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PREFACE

This is the second pocket edition of the Constitution of


India in the diglot form. In this edition, the text of the Constitution
of India has been brought up-to-date by incorporating therein all
the amendments up to and including the Constitution (Ninety-
second Amendment) Act, 2003.

2. The Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and


Kashmir with certain exceptions and modifications as provided in
article 370 and the Constitution (Application to Jammu and
Kashmir) Order, 1954. This Order has been included in Appendix
I for facility of reference. Appendix II contains a restatement of
the exceptions and modifications. Appendix III relates to extracts
from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978. The
text of the constitutional amendments relating to the Constitution
(Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 and the Constitution
(Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2002, which have not come in
force, have been provided in Appendix IV and Appendix V.

New Delhi; T.K. VISWANATHAN


6th June, 2004. Secretary to the Government of India.
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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
_______
CONT ENTS
_______
PREAMB LE
P ART I
THE UN IO N AN D ITS T ERR IT ORY
ART IC LE
1 Name an d t erri t ory o f t h e Un i on .
2 Ad mi s si on or es t ab li sh ment of n ew St at es .
2A [Rep ea l ed.]
3 Format i on of n ew St at es an d alt erat i on of areas , b ou nd ari es or
n ames of ex i s ti n g St at es .
4 La ws mad e un d er art i cles 2 an d 3 t o p rovi d e for t h e amen dmen t o f
t h e Fi rs t and t h e Fou rt h Sch edu les and s up p lemen t al, i n ci d en tal
an d cons equ en ti al mat t ers .
P ART I I
CIT IZE NSH IP
5 Ci t i zen sh ip at t h e commen cement of t h e Con s t it ut i on .
6 Ri gh t s of ci t i zen sh ip of cert ai n p ers on s wh o h ave mi grat ed t o
In d i a from Paki s t an .
7 Ri gh t s of ci t i zen sh i p of cert ai n mi gran t s t o Paki s t an .
8 Ri gh t s of ci t i zen sh ip of cert ai n p ers ons of In d i an ori gi n resi din g
ou t s id e In d i a.
9 Pers on s volu n t ari ly acq u i ri n g cit i zens hi p of a forei gn St at e n ot t o
b e ci ti zens .
10 Con t i nu an ce of t h e ri ght s of ci t izen s hi p .
11 Parli amen t t o regu lat e th e ri gh t o f ci t i zens hi p b y la w.
P ART I I I
FU ND AMEN TA L R IG H TS
Gen er a l
12 Defi n i t i on .
13 La ws i n con s is t en t wit h or in d erogat i on o f t h e fu n d amen t al ri gh ts .

Right to Equality
14 Equality before law.
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15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of


birth.
16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
17 Abolition of Untouchability.
18 Abolition of titles.
Right to Freedom
19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
21 Protection of life and personal liberty.
22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
Right against Exploitation
23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
Right to Freedom of Religion
25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain
educational institutions.
Cultural and Educational Rights
29 Protection of interests of minorities.
30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
31 [Repealed.]
Saving of Certain Laws
31A Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31B Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
31C Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.
31D [Repealed.]
Right to Constitutional Remedies
32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.
32A [Repealed.]
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33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their


application to Forces, etc.
34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any
area.
35 Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.
PART IV
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
36 Definition.
37 Application of the principles contained in this Part.
38 State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
39A Equal justice and free legal aid.
40 Organisation of village panchayats.
41 Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
42 Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
43 Living wage, etc., for workers.
43A Participation of workers in management of industries.
44 Uniform civil code for the citizens.
45 Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
46 Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to
improve public health.
48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and
wild life.
49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
50 Separation of judiciary from executive.
51 Promotion of international peace and security.
PART IVA
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

51A Fundamental duties.


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PART V
THE UNION
CHAPTER I.-THE EXECUTIVE
The President and Vice-President
52 The President of India.
53 Executive power of the Union.
54 Election of President.
55 Manner of election of President.
56 Term of office of President.
57 Eligibility for re-election.
58 Qualifications for election as President.
59 Conditions of President’s office.
60 Oath or affirmation by the President.
61 Procedure for impeachment of the President.
62 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term
of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
63 The Vice-President of India.
64 The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.
65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during
casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.
66 Election of Vice-President.
67 Term of office of Vice-President.
68 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the
term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
69 Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.
70 Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies.
71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-
President.
72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.
73 Extent of executive power of the Union.
Council of Ministers
74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
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75 Other provisions as to Ministers.


The Attorney-General for India
76 Attorney-General for India.
Conduct of Government Business
77 Conduct of business of the Government of India.
78 Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the
President, etc.
CHAPTER II.-PARLIAMENT
General
79 Constitution of Parliament.
80 Composition of the Council of States.
81 Composition of the House of the People.
82 Readjustment after each census.
83 Duration of Houses of Parliament.
84 Qualification for membership of Parliament.
85 Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
86 Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.
87 Special address by the President.
88 Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.
Officers of Parliament
89 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.
90 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.
91 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Chairman.
92 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
93 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People .
94 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and
Deputy Speaker.
95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office
of, or to act as, Speaker.
96 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
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97 Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker
and Deputy Speaker.
98 Secretariat of Parliament.
Conduct of Business
99 Oath or affirmation by members.
100 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and
quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
101 Vacation of seats.
102 Disqualifications for membership.
103 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
104 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article
99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
105 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and
committees thereof.
106 Salaries and allowances of members.
Legislative Procedure
107 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
108 Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
110 Definition of “Money Bills”.
111 Assent to Bills.
Procedure in Financial Matters
112 Annual financial statement.
113 Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
114 Appropriation Bills.
115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
Procedure Generally
118 Rules of procedure.
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119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.


120 Language to be used in Parliament.
121 Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.
CHAPTER III.LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.
CHAPTER IV. THE UNION JUDICIARY
124 Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.
125 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
127 Appointment of ad hoc judges.
128 Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.
129 Supreme Court to be a court of record.
130 Seat of Supreme Court.
131 Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
131A [Repealed.]
132 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain
cases.
133 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard
to Civil matters.
134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.
134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
135 Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be
exercisable by the Supreme Court.
136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
137 Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.
138 Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
139 Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
139A Transfer of certain cases.
140 Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
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142 Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to


discovery, etc.
143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
144A [Repealed.]
145 Rules of Court, etc.
146 Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.
147 Interpretation.

CHAPTER V. COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA


148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
150 Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.
151 Audit reports.
PART VI
THE STATES
CHAPTER I. GENERAL
152 Definition.
CHAPTER II. THE EXECUTIVE
The Governor
153 Governors of States.
154 Executive power of State.
155 Appointment of Governor.
156 Term of office of Governor.
157 Qualifications for appointment as Governor.
158 Conditions of Governor’s office
159 Oath or affirmation by the Governor.
160 Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.
161 Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.
162 Extent of executive power of State.
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Council of Ministers
163 Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
164 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Advocate-General for the State
165 Advocate-General for the State.
Conduct of Government Business
166 Conduct of business of the Government of a State.
167 Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor,
etc.
CHAPTER III.THE STATE LEGISLATURE
General
168 Constitution of Legislatures in States.
169 Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.
170 Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.
171 Composition of the Legislative Councils.
172 Duration of State Legislatures.
173 Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.
174 Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.
175 Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
176 Special address by the Governor.
177 Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.
Officers of the State Legislature
178 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
179 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and
Deputy Speaker.
180 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office
of, or to act as, Speaker.
181 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
182 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.
183 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and
Deputy Chairman.
184 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Chairman.
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185 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
186 Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman
and Deputy Chairman.
187 Secretariat of State Legislature.
Conduct of Business
188 Oath or affirmation by members.
189 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and
quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
190 Vacation of seats.
191 Disqualifications for membership.
192 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article
188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
194 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and
committees thereof.
195 Salaries and allowances of members.
Legislative Procedure
196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.
198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
199 Definition of “Money Bills”.
200 Assent to Bills.
201 Bills reserved for consideration.
Procedure in Financial Matters
202 Annual financial statement.
203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.
204 Appropriation Bills.
205 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
206 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
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207 Special provisions as to financial Bills.


Procedure Generally
208 Rules of procedure.
209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to
financial business.
210 Language to be used in the Legislature.
211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.
212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.
CHAPTER IV.- LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR
213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
CHAPTER V---THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES
214 High Courts for States.
215 High Courts to be courts of record.
216 Constitution of High Courts.
217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.
218 Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.
219 Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.
220 Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.
221 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
222 Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.
223 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
224 Appointment of additional and acting Judges.
224A Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.
225 Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.
226 Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
226A [Repealed..]
227 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.
228 Transfer of certain cases to High Court.
228A [Repealed.]
229 Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.
230 Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.
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231 Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.


CHAPTER VISUBORDINATE COURTS
233 Appointment of district judges.
233A Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district
judges.
234 Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.
235 Control over subordinate courts.
236 Interpretation.
237 Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of
magistrates.
PART VII
THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE
238 [Repealed.]
PART VIII
THE UNION TERRITORIES
239 Administration of Union territories.
239A Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union
territories.
239A Special provisions with respect to Delhi.
239AA Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
239AB Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
240 Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.
241 High Courts for Union territories.
242 [Repealed.]
PART IX
THE PANCHAYATS
243 Definitions.
243A Gram Sabha.
243B Constitution of Panchayats.
243C Composition of Panchayats.
243D Reservation of seats.
243E Duration of Panchayats, etc.
243F Disqualifications for membership.
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243G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.


