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A P P E N D IX 3

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
OF FLUIDS

Table A3-1
Properties of Hydrocarbons and Common Gases (GPSA, 1987)

Component Formula Molecular Boiling Vapor Critical Liquid Volume


weight point (◦ F) pressure specific ratio,
(1 atm) at 100◦ F, Pressure Temperature gravity Scf gas
(psia) (psia) (◦ F) (60/60◦ F) per gal
liquid

Methane CH4 16.043 −258.73 (5000)a 666.4 −116.67 0.3a 59.135a


Ethane C 2 H6 30.070 −127.49 (800)a 706.5 89.92 0.35619c 37.476c
Propane C 3 H8 44.097 −43.75 188.64 616.0 206.06 0.50699c 36.375c
iso–Butane C4 H10 58.123 10.78 72.581 527.9 274.46 0.56287c 30.639c
n-Butane C4 H10 58.123 31.08 51.706 550.6 305.62 0.58401c 31.790c
iso–Pentane C5 H12 72.150 82.12 20.445 490.4 369.10 0.62470 27.393
n-Pentane C5 H12 72.150 96.92 15.574 488.6 385.8 0.63112 27.674
n-Hexane C6 H14 86.177 155.72 4.960 436.9 453.6 0.66383 24.371
n-Heptane C7 H16 100.204 209.16 1.620 396.8 512.7 0.68820 21.729
n-Octane C8 H18 114.231 258.21 0.537 360.7 564.2 0.70696 19.580
n-Decane C10 H22 142.285 345.48 0.061 305.2 652.0 0.73421 16.326
Nitrogen N2 28.013 −320.45 — 493.1 −232.51 0.80940d 91.413c
Oxygen O2 31.999 −297.33 — 731.4 −181.43 1.1421d 112.93c
Carbon CO2 44.010 −109.26b — 1071 87.91 0.81802c 58.807c
dioxide
Hydrogen H2 S 34.08 −76.50 394.59 1300 212.45 0.80144c 74.401c
sulfide
Water H2 O 18.0115 212.00 0.950 3198 705.16 1.00000d 175.62c
Air Mixture 28.9625 −317.8 — 546.9 −221.31 0.87476d 95.557c

continued

579
580 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

Table A3-1
Properties of Hydrocarbons and Common Gases (GPSA, 1987)—cont’d

Component Acentric Flammability limits Heating value at 60◦ F Freezing Heat of


factor, (ω) (vol% in air mixture) (1 atm, Btu/scf) point at vaporization
1 atm, ◦ F at 1 atm,
Lower Upper Net Gross Btu/lb

Methane 0.0104 5.0 15.0 909.4 1010.0 −296.44f 219.45


Ethane 0.0979 2.9 13.0 1618.7 1769.6 −297.04f 211.14
Propane 0.1522 2.0 9.5 2314.9 2516.1 −305.73f 183.01
iso–Butane 0.1852 1.8 8.5 3000.4 3251.9 −255.82 157.23
n-Butane 0.1995 1.5 9.0 3010.8 3262.3 −217.05 165.93
iso–Pentane 0.2280 1.3 8.0 3699.0 4000.9 −255.82 147.12
n-Pentane 0.2514 1.4 8.3 3706.9 4008.9 −217.05 153.57
n-Hexane 0.2994 1.1 7.7 4403.8 4755.9 −139.58 143.94
n-Heptane 0.3494 1.0 7.0 5100.8 5502.5 −131.05 136.00
n-Octane 0.3977 0.8 6.5 5796.1 6248.9 −70.18 129.52
n-Decane 0.4898 0.7 5.4 7189.6 7742.9 −21.36 119.65
Nitrogen 0.0372 — — — — −346.00f 85.59
Oxygen 0.0216 — — — — −361.82f 91.59
Carbon dioxide 0.2667 — — — — −69.83 246.47
Hydrogen sulfide 0.0948 4.3 45.5 586.8 637.1 −121.88f 235.63
Water 0.3442 — — — — 32.00 970.18
Air — — — — — — 88.20

a Above critical point, extrapolated or estimated.


b Sublimation point.
c At saturation pressure, 60◦ F.
d At normal boiling point.
e Gas at 60◦ F, liquid at normal boiling point.
f At the triple point pressure.

