP provides username/password-based authentication between a wireless client and a RADIUS server like Cisco ACS or Interlink AAA. transmission lines and propagation environment used to determine the maximum distance at which a transmitter and receiver can successfully operate. is a Cisco security technology that builds on Wi-Fi's WEP encryption. It discovers other remote Link Manager (LM) and communicates with them via the Link Manager Protocol (LMP). This tutorial details the underlying technology inherent in offering voice. not mobile. See HLR and VLR. link configuration and other protocols. It passes packets to either the Host Controller Interface (HCI) or on a hostless system. 29.3 MHz of bandwidth (27. A LASCDMA TDD variant is compatible with systems such as TD-SCDMA. LDPC code: Low-Density-Parity-Check code A low-density parity-check code (LDPC code) is an error-correcting code and a method of transmitting a message over a noisy transmission channel. the Shannon Limit.3 GHz) has been allocated for LMDS to deliver broadband services in a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint configuration to residential and commercial customers. LAS-CDMA is being considered as phase 2 of the 1xEV standards.

typically carries a data stream that contains several logical channels.M MAC address MAC address (Media Access Control address) is the address associated with every hardware device on the network. lub Lub is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. exceptionally be an external interface too for some network architectures. The other three are Uu. And at last there is the lur interface which is an internal interface most of the time. Uu. . but can. Lub is the interface between a Base Station and Radio NetworkController. The feedback is usually in the form of signal level and quality measurements on the downlink and signal level measurements from neighbor cells. sometimes also referred to as 3G LTE or Super-3G. in a binary coding scheme. lur Lur is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. lu Lu is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. The other three are Uu. This unique identifier can be used to provide security for wireless networks. is a large cell in a wireless system capable of covering a large physical area. lu and lur. These usually include multiple control and traffic channels. RF channel.g. A physical channel. MANET: Mobile Ad Hoc Network Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) refers to a type of mobile network in which each node has the ability to act as a router. and lub.Logic Channel Logic Channel is a communications channel derived from a physical channel. the amplifier reduces the non-linear effects that produce intermodulation products and side-lobe spectra that cause adjacent channel interference. LPC: Linear Predictive Coding Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) is a speech encoding scheme that uses periodic pulses to excite a filter. Different users can use the same frequency in the same cell except that they must transmit at different times. Analogous to the units position in a decimal number.11 device has its own specific MAC address hard-coded into it. LPA: Linear Power Amplifier Linear Power Amplifier (LPA) is the final amplification stage in a multicarrier transmitter that has been designed and optimized to produce a linear response. only the 802. each user is then given a pair of frequencies (uplink and downlink) and a time slot during a frame.11 radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table are able to get onto the network. LTE: Long Term Evolution Long Term Evolution (LTE).The code is predictive in that it uses knowledge of past data (represented as vectors) to predict future values in a feed forward manner. i. The other three are lu. but can.e. also known as macrocell. The opposite to LOS is NLOS. Lu is the standardized interface between a Radio Network Controller Network and Packet Subsystem (e. similar to the way human voice is produced. The lub is an internal interface connecting the RNC with the Node B. In both 2G and 3G moble networking. MAHO: Mobile Assisted Handoff Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO) is a handoff technique involving feedback from the mobile station as part of the handoff process. is the 3GPP radio technology evolution architecture. RNC-3GSGSN). too. MACRO Cell MACRO Cell. The lur connects two RNCs with each other. Every wireless 802. exceptionally be an external interface for some network architectures. By operating in the linear mode. Its full name is UTRA-UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE). LOS: Loss of Signal Loss of signal (LOS) is a condition where the received signal drops below threshold due to a terrain obstruction or other phenomenon increasing the link budget loss beyond design parameters. is the bit having the least numerical value. LSB: Least Significant Bit Least Significant Bit (LSB). The lu interface is an external interface that connects the RNC to the Core Network (CN). LOS: Line of Sight Line of Sight (LOS) describes an unobstructed radio path or link between the transmitting and receiving antennas of a communications system. This multiple-access interference can present a significant problem if the power level of the desired signal is significantly lower (due to distance) than the power level of the interfering user. lub and lur. When a network uses a MAC table. or Non Line of Sight. MAI: Multiple Access Interference Multiple Access Interference (MAI) is a type of interference caused by multiple cellular users who are using the same frequency allocation at the same time. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . The lur interface which is an internal interface most of the time. Macrocells are used in rural areas and other areas where subscriber or traffic densities are low.

medium access control (MAC). with a master database. The master access point shares the Internet connection with the rest of the remote. Other classmarks may be defined in the future. The premise behind MAP is to connect the distributed switching elements. The establishment and maintenance of these routes. . MexE: Mobile Station Application Execution Environment Mobile Station Application Execution Environment (MexE) is a framework to ensure a predictable environment for third-party applications in GSM or UMTS handsets. MExE does this by defining different technology requirements called "classmarks. called the Home Location Register (HLR). MBOA: MultiBand OFDM Alliance MultiBand OFDM Alliance (MBOA) was an industrial association with a focus on the Ultra WideBand wireless communication technologies. one of the protocols in the SS7 suite. MExE specifies additional requirements for all classmarks. typically means the combination of three IS-95 carriers to form one wideband carrier. MAP: Mobile Application Part The Mobile Application Part (MAP).permitting adaptable multihop communications. Mcps: Mega Chips Per Second Mega Chips Per Second (Mcps) is a measure of the number of bits (chips) per second in the spreading sequence of direct sequence spreading code. It is an evolution of IS-95 for third generation systems. MBS provides radio coverage restricted to a small area (e. is an IEEE standard defined by the 802. They are therefore less obtrusive than the usual masts and antennae used for these purposes and meet with less public opposition. as for example conventional digital television is only a one-way (unidirectional) system. a security environment. MBS: Mobile Broadband Systems Mobile Broadband Systems (MBS) are extensions of the wired B-ISDN system. sports arena. television studio) and supports communications between MBS mobile terminals and terminals directly connected to the B-ISDN at up to 155 Mbit/s. also called CDMA2000. Matched filter Matched filter is the receiver filter with impulse response equal to the timereversed. and logical link control (LLC) layers." MExE classmark 1 is based on WAP. factory. MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) is a broadcasting service that can be offered via existing GSM and UMTS cellular networks.20 group to define the interface that allows the creation of low-cost. A handset can support multiple classmarks. a user profile.5 GHz and with a peak data rate of over 1 Mbit/s. MBWA: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA). MDSS: Mobile Data Synchronization Service Mobile Data Synchronization Service (MDSS) is the ability to synchronize data on client devices with data stored in an enterprise database. The infrastructure offers an option to use an uplink channel for interaction between the service and the user.complex conjugate impulse response of the combined transmitter filter-channel impulse response. GSM and GPRS connectivity. called mobile switching centers (MSCs). The HLR is consulted during the processing of an incoming call. always-on.g. classmark 2 on PersonalJava and JavaPhone. under the name or WiMedia Alliance to align goals more fully. MED: Message Entry Device Message Entry Device (MED) is a device which sends information into a paging network using TDP. allows for the implementation of the mobile network (GSM) signaling infrastructure. and truly mobile broadband wireless networks. nicknamed as Mobile-Fi. MDA: Microconnect Distributed Antennae Microconnect Distributed Antennae (MDA) are small-cell local area (200–300 metre range) transmitter-receivers usually fitted to lampposts and other street furniture in order to provide Wireless LAN. for instance. MC-CDMA MC-CDMA. The air interface will operate in bands below 3. is severely affected by the stochastic nature of wireless communications. Each antenna point contains a 63-65 GHz wireless unit alongside a large memory store providing proxy and cache services. A common protocol has been developed that will eventually allow a variety of clients to synchronize with a variety of databases. however. The Multi-Band OFDM Alliance and the WiMedia Alliance were merged in 2005. user interface personalization. The scope of the MBWA standard consists of the physical (PHY). management of services and virtual home environment. capability and content negotiation. Master Access Point Master Access Point is the primary access point in a wireless network that uses WDS to extend range. along with all the wireless clients. and classmark 3 on J2ME CLDC and MIDP. MCD: Mobile Computing Device Mobile Computing Devices (MCD) are the computer devices such as notebook that can access to the network through mobile access. which is not a straightforward issue in usual broadcast networks. The HLR dynamically stores the current location and profile of a mobile network subscriber. MBMS uses multicast distribution in the core network instead of point-to-point links for each end device. This may be any type of device from a hand-held type of unit to a host computer. or relay access points. making it diffcult to implement such nets in practice.

In the case of analog cellular. Other forms of smart antenna technology include Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). persistent storage. MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF). It performs protocol conversion between ISDN User Part (ISUP) and the IMS call-control protocols. Microwave-based networks are an evolving technology gaining favor due to high bandwidth and relatively low cost. this number is the telephone number of the handset. MHz: Megahertz MHz or Megahertz. In most second generation system. companding and encoding techniques for speech signals based on the m-law. Microbrowser Microbrowser is a modified Web browser that allows users to get Internet data on a handheld wireless device Microcell Microcell is a very small cell used in densely populated areas where traffic volume is high. as an alternative method of cable television programming reception. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Single Output Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) is a smart antenna technology that uses multiple transmitters and a single receiver on a wireless device to improve the transmission distance. Microwave Microwave is the electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 1 to 30 GHz. and application model MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) refers to using multiple antennas in a Wi-Fi device to improve performance and throughput. via multiple paths. in which one MHz is equal to one million Hertz. storing. more commonly. or transmitter. The MIDP specification addresses such issues as user interface. networking. . It provides a basic J2ME application runtime environment targeted at mobile information devices. the MIN is used to route the call.11n standard. MLD: Maximum Likelyhood Detection Maximum Likelyhood Detection (MLD) is an optimal scheme for detecting the spatially multiplexed signals in a mobile network. The MMDS band uses microwave frequencies from 2 GHz to 3 GHz in range. The receiver box is very similar in appearance to an analog cable television receiver box. is a wireless telecommunications technology. is a measurement of frequency. MMM: Mobile Media Mode Mobile Media Mode (MMM. MMDS: Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS). or receiver. Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). such as mobile phones and two-way pagers. also marked as WWW:MMM). There is no official definition of what cell radius distinguishes a small cell from a microcell. is a marketing icon comprising a unifying industry-wide marketing symbol representing web-based mobile products and services. MIDP: Mobile Information Device Profile Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is a set of Java APIs that is generally implemented on the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC). In most cases. which occurs when a radio transmission starts out at point A and then reflects off or passes through surfaces or objects before arriving. Reception of MMDS-delivered television signals is done with a special rooftop microwave antenna and a set-top box for the television receiving the signals.MFN: Multi-Frequency Network A Multi-Frequency Network (MFN) is a type of radio network that operates several transmitters on a number of different frequencies. communicates with the Call Session Control Function (CSCF) and controls the connections for media channels in an IMS-MGW. where laying cables is not economically viable. MMDS is used usually in sparsely populated rural areas. m-law companding M-law companding is a type of non-linear (logarithmic) quantizing. MIMO technology uses multiple antennas to collect and organize signals arriving via these paths. MISO technology can be applied in areas such as Digital TeleVision (DTV). also known wireless cable. The implementation of MISO would include multiple antennas at the source. at point B. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). This type of companding uses a m factor of 255 and is optimized to provide a good signal-to-quantizing noise ratio over a wide dynamic range. and sending messages with a consistent set of protocols to connect to external devices. and the destination. used for general-purpose broadband networkings or. MISO: Multiple Input. MIN: Mobile Identification Number Mobile Identification Number (MIN) is a unique identification number given to a mobile unit. and mobile communications. See also TMSI. The MIMO technology takes advantage of a characteristic called multipath. The technology is included the 802. the system assigns temporary numbers to the handset to route calls as a security precaution. MHS: Message Handling System Message Handling System (MHS) is a general-purpose system used for receiving. has only one antenna -the antennas are combined to minimize errors and optimize data speed.

The adjective œmobile used here refers to the fact that both mobile subscriber stations and mobile relay stations are supported.16j through IEEE 802. and Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio.16j to support mobile multihop relay.16e. which describe the type of operation supported within the GPRS and the GSM mobile wireless networks. Mobile Satellite Mobile Satellite is a personal communications service that is anticipated to provide two-way voice and data communications using satellites. which has extended functionality to support MMR as defined in 802. Mobile phone network Mobile phone network is a network of cells. such as a mobile handset or computer. Mobile Data service Mobile data service is a personal communications service that is expected to provide two-way wireless communication of text. Relay stations that support a particular MMR-BS are managed by that MMR-BS. and other rich media between cell phones. Different modulation carries the information as the change from the immediately preceding state rather than the absolute state. Mobile Station Mobile Station (MS) refers generically to any mobile device. range. it must send its new address to an agent at home so that the agent can tunnel all communications to its new address timely.16a. Geographic service coverage is anticipated to be larger than most PCS services and may be worldwide. It is expected that Mobile Satellite services will offer enhanced features such as call waiting and voice mail. Personal Telecommunications Services. Modulate Modulate refers to varying the amplitude. personal digital assistants. voice messages. . a Class A MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and GSM services.frequency. When the mobile moves to a new location. 802. MMSE: Minimum Mean Squared Error Minimum mean-square error (MMSE) relates to an estimator having estimates with the minimum mean squared error possible.16e-2005. MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) allows users to send messages containing text. Mobile WiMAX Mobile WiMax refers to the technologies defined in the IEEE 802. which addresses mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax). MPE: Multi-Pulse Excited Multi-Pulse Excited (MPE) is a multi-pulse process for determining the position and amplitude of sample pulses in a speech codec. frequency or phase of a radio signal in order to transmit information. which brings together two of the world's most powerful technologies -.16e (formally known as 802. and throughput and possibly capacity of an MMRBS and to enable very low power devices to participate in the network.16 compliant mobile station through one or more relay stations. In Mobile IP. mobile satellite. Mobile WiMax allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access).16-2005). Licensed spectrum is used for relay. Mobile IP Mobile IP is the key protocol to enable mobile computing and networking. An MMR-BS is fully compliant with IEEE Standard 802. sounds. pictures.16e-2005 and has been enhanced by amendment IEEE 802.MMR: Mobile Multihop Relay Mobile Multihop Relay (MMR) refers to the concept of relaying user data and possibly control information between an MMR base station and an IEEE Standard 802. Each cell is served by a radio base station from where calls are forwarded to and received from your mobile phone by wireless radio signals. amplitude and phase. as well as networks. Mobile multihop relay is supported only for the OFDMA mode of IEEE Standard 802. MMR-BS: MMR Base Station Mobile Multihop Relay Base Station (MMR-BS) refers to a base station that is compliant with amendments IEEE 802. and potentially video messages among computers.16e-2005. MOS: Mean Opinion Score Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is a statistical rating and scoring technique used to rate the performance of telephone connections by users. and wireless modems incorporated into devices such as notebook computers. GPRS networks support three classes of mobile station. For example. Modulation Modulation refers to carring information on a signal by varying one or more of the signal's basic characteristics -. handheld phones. provides an improvement on the modulation schemes stipulated in the original (fixed) WiMAX standard. based on an existing WiMax standard 802. that is used to access network services. It is possible to establish multiple communications paths between the MMR-BS and an MS and to communicate the same user data and/or control/management information through both paths to improve communications reliability.16j. The purpose of enabling relay is to enhance coverage. Mobile data services can be provided by a number of technologies such as cellular. two IP addresses are provided for each computer: home IP address which is fixed and care-of IP address which is changing as the computer moves. and databases. adds WiMax mobility in the 2 to 6 GHz licensed bands. MMSE estimators are commonly described as optimal.the Internet and mobile communication.