243H Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.
243-I Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.
243J Audit of accounts of Pachayats.
243K Elections to the Panchayats.
243L Application to Union territories.
243M Part not to apply to certain areas.
243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.
243-O Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
PART IXA
THE MUNICIPALITIES
243P Definitions.
243Q Constitution of Municipalities.
243R Composition of Municipalities.
243S Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.
243T Reservation of seats.
243U Duration of Municipalities, etc.
243V Disqualifications for membership.
243W Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.
243 Finance Commission.
243Z Audit of accounts of Municipalities.
243ZA Elections to the Municipalities.
243ZB Application to Union territories.
243ZC Part not to apply to certain areas.
243ZD Committee for district planning.
243ZE Committee for Metropolitan planning.
243ZF Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.
243ZG Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.
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PART X
THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS
244 Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
244A Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and
creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.
PART XI
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I.LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS
Distribution of Legislative Powers
245 Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
246 Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
247 Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional
courts.
248 Residuary powers of legislation.
249 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the
national interest.
250 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a
Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
251 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and
laws made by the Legislatures of States.
252 Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption
of such legislation by any other State.
253 Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
254 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the
Legislatures of States.
255 Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as
matters of procedure only.
CHAPTER II. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS
General
256 Obligation of States and the Union.
257 Control of the Union over States in certain cases.
257A [Repealed.]
258 Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.
258A Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.
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259 [Repealed.]
260 Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.
261 Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.
Disputes relating to Waters
262 Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys.
Co-ordination between States
263 Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.
PART XII
FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
CHAPTER I.FINANCE
General
264 Interpretation.
265 Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.
266 Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.
267 Contingency Fund.
Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
268 Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State.
269 Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.
270 Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.
271 Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.
272 [Repealed.]
273 Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.
274 Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which
States are interested.
275 Grants from the Union to certain States.
276 Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
277 Savings.
278 [Repealed.]
279 Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc.
280 Finance Commission.
281 Recommendations of the Finance Commission.
Miscellaneous financial provisions
282 Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.
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283 Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited
to the public accounts.
284 Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by public servants and
courts.
285 Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.
286 Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.
287 Exemption from taxes on electricity.
288 Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain
cases.
289 Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.
290 Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.
290A Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.
291 [Repealed.]
CHAPTER II. BORROWING
292 Borrowing by the Government of India.
293 Borrowing by States.
CHAPTER III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES,
OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS
294 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases.
295 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases.
296 Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia.
297 Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the
exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.
298 Power to carry on trade, etc.
299 Contracts.
300 Suits and proceedings.
CHAPTER IV. RIGHT TO PROPERTY
300A Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.
PART XIII
TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN
THE TERRITORY OF INDIA
301 Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.
302 Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse.
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303 Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard
to trade and commerce.
304 Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.
305 Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.
306 [Repealed.]
307 Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.
PART XIV
SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I. SERVICES
308 Interpretation.
309 Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.
310 Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.
311 Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities
under the Union or a State.
312 All-India services.
312A Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of
certain services.
313 Transitional provisions.
314 [Repeated.]
CHAPTER II.—PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS
315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
316 Appointment and term of office of members.
317 Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.
318 Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of
the Commission.
319 Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing
to be such members.
320 Functions of Public Service Commissions.
321 Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
322 Expenses of Public Service Commissions.
323 Reports of Public Service Commissions.
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PART XIVA
TRIBUNALS
323A Administrative tribunals.
323B Tribunals for other matters.
PART XV
ELECTIONS
324 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election
Commission.
325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a
special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.
326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States
to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
327 Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures.
328 Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to
such Legislature.
329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
329A [Repealed.]
PART XVI
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES
330 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of
the People.
331 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.
332 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the
Legislative Assemblies of the States.
333 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of
the States.
334 Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.
335 Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
336 Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.
337 Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-
Indian Community.
338 National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
338A National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
339 Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the
welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
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340 Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward


classes.
341 Scheduled Castes.
342 Scheduled Tribes.
PART XVII
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
CHAPTER I.—LANGUAGE OF THE UNION
343 Official language of the Union.
344 Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.
CHAPTER II. REGIONAL LANGUAGES
345 Official language or languages of a State.
346 Official language for communication between one State and another or between
a State and the Union.
347 Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a
State.
CHAPTER III.LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT,
HIGH COURTS, ETC.
348 Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts,
Bills, etc.
349 Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.
CHAPTER IV.-SPECIAL DIRECTIVES
350 Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.
350A Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
350B Special Officer for linguistic minorities.
351 Directive for development of the Hindi language.
PART XVIII
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
352 Proclamation of Emergency.
353 Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.
354 Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a
Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
355 Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal
disturbance.
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356 Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.


357 Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.
358 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.
359 Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during
emergencies.
359A [Repealed.]
360 Provisions as to financial emergency.
PART XIX
MISCELLANEOUS
361 Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs.
361A Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures.
361B Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.
362 [Repealed.]
363 Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,
agreements, etc.
363A Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be
abolished.
364 Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.
365 Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the
Union.
366 Definitions.
367 Interpretation.
PART XX
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
368 Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.
PART XXI
TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND
SPECIAL PROVISIONS
369 Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in
the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List.
370 Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
371 Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
371A Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.
xxi Contents
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371B Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.


371C Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.
371D Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.
371E Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.
371F Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.
371G Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
371H Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.
371-I Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.
372 Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.
372A Power of the President to adapt laws.
373 Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive
detention in certain cases.
374 Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the
Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.
375 Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions
of the Constitution.
376 Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.
377 Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
378 Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.
378A Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
379-391 [Repealed.]
392 Power of the President to remove difficulties.
PART XXII
SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT
IN HINDI AND REPEALS
393 Short title.
394 Commencement.
394A Authoritative text in the Hindi language.
395 Repeals.
xxii Contents
ARTICLE

SCHEDULES

FIRST SCHEDULE
I. —The States.
II. —The Union territories.
SECOND SCHEDULE
PART A—- Provisions as to the President and the Governors of States.
PART B—[Repealed.]
PART C—Provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the
People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of
States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative
Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative
Council of a State.
PART D— Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts.
PART E— Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
THIRD SCHEDULE— Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.
FOURTH SCHEDULE—Allocation of seats in the Council of States.
FIFTH SCHEDULE— Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled
Areas and Scheduled Tribes
PART A—General.
PART B—Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
PART C— Scheduled Areas.
PART D—Amendment of the Schedule.
SIXTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of
Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
SEVENTH SCHEDULE—
List I — Union List.
List II— State List.
List III— Concurrent List.
EIGHTH SCHEDULE— Languages.
NINTH SCHEDULE—Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
TENTH SCHEDULE— Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.
ELEVENTH SCHEDULE— Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
TWELFTH SCHEDULE— Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
xxiii Contents
ARTICLE

APPENDIX

APPENDIX I—The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.


APPENDIX II— Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the Constitution, of the
exceptions and modifications subject to which the Constitution applies
to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
APPENDIX III—Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978
APPENDIX IV—The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.
APPENDIX V—The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003.

INDEX
xxiv Contents
ARTICLE

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INDEX

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1 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P R E AM B L E

WE, TH E PEOP LE O F IND IA, h avi n g s olemn l y res o lve d t o


con s t it u t e In d i a i nt o a SOVERE IG N SOC IA LIST SECU LA R
DEMOCRA T IC REPUB LIC an d t o s ecu re t o all i t s ci t i zen s :

J USTIC E, s oci al, econ omi c an d p oli t i cal;

LIB ERT Y o f t h ou gh t , exp res si on , b eli ef, fai t h and wors h ip ;

EQU A LITY o f s t at u s an d of op p ort u n it y;

an d t o p romot e amon g t h em all

FRA TER N ITY as s u ri n g th e di gn i t y o f t h e in d i vid u al and t h e un i t y


an d i n t egrit y o f t h e Nat i on ;

IN OUR C ONST ITU ENT ASS EMB LY t h i s t went y-s i x t h d ay o f


Novemb er, 1 9 4 9 , d o HERE BY AD OPT, EN ACT AN D G IV E T O
OURSE LVES TH IS CO NST ITU TION.
2 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
1 . Nam e a nd terri tory of the Uni on.—(1 ) In d i a, t h at i s Bh arat, s h all b e
a Un i on of St at es .
(2 ) Th e St at es an d th e t erri t ories t h ereof s h al l b e as s p eci fi ed i n t h e
Fi rs t Sch edu le.
(3 ) Th e t errit ory o f In d i a sh all comp ri s e—
(a ) t h e t errit ori es of t h e St at es ;
(b ) t h e Un i on terri t ori es s p eci fi ed in th e Fi rs t Sch ed u le; an d
(c) s u ch ot h er t erri t ori es as may b e acqu i red.
2 . Admi s si on or es ta bl is hm ent of new Sta tes .—Parli amen t may b y la w
ad mi t in t o t h e Un i on , or es t ab li sh , n ew St at es on s u ch t erms an d con d i ti on s
as i t t hi n ks fi t .
2 A. [S i kki m t o b e as so cia t ed wit h t h e Uni on .] Rep . b y th e Co ns t it u ti on
(Th i rt y- s i xt h Amend men t ) Act , 19 7 5, s . 5 (w.e.f . 26 -4 -1 9 7 5 ).
3 . F orm a ti on of new Sta tes and a l tera ti on of a rea s , bounda ri es or
na m es of exi s ti ng Sta tes .—Parli amen t may b y la w—
(a ) form a n ew St at e b y s ep arat ion o f t erri t or y from an y St at e o r b y
u n it in g t wo or m ore St at es or p art s of St at es or b y u n i t i n g an y t erri t ory
t o a p art of an y St at e;
(b ) i n creas e th e area of an y St at e;
(c) d i min is h t h e area of an y St at e;
(d ) alt er t h e b ou nd ari es of an y S t at e;
(e) alt er t h e n ame of an y St at e:
Provi d ed t h at n o Bi ll fo r t h e p u rp os e s h all b e i n t rod u ced i n ei th er Hou s e
o f Parli amen t ex cept on th e recommen d ati on of t h e Pres i d en t an d u n les s ,
wh ere t h e p rop os al con t ain ed in th e Bi ll affect s t h e area, b ou n d ari es or
n ame of an y o f t h e St at es , t h e Bi ll h as b een referred b y t h e Pres i d ent t o t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h at St at e for ex p ress in g i t s vi ews t h ereon wi t h in s u ch
p eri od as may b e sp eci fi ed i n t he referen ce or wi t h in su ch fu rt her p eri od as
t h e Presi d en t may all ow an d t h e p eri od s o sp eci fi ed or allowed h as exp i red.
Exp l a na ti on I.—In t h i s arti cle, i n clau s es (a ) t o (e), “St at e’’ i n clu d es a
Un i on t errit ory, b u t in th e p rovi s o, “St at e’’ d oes n ot in clud e a Uni on
t erri t ory.
Exp l a na ti on II.—Th e p ower con ferred on Par li amen t b y cl au s e (a )
i n clu d es th e p ower t o form a n ew St at e or Un i on t errit ory b y u n i t in g a p art
o f an y St at e or Un i on t erri t ory t o an y ot h er St at e or Un i on t erri tor y.
4 . Law s ma de under a rti cl es 2 a nd 3 to provi de f or the a m endm ent of
the F i rs t a nd the F ourth Schedul es a nd s uppl em ental , i ncidenta l a nd
cons equenti a l m a tters . —(1 ) An y law re ferred t o i n art i cle 2 or art i cle 3
s h all con t ai n s u ch p rovi s i on s fo r t h e amen d men t of t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le and
t h e Fou rt h Sch edu le as may b e n eces s ary t o gi ve e ffect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of