Table A3-2
Physical Data for Common Refrigerants (Ludwig, 1983)

Refrigerant Boiling Critical Critical Freezing


point temp, ◦ F pressure point, ◦ F
(1 atm) ◦ F (psia)

R-12, CCl2 F2 −21.6 233.6 596.9 −252.0


R-11, CCl3 F 74.7 388.4 635.0 −168.0
R-21, CHCl2 F 48.0 353.3 750.0 −221.0
R-22, CHClF2 −41.4 204.8 716.0 −256.0
R-113, CClF2 CCl2 F 117.6 417.4 495.0 −31.0
R-114, CClF2 CClF2 38.4 294.3 474.0 −137.0
Carbon dioxide, CO2 −108.4 37.8 1071 −69.9
Ammonia, NH3 −28.0 271.2 1651 −108
Methyl chloride, CH3 Cl −10.76 289.6 969 −144
Sulfur dioxide, SO2 14.0 314.8 1142 −99
Methylene chloride, CH2 Cl2 103.7 421 640 −143
Appendix 3 581

Table A3-3
Approximate Ratio of Specific Heats (“k” values) for Various Gasesa

Gas Symbol Molecular k at 14.7 psia Density at


Weight 14.7 psi and
60◦ F 150◦ F 60◦ F
(lbs./cu. ft.)

Monatomic He, Kr, Ne, Hg — 1.67 — —


Most diatomic O2 , N2 , H2 , etc. — 1.4 — —
Acetylene C 2 H2 26.03 1.3 1.22 0.0688
Air — 28.97 1.406 1.40 0.0765
Ammonia NH3 17.03 1.317 1.29 0.451
Argon A — 1.667 — 0.1056
Benzene C 6 H6 78.0 1.08 1.09 0.2064
Butane C4 H10 58.1 1.11 1.08 0.1535
Isobutane C4 H10 58.1 1.11 1.08 0.1578
Butylene C 4 H8 56.1 1.1 1.09 0.1483
iso-Butene C 4 H8 56.1 1.1 1.09 0.1483
Carbon dioxide CO2 44.0 1.3 1.27 0.1164
Carbon monoxide CO 28.0 1.4 1.4 0.0741
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.8 1.18 — 0.406
Chlorine Cl2 70.9 1.33 — 0.1875
Dichlorodifiluoromethane CCl2 F2 120.9 1.13 — —
Dichloromethane CH2 Cl2 84.9 1.13 — 0.2215
Ethane C 2 H6 30.0 1.22 1.17 0.0794
Ethylene C 2 H4 28.1 1.25 1.21 0.0741
Ethyl chloride C2 H5 Cl 64.5 1.13 — 0.1705
Flue gas — — 1.4 — —
Helium He 4.0 1.667 — 0.01058
Hexane C6 H14 88.1 1.08 1.05 0.2276
Heptane C7 H16 100.2 — 1.04 0.264
Hydrogen H2 2.01 1.41 1.40 0.0053
Hydrogen chloride HCl 36.5 1.48 — 0.09650
Hydrogen sulfide H2 S 34.1 1.30 1.31 0.0901
Methane CH4 16.03 1.316 1.28 0.0423
Methyl chloride CH3 Cl 50.5 1.20 — 0.1336
Natural gas (approximate) — 19.5 1.27 — 0.0514
Nitric oxide NO 30.0 1.40 — 0.0793
Nitrogen N2 28.0 1.41 1.40 0.0743
Nitrous oxide N2 O 44.0 1.311 — 0.1163
Oxygen O2 32.0 1.4 1.39 0.0846
Pentane C5 H12 72.1 1.06 1.06 0.1905
Propane C 3 H8 44.1 1.15 1.11 0.1164
Propylene C 3 H6 42.0 1.16 — 0.1112
Sulfur dioxide SO2 64.1 1.256 — 0.1694
Water vaper (steam) H2 O 18.0 1.33∗ 1.32 0.04761
∗At 212◦ F
a Compiled from “Plain Talks on Air and Gas Compression, Fourth of Series,” Worthington Corp.
and Reciprocating Compressor Calculation Data Cooper-Bessemer Corp. (1956), by permission.
Table A3-4
Physical Properties of Gas Treating Chemicals (GPSA, 1998)