MRFP is where the actual media processing resources reside. Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number. MSK: Minimum Shift Keying Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is a modulation technique using sinusoidal shaped input data pulses to drive the phase modulator. MSISDN: Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Number Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Number (MSISDN). interconnects calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies. MSAs are groups of counties in metropolitan areas having common financial. The MSC switches all calls between the mobile and the PSTN and other mobiles. The acronym MSISDN has a number of different expansions when used to refer to the value: Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number. MSAs cross state lines in some instances. The MTSO assigns frequencies to each call.of Commerce to collect economic data. MS: Mobile Station Mobile Station refers to the customer terminal including hardware and software in a wireless network. . is the brains of a cellular system. a concept in the mobile WiMAX network. etc.16-2005 subscribers. the mobile equivalent of ISDN. MTSO: Mobile Telephone Switching Office Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO). compiles billing information. However. There are three major types of MSS: AMSS (aeronautical MSS). it also has applications in telephone/fax and data communications. a computer or a switch. amongst other variants. Analogous to the left-most numeric position in a decimal number.MRFC: Multimedia Resource Function Controller Multimedia Resource Function Controller (MRFC). MSA: Metropolitan Statistical Area Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is a geographic area over which a cellular operator is licensed to provide service. LMSS (land MSS).16e-2005. Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Multichannel multipoint distribution service is a broadcasting and communications service that operates in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) portion of the radio spectrum between 2. The mixing of the various conference participants media streams is performed by the MRF (Media Resource Function) which comprises of the MRFC (Media Resource Function Controller) and the MRFP (Media Resource Function Processor). MSC: Mobile Switching Center Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is the place that provides telephony switching services and controls calls between telephone and data systems. MTA: Message Transfer Agent Message Transfer Agent (MTA) is the portion of a Message Handling System (MHS) that deals with moving messages within the Message Handling System (MHS). Every cellular system has one or more MTSOs or switches. MSO: Multi-Services Operator Multi-Services Operator (MSO) is a service provider which provides multiple services such as voice (mobile and fixed line). commercial and economic ties and were first used to license cellular service in the early '80s. The ITU-T recommendation E. Multipath Multipath is a propagation phenomenon characterized by the arrival of multiple versions of the same signal from different locations shifted in time due to having taken different transmission paths of varying lengths. An MRS may be installed in a bus or train for use by IEEE Std 802.7 GHz. is the element responsible for taking SIP requests from the Application Server (AS) and translating them to messages that control the media processing resources residing in the Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP). This results in a linear phase change over conventional QPSK. is a relay station that is intended to function while in motion. MRFP: Multimedia Resource Function Processor Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP) is a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). MSAs were first used by the Dept. MSB: Most Significant Bit Most Significant Bit (MSB). refers to the 15-digit number that is used to refer to a particular mobile station. resulting in lower side lobes and less adjacent channel interference performance. Multichannel multipoint distribution service is also known as wireless cable. MRS mobility is constrained by the same limits as an Mobile Staton (MS) in IEEE Std 802. It was conceived as a substitute for conventional cable television (TV). MRS: Mobile Relay Station Mobile Relay Station (MRS). data and vedio. is the bit having the greatest numerical value.1 and 2. in a binary coding scheme. Mobile Station ISDN Number. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).164 defines the international numbering plan that MSISDN is based on. and MMSS (maritime MSS). MSS: Mobile Satellite Service Mobile satellite services (MSS) refers to the communications satellites network for mobile and portable wireless telephones services. reassigns frequencies for hand-offs.

based on user profile. NAMPS: Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service (NAMPS) is an improved version of AMPS systems.N NACN: North American Cellular Network North American Cellular Network (NACN) is an organization of cellular providers that facilitates cellular calls across the country to be linked for seamless roaming. It is useful for site surveys. a component in the IP Multimedia Susbsystem (IMS). It is useful for site surveys. NADS: North American Digital Standards North American Digital Standards (NADS) refers to the North America cellular standards: the first generation is TDMA and has been in service since 1992. The second generation is CDMA which was accepted by the TIA2. NAMPS cellular phones are manufactured for dual mode operation. and finding and mapping WLAN installations. NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephony Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) is the common Nordic standard for analog mobile telephony as established by the telecommunications administrations in Sweden. The standard specifies a way for the devices to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network to exchange data. The third generation is CDMA2000 and more. or brought within a few centimeters of each other. based on user profile. NetStumbler NetStumbler is a freely available Windows utility for wireless LAN discovery. prior or during the IP address allocation procedure. NASS: Network Attachment Subsystem The Network Attachment Subsystem (NASS). NMC: Network Management Center Network Management Center (NMC) is an operations center used to manage network resources such as the MSC. trees. NetStumbler NetStumbler is a freely available Windows utility for wireless LAN discovery. Norway. Finland and Denmark in the early 1980s. (3) Authorisation of network access. and in the Middle East and Asia.not able to be corrected by the inner code -.48 as a standard in 1992. and they are compatible with traditional AMPS systems. ESN. on line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. (5) Location management.Multiple access Multiple access is the process of allowing multiple radio links or users to address the same radio channel on a coordinated basis. Typical multiple access technologies include FDMA. provides the following functionalities: (1) Dynamic provision of IP address and other user equipment configuration parameters (e. (4) Access network configuration. detecting rogue access points. NMT-450: Nordic Mobile Telephony . and FHMA. mountains. also known as near-line-of-sight or obstructed path/pathway. Nationwide Paging Nationwide Paging is a method of national or regional paging in which a single frequency is used throughout the nation (region) for sending messages to a paging system subscriber. and finding and mapping WLAN installations. NLOS: Non Line of Sight Non Line of Sight (NLOS). including parts of Russia. using DHCP). NFC: Near Field Communication Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity standard jointly developed by Philips and Sony that uses magnetic field induction to enable communications between devices when they're touched together. high voltage electric power lines. and. to varying degrees.450 (NMT-450) is an early cellular system developed and operated in northern Europe utilizing the 450 MHz band.g. location registers and base stations. Obstacles that commonly cause NLOS conditions include buildings. NAMPS is a cellular call-handling system that uses digital signalling techniques to split the existing 30 kHz wideband voice channels into three 10 kHz narrowband voice channels. home system ID and other information.are sufficiently spread over enough blocks as to be corrected by the outer layer. Nested codes Nested codes is a type of concatenated block code where the layers (inner and outer) are amalgamated in such a way that burst errors -. NAM: Number Assignment Module Number Assignment Module (NAM) is the programmable module in an AMPS analog phone used to contain the MIN. Many types of radio transmissions depend. NMT is operated in 450 MHz and 900 MHz bands. usually by a physical object in the Fresnel zone. detecting rogue access points.450 Nordic Mobile Telephony . Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . (2) User authentication. in some cases. . is a term used to describe radio transmission across a path that is partially obstructed. CDMA. The result is three times more voice channel capacity than the traditional AMPS system provides. hills. NMT systems have also been installed in some European countries. TDMA.

OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an FDM modulation technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a radio wave. OFDMA is an extension of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). This technique is used to convert PAM pulses to an analog signal in D/A converters. also referred to as Multiuser-OFDM. OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA).16a/d/e wireless broadband access systems (WiMAX). Okamura model Okamura model is a propagation prediction model for land-mobile communications developed by Yoshi Okamuar et al. On the other hand. . Nyquist rate Nyquist rate is the minimum sampling rate proposed by Nyquist for converting a band limited waveform to digital pulses. the less excess noise is added to the signal. OFDM works by splitting the radio signal into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies to the receiver. An NRS may rely solely on battery power in some instances.16 (WiMAX) technologies use OFDM as the physical layer communication standard. Numeric Paging or alphanumeric-paging Numeric Paging is the most widely used type of paging.Noise Noise refers to any undesirable communication channel signals.16 WiMAX.11a/g wireless LAN (WiFi) and IEEE 802. or modulating. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service).16 protocol supports five types of QoS — UGS (Unsolicited grant service). which assures that the flow receives request opportunities even during network congestion. The group is working towards a way of harmonisation between CDMA2000 and W-CDMA. The rate must be at least twice the highest frequency of interest in the waveform being sampled. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). The BSS and OSS complete the major components of the network. The caller simply calls your pager phone number and enters the number where you can reach them. is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing.11a WLAN. the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). rtPS (Real time polling Service). data. text paging allows callers to send the receiver a short message that you can act on immediately. Nyquist filter Nyquist filter is an ideal low pass filter with a cutoff frequency equal to the sampling rate. and the receiver can call the sender. a concept in the WiMAX network. The lower the noise figure. in the late 1960s. nrtPS: Non-Real-Time Polling Service Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS) is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. It is maintained by the Infrared Data Association but has also been adopted by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group and the SyncML wing of the OMA. NRZ: Non Return to Zero Non Return to Zero (NRZ) is a type of data stream where successive data pulses "ones" are continuous over several clock cycles without returning to the "zero" state between successive "ones". 802. The Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS) is designed to support non real-time service flows that require variable size Data Grant Burst Types on a regular basis. The 802. One of OBEX's earliest popular applications was in the Palm III personal digital assistant. This number appears on the receiver's pager. OHG: Operators Harmonization Group Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) is a group of industry operators established to meet on harmonization issues. NSS: Network Switching Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem is a portion of a GSM network that manages the connections and communications within the network. such as high bandwidth FTP. which is currently the modulation of choice for high speed data access systems such as IEEE 802. is a relay station that is intended to function from a location that is fixed during periods of time comparable to that of a user session. is being considered as a modulation and multiple access method for 4th generation wireless networks. NRS: Nomadic Relay Station Nomadic Relay Station (NRS).O OBEX: OBject Exchange OBject EXchange (OBEX or IrOBEX) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. Noise figure Noise figure is a figure of merit for receivers and preamplifiers representing the amount of excess noise added to the signal by the amplifier or receiving system itself. also known as HPSK. OCQPSK: Orthogonal Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Orthogonal Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OCQPSK). This PDA and its many successors use OBEX to exchange business cards. even applications. The service offers unicast polls on a regular basis. 802. An NRS is not permanently installed.

derived from the X. OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Function Orthogonal Variable Spreading Function (OVSF) is a set of spreading codes derived from tree-structured set of orthogonal codes and are used to channelize the IMT-2000/ULTRA system. which allows multiple virtual circuits to coexist on a single radio channel. Paring Paring is the process of engaging two Bluetooth devices to each other so they can communicate. OSA describes how services are architected in a UMTS network. in your office. OSA: Open System Architecture Open System Architecture (OSA) is part of the 3rd generation (3G) UMTS mobile telecommunications network. conferencing and many more unknown services can be implemented with the help of these APIs.25 data link layer protocol. PAM: Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is a form of signal modulation in which the data is encoded in the amplitude of a series. Packet radio networks use the AX. Packet Radio Packet radio is a form of digital data transmission used in amateur radio to construct wireless computer networks. and even in your car.OMA: Open Mobile Alliance Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is the leading industry forum for developing market-driven. The OSA provides APIs to access the network functions like authentication and authorization of the user. Parabolic antennas offer the highest gain for long-range point-to-point situations. . device and network suppliers. independent of vendor specific solutions and also independent of programming language by use of Object Oriented techniques like CORBA. Panel antennas are commonly used for point-to-point situations. Its name is a reference to the use of packet switching between network nodes. Paging Paging refers to deliver a message to someone when their location is unknown through a wireless device usually known as a pager. PAM is used less frequently than PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation).P Q PA: Power Amplifier Power Amplifier (PA) is a device for taking a low or intermediate-level signal and significantly boosting its power level. is a type of QPSK modulation that offsets the bit streams on the I and Q channels by a half bit. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . sometimes called Staggered QPSK (SQPSK). The APIs are guaranteed to be secure. A power amplifier is usually the final stage of amplification in a transmitter. The standards for OSA are being developed as part of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). information technology companies and content and service providers. or switching transients. In other words. or train. For example. by nearly 200 companies including the world’s leading mobile operators. 2002. Various services like VPN. This reduces amplitude fluctuations and helps improve spectral efficiency.25 protocol suite and designed for amateur radio use. Panel Antenna Panel Antenna is an antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. using OQPSK increases the temporal efficiency of normal QPSK. You may also see them called "patch antennas. PAN: Personal Area Network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communications among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person within a few meters. PAN allows devices to work together and share information and services. Using Bluetooth wireless technology. The fact that the whole value chain is represented in OMA marks a change in the way specifications for mobile services are done. Personal Area Networks can be created in public places. ORFS: Output Radio Frequency Spectrum Output Radio Frequency Spectrum (ORFS) is a measurement for GSM signals that tests for interference in the adjacent frequency channels (ARFCNs) and results from two effects: modulation within the bursts and the power that ramps up and down. OMC: Operations & Maintenance Center Operations & Maintenance Center (OMC) is a location used to operate and maintain a wireless network. OMA was formed in June." Parabolic Antenna Parabolic Antenna is an antenna type that radiates a very narrow beam in a specific direction. in your home. tetherless devices--working and communicating together. PACS: Personal Access Communications System Personal Access Communications System (PACS) is a low mobility low power wireless system designed for residential use. ORFS is a critical GSM transmitter measurement. interoperable mobile service enablers. of regularly recurrent signal pulses. This network enables everyday devices to become smart. OQPSK: Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK). it offers the ability to wirelessly synchronize with your desktop to access your e-mail and Internet/intranet from remote locations. SOAP etc.