2
3 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h e law an d may a ls o c on t ai n su ch su pp lemen t al, in ci den t al and


con s eq u en ti al p rovi s i ons (in clu d in g p rovi s i ons as t o rep resen t ati on i n
Parli amen t and i n t h e Legi s lat u re or Legi s lat u res o f t h e St ate or St at es
affect ed b y s u ch law) as Parli amen t may d eem n ecess ary.
(2 ) No s u ch law as afores ai d s h all b e d eemed t o b e an amend ment of t h is
Con s t it ut i on for t h e pu rp os es of art i cle 3 68 .
4 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART II
CITIZENSHIP
5 . Ci ti zens hi p a t the com m encem ent of the Cons ti tuti on. —At t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Cons t it uti on , every p ers on wh o h as h i s domi ci le i n
t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a an d —
(a ) wh o was b orn in th e t erri t ory of In d i a; or
(b ) ei th er of wh os e p aren t s was b orn i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a; or
(c) wh o h as b een ordi n ari l y res i d en t i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a for n ot
les s t h an fi ve years i mmed i at ely p reced in g s uch commen cemen t,
s h all b e a ci ti zen of In d i a.
6 . Ri g hts of ci ti zens hi p of certa i n pers ons w ho ha ve m igra ted to
I ndi a f rom P a ki s ta n.—Not wi th s t an di n g an yt h i n g in arti cle 5 , a p ers on
wh o h as mi grat ed t o th e terri t ory o f In d i a from t h e t errit ory n o w i n clu d ed
i n Pakis t an sh all b e d eemed t o b e a ci ti zen of In d i a at t h e commen cement
o f t h i s Cons ti t ut i on i f—
(a ) h e or ei th er of h i s p aren ts or an y o f h i s gran d p aren ts was b orn in
In d i a as d efi n ed i n t h e G overn men t of In d i a Act , 1 9 3 5 (as ori gi n all y
en act ed ); and
(b )(i ) in th e cas e wh ere s u ch p ers on h as s o mi grat ed b efore t h e
n i n et eent h d ay o f J u l y, 1 9 4 8 , h e h as b een ord in ari ly res i d ent i n th e
t erri t ory o f In d i a s i n ce t h e d at e o f h i s mi grati on , or
(i i ) i n th e cas e wh ere s u ch p ers on h as s o mi grat ed on or a ft er t h e
n i n et eent h d ay o f J u l y, 1 9 4 8 , h e h as b een regi st ered as a ci ti zen o f In d i a
b y an o ffi cer ap p oi n t ed in t hat b eh alf b y t h e G overn men t o f t h e
Domi n i on of In d i a on an ap p li cat i on mad e b y h i m th erefor t o s u ch
o ffi cer b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on i n t h e form an d
man n er p res crib ed b y t h at G overn ment :

Provi d ed t h at n o p ers on s h all b e s o regi s t ered u n les s h e has b een


res i d en t i n th e t erri t ory o f In d i a for at leas t s ix mont hs immed i at el y
p reced in g t h e d at e of h i s ap p li cat i on .

7 . Ri g hts of ci ti zens hi p of certai n mi g ra nts to Pa ki s ta n.—


Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n arti cles 5 an d 6 , a p ers on wh o h as aft er t h e
fi rs t d ay o f March , 1 9 47 , mi grat ed from t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a t o t h e
t erri t ory n ow i n clu d ed i n Pakist an sh all n ot b e d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of
In d i a:
Provi d ed t h at n ot h in g i n th is art i cle s h all ap p l y t o a p ers on w h o, aft er
h avi n g s o mi grat ed t o t h e t erri tor y n ow i n clu d ed i n Pakis t an , has ret u rn ed
t o t h e t errit ory o f In d i a u nd er a p ermi t for res et t lemen t or p erman en t ret u rn
i s su ed b y or u n d er t h e aut h ori t y o f an y la w an d ever y s u ch p erson s h all for

4
5 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h e p u rp os es of clau s e (b ) of ar t i cle 6 b e d eemed t o h ave mi grat ed t o t he


t erri t ory o f In d i a aft er t h e n in eteen t h d ay o f J u l y, 1 9 4 8 .
8 . Rig hts of ci ti zens hi p of certa i n pers ons of I ndi a n ori g i n res i di ng
outs i de I ndia .— Not wi t hs t and ing an yt h i n g in arti cle 5 , an y p erson wh o or
ei t h er of wh os e p aren t s or an y o f wh os e gran d p aren t s was b orn in In d i a as
d efi n ed i n th e G overn ment of In d i a Act , 19 35 (as ori gi n all y en act ed ), and
wh o i s ord i n ari ly res i d i n g i n any cou n t ry ou t s i d e In d i a as s o d efi n ed s h all
b e d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of In d i a i f h e h as b een regi s t ered as a ci t i zen of
In d i a b y t h e d ip lomat i c or con s u lar rep res ent at i ve of In d i a i n th e cou n t ry
wh ere h e i s for t h e t i me b ein g res i d in g on an ap p li cat i on mad e b y h i m
t h erefor t o s u ch di p lomat i c or con s u lar rep res en t ati ve, wh eth er b efore o r
aft er t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on , in t h e form a n d mann er
p res crib ed b y t h e G overn men t of t h e D omi n i on of In d i a or t h e G overn men t
o f In d i a.
9 . P ers ons vol unta ri ly a cqui ring ci ti zens hi p of a f orei g n State not to
be ci ti zens .— No p ers on sh all b e a ci t i zen of In d i a b y vi rt u e o f art i cle 5 ,
or b e d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of In d i a b y vi rt u e of art i cle 6 or art i cle 8 , i f
h e h as volu n t ari ly acq u i red th e ci t i zen sh i p of an y forei gn St at e.
1 0 . Conti nua nce of the ri g hts of ci ti zens hi p.—Ever y p ers on wh o i s or
i s d eemed t o b e a ci t i zen of In d i a u n d er an y o f t h e foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s of
t h is Part s h all, s u b j ect t o t h e provi s i on s of an y law t h at may b e mad e b y
Parli amen t , con ti nu e t o b e s u ch ci t i zen .
1 1 . Pa rl iam ent to reg ul a te the ri g ht of ci ti zens hi p by l aw .—Not h i n g
i n t h e foreg oi n g p ro vi s i on s of t h i s Part sh all d ero gat e from t h e p ower o f
Parli amen t t o make an y p rovi s i on wi th res p ect t o th e acq ui s it i on and
t ermi n at i on of ci t i zens hi p an d all ot h er mat t ers relat in g t o ci ti zen s hi p .
6 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART III
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
Gen er a l
1 2 . Def i ni ti on.—In t h i s Part , unles s t h e con t ex t ot h erwis e requ ires , “t h e
St at e’’ in clu d es t h e G overn men t an d Parli ament of In d i a an d t he
G overn men t an d t h e Legi s lat u re o f each of t h e St at es and all l o cal or ot h er
au t h orit i es wi th in th e t erri t ory o f In d i a or u nd er t h e con trol o f t h e
G overn men t of In d i a.
1 3 . Law s i ncons is tent w i th or i n deroga ti on of the f unda m enta l
ri g hts .—(1 ) All laws i n force in th e t erri t ory o f In d i a i mmedi at el y b efor e
t h e commen cement of t h i s Con st i tu t i on, i n s o far as t h e y are i n con s is t en t
wi t h th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part , s h all, t o t h e ext ent of s u ch in con s i st en cy,
b e voi d .
(2 ) Th e St at e s h all n ot make an y la w wh i ch t akes away or ab ri d ges t h e
ri gh t s con ferred b y t h i s Part an d an y la w mad e i n con t raven t i on o f t h i s
clau s e s h all, t o t h e ex t en t of t h e con t raven t i on , b e voi d .
(3 ) In t h is arti cle, u n les s t h e cont ex t oth erwi s e req ui res ,—
(a ) “la w” i n clu d es an y Ord i n ance, ord er, b ye -law, ru le, regu lat i on ,
n ot i fi cat i on , cus t om or u s age h avi n g i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a th e forc e
o f law ;
(b ) “la ws i n force” i n clu d es laws p ass ed or mad e b y a Legi s lat u re or
ot h er comp et ent aut h ori t y i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on and n ot p revi ou s ly r ep ealed ,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g t h at an y s u ch law or an y p art t h ereof ma y n ot b e t h en in
op erat i on eit h er at all or i n p art icu lar areas .
(4 ) Not h in g i n th i s art i cle s h all ap p l y t o an y amen d men t of t hi s
Con s t it ut i on mad e un d er art i cle 3 6 8.
Ri g h t t o Eq ua l it y
1 4 . Equal i ty bef ore l aw .—The St at e s h all n ot d en y t o an y p ers on
eq u ali t y b efore t h e la w or t h e eq u al p rot ect i on of t h e la ws wi t h in t he
t erri t ory o f In d i a.
1 5 . P rohi bi ti on of di s cri mi na ti on on g rounds of rel ig i on, ra ce, ca s te,
s ex or pl a ce of bi rth.—(1 ) Th e St at e s h all n ot d i s cri mi n at e agai n s t an y
ci t i zen on grou n d s on l y o f reli g i on , race, cas t e, s ex , p lace of b i rt h or an y
o f t h em.
(2 ) No ci t i zen s h all, on grou n d s on l y o f reli gi on , race, cas t e, s ex , p lace
o f b i rt h or an y o f t h em, b e s ub j ect t o an y d i s ab i li t y, li ab i li t y, res t ri ct i on or
con d i ti on wi th regard t o—
(a ) acces s t o s h ops , pu b li c restau ran ts , h ot els an d p laces of p u b li c
en t ert ai n men t ; or

6
7 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) t h e u s e of we l ls , t an ks , b ath in g gh at s , road s an d p laces of p u b li c