Compound Monoethanol- Diethanol- Triethanol- Diglycol- Diisopropanol-


amine amine amine amine amine

Formula HOC2 H4 NH2 (HOC2 H4 )2 NH (HOC2 H4 )3 N H(OC2 H4 )2 NH2 (HOC3 H6 )2 NH


Molecular weight 61.08 105.14 148.19 105.14 133.19
Boiling point 170.5 269 360(decomposes) 221 248.7
at 760 mm Hg, ◦ C
Freezing point, ◦ C 10.5 28.0 22.4 −12.5 42
Critical constants
Pressure, kPa (abs) 5985 3273 2448 3772 3770
Temperature, ◦ C 350 442.1 514.3 402.6 399.2
Density at 20◦ C, g/cc. 1.018 1.095 1.124 1.058 at 15.6◦ C 0.999 at 30◦ C
Wieght, kg/m3 1016 at 15.6◦ C 1089 at 15.6◦ C 1123 at 15.6◦ C 1057 at 15.6◦ C
Relative density 20◦ C/20◦ C 1.0179 1.0919 1.1258 1.0572 0.989 at
(30◦ /20◦ C) 45◦ C/20◦ C
Specific heat at 15.6◦ C, 2.55 at 20◦ C 2.51 2.93 2.39 2.89 at 30◦ C
kJ/(kg. ◦ C)
Thermal conductivity
at 20◦ C, W/(m. ◦ C) 0.256 0.220 — 0.209 —
Latent heat of vaporization, 826 at 670 at 535 at 510 at 430 at
kJ/kg 760 mm Hg 73 mm Hg 760 mm Hg 760 mm Hg 760 mm Hg
Heat of reaction, kJ/kg of
Acid gas
H2 S −930 −1568 —
CO2 −1465 −1977 —
Viscosity, mPa.sec 24.1 at 20◦ C 350 at 20◦ C 1013 at 20◦ C 40 at 16◦ C 870 at 30◦ C
(at 90% wt. (at 95% wt. 198 at 45◦ C
solution) solution) 86 at 54◦ C
Refractive index, Nd 20◦ C 1.4539 1.4776 1.4852 1.4598 1.4542 at 45◦ C
Flash point, COC, ◦ C 93 138 185 127 124
Appendix 3 583

Table A3-5
Physical Properties of Selected Glycols and Methanol (GPSA, 1998)a

Compound Ethylene Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene Methanol


glycol glycol glycol glycol

Formula C 2 H6 O2 C4 H10 O3 C6 H14 O4 C6 H18 O5 CH3 OH


Molecular mass 62.1 106.1 150.2 194.2 32.04
Boiling pointb at 197.3 244.8 285.5 314 64.5
760 mm Hg, ◦ C
Vapor pressure at 0.12 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 120
77◦ F (25◦ C),
mm Hg
Density at 77◦ F 1110 1113 1119 1120 790
(25◦ C), kg/m3
Freezing point, ◦ C −13 −8 −7 −5.5 −97.8
Pour point, ◦ C — −54 −58 −41
Viscosity in
centipoise
77◦ F (25◦ C) 16.5 28.2 37.3 44.6 0.52
140◦ F (60◦ C) 4.68 6.99 8.77 10.2
Specific heat
77◦ F (25◦ C), 2.43 2.30 2.22 2.18 2.52
kJ/(kg.K)
Flash point, ◦ C 116 124 177 204 12
(PMCC)
a These properties are laboratory results on pure compounds or typical of the products, but should
not be confused with, or regarded as, specifications.
b Glycols decompose at temperatures below their atmospheric boiling point. Approximate decompo-

sition temperatures are ethylene glycol, 165◦ C; triethylene glycol, 207◦ C; diethylene glycol, 164◦ C;
and tetraethylene glycol, 238◦ C.