PDCP also provides protocol control information compression. It is used in Europe and Asia Pacific. low-powered handsets. The term is often used interchangeably with PIM (personal information manager). The allocation of channels between voice and data is controlled by the base station. SMR. providing protocol transparency for higher-layer protocols. and technical standards in this industry. Certain electromagnetic frequencies (very high and non-commercial) are completely blocked or filtered by the atmosphere. PCIA: Personal Communications Industry Association Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA) is a trade group representing PCS. PDC: Personal Digital Cellular Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a TDMA-based 2G mobile phone standard developed and used exclusively in Japan. in-building wireless LAN service for business. handheld wireless device for transmitting pages.e. It performs some of the processing tasks of the Base Station Controller (BSC). 3 time slots. PDA: Personal Digital Assistant Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is a small. . This loss occurs because the atmosphere provides a filtering effect to the signal. Partial Response Signalling Partial Response Signalling is a signalling technique in which a controlled amount of intersymbol interference is introduced at the transmitter to shape the transmitted spectrum. Power loss that occurs when RF waves are transmitted through the air. PCS: Personal Communication Service Personal Communication Service (PCS) describes a wide variety of two-way digital wireless service offerings in North America operating at 1900 MHz. The 3Com PalmPilot is an example of a PDA or PIM. faxes and e-mails. PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) has defined a standardized technology used to develop a expansion for portable devices (i. it can be at the SGSN site. The PCU can be built into the base station. and 1. PCIA: Personal Communications Industry Association Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA) is an international trade association representing the personal communications services (PCS). inexpensive walk-around communications service with lightweight. Passphrase Passphrase. used primarily to notify the mobile that it has an incoming call. PCS services include next generation wireless phone and communication services. the PCU takes full control over that channel. PCN: Personal Communications Network Personal Communications Network (PCN) is a standard for digital mobile phone transmissions operating at a frequency of 1800 MHz (also referred to as GSM 1800).2 kbit/s and 5. also called password. giving you access to schedules and contact lists.Parity Parity is a simple error detection scheme. legislation. in-building cordless voice services for business. uplink 893-958 MHz). private radio and other wireless users and carriers. cdma2000. is the words you must enter to authenticate both sides of the connection when pairing Bluetooth devices. PCH: Paging Channel Paging Channel (PCH). PDC is implemented in the 800 MHz (downlink 810-888 MHz. private radio and other wireless users and carriers. and W-CDMA systems used to send messages to mobile station. The method usually involves counting the '1' bits in a codeword and then setting an additional bit to either '1' or '0' depending on whether the original number of '1' bits was even or odd. pi/4-DQPSK modulation and low bit-rate 11.6 kbit/s (half-rate) voice codecs. PDC uses 25 kHz carrier. uplink 1429-1453 MHz) bands. More generically. wireless local loop. but for packet data. PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) is used in UMTS 3G network to map higher-level protocol characteristics onto the characteristics of the underlying radio-interface protocols. notebooks) In paging these credit card sized devices support wireless connectivity. PCM: Pulse Code Modulation Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is the most predominant type of digital modulation in use today. enhanced paging service as well as wireless services integrated with wired networks. is a logical channel in GSM. It also acts as an electronic organizer.5 GHz (downlink 1477-1501 MHz. but once a channel is allocated to the PCU. built into the BSC. you may see passphrase used in place of "password" to indicate that you can enter more than a single word. The air interface is defined in RCR STD-27 and the core network MAP by JJ-70. Its primary objective is to advance regulatory policies. Path loss Path loss is the amount of loss introduced by the propagation environment between a transmitter and receiver. PCM performs an analog to digital conversion of the speech waveform through a sampling process and encodes and transmits the samples in a serial bit stream as 8bit digital words. data messages. PCU: Packet Control Unit The Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard.10. A Personal Communications System refers to the hardware and software that provide communications services.. or even in some proposed architectures.

PHS: Personal HandyPhone System Personal HandyPhone System (PHS) was developed in Japan as a cordless telecommunication system operating within the band 1895MHz to 1918MHz. The Personal Handyphone also handles voice. Peak power Peak power is the maximum instantaneous power radiated by a pulsed or bursted transmitter. flexible range of internal frequency dividers which allow the designer the ability to create a synthesizer to match design requirements. PFS: Proportional Fair Scheduling Proportional Fair Scheduling (PFS) is a scheme for wireless communication for both a single antenna system and multiple transmit and receive antennas. . Security. Billing etc. PLMN: Public Land-Mobile Network Public Land-Mobile Network (PLMN) is a European term used to describe all mobile wireless networks that use earth-based stations rather than satellites. This device provides a wide. It is more efficient in terms of the number of bytes transmitted and the size of the generated encoder and decoder. typically due to imperfections in the clock recovery timing. PIN: Personal Identification Number Personal Identification Number (PIN) is a code used for all GSM-based phones to establish authorization for access to certain functions or information. PLL: Phase Locked Loop Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is a major component in the frequency synthesizer scheme. Phase jitter Phase jitter is the amount of uncertainty introduced in digital demodulation caused by the rapid fluctuation of the frequency of the transmitted signal. PHP: Personal Handy Phone Personal Handy Phone (PHP) is the mobile handset used with the Japanese Personal Handy Phone system. R is the average data rate of this station. It allows the mobile stations to acquire the timing of the forward channel. It is the power radiated while the transmitter is keyed or operated. QoS (Quality of Service).PDF: Probability Density Function In mathematics. a probability density function (pdf) represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. Informally. where T denotes the data rate potentially achievable for the station at the present moment (in the present time slot). and video signals. Parameters α and β tune the fairness of the scheduler. serves as a phase reference for demodulation. PER: Packed Encoding Rules Packed Encoding Rules (PER) is a set of rules that specifies how ASN. controls traffic entering the packet-switched network by allocating or denying IP bearer resources. phase is the current position in the cycle of something that changes cyclically. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). fax. The PIN code is delivered together with your subscription.1-defined information is encoded when transmitted. Phase Generally speaking. Physical channel Physical channel is the actual radio channel that carries the various logical and traffic channels in a wireless system. and how it is decoded when received. The Proportional Fair algorithm is an algorithm that schedules the channel for the station that has the maximum of the priority function. is it fair to all stations giving them equal bandwidth or is the scheduler maximizing the throughput of the channel. PDP Context Packet data protocol (PDP) context is a term used in the mobile wireless network indicating a logical association between an MS (Mobile Station) and PDN (Public Data Network) running across a GPRS network. Pilot code Pilot code is a logical channel in a CDMA system characterized by an unmodulated direct sequence spread-spectrum signal continuously monitored by each base station. PDF: Policy Decision Function Policy Decision Function (PDF). a probability density function can be seen as a "smoothed out" version of a histogram: if one empirically measures values of a continuous random variable repeatedly and produces a histogram depicting relative frequencies of output ranges. that is. The context defines aspects such as Routing. Pico cell Pico cell is a very small cell in a mobile network for boosting capacity within buildings. then this histogram will resemble the random variable's probability density. PER is a successor to the Basic Encoding Rules (BER). and allows the mobile to search out the best (strongest) base stations for acquisition and handoff. Pilot pollution Pilot pollution is a type of co-channel interference in CDMA systems caused when the pilot code from a distant cell or base station is powerful enough to create an interference problem. PHS is a lightweight portable wireless telephone that functions as a cordless phone at home and as a mobile phone elsewhere. PLMN is the mobile equivalent of the PSTN.

The POCSAG code can be operated at three speeds. PMR: Private Mobile Radio Private Mobile Radio (PMR) is for use within a defined user group such as the emergency services or by the employees of a mining project. provided by the spreading code in a CDMA system. horizontal and vertical. the other(s) listen. Power control is used in nearly all wireless systems to manage interference. Power control Power control is a technique for managing the transmit power in base stations and mobiles to a minimum level needed for proper performance. Propagation Propagation is the process an electromagnetic wave undergoes as it is radiated from the antenna and spreads out across the physical terrain. is a group formed by the British Post Office to design a non-proprietary digital paging code. PRMA: Packet Reservation Multiple Access Packet Reservation Multiple Access (PRMA) is a packet-based TDMA concept where the users contend for the time slots. PSD.e. Push to talk calls are half duplex communications -. Propagation channel Propagation channel is the physical medium electromagnetic wave propagation between the transmit and receive antennas. There are proprietary implementations. describes how the power (or variance) of a time series is distributed with frequency. the total power can be calculated. PoC: Push to Talk over Cellular Push To Talk Over Cellular (PoC) is a walkie-talkie type service provided over a cellular phone network. A push to talk over a cellular system typically supports telephony services. are used to provide diversity reception. The power spectral density. A push-to-talk connection is typically connected virtually instantaneously.while one person speaks. In situations where the system is not near capacity. The application is designed to streamline the flow to the PDA to minimize the number of kilobytes sent and ultimately paid for. Polarization diversity Polarization diversity is a diversity technique where antennas of different polarizations. to extend battery life. also known as RPC1 (a CCIR standard taken directly from POCSAG). . is a digital signal having framing information and using pseudo-noise in the individual traffic channels. usually the ratio of the spreading rate to the information rate. and includes everything that influences the propagation between the two antennas. is a signal similar to noise which satisfies one or more of the standard tests for statistical randomness. and in the case of mobiles. a user can reserve a time slot for future uses. PNCQPSK is used in 3G mobile wireless technologies.. Processing gain Processing gain is the amount of gain. A single press reaches an active talk group. also known as pseudorandom noise (PRN). commonly used to performance test PCM systems. POCSAG is gradually being replaced by FLEX. PN: Pseudo-Noise Pseudo-Noise (PN). in dB. PQA: Palm Query Applications Palm Query Applications (PQA) is an Internet clipping application developed from HTML code and run on Palm PDAs. 512. PSK: Phase Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is a broad classification of modulation techniques where the information to be transmitted is contained in the phase of the carrier wave. pseudorandom noise consists of a deterministic sequence of pulses that will repeat itself after its period. PSD: Power spectral density Power spectral density (PSD) refers to the amount of power per unit (density) of frequency (spectral) as a function of the frequency.Phase Modulation Phase Modulation (PM) is the scheme of modulation that the phase of the carrier signal is modulated in accordance with the message signal PMP: Paging Message Processor Paging Message Processor (PMP) is a Radio Paging Terminal or equivalent message processing system. i. Users no longer need to make several calls to coordinate with a group. Downlink power control applies to base stations and uplink power control to mobiles. The antennas take advantage of the multipath propagation characteristics to receive separate uncorrelated signals. POCSAG: Post Office Code Standard Advisory Group Post Office Code Standard Advisory Group (POCSAG). The code that they designed is now implemented by most pager manufacturers and is the most widely used code to date. Although it seems to lack any definite pattern. PRBS: Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS). and 2400 bits per second. 1200. PNCQPSK: Pseudo-Noise Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Pseudo-Noise Complex Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (PNCQPSK) is the spreading technique that uses basic complex scrambling and Pseudo-Noise (PN) signals for Is and Qs. and the Open Mobile Alliance defines standards for PoC. By knowing the power spectral density and system bandwidth. See also propagation channel.

Use of FUSC. Originally as a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems. the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). QCIF consumes less memory while still achieving an acceptable level of clarity on small displays such as those incorporated in mobile phones. Although resolution is courser than CIF. RACE:Research in Advanced Communications Equipment Research in Advanced Communications Equipment (RACE) is an ETSI research project that has subsequently been replaced by ACTS. Sometimes known as quaternary or quadriphase PSK or 4-PSK. shown in the diagram with Gray coding to minimize the BER. PUSC: Partially Used Sub-Carrier Partially Used Sub-Carrier (PUSC). A processor in the access terminal may determine whether the access terminal is in an idle mode. Telecommunications&Telegraph (PTT) is typically the Ministry of Post. therefore. However. The processor. Quantizing Quantizing is the process of assigning values to waveform samples by comparing the samples to discrete steps. Specifically for QAM. sometimes called Partially Used Sub-Channel. or modulating. It is also a term to describe the incumbent. The RAB may be compared to a threshold to determine a mode of reverse link data rate determination. the amplitude of two waves. radio is generally refered to as electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are between 10 kHz and 300 GHz.PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched telephone networks. Telecommunications&Telegraph Post. QPSK uses four points on the constellation diagram. . Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .16d (Fixied WiMAX) for the OFDMA PHY layer. many of which are being or have been privatized.16e (Mobile WiMAX) uses the same OFDMA sub-channelization structure and its extension to address mobility has retained the OFDMA concept for FUSC (Fully Used Sub-carrier) and PUSC. Radio Radio is the electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are below 3. RACH: Random Access Channel Random Access Channel (RACH) is the channel used by mobiles in GSM and W-CDMA systems to gain access to the system when first attaching to it. The mode defines a set of criteria for an aggressiveness level of increasing or decreasing the reverse link communication data rate. determines the data rate based on the filtered reverse activity bit in accordance with the determined mode. was first defined in the IEEE802. QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is a type of modulation where the signalling information is carried in the phase and amplitude of the modulated carrier wave. Telecommunications and Telegraph. QCIF: Quarter CIF Quarter CIF (QCIF) is a video image format which employs 176 horizontal pixels and 144 vertical lines. This is extremely useful with long codes. also known as V-Band. QPSK can encode two bits per symbol. Punctured code Punctured code is a technique used in convolutional decoders that allows a limited number of coded bits to be deleted to greatly simplify processing in the codec. equispaced around a circle.R RAB: Reverse-Link Activity Bit Reverse-Link Activity Bit (RAB) is for determining the data rate of a reverse link communication of a mobile communication system. is a radio bandwidth range between 40 GHz t0 50 GHz. providing commercial telephony services. 90 degrees out-of-phase with each other (in quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data signal. dominant operator in a country. Basically. the IEEE802. mainly in the DownLink. PTT: Post. in practice.000 GHz as defined in Article 2 of the Radio Law in general. and passing a non-busy state value of the RAB to the digital filter when the access terminal is in the idle mode. Quadrature-Phase The quadrature phase channel in a phase shift keyed system having more that 2 phase states. QPSK: Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing. in which each combination of phase and amplitude represents one of sixteen four-bit patterns. Q-Band Q-Band. With four phases. the PSTN is now almost entirely digital and includes mobile as well as fixed telephones. and PUSC in both DL and UL as defined in 16d or 16e with Reuse 1 will endow the WRAN system with the needed capability and flexibility to configure the WRAN in different scenarios with manageable interference among the Base Stations where different Service Providers may deploy the system in the same region using the same free TV channel.

Reflection Reflection is a process that occurs when a propagating electromagnetic wave impinges upon a obstruction whose dimensions are . REAGs are a group of economic areas (EAs) and were first used to license WCS service in the late 1990s.8. and 153. (5) High-speed modems such as ADSL. and 1.7. an replacement of Emergency Braodcast System. RC3 also operates at SR1.6 or 14. and Quality of Service (QoS) management for data and Web connections. in effect using "time diversity" to overcome deep fades.2 kbps data rates and operates at Spread Rate 1 (SR1). Each RC specifies a set of data rates based on either 9. Rake receiver Rake receiver is a radio receiver having multiple "fingers" and utilizing off-sets of a common spreading code to receive and combine several multipath (time delayed) signals. Reed Solomon code Reed-Solomon codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. transparent connection to the public switched telephone network and the Internet. Rayleigh channel Rayleigh channel is a communications channel having a fading envelope in the form of the Rayleigh Probability Density Function. etc) (3) Satellite communications. It includes the transmitting system. defined in the IS-136. RC1 is the backwards-compatible mode of cdmaOne for 9.2. It includes 9. while supporting data at 19. RCC: Radio Common Carrier Radio Common Carrier (RCC) refers to a service provider for public mobile service. Radio propagation Radio propagation refers to the electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies as they radiate from a transmitting antenna. including high-speed mobile access to the Internet. RBDS: Radio Broadcast Data System Radio Broadcast Data System (RBDC). RAN: Radio Access Network Radio Access Network (RAN) is the ground-based infrastructure required for delivery of third-generation (3G) wireless communications services. RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) is the Radio Network Layer signaling protocol used in a UMTS system on the Iu interface. cDSL. Reed-Solomon codes are used to correct errors in many systems including: (1) Storage devices (including tape. DVD.8. Random access Random access is a technique for radio access to a network where an access message is not coordinated or administered by the network and can collide with other attempts by others to access the network over the same channel. microwave links. including access. Receiver Receiver is a device on a transmission path which converts the signals as received from the transmission system into the signals required by the destination equipment. with 6 REAGs covering the entire continental United States. RDCCH: Reverse Digital Control Channel Reverse Digital Control CHannel (RDCCH).6 kbps that also supports 4. (4) Digital television / DVB. Receive diversity Receive diversity is the process of providing two independent receiving systems and spatially separated antennas to overcome fading effects on the radio signal. the propagation channel and receiving system.6. etc) (2) Wireless or mobile communications (including cellular telephones. Compact Disk.6 kbps. It is responsible for functions including the setting up of a RAB (Radio Access Bearer) between the CN (Core Network) and the RNC (Radio Network Controller). REAGs are very large. 76.Radio link Radio link refers to the equipment and transmission path (propagation channel) used to carry on communications. allows radio stations to send text messages. RDCCH works together with FDCCH which provides the downstream signaling and control information in such a system. 38.4. Rayleigh fading Rayleigh fading is a type of signal fading caused by independent multipath signals having a Rayleigh PDF. REAG Region REAG Region is a geographic area over which a WCS operator is licensed to provide service. roaming. 2.6 kbps voice traffic. etc. RC3 is a cdma2000 specific configuration based on 9.4. The RAN must be able to manage a wide range of tasks for each 3G user. 4. is for the upstream signaling and control information from user equipment to cell site in a TDMA-based system. Radio port Radio port is a unit that supports transmission of signals over the air interface.4 kbps. barcodes. 2.5 kbps for voice. such as emergency warning and traffic alerts to radios installed with special display screens. 1.8. RC: Radio Configuration Radio Configuration (RC) defines the physical channel configuration of cdma2000 (IS-2000) signals.