res ort main t ain ed wh oll y or p art l y ou t of St at e fu n d s or d edi cat ed t o t h e
u s e of t h e gen eral p ub li c.
(3 ) Not h i n g in t hi s art i cle s hall p reven t t h e St at e from maki n g an y
s p eci al p rovi s i on for w omen an d ch i ld ren .
(4 ) Not h i n g i n t hi s arti cle or i n clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 2 9 s h all p reven t t h e
St at e from ma ki n g an y s p eci al p rovi s i on for t h e ad van cemen t of an y
s oci all y an d ed u cati on all y b ackward clas s es of ci t i zens or for t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es and th e Sch edu led Tri b es .
1 6 . Equa li ty of opportuni ty in m a tters of publ i c em pl oyment.—(1 )
Th ere s h all b e eq u ali t y o f op p ort u ni t y for al l ci t i zen s in mat t ers relat i n g t o
emp lo ymen t or ap p oi n tmen t t o an y o ffi ce u n d er t h e St at e.
(2 ) No ci t i zen s h all, on grou n d s on ly o f reli gi on , race, ca s t e, s ex,
d es cent , p lace of b i rt h , res i d en ce or an y o f t h em, b e in eli gib le for, or
d i s cri min at ed agai ns t in resp ect of, an y emp lo ymen t or offi ce u nd er t he
St at e.
(3 ) Not h in g i n t hi s art i cle sh all p reven t Parli ament from maki n g an y law
p res crib in g, i n regard t o a c las s or c las s es o f emp l o ymen t or a p p oi nt ment
t o an offi ce u n d er th e G overnmen t of, or an y loca l or ot h er au t h orit y
wi t h in , a St at e or Un i on t errit or y, an y req u i remen t as t o res i den ce wi t hin
t h at St at e or Un i on t erri t ory p ri or t o s u ch emp loymen t or ap p oi n tmen t .
(4 ) Not h i n g in t hi s art i cle s hall p reven t t h e St at e from maki n g an y
p rovi s i on for t h e res ervat i on of ap p oi n t ment s or p os ts i n favou r o f an y
b ackward clas s o f ci t i zen s whi ch , in t h e op in i on of t h e St at e, i s n ot
ad equ at ely rep res en t ed i n t h e s ervi ces u nd er th e St at e.
(4 A) Not h i n g i n t h is art i cle s hall p reven t t h e St at e from mak i n g an y
p rovi s i on for res ervat i on i n mat t ers of p romot i on , wi th con s eq u en ti al
s en i orit y, t o an y clas s or c las s es o f p os t s i n th e s ervi ces u nd er th e St at e in
fa vou r o f t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es an d t h e Sch ed u led Tri b es which , i n th e
op i n i on of t h e St at e, are n ot adeq u at ely rep res en t ed i n th e s ervi ces un d er
t h e St at e.
(4 B) Not h i n g i n t hi s arti cle s h all p reven t t h e St at e from c on s i d eri n g an y
u n fi lled vacan ci es o f a year wh i ch are res erved for b ei n g fi l led u p i n t h at
yea r i n accord an ce wit h an y p rovi s i on for res ervat i on mad e un d er clau s e
(4 ) or clau s e (4 A) as a s ep arate clas s of vacan ci es t o b e fi lle d up in an y
s u cceedi n g year o r years an d s u ch clas s of vacan ci es s h all n ot b e
con s i d ered t oget h er wi t h th e vacan ci es of t h e year i n wh i ch t h ey are b ei n g
fi l led u p for d et ermi n i n g th e cei li n g o f fi ft y p er cen t . res ervat ion on t ot al
n u mb er of vacan ci es of t h at year .
(5 ) Not h in g i n t hi s art i cle sh all affect t h e op erat i on of an y la w wh i ch
p rovi d es t h at th e i n cu mb en t of an offi ce i n con n ecti on wit h t he affai rs of
an y reli gi ou s or d en omi n at i on al i n st i tu ti on or an y memb er of t h e govern i n g
8 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

b od y t h ereo f s h all b e a p ers on p ro fes s i n g a p arti cu lar reli gi on or b elon gi n g


t o a p art i cu lar d en omin ati on .
1 7 . Abol i ti on of Untoucha bi l ity .—“Un t ou ch abi li t y’’ i s ab oli sh ed an d
i t s p ract i ce i n an y form i s for b i dd en. Th e en forcemen t of an y d i s abi li t y
ari s in g ou t of “Un t ou ch ab i li ty’’ s h all b e an offen ce p u ni s h ab le i n
accord an ce wi t h law.
1 8 . Abol i ti on of ti tl es .—(1 ) No t i t le, n ot b ei n g a mi li t ary or a cad emic
d i st in ct i on , sh all b e con ferred b y t h e St at e.
(2 ) No ci t i zen of In d i a s h all accep t an y t i t le fr om an y forei gn St at e.
(3 ) No p ers on wh o is n ot a ci ti zen of In d i a s h all, wh i le h e hold s an y
o ffi ce of p ro fi t or t ru s t un d er th e St at e, accep t wit h out t h e con s ent of t h e
Pres i d en t an y t i t le fr om an y fore i gn St at e.
(4 ) No p ers on h old i n g an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t or t ru s t u nd er th e Stat e s h all,
wi t h ou t t h e con s en t of t h e Pres i d en t , accept an y p res ent , emolu men t , or
o ffi ce o f an y ki n d from or u n d er an y forei gn St at e.
Ri g h t t o Fr eed o m
1 9 . P rotecti on of certai n ri g hts reg a rdi ng f reedom of s peech, etc.—
(1 ) All ci t i zen s s h all h ave t h e righ t —
(a ) t o freed om o f s p eech and exp res si on ;
(b ) t o as s emb le p eaceab l y an d wi t h out arms ;
(c) t o form as s oci at i ons or u ni ons ;
(d ) t o move free l y t h rou gh ou t t he t erri t ory o f In d i a;
(e) t o res i d e an d s ett le i n an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a; an d
* * * * *
(g ) t o p ract i s e an y p ro fes s i on , or t o carr y on an y occu p at i on , trad e
or b u s in ess .
(2 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (a ) o f clau s e (1 ) s h all a ffect t h e op erat i on o f
an y ex i s t in g law, or p reven t the St at e from maki n g an y law, i n s o far as
s u ch law i mp os es reas on ab le res t ri cti on s on t h e ex erci s e of t h e ri gh t
con ferred b y t h e s ai d s ub -clau s e i n t h e in t erest s of t h e s o ve rei gn t y an d
i n t egri t y of In d i a, t h e s ecu ri t y of t h e St at e, fri end ly re lat i on s wit h forei gn
St at es , p ub li c ord er, d ecen cy o r morali t y, or i n relat i on t o c on t emp t of
cou rt , d efamat i on or i n ci t emen t t o an offen ce.
(3 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (b ) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all affect t h e o p erat i on
o f an y ex i s t in g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p reven t th e St at e from
maki n g an y law i mp os i n g, in t he i nt eres ts of t h e s overei gn t y an d in t egri t y
o f In d i a or p u b li c ord er, reas on ab le res t ri cti on s on t h e ex ercis e o f t h e ri gh t
con ferred b y t h e s aid su b -clau s e.
(4 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (c) o f t h e s aid clau s e s h all affect t h e o p erat i on
o f an y ex i s t in g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p reven t th e St at e from
maki n g an y law i mp os i n g, in t he i nt eres ts of t h e s overei gn t y an d in t egri t y
9 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f In d i a or p u b li c ord er or m ora li t y, reas on ab le res t ri ct i ons on t h e ex erci s e


o f t h e ri gh t con ferred b y t h e s aid su b -clau s e.
(5 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s es (d ) an d (e) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all affect t h e
op erat i on of an y ex i s t i n g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p revent th e St at e
fr om maki n g an y law i mp os i n g, reas on ab le res t ri cti on s on th e ex erci s e of
an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y t he s aid su b -clau s es ei t h er i n th e in t erest s of
t h e gen eral p ub li c or for t h e p rot ect i on of t h e i n t eres t s of an y Sch ed u led
Tri b e.
(6 ) Not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (g ) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all affect t h e o p erat i on
o f an y ex i s t in g law i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or p reven t th e St at e from
maki n g an y la w i mp os i n g, i n t h e i n t erest s of t h e gen eral p u b li c, reas on ab le
res t ri cti on s on th e ex ercis e of t h e ri gh t con ferred b y t h e s ai d s u b -clau s e,
an d , i n p arti cu lar, n ot h in g i n the s aid su b -clau s e sh all affect t h e op erat i on
o f an y ex i s t i n g law i n s o far a s i t relat es t o, or p reven t t h e St at e from
maki n g an y la w relat i n g t o,—
(i ) t h e p rofes s i on al or t ech n i cal q u ali fi cat i on s n eces s ary for
p ract is in g an y p ro fes s i on or carr yi n g on an y occu p at i on , trad e or
b u si n es s , or
(i i ) th e carryi n g on b y t h e Stat e, or b y a corp orat i on own ed or
con t rolled b y t h e St at e, of any t rad e, b us i n es s , in du s t ry or s ervi ce,
wh et h er t o th e ex clu s i on , comp let e or p art i al, of ci t i zens or ot h erwi s e.
2 0 . P rotecti on i n res pect of convi cti on f or off ences .—(1 ) No p ers on
s h all b e con vi ct ed of an y o ffen ce ex cep t for vi olat i on o f a la w i n force at
t h e t i me of t h e commis s i on of t h e Act ch arged as an offen ce, n or b e
s u bj ect ed t o a p en alt y great er t h an th at whi ch mi gh t h ave b een i n fli ct ed
u n d er t h e law i n force at t h e t ime of t h e commi s s i on of t h e offen ce.
(2 ) No p ers on s h all b e p ros ecut ed and pu ni sh ed for t h e s ame o ffen ce
more t h an on ce.
(3 ) No p ers on accu s ed of an y o ffen ce s h all b e comp el led t o b e a wi t n ess
agai n s t h i ms elf.
2 1 . P rotecti on of l if e a nd pers ona l l i berty.—No p ers on sh all b e
d ep ri ved of h i s li fe or p ers on al li b ert y ex cep t accord i n g t o p roced u re
es t ab lis h ed b y law.
1
2 2 . P rotecti on a g ai ns t a rres t and detenti on i n certa i n ca s es . —(1 ) No
p ers on wh o i s arres t ed sh all b e d et ain ed i n cu s t od y wi t h ou t b ei n g
i n formed , as s oon as may b e, of t h e grou nd s for s u ch arrest n or s h all h e b e
d en i ed t h e ri gh t t o con s u lt , and t o b e d e fen d ed b y, a le gal p ract i ti on er o f
h i s ch oi ce.
(2 ) Ever y p ers on wh o i s arres t ed an d d et ain ed i n cu st od y s h all b e
p rod u ced b efore t h e n earest magi s t rat e wit hi n a p eri od of twen t y-fou r
h ou rs of s u ch arrest ex clud i n g th e t i me n ecess ary for t h e j ou rn ey from t h e
p lace o f arres t t o t h e cou rt of t h e magi s t rat e an d n o s u ch p erson s h all b e