Table A3-6
Specific Gravities of Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutionsa

Specific gravity at T/60◦ F = A + Bx+ Cx2 , where x is TEG wt%

T◦ F A B C

−50 1.0502 1.8268E-3 −5.2009E-6


0 1.0319 1.7466E-3 −4.8304E-6
50 1.0121 1.5247E-3 −2.8794E-6
100 0.9920 1.7518E-3 −5.4955E-6
150 0.9804 1.5410E-3 −4.3884E-6
200 0.9627 1.4068E-3 −3.5089E-6
250 0.9413 1.3205E-3 −2.7991E-6
300 0.9177 1.2511E-3 −2.0848E-6
a UnionCarbide Chemicals & Plastics Company Inc., “Triethylene Glycol,” 39 old
Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817 (1989).
584 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

Table A3-7
Specific Heat for Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutionsa

Speci c heat = A + BT + CT2 , where T is temperature, ◦ C

TEG wt% A B C

0 1.00540 −2.7286E-4 2.9143E-6


10 0.96705 −2.7144E-5 2.4952E-6
20 0.92490 2.0429E-4 2.4524E-6
30 0.88012 4.3000E-4 1.6952E-6
40 0.83229 6.2286E-4 1.3714E-6
50 0.78229 7.9286E-4 1.0857E-6
60 0.72200 9.4000E-4 8.0000E-7
70 0.66688 1.0871E-3 4.7620E-7
80 0.60393 1.2043E-3 2.8571E-7
90 0.53888 1.2800E-3 1.9048E-7
100 0.48614 1.3929E-3 −5.7140E-8
a UnionCarbide Chemicals & Plastics Company Inc., “Triethylene Glycol,” 39 old Ridgebury Rd.,
Danbury, CT 06817 (1989).
Appendix 3 585

Pseudo-reduced pressure, pr
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1.1 1.1
Pseudo reduced
temperature

1.0 1.0
1.05
1.2
0.95

0.9

0.8 1.7

0.7 1.6
Compressibility factor, Z

Compressibility factor, Z
0.6 1.5

0.5 1.4

0.4 1.3

0.3 1.2

0.25

1.1 1.1

1.0 1.0
Compressibility of
natural gases
Jan.1,1941

0.9 0.9
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Pseudo reduced pressure, pr

Figure A3-1. Compressibility of natural gases (GPSA, 1998).


586 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

1.100

1.090

1.080

1.070

1.060

1.050
Density, GMS./CC.

1.040

1.030

68°F
1.020

1.010
104°F

1.000
140°F
0.990

0.980
176°F

0.970

0.960
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Monoethanolamine, Percent by Weight

Figure A3-2. Density of MEA solutions (Gas Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co.,
Houston, Texas, 1969).
Appendix 3 587

1.100

1.090

1.080

1.070
68°F
1.060
Density, GMS./CC./at 39.2°F

1.050 104°F

1.040
140°F

1.030

176°F
1.020

1.010

1.000

0.990

0.980

0.970

0.960
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Diethanolamine, Percent by Weight

Figure A3-3. Density of DEA solutions (Gas Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co.,
Houston, Texas, 1969).
588 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

100
80
60

40

20

10
8
Viscosity, Centipoise

4
10
0%

80%
2
60%

40%

1 30%
0.8
20%
0.6

0.4 0%

0.2

0.1
50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 230
Temperature, °F

Figure A3-4. Viscosity of aqueous MEA solutions as function of weight percent MEA (Gas
Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co., Houston, Texas, 1969).
Appendix 3 589

1000
800
600

400

200

100
80 10
0%
60

40
80
%
Viscosity, Centipoise

20

10
8
60%
6

40%
2 30%

20%

1 10%
0.8
0.6 0%

0.4

0.2

0.1
50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 150 180 200 180
Temperature, °F

Figure A3-5. Viscosity of aqueous DEA solutions as function of weight percent DEA (Gas
Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co., Houston, Texas, 1969).
590 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing

−40°
1.11 F
−20°
F
1.10
0°F

1.09

20°F
1.08
40°F

1.07
60°F

1.06
80°F

1.05
Density, gr/cc.

100°
F
1.04
120°F

1.03
140°F

1.02
160°F

180°F
1.01

1.00

0.99

0.98

0.97
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Diglycolamine, Weight Percent

Figure A3-6. Density of aqueous DGA solutions (Gas Treating Data Book, Jefferson Chemical
Co., Houston, Texas, 1969).
Appendix 3 591

100000

10000

40°
F

20°
F
1000
Viscosity, Centipoise

0°F
rve
Cu

100
20°F
int
Po
ng

40°F
ezi
Fre

60°F
80°F
10 100°F
120°F
140°F
160°F
180°F
200°F

0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Diglycolamine, Weight Percent

Figure A3-7. Viscosity of aqueous DGA solutions (Gas Treating Data Book, Jefferson
Chemical Co., Houston, Texas, 1969).