RFID uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a transponder (tag) at distances ranging from one inch to 100 feet. is the link from a mobile user to a fixed base station. and vice versa. Active hubs are repeaters. is the number of distinct frequency sets used per cluster of cells. RFCOMM is sometimes called Serial Port Emulation. radio frequency is below 3.very large when compared to the wavelength. ReFLEX ReFLEX is a two-way paging protocols developed by Motorola for enhanced paging services. In Wi-Fi. It is used to model the mobile radio propagation. providing emulated RS232 serial ports (up to sixty simultaneous connections of a bluetooth device at a time). The government (FCC) provides licenses to ensure maximum competition in a free market and spectral efficiency. This fading characteristic exhibits a Rician PDF (Probability Density Function).400 bits per second in a 25 kHz channel and 12. Radio frequencies can be used for communications between a mobile telephone and an antenna mast. also known as relay access points. but active RFID chips do. in mobile wireless. RLC: Radio Link Control Radio Link Control (RLC) is a link-layer protocol that is responsible for error recovery and flow control in 3G (UMTS) cellular .800 bits per second in a 50 kHz channel. is a type of network device that regenerates incoming electrical. and they increasingly serve as electronic keys for everything from autos to secure facilities. Rician fading Rician fading is a type of signal fading having a characteristic similar to the Rician PDF (Probability Density Function). also known as frequency reuse factor. RFCOMM: Radio Frequency Communication Radio Frequency Communication (RFCOMM) is a Bluetooth protocol which is a simple set of transport protocols. Reflections from the surface of the earth and from buildings or walls produce reflected waves which may interfere. RF License: Radio Frequency License Radio Frequency (RF) License is the purchased right to transmit RF waves over a given BTA for typically periods of 10 years. RFID: Radio frequency identification Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a system for tagging and identifying mobile objects such as store merchandise. RFID chips may be attached to objects. Reuse factor Reuse factor. according to the Article 2 of th Radio Law. These chips feature an antenna to transmit and receive radio signals. manage inventory and authorize payments. The Rician PDF reduces to the Rayleigh PDF for the special case when s = 0. the reverse link will consist of both an uplink (mobile station to satellite) and a downlink (satellite to base station). the reverse link. Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel.constructively or destructively at the receiver. The license tightly governs the design parameters of an RF system and its use. With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi. RF licenses typically are purchased from the government (FCC in the US) on an auction basis. Rician PDF Rician PDF is a type of signal fading caused by independent multipath signals. ReFLEX 25 supports outbound transfer rates of up to 6. or in the case of some passive RFID systems. Reverse link In radio communications." In moble wireless. Registration Registration. wireless or optical signals. If the link includes a communications relay satellite. Remote access points connect to a master access point. postal packages and sometimes living organisms (like pets). is the process by which a mobile station informs the immediate service provider of its presence in the network and its desire to receive service. RFI: Radio Frequency Interference Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) refers to the noise caused by other Radio Frequency that interferes with information being transmitted across unshielded copper cable. repeater receives radio signals from the base station and then amplified and retransmitted to areas where radio shadow occurs. injected into objects. also known as network repeater.000 GHz. which is another way of stating efficient use of the RF spectrum. RFID tags are used to track assets. RF: Radio Frequency Radio Frequency generally refers to wireless communications with frequencies below 300 GHz. is one of a number of secondary access points in a wireless network that uses Wireless Distribution System (WDS) to extend its range. Remote Access Point Remote Access Point. access points function as repeaters when operating in so-called "repeater mode. So-called passive RFID chips do not have a power source. also known as return link. The Bluetooth Serial Port Profile is based on this protocol. RFID works using small (sometimes smaller than a fingernail) pieces of hardware called RFID chips. data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades. Formally. Rician channel Rician channel is a transmission channel that may have a line-of-sight component and several scattered of multipath components. Repeater Repeater.

Compared with its counterpart developed for CDMA-2000 systems. Rogue Access Point Rogue Access Point is an unauthorized access point installed on a network that may provide an entry point for unauthorized network access. handling all processes without priority. There are three types of RNCs: C-RNC (Controlling RNC). which aids the Access Point in determining the rate at which the reverse link is sending data. RRS: Round Robin Scheduling Round Robin Scheduling (RRS) is a scheduling scheme used in wireless network. RRD: RF Receiving Device RF Receiving Device (RRD) receives over the air data and forwards it to the mobile computer. RRC exists in the control plane only and provides information transfer service to the NAS (Non Access Stratum). that is to say. RRC: Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Control (RRC) is a sublayer of Layer 3 on the UMTS 3G radio interface. some of the mobility management functions and is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to and from the mobile. Cellular networks such as GSM and CDMA use different variations of RLP. RPC reduces unnecessary power consumption in the WLL system and improves the reliability of the communication system. RLP: Radio Link Protocol Radio Link Protocol (RLP) is a link layer protocol used for 2G (GSM and cdmaOne) and CDMA-2000 (3G) network-based error corrections to ensure robust data transmission. the public telephone network will route the call to your service provider's network since that is where your phone number terminates. and starvation-free. indicating the rate at which the data was sent. RSAs cross state lines in some instances and were developed during a public rule making process at the FCC in 1987 and 1988. RLC is a more advanced protocol and can support different QoS requirements desired by the users.e. Radio Link Protocol (RLP). Roundrobin is one of the simplest scheduling algorithms for processes in an operating system. Round-robin scheduling is both simple and easy to implement. is a station with the following functions: (1) to relay user data and possibly control information between other stations. The RRI is included as the preamble for reverse link frames.. which assigns time slices to each process in equal portions and in order. Since many stations share one channel in a wireless network. a concept in the mobile wireless network. such as network scheduling. RPE-LTP: Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term Prediction Regular Pulse Excited Long Term Prediction (RPELTP) is a type of speech coding using regularly spaced pulses in an excitation frame and a long-term predictor to model the fine structure (pitch). Round-robin scheduling can also be applied to other scheduling problems. this algorithm provides every station to transmit or receive on the shared channel at a regular interval. commercial and economic ties and were used to license cellular services together in the latter 1980s. RS: Relay Station Relay Station (RS). in which the number of times of power control value transmission is reduced to 1. When a call is made to a roaming mobile.. RLP terminates at the Mobile Station (MS) and the Interworking Function (IMF) generally located at the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). i.16j for the WiMAX network. Roaming Roaming refers to the movement of a mobile device from one wireless network location to another without interruption in service or loss in connectivity. RNC: Radio Network Controller The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is the governing element in the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) responsible for control of the Node Base Stations (BS). RSSI: Relative Signal Strength Indicator Relative Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a measurement of radia signals at the point in which they are received and measured. a concept defined in the IEEE 802. RTG: Receive/transmit Transition Gap Receive/transmit Transition Gap (RTG). RRC is responsible for controlling the configuration of UMTS radio interface Layers 1 and 2. All RSs are managed by an MMR-BS. The RNC carries out radio resource management. RPC: Reverse Power Control Reverse Power Control (RPC) is a method for a Wireless Local Loop (WLL). RSA: Rural Service Area Rural Service Area (RSA) is a geographic area in the US over which a cellular operator is licensed to provide service. The RNC connects to the Circuit Switched Core Network through Media Gateway (MGW) and to the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) in the Packet Switched Core Network. but they may have some control of relay functions within their neighborhood. the base stations which are connected to the controller. RRI: Reverse Rate Indicator Reverse Rate Indicator (RRI) is a parameter in a 3G wireless network provided by the reverse link. Your home network is then responsible for re-routing the call to the host network. D-RNC (Drift RNC) and S-RNC (Serving RNC). is a gap between the last sample of the uplink burst and the first sample of the subsequent downlink burst at the antenna port of the BS in a time division duplex (TDD) . RSAs are a group of rural counties having common financial.systems. and (2) to execute processes that indirectly support mobile multihop relay.

Satellite offers less network bandwidth compared to DSL or cable. the BS is not transmitting modulated data but simply allowing the BS transmitter carrier to ramp up. The SACCH can also be used to transfer Short Message Service (SMS) messages if associated with a traffic channel. but SALT includes multi-modal capabilities for inputting and outputting data. making speech and traditional data I/O more interchangeable. but can also be used to describe the carrier wave. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). SALT: Speech Application Language Tags The Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) specification largely overlaps the VoiceXML specification and both are under review by the same W3C working group. or broadcast capability. This service requires more request overhead than UGS. which allows cellular operators to deliver information such as stock prices. In addition. The SACCH is associated with either a traffic or dedicated channel. which meet the flow’s real-time needs and allow the SS to specify the size of the desired grant. traffic information. and the transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) antenna switch to actuate. such as MPEG video. causing a sluggish performance experience in some cases. long propagation delays. The 802. The term is usually applied to lower frequency signals. amateur radio communications. and the Global Positioning System. but is designed for networks other than GSM such as CDMA. Both specifications share some common functionality. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . Satellite communications offer high bandwidth and a cost that is not related to distance between earth stations. See also carrier-tointerference ratio. SABP: Service Area Broadcast Protocol Service Area Broadcast Protocol (SABP) is a 3G UMTS protocol for information broadcasting services. The SAT tone is used to determine channel continuity. Internet communications. nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service). During this gap. the long delays required to transmit data between the satellite and the ground stations tend to create high network latency. such as voice waveforms. The service offers real-time. They are used for such diverse purposes as weather forecasting. SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) is a GSM signalling channel that provides a relatively slow signalling connection. Sampling Sampling is the process performed in the conversion of analog waveforms to a digital format. periodic. unicast request opportunities. Network applications like VOIP. also known as UIM. Satellite Communication Satellite Communication refers to the use of orbiting satellites to relay data between multiple earth-based stations. but supports variable grant sizes for optimum data transport efficiency. however. Satellite Internet service covers areas where DSL and cable access is unavailable. Satellite Internet Satellite Internet refers to utilize telecommunications satellites in Earth orbit to provide Internet access to consumers. The Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS) is designed to support real-time service flows that generate variable size data packets on a periodic basis. S/N: Signal-To-Noise Ratio Signal-To-Noise Ratio (S/N) is a measure of the power of a signal versus noise. weather reports and emergency alerts to mobile users within selected cells of the network.16 WiMAX. A higher ratio means that there is more signal relative to noise. SAT: Set-up Audio Tone Set-up Audio Tone (SAT) is an audio tone in the 6 kHz range added to the downlink or forward channel in analog cellular systems. This gap allows time for the base station (BS) to switch from receive to transmit mode. . television broadcast.S S/I: Signal-to-interference ratio Signal-to-interference ratio (S/I) is the ratio of power in a signal to the interference power in the channel. The mobile detects and returns the tone. Satellite A satellite is a specialized wireless receiver/transmitter that is launched by a rocket and placed in orbit around the earth. R-UIM cards support roaming between CDMA and GSM networks. rtPS (Real time polling Service).transceiver. It converts a continuous time signal into a discrete time signal or sequence of numbers. rtPS: Real-Time Polling Service Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS) is one of the five QOS service types defined in the IEEE 802. and only one SAT tone is usually assigned to a base station or sector. VPN and online gaming may not function properly over satellite Internet connections due to these latency issues. is similar to a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).16 protocol supports five types of QoS: UGS (Unsolicited grant service). R-UIM: Removable User Identity Module Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM).

Spreading factors vary from 4 to 512 in FDD UMTS. SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access Space Division (or Diversity) Multiple Access (SDMA). Analogue FM and AM radio broadcast networks as well as digital broadcast networks can operate in this manner. The protocol defines how client can search for a service based on specific attributes without the client knowing anything of the available services. The SDP defines how a Bluetooth client’s application shell acts to discover available Bluetooth servers’ services and their characteristics. SCH is used in GSM. cdma2000. Multiple sector antennas are commonly used in pointto-multipoint situations. Spreading factor in dBs indicates the process gain. Sector Antenna Sector Antenna is an antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. Such systems have the ability of providing service to the oceans and other remote areas of the globe. the Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). employs spot beam antennas to reuse frequencies by pointing the antenna beams using the same frequency in different directions. SFN: Single Frequency Network A single-frequency network (SFN) is a broadcast network where several transmitters simultaneosly send the same signal over the same frequency channel. SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is the node which. and W-CDMA systems SDCCH: Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) is used in the GSM system to provide a reliable connection for signalling and Short Message Service (SMS) messages. The aim of SFNs is efficient utilization of the radio spectrum. An SFN may also increase the coverage area and decrease the outage probability in comparison to an MFN since the total received signal strength may increase to positions midway between the transmitters. an SGSN is actually considerably more complex since it also does the full set of interworking with the connected radio network. The SDP provides means for discovery of new services becoming available when the client enters an area where a Bluetooth server is operating. and most wireless systems use three sector cells. carries out the same function as the Local Agent in Mobile IP. also known as multiple beam frequency reuse. radio ports and control channels. However. . The SDP also provides functionality for detecting when a service is no longer available. provides signaling conversion (in both directions) between Signaling System 7 (SS7) and IP networks. Shadow fading Shadow fading is a phenomenon that occurs when a mobile moves behind an obstruction and experiences a significant reduction in signal power. This means that the functions carried out by the SGSN vary quite considerably between GSM and UMTS. When hopping is coordinated with other elements in the network. Sector Sector is a coverage area associated with a base station having its own antennas. also known as Bluetooth SDP. SFHMA: Slow Frequency Hopped Multiple Access Slow Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (SFHMA) is a spread-spectrum system where the hop (dwell) time is much greater the information symbol period.Satellite phone Satellite phone is a type of wireless mobile telecommunications system using satellites as base stations. Scattering Scattering is a phenomenon that occurs when the medium through which a radio wave travels consists of objects with dimensions small compared to the wavelength and diffuses the wave as it propagates through it. The concept of sectors was developed to improve co-channel interference in cellular systems. allowing a higher number of radio and TV programs in comparison to traditional multi-frequency network (MFN) transmission. SF: Spreading Factor The Spreading Factor (SF) is the ratio of the chips to baseband information rate. The lower the spreading factor the higher the data rate. SCCH: Signaling Control Channel Signaling Control Channel (SCCH) is a logical channel used in the PDC system to convey signalling information between the mobile and the network. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem. SCH: Synchronization Channel Synchronization Channel (SCH) is a logical channel used by mobile stations to achieve time synchronization with the network. SGF: Signaling Gateway Function Signaling Gateway Function (SGF). The Slow Associated Control Channel(SACCH) is used to support this channel. Service area Service area is the specified area over which the operator of a wireless communications network or system provides services. the multiple access interference in the network is greatly reduced. SDP: Service Discovery Protocol In the Bluetooth protocol stack. provides special means for applications in the Bluetooth environment to discover which services are available and to determine the characteristics of those available services. in some sense.