_______________________________________________
1.On the commencement of s. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, art. 22 shall stand amended
as directed in s. 3 of that Act. For the text of s. 3 of that Act, see Appendix III.
10 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

d et ain ed in cus t od y b eyon d the s aid p eri od wit h ou t th e aut hori t y o f a


magi s t rat e.
(3 ) Not h i n g in clau s es (1 ) an d (2) s h all ap p ly—
(a ) t o an y p ers on wh o for t h e t ime b ein g i s an en emy ali en ; or
(b ) t o an y p ers on wh o is arres t ed or d et ai n ed un d er an y law
p rovi d i n g for p reven t i ve d et en t ion .
(4 ) No law p rovi d i n g for p reven t i ve d et ent i on s h all au th ori s e t he
d et ent i on of a p ers on for a l on ge r p eri od th an t h ree mon t hs u n less —
(a ) an Ad vi s ory B oard con s i s ti ng o f p ers on s wh o are, or h ave b een ,
or are q u ali fi ed t o b e ap p oi n t ed as , J ud ges o f a Hi gh Cou rt h as r ep ort ed
b efore t h e exp i rati on of t h e s aid p eri od of t h ree mon t hs t h at there i s in
i t s opi ni on su ffi ci en t cau s e for s u ch d et en t i on :
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g in th is su b-c lau s e s h all au t h oris e th e d et ent i on
o f an y p ers on b eyon d t h e maximu m p eri od p res cri b ed b y an y l aw mad e
b y Par li amen t un d er s ub -clau s e (b ) of clau s e (7 ); or
(b ) s u ch p ers on i s d et ai n ed i n accord an ce wi t h t h e p rovi s i on s of an y
law mad e b y Par li amen t un d er su b -clau s es (a ) an d (b ) of clau s e (7 ).
(5 ) Wh en an y p ers on is d et ain ed in pu rsu an ce of an ord er mad e un d er
an y law p ro vi d i n g fo r p reven t i ve d et ent i on , th e au th ori t y maki n g t h e ord er
s h all, as s oon as may b e, commu n i cat e t o s u ch p ers on th e grou n ds on wh i ch
t h e ord er h as b een mad e an d sh all afford h i m t h e earli es t opport u n it y o f
maki n g a rep res en t ati on agai ns t t h e ord er.
(6 ) Not h i n g in clau s e (5 ) sh all req u i re t h e au th ori t y maki n g an y s u ch
ord er as i s referred t o i n t h at clau s e t o d is clos e fact s wh i ch su ch au th ori t y
con s i d ers t o b e again st th e pu b lic i n t eres t t o d is clos e.
(7 ) Parli amen t may b y la w p res cri b e—
(a ) t h e ci rcu ms t an ces un d er wh ich , an d th e clas s or c las s es o f c as es
i n wh i ch , a p ers on may b e d et ai n ed for a p eri od lon ger t h an t h ree
mon t h s un d er an y law p ro vi d i n g for p reven t i ve d et en t i on wi t h ou t
ob t ai ni n g th e op in i on of an Ad vi s ory Board i n accord an ce wi t h t h e
p rovi s i on s of s u b -clau s e (a ) of clau s e (4 );
(b ) t h e maxi mu m p eri od for wh i ch an y p ers on ma y i n an y c las s or
clas s es of cas es b e d et ain ed un d er an y law p ro vi d i n g for p reven t i ve
d et ent i on ; and
(c) t h e p roced u re t o b e fol l owed b y an Ad vi s ory Board i n an in qu i ry
u n d er s ub -clau s e (a ) of clau s e (4 ).
Ri g h t a ga in st Exp lo i ta ti on
2 3 . P rohi bi ti on of tra ffi c i n hum a n bei ng s a nd f orced l a bour.—(1 )
Tra ffi c i n h u man b ei n gs and b ega r an d ot h er si mi lar forms o f for ced lab ou r
are p roh ib i t ed an d an y con t rave n t i on of t h i s p rovi s i on sh all b e an offen ce
p u ni sh ab le in accord an ce wit h law.
11 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Not h i n g i n th is art i cle sh all p reven t t h e St at e from i mp os i n g


comp u ls or y s ervi ce for p u b li c pu rp os es , an d in i mp os i n g su ch s ervi ce t h e
St at e sh all n ot make an y d i s crimi n ati on on grou n d s on ly o f rel i gi on , race,
cas t e or clas s or an y o f t h em.
2 4 . P rohi bi ti on of em pl oym ent of chi l dren i n fa ctori es , etc. —No
ch i ld b elow t h e age o f fou rt een years s h all b e emp lo yed t o work i n an y
fact or y or mi n e or en gaged i n any ot h er h azard ou s emp loymen t .

Ri g h t t o Fr eed o m o f Reli g io n
2 5 . F reedom of cons ci ence a nd f ree prof es si on, pra cti ce a nd
propa g a ti on of rel ig i on.—(1 ) Su b j ect t o p u b li c ord er, morali t y an d h ealt h
an d t o th e ot h er p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part , all p ers on s are equ all y en ti t led t o
freed om o f c on s ci en ce an d th e ri gh t freel y t o p ro fes s , p ract i s e an d
p rop agat e reli gi on .
(2 ) Not h i n g i n t hi s art i cle s h all affect t h e op erat i on of an y ex i s t in g law
or p reven t t h e St at e from maki ng an y law—
(a ) regu lat i n g or res t ri ct in g an y econ omi c, fi n an ci al, p oli t i cal or
ot h er s ecu lar acti vi t y wh i ch may b e ass oci at ed wi t h reli gi ou s p ract i ce;
(b ) p rovi d i n g for s oci al we l fare an d reform or t h e t h rowi n g op en of
Hi n d u reli gi ou s i n st it ut i on s of a pu b li c ch aract er t o all clas s es an d
s ect i ons of Hi n d u s .
Exp l a na ti on I.—Th e weari n g and carryi n g o f ki r p an s s h all b e deemed t o
b e in clu d ed i n t h e p rofes s i on of t h e Si kh reli gi on .
Exp l a na ti on II.—In s ub -clau s e (b ) of c lau s e (2 ), t h e referen ce to Hi n d u s
s h all b e con st ru ed as i n clud in g a referen ce t o p ers on s p rofes s i ng t h e Si kh ,
J ai n a or Bu dd hi s t reli gi on , and th e referen ce t o Hi n d u reli gi ou s i n s ti tu t i ons
s h all b e con s t ru ed accordi n gly.
2 6 . F reedom to ma nag e reli gi ous affa i rs .—Sub j ect t o p ub li c ord er,
morali t y an d h ealt h , every reli gi ou s d en omin ati on or an y s ect i on t h ereof
s h all h ave t h e ri ght —
(a ) t o es t ab li sh and mai n t ai n i nst i tu t i ons for reli gi ou s an d ch ari tab le
p u rp os es ;
(b ) t o man age it s own affai rs i n mat t ers of reli gi on ;
(c) t o own an d acqu i re movab le an d i mmovab le p rop ert y; an d
(d ) t o ad mi n is t er s u ch p rop ert y i n accord an ce wit h law.
2 7 . F reedom a s to pay m ent of ta xes f or prom oti on of a ny parti cul ar
rel i gi on.—No p ers on s h all b e c omp elled t o p a y an y t ax es , t h e p roceed s of
wh i ch are sp eci fi call y ap p rop ri at ed in p aymen t of ex p en s es for t h e
p romot i on or main t en an ce of an y p art i cu lar reli gi on or reli gi ou s
d en omin at i on .
12 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

2 8 . F reedom a s to a ttenda nce a t rel i g i ous i ns tructi on or r el i gi ous


w ors hi p i n certai n educa ti onal i ns ti tuti ons .—(1 ) No reli gi ou s i n st ru ct i on
s h all b e p rovi d ed i n an y ed u cati on al i n s ti tu t i on wh oll y mai n t ain ed ou t of
St at e fu n ds .
(2 ) Not h i n g i n clau s e (1 ) sh all a p p ly t o an ed u cat i on al i ns t it ut i on wh i ch
i s ad min is t ered b y t h e St at e bu t h as b een est ab li sh ed un d er an y en d owmen t
or t ru s t wh i ch req ui res t h at religi ou s in s t ru cti on sh all b e imp art ed i n su ch
i n st i tu ti on .
(3 ) No p ers on at t en d in g an y e d u cati on al i n st it u ti on recogn i s ed b y t h e
St at e or recei vi n g ai d ou t o f St at e fu n d s s h all b e req u i red t o t ake p art i n
an y re li gi ou s i n s t ru ct i on th at may b e i mp art ed in s u ch i ns t itu t i on or t o
at t end an y reli gi ou s wors h i p that may b e c on d u ct ed i n s u ch i ns t it u ti on or
i n an y p remi s es at t ach ed th eret o u n less su ch p ers on or, i f s u ch p ers on i s a
mi n or, hi s gu ard i an h as gi ven his con s ent th eret o.
Cu l tu ra l a nd Ed u ca ti on al Ri gh t s
2 9 . P rotecti on of i nteres ts of m i nori ti es .—(1 ) An y s ecti on of t h e
ci t i zen s res i di n g in th e t erri t or y o f In d i a or an y p art t h ereof h avi n g a
d i st in ct lan gu age, s cri p t or cult u re of i t s own s h all h ave t he ri gh t t o
con s erve t h e s ame.
(2 ) No ci t i zen s h all b e d en i ed ad mi ss i on in t o an y ed u cat i on al i n s t it u ti on
mai n t ai n ed b y t h e St at e or receivi n g ai d ou t of St at e fu n d s on grou n d s on l y
o f reli gi on , race, cas t e, lan gu age or an y o f t h em.
3 0 . Ri g ht of mi nori ti es to es ta bli s h a nd a dm i ni s ter educa ti ona l
i ns ti tuti ons . — (1 ) All mi n ori ties , wh et h er b as ed on reli gi on or lan gu age,
s h all h ave t h e ri ght t o es t ab li s h an d admi ni st er edu cati on al i ns ti t ut i on s of
t h ei r ch oi ce.
(1 A) In maki n g an y la w p ro vi d in g for t h e comp u ls or y acq u i s i ti on o f an y
p rop ert y o f an ed u cat i on al i n s ti t ut i on es t ab li sh ed and ad min ist ered b y a
mi n ori t y, re ferred t o i n c lau s e (1 ), t h e St at e sh all en s u re t h at t h e amou n t
fi x ed b y or d et ermi n ed un d er such law for t h e acqu i si ti on of s u ch p rop ert y
i s s u ch as wou ld n ot res t ri ct or ab rogat e t h e ri gh t gu aran t eed u n d er th at
clau s e.
(2 ) Th e St at e s h all n ot , in gran t in g ai d t o ed u cat i on al i ns tit u ti on s ,
d i s cri min at e agai ns t an y ed u cati on al i n s ti tu t i on on t h e grou nd t h at i t is
u n d er t h e man agement of a mi n ori t y, wh et h er b as ed on reli gi on or
lan gu age.
13 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

* * *
3 1 . [ Co mp ul so r y a cq ui s it io n of p r op ert y.] Rep . b y th e Cons t it u ti on
(Fo r t y-fo ur t h Amen d men t ) Act , 19 7 8, s . 6 (w.e.f . 20 -6 -1 9 7 9 ).
S a vin g o f Cer ta in La ws
3 1 A. Sa vi ng of l aw s provi di ng f or a cqui s i ti on of es ta tes, etc.—
(1 ) Not wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g con t ai n ed i n art i cle 1 3 , n o law p rovi d in g
for—
(a ) t h e acqu i si ti on b y t h e St at e o f an y es t at e or o f an y ri gh t s t herei n
or t h e ex ti n gui sh ment or mod i fi cat i on of an y s u ch ri ght s , or
(b ) t h e t aki n g over o f t h e man agemen t of an y p rop ert y b y t h e St at e
for a li mi t ed p eri od ei th er in th e p ub li c in t erest or in ord er t o s ecu re th e
p rop er man agement of t h e p rop ert y, o r
(c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper
management of any of the corporations, or
(d ) t h e ex ti n gu is h men t or mod ifi cat i on of an y ri gh t s of man agi n g
agen t s , s ecret ari es an d t reasu rers , man agin g di rect ors , d i rect ors or
man agers of corp orat i on s , or o f an y vot i n g ri gh t s of s h areh old ers
t h ereof, or
(e) t h e ex ti n gu is hmen t or modi fi cat i on of an y ri gh t s accru ing b y
vi rt u e of an y a greemen t , leas e or li cen ce for t h e p u rp os e of s earch i n g
for, or wi n n i n g, an y mi n eral or mi n eral oi l, or t h e p remat u re t ermi n ati on
or can cellat i on o f an y s u ch agreemen t , leas e or li cen ce,
s h all b e d eemed t o b e voi d on t h e grou n d th at i t is i n cons is t en t wi th , or
t akes awa y or ab ri d ges an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y art i cle 1 4 or art i cle
19:
Provi d ed t h at wh ere su ch law i s a law mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re o f a
St at e, t h e p rovi s i ons of t h is art icle s h all n ot app ly t h eret o u n less su ch law,
h avi n g b een res erved for t h e con s i d erat i on of t h e Pres i den t, has recei ved
h i s as s en t :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at wh ere an y law makes an y p rovi s i on for t h e
acq u is it i on b y t h e St at e of an y e s t at e and wh ere an y lan d comp ri s ed th erei n
i s h eld b y a p ers on un d er h is p ers on al cu lt i vat i on , i t s h all n ot b e law fu l for
t h e St at e t o acq ui re an y p ort i on of s u ch lan d as i s wit hi n t h e cei li n g li mi t
ap p li cab le t o h i m u nd er an y law for t h e t i me b ein g i n force o r a n y b u i ld i n g
or s t ru ctu re s t an di n g th ereon or ap p u rt en an t t h eret o, u n les s t h e law relat i n g
t o t h e acqu i si ti on of s u ch lan d , b u i ldi n g or s t ru ct u re, p rovi d es for p a ymen t
o f comp en s at i on at a rat e wh i ch s h all n ot b e les s t h an t h e market va lu e
t h ereof.
(2 ) In t hi s arti cle,—
(a ) t h e ex p res s i on ‘‘es t at e’’ s h all, i n relat i on t o an y l oca l area, h ave
t h e s ame meani n g as t h at exp res s i on or it s local eq u i valen t h as i n t he
14 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ex i st in g law re lat i n g t o lan d t enu res in force i n t h at area and shall a ls o


i n clu d e—
(i ) an y j a g ir , in a m or mu af i or ot h er s imi lar gran t and i n t h e
St at es of Tami l Nad u an d Kerala, an y j a n ma m ri gh t ;
(i i ) an y lan d h eld un d er ryot wari s et t lement ;
(i i i ) an y lan d h eld or let for p u rp os es of agri cu lt u re or for
p u rp os es an ci llar y t h eret o, in clu d in g was t e lan d , fores t lan d , lan d
for p as t u re or s it es of b ui ld i n gs and ot h er s t ru ctu res occup i ed b y
cu lt i vat ors of lan d , agri cu lt u ral lab ou rers an d vi llage art i s ans ;
(b ) t h e exp res si on ‘‘ri ght s ’’, i n relat i on t o an es t at e, sh all i n clu d e
an y ri gh t s ves t i n g i n a p rop ri et or, s ub -p rop ri et or, u n d er-p rop ri et or,
t en u re-h old er, ra i yat , u nd er -r aiya t or oth er in t ermed i ary an d an y ri gh t s
or p ri vi leges i n resp ect of lan d reven u e.
3 1B . Va li da ti on of certa i n Acts a nd Reg ul a ti ons .—Wi th ou t prej u di ce
t o t h e gen eralit y o f t h e p rovi s ion s con t ai n ed in arti cle 3 1 A, non e of t h e
Act s and Regu lat i ons sp eci fi ed in th e Nin th Sch ed u le n or an y o f t h e
p rovi s i on s t h ereof s h all b e d eemed t o b e voi d , or ever t o h ave b ecome
voi d , on t h e grou n d t h at s u ch Act , Regu lat i on or p rovi s i on is in con s is t ent
wi t h , or t akes awa y o r ab ri dges an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferr ed b y, an y
p rovi s i on s of t h is Part, and n otwi t h st and in g an y j u d gment , d ecree or ord er
o f an y cou rt or Tri b u n al t o t h e con t rary, each o f t h e s ai d Act s an d
Regu lat i on s s h all, s u b j ect t o t he p ower o f an y comp et en t Leg i s lat u re t o
rep eal or amen d it , con ti nu e in force.
3 1 C. Sa vi ng of l aw s g i vi ng eff ect to certa i n di recti ve pri nci pl es .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed i n art i cle 1 3, n o law gi vi n g e ffect t o
1
t h e p oli cy o f t h e St at e t oward s s ecu rin g [all or an y o f t h e p ri nci p les lai d
d own i n Part IV] s h all b e d ee med t o b e voi d on t h e gr ou n d t h at i t is
i n con si s ten t wit h , or t akes away or ab ri d ges an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y
2
art i cle 1 4 or art i cle 1 9 ; a n d n o l a w co n ta in in g a d ecl a ra ti on t ha t i t i s for
g i vin g ef f ect to s u ch po li cy sh all b e ca ll ed i n qu est i on i n a n y co u rt o n t h e
g r ou nd th at it do es n ot gi ve eff ect t o s u ch p o li cy:
Provi d ed t hat wh ere s uch law i s mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re of a S t at e, t he
p rovi s i on s of t h is art i cle sh all n ot app ly t h eret o u n les s su ch law, h avi n g
b een res erved for t h e con s i d erat i on of t h e Pres i d en t , h as recei ved h i s
as s ent .
3 1 D. [S a vi ng o f la ws in r esp ect o f a nt i -na ti on a l a ct i vi ti es .] Rep. b y t h e
Co n st it ut i on (Fo rt y-th i rd Amen dmen t ) Act ,19 77 , s .2 (w.e.f .13 -4 -1 9 78 ).
Ri g h t t o Con s ti tu t io na l Remed i es
3 2 . Rem edi es f or enf orcem ent of ri g hts conf erred by this Pa rt.—(1 )
Th e ri gh t t o move t h e Sup reme Cou rt b y ap p rop ri at e p roceedin gs for t h e
en forcemen t o f t h e ri gh ts con ferred b y t h i s Part is gu arant eed .

____________________________________________
1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 4, for “the principles specified in
clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39” (w.e.f. 3.1.1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the
Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and others vs. Union of India and others (1980) s. 2, S.C.C. 591.
2. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. the State of Kerala (1973),Supp. S.C.R.1., the Supreme Court held the
provisions in italics to be invalid.
15 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all h ave p ower t o i s s u e d i rect i on s or ord ers or


wri t s , in clu di n g wri t s i n t h e n at u re of h a b eas cor pu s , ma n da mu s,
p roh i bi t i on, q uo wa r ra nt o and cer t io ra r i, whi ch ever may b e ap p rop ri at e,
for t h e en forcemen t of an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y t h is Part .
(3 ) Wi t h out p rej ud i ce t o th e p owers con ferred on t h e Su p reme Cou rt b y
clau s es (1 ) and (2 ), Parli ament ma y b y law emp ower an y ot h er cou rt t o
ex erci s e wi th in t h e local li mi t s o f i t s j u ri sd i ct i on all or an y o f t h e p owers
ex erci s ab le b y t h e Su p reme Cou rt un d er clau s e (2 ).
(4 ) Th e ri gh t gu aran t eed b y t h i s art i cle sh all n ot b e su sp end ed ex cep t as
ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed for b y t h i s Con s t it u ti on .
3 2 A. [Co ns t it ut i on al va l id it y o f S ta t e l a ws n ot to b e co ns id er ed in
p r o ceed in gs u nd er a r ti cl e 32 .] Rep . b y t h e Co ns ti t ut io n (Fo r t y-th ir d
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 77 , s . 3 (w.e.f . 13 -4 -1 9 7 8 ).
3 3 . P ow er of Pa rl iam ent to m odi f y the rig hts conf erred by thi s Pa rt
i n thei r a ppl i ca ti on to F orces , etc.—Parli amen t may, b y la w, d et ermi n e t o
wh at ext ent an y o f t h e ri gh ts con ferred b y t h is Part sh all, i n t h ei r
ap p li cati on t o,—
(a ) t he memb ers of t h e Armed Forces ; or
(b ) t h e memb ers of t h e Force s ch arged wi t h th e main t en an ce o f
p u b li c ord er; or
(c) p ers on s emp lo yed i n any b u reau or ot h er organ i s at i on
es t ab lis h ed b y t h e St at e for p u rp os es of i n t elli gen ce or cou n t er
i n t elli gen ce; or
(d ) p ers ons emp lo yed in, or in con n ect i on wit h , the
t elecommu n i cati on s ys t ems s et u p for t h e p u rp os es of an y Fo rc e, b u reau
or or gan i s ati on referred t o i n clau s es (a ) t o (c),
b e rest ri ct ed or ab rogat ed s o as t o ens u re th e p rop er d is ch arge o f t h ei r
d u ti es an d t h e mai nt en an ce of d i s ci p lin e amon g t h em
3 4 . Res tri cti on on rig hts conferred by this P a rt w hil e m a rtia l l aw is
i n f orce i n a ny a rea .—Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in th e fore goi n g
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part , Parli amen t may b y la w i n d emn i fy an y p e rs on i n t h e
s ervi ce of t h e Un i on or o f a St at e or an y ot h er p ers on in res p ect o f an y act
d on e b y h i m i n con n ect i on wi t h t h e mai n t en an ce or res t orat i on o f ord er i n
an y area wi t h i n th e t erri t ory o f In d i a wh ere marti al law was i n force o r
vali d at e an y s en t en ce p as s ed , pu n is h men t i n fli ct ed , for fei t u re ord ered or
ot h er act d on e un d er mart i al law i n s u ch area.
3 5 . Legi s la ti on to g i ve ef f ect to the pr ovi s i ons of thi s P a rt.—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on ,—
(a ) Parli amen t sh all h ave, an d t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e s h all n ot
h ave, p ower t o make laws —
16 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i ) wi t h res p ect t o an y o f t h e mat t ers whi ch u nd er clau s e (3 ) of