and shortwave radio operators at frequencies below 30 MHz since the First World War. typically by vibration. Simulcast Simulcast refers to broadcasting a message over multiple transmitters throughout a geographical region at precisely the same time. connectors. Signal Booster Signal Booster compensates for loss of effect (weakening of the signal in the coaxial cable) between the outer antenna and the phone. Silent Alert Silent Alert is the non-audible signal in a beeper. Slotted ALOHA Slotted ALOHA is an access technique synchronizing the transmitters to time-slots in the channel and having the transmitter wait until the next available slot to send its packet. hold addresses and take voice mail and can also access information on the Internet and send and receive e-mail and fax transmissions.SHF: Super High Frequency Super High Frequency (SHF) is the RF spectrum between 3 GHz and 30 GHz. locates the database containing subscriber data in response to queries from the I-CSCF (Interrogating-Call Session Control Functions) or application server (AS). an e-mailbox and an Internet browser into a handheld information device with rapid data-transfer capability. and free space. Smart phones can handle wireless phone calls. which discretely notifies individuals of incoming pages. a component in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). SLF: Subscription Locator Function Subscription Locator Function (SLF). The other forms of smart antenna technology include Single Input Single Output(SISO). SM: Spatial Multiplexing Spatial Multiplexing (SM) is a transmission technology developed by Stanford University and Iospan Wireless in California exploiting multiple antennas at both the BS and CPE to dramatically increase the bit rate in a wireless radio link with no additional power or bandwidth consumption. known as diversity reception. Slow fading Slow fading is a long-term fading effect changing the mean value of the received signal. combining their results for better effect. It can apply to both incoming and outgoing signals. amateur. Under certain conditions. Signal Diversity Signal Diversity is a process by which two small dipole antennas are used to send and receive. Slow fading is usually associated with moving away from the transmitter and experiencing the expected reduction in signal strength. SIM: Subscriber Identity Module Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) is a component of a Mobile System (MS) in a GSM network that contains all the subscriber information. Signal loss is measured in decibels. Signal loss Signal loss is the amount of signal strength that's lost in antenna cable. SiGe: Silicon-Germanium Technology Silicon-Germanium Technology (SiGe) makes it possible to design complex chips that integrate the functions of a cellular telephone. has been used by military. An early form of SIMO. Smart phone Smart phone is a wireless phone with text and Internet capabilities. Site survey Site survey is a survey conducted at the location for a new WLAN in an effort to avoid what could be time-consuming and costly problems down the road. commercial. SMATV: Satellite Master Antenna Television Satellite Master Antenna Television (SMATV) refers to the transmission of television programming to a Satellite Master Antenna . SIM Card Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Card is used in the GSM phones to carry all critical information about the phone and subsriber. SINR: Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) is the ratio of the received strength of the desired signal to the received strength of undesired signals (noise and interference). Signal Strength Signal Strength is the strength of the radio waves in a wireless network. It involves diagramming the network. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Multiple Input Single Output (MISO). SISO: Single Input Single Output Single Input Single Output (SISO) is a form of antenna technology for wireless communications in which a single antenna at both the transmitter and at the destination (receiver) are used. SIMO: Single Input Multiple Output Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) is a form of smart antenna technology for wireless communications in which a single antenna at the transmitter and multiple antennas are used at the destination (receiver). SM offers linear increase in spectrum efficiency with the number of antennas. checking the building and testing the equipment.

installed on top of an apartment building, a hotel, or at another central location from where it serves a private group of viewers. The transmission usually is done in C-band to 1.5 or 2 meter dishes. SMG: Special Mobile Group Special Mobile Group (SMG) is a standards body within ETSI that develops specifications related to mobile networking technologies, such as GSM and GPRS. SMLC: Serving Mobile Location Center Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC), either a separate network element or integrated functionality in the Base Station Controller(BSC), contains the functionality required to support Location Services (LCS). The SMLC manages the overall coordination and scheduling of resources required for the location of a mobile unit. The SMLC may control a number of Location Measurement Unit (LMU) for the purpose of obtaining radio interface measurements to locate or help locate Mobile Station (MS) subscribers in the area that it serves. SMLCPP: Serving Mobile Location Center Peer-to-Peer Protocol Serving Mobile Location Center Peer-to-Peer Protocol (SMLCPP) is a transport protocol for the communication between the Serving Mobile Location Centers (SMLCs). The main functions of SMLCPP are: (1) allowing an SMLC to ask for and obtain information about Radio Interface Timing (RIT), as known from measurements done by LMUs not under its direct control; (2) allowing an SMLC, that controls deciphering keys in the location area, to sent them to other SMLCs in the same location area. SMPP: Short Message Peer to Peer Short Message Peer to Peer (SMPP) is a protocol for exchange short messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers. SMPP is often used to allow third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organisations) to submit messages, often in bulk. SMR: Specialized Mobile Radio Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) is a dispatch radio and interconnect service for businesses, covering frequencies in the 220 MHz, 800 MHz and 900 MHz bands. SMS: Short Message Service Short Message Service (SMS) refers to the service that allows the transmission of short text messages among mobile devices such as cell phones, fax machines and BlackBerry devices. SMS was originally designed as part of GSM, but is now available on a wide range of networks, including 3G networks. There are two forms of SMS: Short Message Service - Point-to-Point (SMS-PP) and Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). The message length is 140 bytes. Larger contents (known as long SMS or concatenated SMS) can be sent segmentedly over multiple messages, in which case each message will start with a user data header (UDH) containing segmentation information. SMS-CB: Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB), a form of Short Message Service for the delivering of short messages over the mobile networks, allows messages (advertising, public information, etc.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified geographical area. SMS-PP: Short Message Service - Point to Point Short Message Service - Point to Point (SMS-PP), a form of Short Message Service for the delivering of short messages over the mobile networks, provides, allows messages to be sent from an individual to another. SNIR: Signal to Noise + Interference Ratio Signal-to-Noise + Interference Ratio (SNIR) is the ratio of usable signal being transmitted to the undesired signal (noise) plus interference from other or the same channels. It is a measure of transmission quality. The ratio of good data (signal) to bad (noise + intereference) on a line is expressed in decibels (dB). SNR: Signal-to-noise Ratio Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) is the ratio of usable signal being transmitted to the undesired signal (noise). It is a measure of transmission quality. The ratio of good data (signal) to bad (noise) on a line is expressed in decibels (dB). S-OFDMA: Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (SOFDMA or S-OFDMA) is a flavor of the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), which is a technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a radio wave. SHO: Soft Handoff Soft Handoff (SHO) refers to two base stations -- one in the cell site where the phone is located and the other in the cell site to which the conversation is being passed, but both are held on the call until the handoff is completed. The first cell site does not cut off the conversation until it receives information that the second is maintaining the call. Software Access Point Software Access Point is a wireless-enabled computer running special software that enables it to act exactly like an wireless access point. Space diversity Space diversity is a diversity technique widely used in wireless systems since the very beginning. It consists of two receiving antennas physically (spatially) separated to provide de-correlated receiving signals. SPACH: SMS Point-to-point CHannel SMS Point-to-point Channel (SPACH) is a logical channel as a part of FDCCH (Forward Digital Control Channel) used to send

signaling and control information from the cell site to the user receiver. SPACH can be further divided into three logical channels: ARCH, SMSCH and PCH. Spectrum Spectrum refers to a continuous range of frequency for electromagnetic waves. Spectrum Allocation Spectrum Allocation refers to that government designation of a range of frequencies for a category of use or uses. Allocation, typically accomplished in years-long FCC proceedings, tracks new technology development. However, the FCC can shift existing allocations to accommodate changes in spectrum demand. As an example, some UHF television channels were recently reallocated to public safety. Spectrum Assignment Spectrum Assignment refers to the government authorization for use of specific frequencies or frequency pairs within a given allocation, usually at stated geographic location(s). Mobile communications authorizations are typically granted to private users, such as oil companies, or to common carriers, such as cellular and paging operators. Spectrum Reuse Spectrum Reuse means re-applying the already assigned over-the-air spectrum to Cable TV programs. Historically, the over-the-air spectrum has been assigned to many purposes other than that of carrying TV signals. This has resulted in an inadequate supply of spectrum to serve the needs of viewers. Cable can reuse spectrum that is sealed in its aluminum tubes. Spectrum spreading Spectrum spreading is the process of increasing the occupied spectrum of a signal well beyond the needed to transmit the information. Speech coding Speech coding is an electronic process of sampling and digitizing a voice signal. Spread spectrum Spread spectrum is a form of wireless communications in which a signal's frequency is deliberately varied. This increases bandwidth and lessens the chances of interruption or interception of the transmitted signal. SR: Spread Rate Spread rate (SR), also known as the chip rate, is the rate of the digital code used to spread the information. The spreading rate is typically at least 100 times the information rate. SRNC: Serving Radio Network Controller Serving Radio Network Controller (SRNC or Serving RNC) is a type of Radio Network Controller (RNC) in a 3G mobile wireless network. The key functons of the Serving RNC: terminates the mobile link layer communications, terminates the IU, and exerts Admission Control over new mobiles or services attempting to use the Core Network over its IU interface. Admission Control ensures that mobiles are only allocated radio resources (bandwidth and signal/noise ratio) up to what the network has available. SS: Subscriber Station A Subscriber Station (SS) refers to a generalized equipment set providing connectivity between subscriber equipment and a Base Station in the mobile wireless network. SSB: Single-sideband modulation Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is a refinement of the technique of amplitude modulation designed to be more efficient in its use of electrical power and bandwidth. It is closely related to vestigial sideband modulation (VSB). To produce an SSB signal, a filter removes one of the sidebands. Most often, the carrier is reduced (suppressed) or removed entirely. Assuming both sidebands are symmetric, no information is lost in the process. What remains still contains the entire information content of the AM signal, using substantially less bandwidth and power, but cannot now be demodulated by a simple envelope detector. SSD: Shared Secret Data Shared Secret Data (SSD) is part of an encryption process supporting authentication of mobile phones. It uses an encryption key installed in the phone at the time of activation and known to the system through an entry in the HLR, that protects signalling and identity information. It can also be used to establish a voice privacy key. SSI: Service Set Identifier A Service Set Identifier (SSI) is a sequence of characters unique to a specific network or network segment that's used by the network and all attached devices to identify themselves and allow devices to connect to the correct network when more than one independent networks are operating in nearby areas. SSID: Service Set Identifier Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a set of 32 characters that give a unique name to a WLAN. All wireless devices on a WLAN must employ the same SSID in order to communicate with each other. The SSID on wireless clients can be set either manually, by entering the SSID into the client network settings, or automatically, by leaving the SSID unspecified or blank. A network administrator often uses a public SSID, that is set on the access point and broadcast to all wireless devices in range. Some newer wireless access points disable the automatic SSID broadcast feature in an attempt to improve network security. STAP: Space-Time Adaptive Processing Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique that enhances the ability of radars to detect targets that might otherwise be obscured by clutter or by jamming. To implement STAP requires sampling the radar returns at each element of

an antenna array, over a dwell encompassing several pulse repetition intervals. STAP is for applications such as Sensor Craft, Targets Under Trees, and space-based radar programs. STBC: Space Time Block Coding Space time block coding (STBC) is a technique used in wireless communications to transmit multiple copies of a data stream across a number of antennas and to exploit the various received versions of the data to improve the reliability of data-transfer. The fact that transmitted data must traverse a potentially difficult environment with scattering, reflection, refraction and so on and, as well as, be corrupted by thermal noise in the receiver means that some of the received copies of the data will be "better" than others. This redundancy results in a higher chance of being able to use one or more of the received copies of the data to correctly decode the received signal. In fact, STBC combines all the copies of the received signals in an optimal way to extract as much information from each of them as possible. STC: Space Time Coding Space Time Coding (STC) is a method employed to improve the reliability of data transmission in wireless communication systems using multiple transmit antennas. STCs rely on transmitting multiple, redundant copies of a data stream to the receiver in the hope that at least some of them may survive the physical path between transmission and reception in a good enough state to allow reliable decoding. STD: Selective Transmit Diversity Selective Transmit Diversity (STD) is a transmit diversity technique using multiple base stations to originate the signal and provide spatial diversity on the downlink. In STD, the transmitter selection is based on a QoS measurement made at the mobile station. See also transmit diversity, TDTD and TSTD. STTC: Space–Time Trellis Coding Space–Time Trellis Coding (STTC) is a type of space–time coding (STC) used in multiple-antenna wireless communications. This scheme transmits multiple, redundant copies of a trellis (or convolutional) code distributed over time and a number of antennas ("space"). These multiple, "diverse" copies of the data are used by the receiver to attempt to reconstruct the actual transmitted data. For a STC to be used, there must necessarily be multiple transmit antennas, but only a single receive antennas is required; nevertheless multiple receive antennas are often used since the performance of the system is improved by so doing. Sub Network Sub Network is a way of denoting a group of network layers that appear as one to a higher protocol layer. Supplementary services Supplementary services is a group of network layer protocol functions that provide call independent functions for mobile phones. These include: call forwarding, follow-me, advice of charge, reverse charging, etc. Symbian Symbian is a software licensing company that develops and supplies the advanced, open, standard operating system -- Symbian OS -- for data-enabled mobile phones. SyncML Based on XML, SyncML enables data synchronization between mobile devices and networked services. SyncML is transport, data type and platform independent. SyncML works on a wide variety of transport protocols, including HTTP and WSP (part of WAP), and with data formats ranging from personal data (such as vCard and vCalendar) to relational data and XML documents. The SyncML consortium was set up by IBM, Nokia and Psion and is sponsored by Symbian.

Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary - T
TACS: Total Access Communication System Total Access Communication System (TACS) is the European version of AMPS -- the 1G technology for mobile wireless. ETACS was an extended version of TACS with more channels. TACS and ETACS are now obsolete in Europe, having been replaced by the more scalable and all-digital GSM system. TAMS: Track and Manage Service Track and Manage Service (TAMS) offers scheduled reporting on the status reports of industry standard sensors, GPS position and other event status reports. TAP: Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a simple protocol dedicated to the forwarding of alphanumeric pages. Although the features and capabilities of TAP are in TDP, the TAP protocol may co-exist with TDP. The TAP protocol may be utilized to forward binary data to RF-linked computers if input is formatted and processed. TCH/F: Traffic Channel - full rate Traffic Channel - full rate (TCH/F) is a traffic channel using full rate voice coding. TCH/H: Traffic Channel - half rate Traffic Channel - half rate (TCH/H) is a traffic channel using half rate voice coding. TCH: Traffic Channel Traffic Channel (TCH) is a logical channel that allows the transmission of speech or data. In most second generation systems, the traffic channel can be either full or half rate.