art i cle 1 6 , clau s e (3 ) of art i cle 3 2 , art i cle 3 3 and art i cle 3 4 may b e
p rovi d ed for b y law mad e b y Par li amen t ; an d
(i i ) for p res cri bi n g p un is h men t for t h os e act s wh i ch are
d eclared t o b e offen ces un d er thi s Part ;
an d Parli amen t sh all, as s oon as ma y b e a ft er t h e commen cemen t o f t h i s
Con s t it ut i on , make laws for p res cri b in g p u ni sh ment for t h e act s referred
t o i n su b -clau s e (ii );
(b ) an y law i n force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h is
Con s t it ut i on i n th e t errit ory o f In d i a wi t h res p ect t o an y o f t h e mat t ers
referred t o i n s u b -clau s e (i ) o f clau s e (a ) or p ro vi d i n g for p u ni s h men t
for an y act re ferred t o i n s ub -cl au s e (ii ) of t h at clau s e sh all, s ub j ect t o
t h e t erms t h ereof an d t o an y ad ap t ati on s and mod i fi cat i ons t h at ma y b e
mad e t h erei n un d er arti cle 3 72 , con t in u e in force u n t i l alt ered or
rep ealed or amen d ed b y Parli amen t .
Exp l a na ti on .—In t hi s arti cle, t he ex p ress i on "law i n force '' h as t h e s ame
mean in g as in art i cle 37 2.
17 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I V
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
3 6 . Def i ni ti on.—In t hi s Part , unles s t h e cont ext ot h erwi s e requ i res , ‘‘t h e
St at e’’ h as th e s ame meani n g as i n Part III.
3 7 . Appli ca ti on of the pri nci pl es contai ned i n this Part.—Th e
p rovi s i on s con t ai n ed i n t h is Part s h all n ot b e en forceab le b y an y cou rt , b u t
t h e p rin ci p les th erei n lai d d own are n everth eles s fu nd ament al i n t he
go vern an ce of t h e cou nt ry an d i t sh all b e th e d u t y of t h e St ate t o ap p ly
t h es e p rin cip les i n maki n g laws .
3 8 . Sta te to s ecure a s oci al order f or the prom oti on of w elf are of the
peopl e.—(1 ) Th e St at e s h all s t rive t o p romot e t h e wel fare o f t h e p eop le b y
s ecu rin g an d p rot ect in g as effe ct i vel y as i t may a s oci al ord e r i n wh i ch
j u st i ce, s oci al, econ omi c and poli t i cal, s h all i n form a ll t h e i n st i tu t i ons of
t h e n at i on al li fe.
(2 ) Th e St at e sh all, i n p art i cu lar, s t ri ve t o mi n imi s e t h e in equ ali t i es in
i n come, an d en d eavou r t o eli mi n at e in equ ali t i es i n s t atu s , faci li t i es an d
op p ort u ni t i es , n ot on ly amon gs t i n di vi du als b ut als o amon gs t grou p s o f
p eop le res i di n g in di ffe ren t areas or en gaged i n d i fferen t vocat i o n s .
3 9 . Certai n pri nci pl es of pol icy to be f ol l ow ed by the State.—Th e
St at e sh all, i n p art i cu lar, d i rect i t s p oli cy t o ward s s ecu rin g—
(a ) t h at th e ci ti zens , men and women eq u all y, h ave t h e ri gh t t o an
ad equ at e mean s of li ve li h ood ;
(b ) t h at th e own ers h ip and con trol o f t h e mat eri al res ou rces of t h e
commu n it y are s o d i s t rib ut ed as b es t t o s ub s erve th e common good ;
(c) t h at th e op erat i on of t h e econ omi c s ys t em d oes n ot resu lt in t h e
con cen t rati on of wea lt h an d mean s of p rod u ct i on t o t h e common
d et ri men t ;
(d ) t h at th ere is equ al p ay for eq u al work for b ot h men and women ;
(e) t h at t h e h ealt h an d st ren gth o f wor kers , men an d women , and t h e
t en d er age of ch i ld ren are n ot ab u s ed an d t h at ci ti zens are n ot forced b y
econ omi c n ecess i t y t o en t er avocat i on s u ns ui t ed t o th ei r age or st ren gt h ;
(f ) t h at ch i ld ren are gi ven op p ort u ni t i es and faci li t i es t o d evelo p i n
a h ealt h y man n er an d in con dit i on s of freed om an d di gn it y a n d t h at
ch i ld h ood an d you t h are p rot ect ed agai n st ex p loi t ati on an d agai n s t
moral an d mat eri al ab an d on men t.
3 9 A. Equa l jus ti ce a nd f ree l eg a l ai d.—Th e St at e s h all s ecu re t h at th e
op erat i on of t h e legal s ys t em p romot es j us t i ce, on a b as i s of eq u al
op p ort u ni t y, an d s h all, i n p art icu lar, p rovi d e free lega l ai d , b y s u i t ab le
legi s lat i on or s ch emes or in an y ot h er way, t o en s u re t h at op p ort u ni ti es for

17
18 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s ecu rin g j u s ti ce are n ot d en i ed t o an y ci t i zen b y reas on o f e con omi c or


ot h er d is abi li t i es .
4 0 . Org a ni sa ti on of vi l la g e pancha y a ts .—Th e St at e sh all t ake s t eps t o
organ i s e vi llage p an ch ayat s an d en d ow th em wit h s u ch powers an d
au t h orit y as may b e n ecess ary t o en ab le th em t o fu n ct i on as u ni t s of s el f-
go vern men t .
4 1 . Rig ht to w ork, to educa ti on a nd to publ i c a s si s ta nce i n certa i n
ca s es .—Th e St at e sh all, wi t h i n t h e li mi t s of i t s econ omi c cap aci t y an d
d evelop men t , make effect i ve p r ovi s i on for s ecu ri n g t h e ri ght to w ork, t o
ed u cati on an d t o pu b li c as si stan ce in cas es of u n emp lo ymen t , old age,
s i ckn ess and di s ab lemen t , an d i n ot h er cas es of u n d es erved want .
4 2 . Provi s i on f or jus t a nd hum a ne condi ti ons of w ork a nd m a terni ty
rel i ef .—Th e St at e s h all make p rovi s i on for s ecu ri n g ju s t an d h u man e
con d i ti on s of wor k an d for mat ern i t y reli e f.
4 3 . Li vi ng w ag e, etc., f or w or kers .—Th e St at e s h all en d eavou r t o
s ecu re, b y s u i t ab le legi s lat i on or ec on omi c or gan i s ati on or i n an y ot h er
wa y, t o a l l w orkers , agri cu lt u ral, i n d us t ri al or ot h erwi s e, wor k, a li vi n g
wage, con d i t i on s of work en s u ri n g a d ecen t s t an d ard of li fe an d fu ll
en j oymen t of lei s u re an d s oci al an d cu lt u ral opp ort un i ti es and , i n
p art i cu lar, t h e St at e s h all en d eavou r t o p romot e cot t age i n du st ri es on an
i n di vi du al or co -op erat i ve b as i s i n ru ral areas .
4 3 A. P a rti ci pa ti on of w orker s i n m a nag em ent of i ndus tries .—Th e
St at e sh all t ake s t ep s , b y s u i t ab le legi s lat i on or i n an y ot h er wa y , t o s ecu re
t h e p art i ci p at i on of worke rs i n t h e man agement of u nd ert aki n gs ,
es t ab lis h men t s or ot h er organ i s at i on s en gaged i n an y i n d us t ry.
4 4 . Unif orm ci vi l code f or the ci ti zens .—Th e St at e s h all en d eavou r t o
s ecu re for t h e ci t i zen s a u ni fo rm ci vi l c od e t h rou gh ou t t h e terri t ory o f
In d i a.
4 5 . P rovi s i on f or f ree a nd com pul s ory educa ti on f or chi l dren.—Th e
St at e s h all en d eavou r t o p ro vi d e, wi t h in a p eri od of t en yea rs fr om t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con st i tu ti on , for free an d comp u ls ory ed u cat i on for
all ch i ld ren u nt i l t h ey comp let e t h e age of fou rt een years .
4 6 . P rom oti on of educa ti ona l a nd econom i c i nteres ts of Schedul ed
Ca s tes , Schedul ed Tri bes a nd other w ea ker s ecti ons .—Th e St at e sh all
p romot e wi t h sp eci al care t h e ed u cati on al and econ omi c i nt eres t s of t h e
weaker s ect i on s of t h e p eop le, an d , in p arti cu lar, of t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es
an d th e Sch ed u led Trib es , an d sh all p rot ect t h em from s oci al i n j u st i ce an d
all forms o f ex p loi t at i on .
4 7 . Duty of the Sta te to ra i s e the l evel of nutri ti on a nd the s ta nda rd
of l i vi ng a nd to i m prove publ i c hea l th.—Th e St at e sh all regard t h e
rai s in g o f t h e le vel o f n u t ri t i on an d th e s t an d ard of li vi n g o f i t s p eop le an d
t h e i mp rovemen t of p ub li c h ealt h as amon g it s p ri mary d uti es an d , i n
p art i cu lar, t h e St at e sh all en deavou r t o b ri n g ab ou t p roh ib iti on of t h e
19 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

con s u mp t i on ex cep t for med i cin al p u rp os es of i n t oxi cati n g d ri n ks an d of


d ru gs wh i ch are i n ju ri ous t o h ealt h .
4 8 . Orga ni sa ti on of a g ri cul ture a nd a nim al hus ba ndry .—Th e St at e
s h all en d eavou r t o organ is e agri cu lt u re and ani mal hu sb and ry on mod ern
an d s ci ent i fi c li n es and sh all, i n p arti cu lar, t ake s t ep s for p res ervi n g an d
i mp rovi n g th e b reeds , an d p rohi b it in g t h e s lau ght er, of cows an d calves
an d oth er mi lch an d d rau ght cat tle.
4 8 A. P rotecti on a nd i m provem ent of envi ronm ent a nd saf eg ua rdi ng
of f ores ts a nd w il d li fe.—The St at e sh all en d eavou r t o prot ect an d
i mp rove t h e en vi ron ment and t o s afegu ard t h e fo res t s and wi ld li fe o f t h e
cou n t ry.
4 9 . P rotecti on of m onum ents a nd pl a ces a nd objects of na ti onal
i m porta nce.—It s h all b e t h e ob li gat i on o f t h e St at e t o p rot ect ever y
mon u ment or p lace or ob j ect of art i st i c or h i st ori c i n teres t , d eclared b y o r
u n d er law mad e b y Parli ame n t t o b e of n at i on al i mp ort an ce, from
s p oli at i on , d i s fi gu rement , d es t ru ct i on , removal, d i sp os al or ex p ort , as th e
cas e may b e.
5 0 . Sepa ra ti on of judi ci a ry f rom executi ve.—Th e St at e s h all t ake s t ep s
t o s ep arat e t h e j ud i ci ary from t h e ex ecu t i ve in th e p ub li c s ervi ces of t h e
St at e.
5 1 . P rom oti on of i nterna ti onal pea ce a nd s ecuri ty .—Th e Stat e s h all
en d eavou r t o—
(a ) p romot e i nt ern at i on al p eace an d s ecu rit y;
(b ) main t ain ju st and h on orab le relat i on s b et ween n at i on s ;
(c) fos t er res p ect for i n t ern at i on al law an d t reat y ob li gat i on s in t h e
d eali n gs of or gan i zed p eop les wit h on e an ot h er; an d
(d ) en cou rage s ett lemen t of i n t ern at i on al di sp u t es b y arb i t rat i on .