The set is compromised of several protocols. TDTD: Time Division Transmit Diversity Time Division Transmit Diversity (TDTD) is a technique utilizing multiple transmit stations to originate the downlink signal and improve performance. In a Time Division Duplex system. TD-SCDMA: Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) is a new technology developed by Siemens and the China Academy of Telecommunication Technology (CATR). a mobile phone connected to a cellular network. to a mobile receiving computer. using bandwidth more efficiently than earlier technologies. Through the use of a rake receiver. synchronous CDMA. Code Division Multiple Access Time Division. This proposed standard is 1. combining time division multiplexing with CDMA techniques. a common carrier is shared between the uplink and downlink. It can be used to create a three-inone phone: 1) On the move. A tunnel is created whenever an SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request in a GPRS network. TDMA is used by the GSM digital cellular system. an intercom. through a paging system. containing an MM Context ID and an NSAPI. TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is one of the Telecommunications standards setting bodies in the United States. individual elements or fingers can be offset in time to account for different arrival times of multipath signals. including TME. The transmit station used can be determined by either a fixed pattern or based on a QoS measurement made at the mobile. TFC: Telocator Format Conversion Telocator Format Conversion (TFC) describes how binary data messages may be forwarded to RF-linked computers through the use of TAP protocol. 3) At the office. TinyOS is an . It is developed and used primarily in China. these protocols define the flow of messages from input devices through several processing steps until the entire message is received by an RF-linked computer. TID: Tunnel Identifier Tunnel Identifier (TID). simultaneous data channels. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) divides a radio frequency available to a network into time slots and then allocates slots to multiple calls. and TMC. Time dispersion Time dispersion is a manifestation of multipath propagation that stretches the signal in time so that the duration of the received signal is greater than the transmitted signal. is used to identify a GTP tunnel between two GSNs in a GPRS network. TCS: Telephony Control Protocol Specification The Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) is a protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack that defines ways to send audio calls between Bluetooth devices.TCM: Trellis Code Modulation Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) is one of the coded modulation techniques used in digital communications. TDP: Telocator Data Protocol Telocator Data Protocol (TDP) is a suite of protocols used for sending messages from a computer.6 MHz wide and uses multiple timeslots. TD-CDMA: Time Division. TinyOS TinyOS is an open source component-based operating system and platform targeting wireless sensor networks. So one frequency can support multiple. a cordless phone connected to a PSTN via a gateway or base station. TCP: Telocator Conversion Processor Telocator Conversion Processor (TCP) is a front end processor which executes the Telocator Format Conversion (TFC) process. Telematics Telematics means the integration of wireless communications. and new detection and interference cancellation schemes. Time diversity Time diversity is the technique used by CDMA systems to overcome the effects of multipath fading. 2) At home. It also controls the device mobility management procedures. Available in 800-MHz or 1900-MHz frequencies. It combines the choice of a modulation scheme with that of a convolutional code together for the purpose of gaining noise immunity over encoded transmission without expanding the signal bandwidth or increasing the transmitted power. See also STD and TSTD. TDN: Temporary Directory Number Temporary Directory Number (TDN) is a temporary identification number assigned to a mobile while attached to the network. vehicle monitoring systems and location devices. Code Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA) is a 3G proposal combining elements of TDMA and CDMA. Users are allocated one or more timeslots for uplink and downlink transmission. TD-SCDMA is part of the ITU 3G standard harmonization and will likely be adopted by some operators in China. TDD: Time Division Duplex Time Division Duplexing (TDD) refers to a transmission scheme that allows an asymmetric flow for uplink and downlink transmission which is more suited to data transmission. the resource being switched in time. Together. TRT.

Transcoding Transcoding refers to the operation of changing data from one format to another. operating on 1900Mhz in the United States and 1800Mhz and 900Mhz in other countries. uses short. Tri-mode: Triple mode (tri-mode) Triple mode (Tri-mode) is a combined analog and digital mobile phone. Transmit power is generally measured in milliwatts. each time the mobile moves to a new geographical area. and 800MHz analog cellular -. TrGW: Translation Gateway Translation Gateway (TrGW) is a component used in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network. It is also a code number that the wireless service company assigns to represent a single frequency or set of frequencies. TKIP provides per-packet key mixing. Allows operation of the phone in the existing analog system at 800 MHz and in digital systems at both 800 MHz and 1900 MHz. written in NesC programming language. Accuracy is good indoors and in areas of dense base-station coverage. TM-UWM: Time-Modulated Ultra-Wide Band Time-Modulated Ultra-Wide Band (TM-UWM). TIPP: Telocator Interswitch Paging Protocol Telocator Interswitch Paging Protocol (TIPP) is a TCP/IP-based inter-PMP protocol utilized to move information across a network of PMP's TKIP: Temporal Key Integrirty Protocol Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is part of the IEEE 802. Transmitter Transmitter is a device that generates radio waves and sends them to the antenna. TNPP: Telocator Network Paging Protocol Telocator Network Paging Protocol (TNPP) is a protocol used for moving pages from one paging system to another over the standard lines. The network can also change the TMSI of the mobile at any time.11i encryption standard for wireless LANs security. Specialized equipment is needed at the base station. so the output will be displayed in an appropriate manner for the device Transmission Frequency Transmission Frequency is the rate in hertz at which a radio transmitter repeats a signal pattern. Tri-band GSM phones are all digital. TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is the identity that is most commonly sent between the mobile and the network. developed by Time Domain. The number is local to a location area. however. coded pulses transmitted over a wide range of frequencies. and so it has to be updated. CDMA and TDMA tri-band phones work on 1900MHz and 800MHz digital frequencies. And it normally does so. deployment.popular standards in the United States. thus fixing the flaws of WEP. TOA: Time OF Arrival Time OF Arrival (TOA) is a location technique that uses GSM timing to triangulate the position of a handset relative to active base stations. and planning. TKIP is the next generation of WEP (Wired Equivalency Protocol). It is a randomly allocated number that is given to the mobile at the moment it is switched on. which provides translation of IPv4/IPv6 address and port numbers. a message integrity check and a re-keying mechanism. as a set of cooperating tasks and processes. and tracked by eavesdroppers on the radio interface. which you can convert to dBm. and maintenance costs can be high.embedded operating system. TME: Telocator Message Entry Protocol Telocator Message Entry Protocol (TME) defines the protocol operating between the Message Entry Device (MED) and Paging Message Processor (PMP). TMSI: Temporary Mobile Station Identity Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI) is an identification number assigned to a mobile station while it is attached to the network. It is intended to be incorporated into smartdust. . such as an XML to HTML. and TOA can be used with legacy handsets. in order to avoid the subscriber from being identified. This number is maintained in the VER and SIM while the mobile is attached to the network and is used to route calls to and from the mobile. It is designed to be able to incorporate rapid innovation as well as to operate within the severe memory constraints inherent in sensor networks. TKIP utilizes RC4 stream cippher with 128 bit key for encryption and 64 bit key for authentication. making it useful for a broad range of applications from networking to through-the-wall radar and secure communications. Tri-band Tri-band refers to a wireless phone that works on three bands. which is the ultimate recipient of data sent from the Message Entry Device (MED). as well as translation of IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. TMC: Telocator Mobile Computer Protocol Telocator Mobile Computer Protocol (TMC) is the protocol that operates between the Radio Frequency (RF) receiver and the mobile computer. Transmit Power Transmit Power is the amount of power used by a radio transceiver to send the signal out.

WAY Communication Two . enabling secure support for all kinds of multi-application schemes. or in any combination. UDLP: UniDirectional Link Protocol UniDirectional Link Protocol (UDLP) is used by inexpensive. The UICC is an essential component for UMTS. rtPS (Real time polling Service).UGS (Unsolicited grant service).16 protocol supports five types of QoS -.Way Communication occur between communications of radio stations.TRT: Telocator Radio Transport protocol Telocator Radio Transport protocol (TRT) describes the format of data which is forwarded to RF receivers. which describes the uplink burst profile (i. .e. is a gap between the last sample of the downlink burst and the first sample of the subsequent uplink burst in a time division duplex (TDD) transceiver. The 802. The transmit station used is determined by a fixed selection pattern similar to frequency hopping. mobile or portable ones.. UHF: Ultra High Frenquency Ultra High Frenquency (UHF) refers to the RF spectrum between 300 MHz and 3 GHz. This gap allows time for the base station (BS) to switch from transmit to receive mode. TWO . TTI refers to the length of an independently decodable transmission on the radio link. which are quite different since they use different component codes. Extending the concept of the SIM card. ertPS (Extended Real-time POLLING SERVICE). different concatenation schemes and different SISO algorithms. such as T1/E1 and Voice over IP without silence suppression. UGS: Unsolicited Grant Service Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) is one of the five QoS service types defined in the IEEE 802. It ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal data. During this gap. The manner in which this data is inserted into any particular radio pager encoding format is specific to the particular manufacturer's radio receiver. Turbo Code Turbo code is a class of high-performance error correction codes finding use in deep-space satellite communications and other wireless communication applications where designers seek to achieve maximal information transfer over a limited-bandwidth communication link in the presence of data-corrupting noise. The stations may be in fixed locations. The TTI is related to the size of the data blocks passed from the higher network layers to the radio link layer.U UCD: Uplink Channel Descriptor Uplink Channel Descriptor (UCD) is a concept in the IEEE 802. the UICC contains the USIM application and also provides a platform for other IC Card applications. TTI: Transmission Time Interval Transmission Time Interval (TTI) is a parameter in UMTS (and other digital telecomunication networks) related to encapsulation of data from higher layers into frames for transmission on the radio link layer. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . TTG: Transmit/receive Transition Gap Transmit/receive Transition Gap (TTG). UE: User Equipment User Equipment (UE) refers to eqiment in a wireless network that enables users to communicate through wireless communication networks. the transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) antenna switch to actuate. just as the SIM for GSM. a concept in the mobile wireless networking. The Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) is designed to support real-time service flows that generate fixed-size data packets on a periodic basis. This transport style protocol allows a receiver to collect several separate message inside different pages and then piece them together into one proper message. modulation and coding combination) and preamble length for each UL burst.16 (WiMAX) network. See also STD and TDTD. the BS is not transmitting modulated data but simply allowing the BS transmitter carrier to ramp down. Block Turbo Codes (BTCs) and Convolutional Turbo Codes (CTCs). nrtPS (Non-real-time polling service and BE (Best effort service).16 WiMAX. There are two types of turbo codes. TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) is a telecommunications standards setting body in Korea. TTC: Telecommunications Technology Committee Telecommunications Technology Committee (TTC) is a private-sector corporate body established in 1985 to prepare domestic standards relevant to Japanese telecommunications. which eliminate the overhead and latency of SS requests and assure that grants are available to meet the flow’s real-time needs. The service offers fixed-size grants on a real-time periodic basis. UICC: USIM Integrated Circuit Card USIM Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) is the chip card used in mobile terminals in 3G telecom network systems. TSTD: Time Switched Transmit Diversity Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) is a technique utilizing multiple transmit stations to originate the downlink signal and improve performance. receive-only antennas to receive data via satellite. and the BS receiver section to activate. each having a transmitter and receiver.

It is equivalent to the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) in the GSM 2G wireless network. preferences. sometimes also referred to as 3G LTE or Super-3G. also called digital pulse. and will be connected to an IP-optimized core network through a UTRAN Gateway. saved telephone numbers. In comparison. which is for use with IMT-2000/UMTS 3G network. UTRAN LTE: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long Term Evolution UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long Term Evolution (UTRAN LTE). as well as subscription information. it can carry signals through doors and other obstacles that tend to reflect signals at more limited bandwidths and a higher power. UPT: Universal Personal Telecommunications Universal Personal Telecommunications (UPT) is a set of standards developed by the CCITT for wireline personal communications. is an enhanced version of the SIM card. UWC: Universal Wireless Consortium Universal Wireless Consortium (UWC) is an organization of vendors and operators promoting and implementing the IS-136 digital standard. UL: Uplink Uplink (UL) is the transmission path from the mobile station up to the base station. particularly in urban areas where AMPS did not provide adequate channel capacity. Ultra Wideband Ultra Wideband is a wireless networking approach that broadcasts millions of tiny pulses at trillionth-of-second intervals using very low power over enormous swaths of spectrum. The apparatus can range from a simple circuit to a complex subsystem such as a mobile phone.15. also known as Upgrade SIM. is the place that provides UMTS 3G wireless telephony switching services and controls calls between telephone and data systems. also known as R-UIM. Ultra Wideband is commonly abbreviated to UWB. UTRAN will support both UTRA Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) radio interfaces allowing flexible. The UMTS network.3 for transmitting digital data over a wide swath of the radio frequency spectrum with very low power. built around an IP-optimized core network carrying all traffic types. UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) is a term used for UMTS radio access solution. a type of Mobile Switching Center (MSC). high-bandwidth support. Because of the low power requirement. and radio locations systems. text messages and other information. USDC allows the co-existence of AMPS so that providers can gradually phase out AMPS as needed. Urban cells Urban cells is the coverage provided by base stations located in urban areas. is the 3GPP radio technology evolution architecture. high-resolution radar. is a component in the UMTS 3G network that securely stores the key identifying a mobile phone service subscriber. applied to W-CDMA and TD-CDMA . was developed to replace the AMPS standard.UIM: User Identity Module User Identity Module (UIM). It can carry large amounts of data (maximum bandwidth of 1Gbps) and can be used for multimedia content transfer. base station or MSC. USDC utilizes TDMA to offer phone and paging service over a 25 kHz channel divided into two time slots. USIM: Upgrade SIM Upgrade SIM (USIM). The radius of these cells is usually much smaller than suburban and rural cells due to the more difficult propagation environment USDC: United States Digital Cellular United States Digital Cellular (USDC). also known as IS-54 (Interim Standard 54). It . UMSC: UMTS Mobile Switching Center UMTS Mobile Switching Center (UMSC). UWC-136 Universal Wireless Communications 136 (UWC-136) is proposed by the TIA and adopted by the ITU for 3G TDMA standard. UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is the radio access network based on the UTRA standard term describing the Radio Network Controllers and Node Base stations of a UMTS network. USIM: Universal Subscriber Identity Module Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM). UWB: Ultra-Wide-Band Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB). is the SIM card equivalent planned for W-CDMA handsets. UUT: Unit Under Test Unit Under Test (UUT) refers to some type of electrical apparatus connected to test instrumentation. Also specifying the future development of the standard and facilitating roaming agreements between IS-136 operators. also known as Universal Subscriber Identity Module. UIM supports roaming between CDMA and GSM networks. is a wireless technology defined in IEEE 802. traditional radios broadcast continuously on tiny bits of spectrum. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a 3G cellular network technology that uses WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technologies. The transmission rates range from a theoretical 384K bit/sec for mobile phones to 2M bit/sec for stationary devices. groundpenetrating radar.

The Milgo 4400/48 modem used vesitigial sideband and phase-shift keying to provide 4800 bit/s transmission over a 1600 Hz channel. delay variation. the IEEE is developing the 802. V-Band V-Band. vCARD vCARD is a standard defining the format of an electronic business card. Voice Activated Dialing Voice Activated Dialing is a feature that permits you to dial a phone number by speaking it to your wireless phone instead of punching it in yourself.allows the US TDMA community to migrate from 1st (IS-136) to 3rd (UWC-136) generation systems. such as the ATSC-standardized 8-VSB. The feature contributes to convenience as well as driving safety. VAD.11 wireless LANs to create a wireless telephone system. Proprietary standards like Spectralink Voice Priority (SVP) are today's solution. VHF: Very High Frequency Very High Frequency (VHF) is the RF spectrum between 30 MHz and 300 MHz. packet collision. enabling companies to deploy and manage voice and data over a single wireless backbone. and packet loss. or SECAM analog video format) use this method if the video is transmitted in AM. VSB: Vestigial Sideband Vestigial sideband (VSB) is a type of amplitude modulation technique that encodes data by varying the amplitude of a single carrier frequency. PAL. VoWIP enables businesses to leverage their wireless LANs to add voice communications. however. a user with a vCard-aware phonebook application on a handheld computer can easily transfer names and phone numbers to a vCard-aware mobile phone. For instance. Television broadcasts (regardless of NTSC. pitch filter and two codebooks. VSELP: Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive (VSELP) is a type of speech coding using an excitation signal generated from three components: the output of a long-term. This is also known as maximum likelihood decoding. VoWIP applications require some reservation of bandwidth to support the real-time nature of voice. Portions of one of the redundant sidebands are removed to form a vestigial sideband signal. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary . All devices supporting vCard can exchange information such as phone numbers and addresses. is a radio bandwidth range between 40 GHz t0 50 GHz. UWCC: Universal Wireless Communications Consortium Universal Wireless Communications Consortium (UMCC) is an industry group supporting IS-136 time division multiple access and IS-41 wireless intelligent network technology. Voice Channel Voice Channel is a channel used for transmission of voice data from a base station to a cellular phone (forward voice channel) or from a cellular phone to a base station (reverse voice channel). VLR: Visitor Location Register Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains all subscriber data required for call handling and mobility management for mobile subscribers currently located in the area controlled by the VLR. VoxML: Voice Markup Language Voice Markup Language (VoxML) is a technology from Motorola for creating a voice dialog with a Web site in which a user can call a Web site by phone and interact with it through speech recognition and Web site responses. also known as Q-Band. VoWIP: Voice over Wireless IP Voice over Wireless IP (VoWIP) is the combination of VoIP with 802.V VAD: Voice Activity Detector Voice Activity Detector (VAD) is the device that detects voice activity and allows DTX to operate. Viterbi algorithm Viterbi algorithm is a technique for searching a decoding trellis to yield a path with the smallest distance. The standard uses a wideband TDMA technique. in conjunction with DTX reduces power consumption in the mobile station and RF interference in the system by muting the transmitter when there is no voice to transmit. VSELP was used in the IS-54 standard and operated at a rate of 8 kbps. It may also be used in digital transmission. due to the enormous bandwidth used. The VLR communicates with the HLR of the subscriber to request data about that subscriber. VMAC: Virtual Media Access Control Virtual Media Access Control (Virtual MAC or VMAC) is an algorithm that passively monitors the radio channel and estimates locally achievable service levels. . Vocoder Vocoder refers to a voice encoder which is a device that codes and decodes the human voice (sound waves) into digital transmission. Higher vocoder speeds offer enhanced sound quality.11e standard for quality of service as a long-term solution. The VMAC estimates key MAC level statistics related to service quality such as delay.

and PDAs. unsecured WLANs they find. Wavelength Wavelength is the length of one complete wave of an alternating or vibrating phenomenon. WAE provides the operators and service providers an interoperable environment on which they can build applications and services for handheld client devices. W-ATM: Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode network Wireless ATM network (W-ATM) was a concept of using wireless as physical layer to transmit ATM cells. WAP was designed to work within the constraints of these devices: a limited memory and CPU size. dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter. is part of the presentation logic in Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). and animation) and determines image characteristics according to WAP documentation. WCA: Wireless Communications Association The Wireless Communications Association (WCA) represents the fixed broadband wireless access industry worldwide. which describes encoding information (such as pixel and palette organization. also known as Access Point (AP). WAPs act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. phone book records and calendar information. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards. Walsh codes are the backbone of CDMA systems and are used to develop the individual channels in CDMA. This concept never took off. small. namely WTA and WTAI -. pagers. Some computer hackers are content to simply map any open. These access points are typically found through war driving. WAP Forum The WAP Forum has consolidated into the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) and no longer exists as an independent organization. and radio transmitter.telephony services and programming interfaces as well as content formats including well-defined data formats. Codes 2 through 7 are also available for traffic channels if they are not needed. War chalking War chalking refers to marking buildings or sidewalks with chalk to show others where it's possible to access an exposed company wireless network. WBXML: WAP Binary XML WAP Binary XML (WBXML). compression. developed by the WAP Forum. Many WAPs can be connected together to create a larger network that allows "roaming". voice and video services on a subscription basis through land-based towers to fixed reception/transmit devices. low bandwidth and erratic connections.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .W WAE: Wireless Application Environment The Wireless Application Environment (WAE) is the top most level in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. Its mission is to advance the interests of the wireless systems that provide data (including Internet and e-commerce). which combines both the WWW and Mobile Telephony technologies. Code 0 is used as the pilot and code 32 is used for synchronization. and the remaining codes are available for traffic channels. WAP: Wireless Access Point A wireless access point (WAP). WBXML significantly improves the efficiency of transmitting XML over narrow bandwidth networks. but also Wireless Telephony Application. there exists a multitude of Walsh codes that vary in length to accommodate the different data rates and Spreading Factors of the different Radio Configurations. . where data size is of paramount importance. that lets developers using Wireless Markup Language build networked applications designed for handheld wireless devices. A WBMP image is identified using a TypeField value. here are 64 codes available. Codes 1 though 7 are used for control channels. For cdma2000. WBMP: Wireless Bitmap Wireless Bitmap (WBMP) is WAP graphic format optimized for mobile computing devices. Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small. WAP: Wireless Application Protocol The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a set of specifications. generally measured from crest to crest or from trough to trough of successive waves. For IS-95. images. WASP: wireless application service provider Wireless Application Service Provider (WASP) provides hosted wireless applications so that companies will not have to build their own sophisticated wireless infrastructures. WAP developers use WML and WMLScript. WAP browsers are intended to be implemented on small mobile devices such as cell phones. Walsh Code Walsh Code is a group of spreading codes having good autocorrelation properties and poor crosscorrelation properties. tagging nearby pavement to allow others to tap in and steal bandwidth from those hotspots. a compact representation of XML. Others have adopted the practice of warchalking. monochrome screens. antenna. is a device that "connects" wireless communication devices together to create a wireless network. WAE includes the micro-browser that contains functionality for using not only WML and WML Script as previously stated. Instead of developing content in HTML and JavaScript. War driving War driving (wardriving) is the process of traveling around looking for wireless access point signals that can be used to get network access.

11 wireless networking standards and compatibility. originally Nick named for 802.000 products have received Wi-Fi certification since the certification began in March of 2000. The protocol is generally considered as a 2. WiBro WiBro. not 128 bits) or better. is a 3G standard for GSM in Europe. 802. now refers to the entire wireless LAN technologies including 802. It uses one 5-MHz channel for both voice and data. 802. and in late 2004. A number of wireless signaling options exist ranging anywhere from the 2 GHz range up to 66 GHz. WDS: Wireless Distribution System Wireless Distribution System (WDS) is a technology that enables access points to communicate with one another in order to extend the range of a wireless network.11g-based access points.11n etc. 2002. By letting only the transport layer deal with physical network-dependent issues. WDF: Wireless Data Forum Wireless Data Forum (WDF) is an industry group based in New Zealand dedicated to promote and educate New Zealand companies on many options and solutions available to them through the use of Wireless Data.11b. abreviated from Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. global interoperability can be acquired using mediating gateways. the upper layer protocols of the WAP architecture can operate independent of the underlying wireless network. WiMax has a range of up to 31 miles. The original implementations of WEP supported the so-called 40-bit encryption. In February. is a wireless broadband internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry. The goal of the Wi-Fi Alliance's members is to enhance the user experience through product interoperability.11a. Research has shown that 40-bit WEP encryption is too easy to decode. WIM provides security services for WAP applications. Wi-Fi is actually the industry name for wireless LAN (WLAN) communication technology related to the IEEE 802. Internet access and video conferencing.11 specification. and allows you to use digital signature. As a general transport service. covers the Transmission Layer Protocols in an Internet model. In consequence of the interface common to transport protocols. WiMax is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable-access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line. offering data speeds of up to 2 Mbps. . and over 1. WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol The Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP). for up to 100 kbit/s of bandwidth. WiDEN: Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network (WiDEN) is a software upgrade developed by Motorola for its iDEN-enhanced specialised mobile radio (or ESMR) wireless telephony protocol. the Korean government allocated 100 MHz of electromagnetic spectrum in the 2. WDP offers to the upper layers an invisible interface independent of the underlying network technology used. It's also the principal alternative being discussed in Asia.11b. including both 802.3 GHz band.11g and 802.11 family of wireless networking standards. the Wi-Fi Alliance has over 200 member companies from around the world. WiBro Phase 1 was standardized by the TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association) of Korea. standing for Wireless Broadband.16-2004 for fixed WiMAX and 802. WiDEN allows compatible subscriber units to communicate across four 25 kHz channels combined. Japan and the United States. a protocol in WAP architecture.16 wireless metropolitanarea network standard. Data rates for WiMax can reach up to 75 Mbps (Fixed) or 15 Mbps (Mobile). 802. SIM cards with security module are provided by the SIM card issuer WiMax WiMax. also known as UMTS in Europe.16-2005 for mobile WiMAX. that is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired LAN.WCDMA: Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access Wideband Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access(W-CDMA or WCDMA). WiMax technology can deliver high-speed Internet access to rural areas and other locations. Wi-Fi Alliance Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit international association formed in 1999 to certify interoperability of WLAN products based on the IEEE 802. WECA: Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) is the former name of the Wi-Fi Alliance of vendors promoting 802. WEP: Wired-Equivalent Privacy Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol. WIM: WAP Identity Module WAP Identity Module (WIM) is the security module implemented in the SIM card for WAP applications. specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard.5G wireless cellular technology. It supports very high-speed multimedia services such as full-motion video. WDS is appearing in 802. WiMax also offers an alternative to satellite Internet services. and consequently product vendors today employ 128-bit encryption (having a key length of 104 bits. Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity Wireless Fidelity (WiFi or Wi-Fi). is a popular name of the 802. Currently. having a key of length 40 bits and 24 additional bits of system-generated data (64 bits total).11b for wireless LAN with bandwith up to 11 Mbps. WEP is based on a security scheme called RC4 that utilizes a combination of secret user keys and systemgenerated values.

delivers Internet content to small wireless devices. to provide a neutral and open forum for multiple industry segments to establish requirements.WiMedia Alliance WiMedia Alliance is an industrial association with a focus on UWB (Ultra WideBand) wireless technologies to promote and enable the rapid adoption and standardization of UWB worldwide for high-speed wireless.11 family of specifications. Wireless Channel Wireless Channel refers to dividing allocated spectrum into sub-spectrums. to promote worldwide UWB spectrum regulations. A wireless bridge functions in the same way but can be used in situations in which running a wire or cable would be impractical or prohibitively expensive.11 family of specifications developed by the IEEE. WML also includes features that tailor it for the relatively small display sizes of today's wireless devices. WMF: Wireless Message Format Wireless Message Format (WMF) is a standard format for presenting data received through a paging system to mobile computers. 802. 802. Wireless Bridge Wireless Bridge is a networking bridge used to connect two or more separate networks. which typically have very small displays. etc.15. WML: Wireless Markup Language Wireless Markup Language (WML). such as browserequipped cellular phones and handheld devices. based on HTML and XML. 802. 802. hotels and other public businessplaces. Wireless router Wireless routers are actually routers with Ethernet plus wireless access points so that they have both wired and/or wireless at the same time.11b and 802. which extends an existing wired local area network. This information is received completely intact by the MCD. WISP: Wireless ISP Wireless ISP (WISP) is a company that provides wireless Internet access for public. CE and mobile market segments. is the use of wireless connections as the last mile for delivering plain old telephone service (POTS) to customers. namely." or "base station. The WLAN technology is defined by the IEEE 802. also called radio in the loop (RITL) or fixed-radio access (FRA) or fixed-wireless access (FWA). for example. and events. WML and HTML differ in significant ways. WML demands less memory and processing power from browsers than HTML and JavaScript. 802. WIN: Wireless Intelligent Network Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) refers to a set of advanced services provided on a wireless network such as Prepaid. low bandwidth and restricted user-input capabilities. Although WML strips some features from HTML and co-opts others. These hotspots provide Internet access and local area network (LAN) printing for mobile network devices like laptops. slow CPUs. WLAN provides Ethernet connections over the air and operate under the 802.15. LNP. Wireless Gateway Wireless Gateway is a device that can share an Internet connection.11. All use the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance instead of CSMA/CD) for path sharing.3. tasks." Wireless Network Adaptor Wireless Network Adaptor is the inerface that connects a PC with wireless network.3 (UWB) Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). in which the wireless access point is used to communicate with local PCs and other devices and the DSL and cable modem will communicate with the Inernet. such as creating a 10-mile point-to-point link. WML implements a stricter tag syntax than HTML and includes a DTD for use with XML parsers WOS: Wireless Office Systems Wireless Office Systems (WOS) is a technology that allows the user to transfer calls to a mobile telephone. serve DHCP. multimedia-capable personal-area connectivity in the PC. WLAN: Wireless local-area networks (Wireless LAN) Wireless local-area networks (WLAN or wireless LAN) use radio waves to connect a user device to a LAN. Another combination is to build a DSL or cable modem with the wireless access point. and to develop. .11n. It allows multiple FireWire devices to communicate wirelessly over IEEE 802. The wireless 1394 specification adapts the IEEE 1394 and P1394. WLANs are built by attaching a device called the access point (AP) to the edge of the wired network. and bridge between wired and wireless networks. The application at the MED uses this format to encode binary data and control information to be sent to a remote device. also known as wireless 1394. is a wireless version of the high speed FireWire communications protocol defined in the IEEE 1394.11g devices have three nonoverlapping channels. enhance and reference technical specifications. WLL: Wireless Local Loop Wireless Local Loop (WLL). Wireless Gateway may also be called as "wireless router.11a. a wireless NIC is a wireles adaptor. specifications and best practices for usability and interoperability.11g and 802. WML also incorporates some powerful programming constructs not found in HTML like variables. For example. handheld computers and cell phones. maintain. Clients communicate with the AP using a wireless network adapter similar in function to a traditional Ethernet adapter. Wireless FireWire Wireless FireWire. 802.1 bridging standards to the high bandwidth wireless network connectivity enabled by IEEE 802. limited memory capacity. WISPs typically install Wi-Fi wireless hotspots in airports.11a devices have eight nonoverlapping channels.11b.

W-TDMA: Wideband Time Division Multiple Access Wideband Time Division Multiple Access (W-TDMA) is a technique based on time division transmission which is similar to that used by GSM but provides a much higher transmission rate. with the benefit of easier administration and use. These cellular technologies are offered regionally. is capable of sending 480 Mbps or even higher bandwidth at distances up to 3 meters. The latter is needed in cases when data is replayed or not properly verified. The reach of a PAN is typically within 10 meters. within a short range. WUSB: Wireless USB Wireless USB (WUSB) is the wireless extension to USB (Universal Serial Bus) intended to combine the speed and security of wired technology with the ease-of-use of wireless technology. WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol The Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP). WPAN is used for communications among devices such as telephones. It is the official 802.11i security standard was ratified by the IEEE. etc. and an encryption method called Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) to secure data transmissions. WSP: Wireless Session Protocol The Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). 2004.WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a data encryption specification for 802. data integrity. WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security The Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) protocol. WPABX: Wireless Private Automatic Branch Exchange Wireless Private Automatic Branch Exchange (WPABX) is a customer premise telephone switching system using wireless technology to link the individual user stations to the central switching unit. The WRAN technology is useful for remote access to grid computer sites and to independent telcos operating in developing countries. namely. Various computers now have integrated WWAN capabilities with a cellular radio (GSM/CDMA) built in. and 110 Mbps at up to 10 meters. it improves on WEP by using dynamic keys. It is designed to be used with other WAP protocols and to support narrow-band networks. WPA2: Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) is an enhanced version of WPA. ZigBee. computer and its accessories. Created by the WiFi Alliance before a 802. WWAN: Wireless WAN Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) is a wireless network that uses cellular network technologies such as GPRS / CDMA2000 / GSM / CDPD / Mobitex to transfer data. It uses data encryption with a method that is negotiated at the start of the session to provide privacy. a protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite.6 GHz band-range and spreads communications over an ultra-wideband of frequencies.1–10. It provides three different kinds of transaction services. long lived session state with session suspend-and-resume capabilities. The WPABX is capable of interfacing to a telephone central office with trunk groups and routing calls based on a 3. is based on Transport Layer Security (TLS) or formely known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Ultra-wideband(UWB). To reduce the number of messages sent. but was rejected.22 working committee. reliable one-way and reliable two-way transactions. These protocols are optimised to be used in low-bandwith bearer networks with relative long latency in order to connect a WAP client to a HTTP server. provides the Wireless Application Environment a consistent interface with two services: connection-oriented service to operate above the Transaction Layer Protocol (WTP) and a connectionless service that operates above either secure or non-secure datagarm service (WDP).metropolitan areas. a common facility for reliable and unreliable data push as well as a protocol feature negotiation. AES supports 128-bit. IrDA. which allows the user to send and receive data via mobile wireless. This layer also includes optional user-to-user reliability by triggering the confirmation of each received message. based on Ultra-WideBand (UWB) defined by IEEE 802.or 4-digit telephone extension number. It operates in the 3.15. authentication and denial-of-service protection. a protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. WPA provides roughly comparable security to VPN tunneling with WEP. WRAN specifications are defined by the IEEE802. Extensible Authentication Protocol to secure network access. the protocols of the WSP family provide HTTP/1. Technologies enabling WPAN include Bluetooth. When that happens. WRAN: Wireless Regional Area Network Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) technology targets at wireless broadband (remote) access for geographically dispersed. Non Line of Sight (NLOS) due to use of TV broadcast bands as License Exempt (LE) spectrum. 192-bit and 256-bit keys. It was submitted as a solution for UMTS radio interface. Currently. the feature of delaying acknowledgements can be used.11 wireless networks that replaces the weaker WEP. HomeRF. nationwide.11i standard that was ratified by the IEEE in June. It uses the Advanced Encryption Standard instead of TKIP (see above).1 functionality and semantics in a compact encoding. operates efficiently over either secure or non-secure wireless datagram networks. sparsely populated areas. protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite. The transmission range can be up to 100Km. as well as personal digital assistants. Wireless USB. unreliable one-way. WTLS detects the misuse and rejects the data in order to make many typical denialof-service attacks harder to accomplish. or even globally and are provided by a wireless service provider.3. rural or non. . WPAN: Wireless Personal-Area Network Wireless Personal-Area Network (WPAN) is a personal area network using wireless connections.

It allows slow data communications. also known as Evolution Data/Voice (EV-DV). the points must be closer together and are thus more susceptible to noise and other corruption. 64-QAM. also known as Evolution Data Optimized (EV-DO). Radiocom 2000 in France. this results in a higher bit-error rate and so higher-order QAM can deliver more data less reliably than lowerorder QAM. Since in digital telecommunications the data is usually binary.. in addition to voice. Currently. which usually is used by military satellites.5G The 3. ZigBee ZigBee. known as the ZigBee Device Profile (ZDP). but its primary focus is voice. HSDPA (High . developed in the 1980s. 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based (GSM) and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used.5G generally refers to the technologies beyond the well defined 3G wireless/mobile technologies. 2. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States.5G refers to the bridging technologies between second (2G) and third generation (3G) wireless communications. It is a digital communication allowing e-mail and simple Web browsing.Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .5G 2. which uses the digital technologies for the mobile communication.4. Typically. The key technologies include GPRS and WiDEN.15. which the application end points and other ZigBee nodes can access. and handset) mounted near the driver seat 16QAM: 16ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 16ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM). Since QAM is usually square.X Y Z X-Band X-band is the bandwith between 7 GHz to 8 GHz. JTAGS in Japan. In QAM. defined in the IEEE 802. used in Nordic countries. Analog cellular service is being phased out in most places worldwide. 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO. is responsible for overall device management.). but achieves a practical throughput of only 50 to 70 Kbps in the real world.1Mbps. is a third-generation (3G) cellular data technology for GPRS-enabled cellular phones. ZDO has its own profile. networks and handheld devices. the number of points in the grid is usually a power of 2 (2. 1xEV-DV 1xEV-DV. Yagi antennas are used only in point-to-point situations.. the most common forms of QAM are 16-QAM. Yagi Antenna Yagi Antenna is an antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. is a third-generation (3G) cellular data technology for GPRS-enabled cellular phones.4. ZigBee covers up to 330 feet (about 100 meters) in the bandwidth of 20 to 250 kbps. a protocol in the ZigBee protocol stack. 1G: First Generation wireless technology First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone). By moving to a higher-order constellation. 128-QAM and 256-QAM. TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom. ZDO: ZigBee Device Object ZigBee Device Object (ZDO).8. 1xRTT has a theoretical maximum of 144 Kbps of bandwidth. C-Netz in West Germany. the constellation points are usually arranged in a square grid with equal vertical and horizontal spacing. Eastern Europe and Russia. 2G: Second Generation Wireless Technology 2G stands for the second generation of mobile wireless communication technology. one of the forms of QAM. if the mean energy of the constellation is to remain the same (by way of making a fair comparison).Numbers 0G 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. and security keys and policies. However. Its bandwidth is up to 3. display. is the technology used in the low data rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) for home control. is a modulation scheme. Zone Paging Zone Paging is a feature in many paging systems that allows you to page a specific department or an area without disturbing other people. and RTMI in Italy. Its bandwidth is up to 3. 1xRTT 1xRTT is a cellular data technology for CDMA networks. voice-only cellular telephone standard. These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks. Wireless Technology Terms Glossary and Dictionary .1Mbps. 3. building automation industrial automation. it is possible to transmit more bits per symbol. The ZDO is like a special application object that is resident on all ZigBee nodes. networks and handheld devices. RTT stands for Radio Transmission Technology. the transceiver (transmitter-receiver) is mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial. although other configurations are possible.

802.11a uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a fallback to 5. CCSA (China). CCSA (China). Main 3G standards include CDMA2000. 3GPS: 3G Service Provider 3GPS (3G Service Provider) is the mobile operator that has 3G license to provide 3G services to customers 3GSM: Third generation GSM network Third generation GSM (3GSM) is the combination of the 3G nature of the technology and the GSM standard. the 802. 3GPP LTD 3GPP Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE). The scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT2000 project.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi.4 GHz band. 802. the set of 3G standards based on earlier 2G CDMA technology. Likewise. is the quality-of-service specification over a LAN. data and multi-media communications over wireless networks. It's a cooperation between ETSI (Europe). 2 and 1 Mbps) in the 2.11 is a group of wireless specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless local area network (WLAN) communications. 802. 3GPP2 is the standardization group for CDMA2000. UMTS.11a is an extension to IEEE 802. 6lowpan is the paragon that is aimed at allowing IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from PANs. such as Voice-over-Wireless IP and Streaming Multimedia.5. allowing wireless functionality comparable to Ethernet.11i. 802.11i 802.11e 802.11 standard. WPA 2 supports the 128-bit-and-above . TIA (North America) and TTA (South Korea). IEEE802. also known as Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA or EUTRA) or UMTS Long Term Evolution.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band.11 which offers wireless transmission over relatively short distances at 20 – 54 Mbps in the 2.11g is an extension to IEEE 802. In practice.15. The core technology that enables the 3GSM is called Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).11b.11b uses only DSSS. 4G will be designed for new data services and interactive TV through mobile network.11a. 802. 802. 1998.11b. It isn't compatible with 802.11a. 3GPP: The 3rd Generation Partnership Project? The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December. The 802. 802. 802.11b.11b was a ratification to the original 802. The scope of 3GPP2 is to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. more specifically over IEEE802. The protocol enhances the IEEE 802.15. 802.4 GHz band.11 WiFi standard. ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea). is an extension to IEEE 802. low-latency and packet-optimized system. in particular.11n. It is a key 3G technology to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS and provide a high-data-rate. The standard is considered of critical importance for delay-sensitive applications.11 Media Access Control (MAC) layer. actually newer than 802. 1998.11b 802. WCDMA. 802.11b.11b and has a shorter range than 802. 802. ARIB/TTC (Japan).Speed Downlink Packet Access) is considered the primary 3.11g.5G technology which is a software upgrade of WCDMA and provides high-speed broadband wireless access. It details a wireless interface between devices to manage packet traffic to avoid collisions.11e. also called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2). Some common specifications include the following: 802.4 (ZigBee) -standard based networks. 3G: Third Generation Wireless Technology 3G stands for the third generation of wireless communication technologies. 3GPP specifications are based on the evolved GSM specifications.11g also uses the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme.11a 8802.11 802. 6lowpan: IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks 6lowpan is the IETF working group to define the standards of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. an IEEE standard. 802. is specified in the 3GPP release 8. 3-Way Calling 3-Way Calling is a feature in voice communications which allows you to conduct a conference call among three parties. which support broadband voice. also referred to as 802. 802. It's a cooperation between ARIB/TTC (Japan). etc.4/ZigBee devices provide sensing communication-ability in the wireless domain.11g. 4G: Fourth generation of wireless communications 4G is the name for the next generation of technology for high-speed wireless communications that is currently in research and development stage. now generally known as the UMTS system. Besides peak data rates of 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in uplink. a significant increase in spectrum efficiency and capacity as well as a significant latency reduction are planned. etc.11g is compatible with older 802. 3GPP2: The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December.11g 802. is the standard for WLAN security. offers significantly more radio channels than the 802.11b. 802. Commercial aspects like costs for installing and operating the network form also part of the requirements.

15 is a group of IEEE standards that specifies communications for wireless personal area networks (WPAN) based on the Bluetooth tehnologies.4 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is used for short range network monitoring and control applications.16-2005). The 802. Other standards in the family (c–f.11n is another new modulation technique. Mobile WiMAX will do the same.3 is also called UWB.16 The IEEE 802. 802. also known as 802. based on an existing WiMax standard 802.11k The 802.11x standard.16-2004.15.1x authentication and key management features.11 family of specifications. It is predicted to be ratified in mid-2008. adds WiMax mobility in the 2-to-6GHz-licensed bands. The Fixed WiMAX 802. followed by 802.15. along with 802.16e (802.2 (UWB) and 802.11x refers to a group of evolving wireless local area network (WLAN) standards that are elements of the IEEE 802. 802. The 802.11x should not be mistaken for any one of its elements because there is no single 802.15 802. IEEE 802.15.16-2004 product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile.4 is also called Zigbee. 802.1 (Bluetooth).16a has been replaced by later standards in the family 802.11i amendment. This is especially important in applications that need low latency and high quality-of-service.16-2005. 802.15. which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). 802.15. 802. is an IEEE standard for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax). j) are service enhancements and extensions or corrections to previous specifications.11k is the Radio Resource Management standard to provide measurement information for access points and switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently.5 GHz frequency use of WLAN systems in Japan. which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). 802. which is also branded as WiMAX. 802. This wireless broadband access standard provides the missing link for the "last mile" connection in metropolitan area networks where DSL.16-2004 802.15.11 family currently includes six over-the-air modulation techniques that all use the same protocol.11g.16 or WiMAX.15.9 GHz .1 802.11b was the first widely accepted wireless networking standard. It is used for short range network monitoring and control applications. It may.11r The 802. 802.16-2004) and 802. 802.11n is the IEEE Standard for WLAN enhancements for higher throughput designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. is an IEEE standard addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax).16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -. IEEE 802.Advanced Encryption Standard. 802. also known as 802. Multiple Output (MIMO). 802.11r is the Fast Roaming standard to address maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to another. after the WiMAX forum for interoperability.11n 802. IEEE 802.11a and 802.16a standard was developed for wireless MANs operating between 2 GHz and 11 GHz at data speeds of up to 75 megabits per second (Mbps).11s 802.11x 802. Cable and other broadband access methods are not available or too expensive. The most popular (and prolific) techniques are those defined by the b.15. h.15.16-2005. 802. It is called Wireless MAN technology.11 family of standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs) for 4.3 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is used for short range network monitoring and control applications.15 family are: 802.15. 802. 802. .11j 802. 802. 802. and to cover a range up to 400 meters. 802. It also uses TKIP (Temporal Kye Integrity Protocol) which rotates key periodically to improve WLAN security.the latter of which delivers full duplex transmissions on the same signal if desired.4 (ZigBee).15. a.11j is the IEEE standard to the 802.16a.11s standard is designed to deal with mesh networking in wireless communication. 802. 802. better distribute traffic loads across access points or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference.16a 802.16-2005 802. and g amendments to the original standard.16d.16e. 802.16-2005 is sometimes called “Mobile WiMAX†.1 is an IEEE wireless technology standard based on the Bluetooth technology. The current technologies included in the IEEE 802.16d (802.16 refers to a group of standards that defines wireless communications between a subscriber site and a core network such as the public telephone network (PSTN) and the Internet. for example.4 802. security was originally included and was later enhanced via the 802.16a is an IEEE wireless communications specification for metropolitan area networks (MANs) as part of a set of standards known as 802.11n technology is also known as Multiple Input. 802.3 802.

16-2005.20 is a competing standard with 802.the latter of which delivers full duplex transmission on the same signal if desired.16d. a brand new standard. 802. also known as 802. 802.16e. is an IEEE standard for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax). depending on terrain. wireless regional area networks that operate on unused channels in the VHF/UHF TV bands between 54 and 862 MHz.16e.16e.16d 802.16a.20 802.16-2004. adds mobility in the 2-to-6 GHz-licensed bands. 802. The Fixed WiMAX 802. that are verified by a separate server.16e is sometimes called “Mobile WiMAX†. also known as 802. like a user name and password.22 is an IEEE standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN). authenticator (switch or access point).20.22 specifies a cognitive air interface for fixed. 802.802. adds WiMax mobility in the 2-to-6 GHz-licensed bands. In 802. IEEE 802. based on 802.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -.16e 802.16a.5GHz and with a peak data rate of over 1 Mbit/s. 802.16d product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. after the WiMAX forum for interoperability.16e allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access). based on an existing WiMax standard 802. IEEE 802. and authentication server. .22 802. aims for operation in licensed bands below 3. while 802.20 is an IEEE standard of Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) by specifying new mobile air interfaces for wireless broadband. there are three roles: the supplicant (client).1x is an IEEE authentication specification that allows a client to connect to a wireless access point or wired switch but prevents the client from gaining access to the Internet until it provides credentials.1x 802. Signals at these frequencies can propagate 40 km or more from a well-sited base station. 802. 802. IEEE 802.16e.1X. 802. point-to-multipoint. is an IEEE standard addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax).

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