PART I VA
20 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I VA
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
5 1 A. F undam ental duti es .—It s h all b e t he du t y of ever y c i t i zen of
In d i a—
(a ) t o ab i d e b y t h e Con s t i tu t i on and res p ect i t s id eals an d
i n st i tu ti on s , t h e Nati on al Fla g a n d t h e Nati on al An t h em;
(b ) t o ch eri sh an d fol lo w t h e n ob le id eals wh i ch i ns pi red ou r
n at i on al st ru ggle for freed om ;
(c) t o u p h old an d p rot ect th e s overei gn t y, u n i t y an d i n t egrity o f
In d i a;
(d ) t o d efen d t h e cou n t ry an d ren d er n ati on al s ervi ce wh en called
u p on t o d o s o;
(e) t o p romot e h armon y an d t h e sp i rit of c ommon b rot h erh ood
amon gs t all t h e p eop le of In d i a t rans cend i n g reli gi ou s , li n gu is t i c an d
regi on al or s ect i on al d i vers it i es ; t o ren ou n ce p ract i ces d erogat ory t o t h e
d i gn it y o f women ;
(f ) t o valu e an d p res erve t h e ri ch h erit age of ou r comp os i t e cu lt u re;
(g ) t o p rot ect an d i mp rove t h e n at u ral en vi ron ment i n clud i n g
fores t s , lakes , ri vers an d wi ld li fe, an d t o h ave comp as s i on fo r li vi n g
creat u res ;
(h ) t o d evelop t h e s ci ent i fi c temp er, hu mani s m an d t h e s pi rit of
i n qu i ry an d reform;
(i ) t o s afegu ard p ub li c p rop ert y an d t o ab ju re vi olen ce;
(j ) t o s t ri ve t oward s ex cellen ce i n all s p h eres of i n d i vi du al an d
col lect i ve act i vi t y s o t h at t h e n at i on con s t an t ly ri s es t o h i gh er l evels o f
en d eavou r and achi evemen t .

20
21 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART V
THE UNION
C H A P T ER I.—T H E E X EC U T I V E
Th e Pr es id ent an d Vi ce-Pr es id ent
5 2 . The P resi dent of I ndia .—Th ere s h all b e a Pres i d en t of In d i a.
5 3 . Executi ve pow er of the Uni on.—(1 ) Th e ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e
Un i on s h all b e ves t ed in t h e Pres i d en t and sh all b e ex erci s ed b y h i m ei th er
d i rect ly or t h rou gh o ffi cers s u b ord i n at e t o h im i n accord an ce wi t h th is
Con s t it ut i on .
(2 ) Wi t h ou t p rej ud i ce t o t h e gen erali t y o f t h e fore goi n g p rovi s i on , t h e
s u p reme comman d of t h e Defen ce Forces o f t h e Un i on s h all be ves t ed in
t h e Presi d en t an d t h e ex ercis e thereo f s h all b e regu lat ed b y la w.
(3 ) Not h i n g in th is arti cle s h all—
(a ) b e d eemed t o t ran s fer t o t h e Pres i d en t an y fu n ct i ons con fe rred
b y an y ex i s t in g law on t h e G overn men t of an y St at e or ot h er au t h orit y;
or
(b ) p reven t Parli amen t from con fer ri n g b y la w fu n ct i on s on
au t h orit i es ot h er th an t h e Pres iden t .
5 4 . El ecti on of P resi dent.—Th e Pres id en t s h all b e elect ed b y t h e
memb ers of an elect oral co l lege con s i st i n g of—
(a ) t h e elect ed memb ers of b ot h Hou s es of Par li amen t ; an d
(b ) t h e elect ed memb ers of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb li es of t h e St ates .
Exp l a na ti on .—In th i s art i cle an d i n art i cle 55 , ‘‘St at e’’ in clu d es th e
Nat i on al Cap i t al Terri t ory o f De lh i an d t h e Un i on t erri t ory o f P o n d i ch erry.
5 5 . M a nner of el ecti on of P resi dent. —(1 ) As far as p ract i cable, t h ere
s h all b e u n i formi t y i n t h e s cale o f rep res en t ati on of t h e d i fferen t St at es at
t h e elect i on of t h e Presi d en t .
(2 ) For t h e p u rp os e of s ecu rin g s u ch un i formi t y amon g t h e St at es in t er
s e as wel l as p ari t y b et ween t h e St at es as a wh ole an d t h e Un i on , t he
n u mb er of v ot es wh i ch each elect ed memb er of Parli amen t an d of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f each Stat e is en t it led t o cas t at su ch elect i on s h all
b e d et ermi n ed in th e fol lo wi n g man n er:—
(a ) ever y e lect ed memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e
s h all h ave as man y vot es as th ere are mu lt ip les of on e t h ou s and in th e
q u ot i en t obt ain ed b y d i vi d in g th e p opu lat i on of t h e St at e b y t h e t ot al
n u mb er of t h e elect ed memb ers o f t h e As s emb ly;

21
22 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) i f, aft er t aki n g t h e s aid mu lti p les of on e t h ous and , t h e remain d er


i s n ot les s t h an fi ve h u n d red , then t h e vot e o f each memb er re ferred t o
i n su b -clau s e (a ) s h all b e fu rt h er i n creas ed b y on e;
(c) each elect ed member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of
votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members
of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total
number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one-
half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded.
(3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of
proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such
election shall be by secret ballot.
Explanation.— In this article, the expression ‘‘population’’ means the population as
ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the
relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken
after the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.
56. Term of office of President.—(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five
years from the date on which he enters upon his office:
Provided that—
(a ) t h e Presi d en t may, b y wri t i n g u n d er h i s h and ad d res s ed t o t h e
Vi ce-Pres i d en t , res i gn h i s offi ce ;
(b ) t h e Pres id en t may, for vi o lat i on o f t h e Con s t i t ut i on , b e removed
fr om o ffi ce b y i mp each men t i n th e mann er p rovi d ed in art i cle 61;
(c) t h e Pres id ent sh all, n ot wi t hs t and in g t h e exp i rat i on of h i s term,
con t i nu e t o h old offi ce u n ti l h i s s u ccess or en t ers up on hi s offi ce.
(2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to
clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People.
57. Eligibility for re-election.—A person who holds, or who has held, office as President
shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that
office.
58. Qualifications for election as President.—(1) No person shall be eligible for election
as President unless he—
(a ) i s a ci ti zen of In d i a,
(b ) h as comp let ed th e age of t h i rt y-fi ve years , an d
(c) i s qu ali fi ed for elect i on as a memb er of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(2 ) A p ers on sh all n ot b e eli gi b le for e lect i on as Pres i d en t i f h e h olds
an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e G overn men t of
an y St at e or un d er an y loca l or ot h er aut h ori t y s ub j ect t o t h e con t rol of an y
o f t h e s aid G overn men t s.
23 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Exp l a na ti on .—For t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s arti cle, a p ers on s h all n ot b e


d eemed t o h old an y o ffi ce o f p r o fi t b y reas on on l y t h at h e i s t he Pres i d ent
or Vi ce- Pres i d en t of t h e Union or t h e G overn or o f an y St at e or i s a
Mi n is t er ei th er for t h e Un i on or for an y St at e.
5 9 . Condi ti ons of P resi dent' s of fi ce.—(1 ) Th e Pres i d en t sh all n ot b e a
memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parl i amen t or of a H ou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of
an y St at e, and i f a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t or of a Hou s e of
t h e Legi s lat u re of an y St at e b e elect ed Pres id ent , h e s h all b e d eemed t o
h ave vacat ed h is s eat i n th at Hou s e on th e d at e on whi ch h e ent ers up on h is
o ffi ce as Pres id ent .
(2 ) Th e Pres id ent sh all n ot h old an y ot h er o ffi ce o f p ro fi t .
(3 ) Th e Presi d en t s h all b e ent it led wi th ou t p aymen t of ren t t o t he u s e of
h i s offi ci al res i d en ces an d s hall b e als o en t i t led t o s u ch emolu men t s ,
all owan ces an d p ri vi leges as may b e d et ermin ed b y Parli amen t by law an d ,
u n ti l p rovi s i on in th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, su ch emolu ment s , allo wan ces and
p ri vi leges as are sp eci fi ed in th e Secon d Sch ed u le.
(4 ) Th e emolu men ts an d allowan ces of t h e Pres id ent sh all n ot b e
d i min is h ed du rin g h is t erm of o ffi ce.
6 0 . Oa th or aff i rma ti on by the P resi dent.—Every Pres i d en t an d every
p ers on act in g as Pres i d en t or d i s ch argi n g t h e fu n cti on s of t h e Pres i d ent
s h all, b efore en t eri n g u p on h is o ffi ce, make an d s u b s crib e i n th e p res en ce
o f t h e Chi ef J u st i ce of In d i a or, i n h is ab s en ce, th e s en i or-mos t Ju d ge of
t h e Sup reme Cou rt avai lab le, an oat h or a ffi rmat i on i n th e fo ll o wi n g form,
t h at i s t o s ay—
"I, A.B., d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h a t I wi ll fai t h fu ll y ex ecu t e
solemnly affirm
t h e offi ce o f President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being
of the people of India.".
6 1 . P rocedure f or i m pea chm ent of the P res i dent.—(1 ) Wh en a
Pres i d en t is t o b e i mp each ed fo r vi olat i on o f t h e Con s t it ut i on , t h e ch arge
s h all b e p referred b y ei t h er Hou s e of Par li amen t .
(2 ) No s u ch ch arge s h all b e p referred u n less —
(a ) t h e p rop os al t o p refer s u ch ch arge i s con t ai n ed i n a res olu t i on
wh i ch h as b een moved aft er at leas t fou rt een d ays ' n ot i ce i n wri t i n g
s i gn ed b y n ot les s t h an on e-fou r t h of t h e t ot al n u mb er of memb e rs of t h e
Hou s e h as b een gi ven of t h ei r i nt en ti on t o move t h e res olu ti on , an d
(b ) s u ch res olu t i on h as b een p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f n ot les s t h an
t wo -t h i rds of t h e t ot al memb ershi p of t h e Hou s e.
(3 ) Wh en a ch arge h as b een s o p referred b y ei t h er Hou s e o f Pa rli amen t ,
t h e ot h er Hou s e sh all i n ves t i gat e t h e ch arge or cau s e th e charge t o b e
i n ves ti gat ed and th e Pres id ent s h all h ave t h e ri gh t t o app ear an d t o b e
rep res ent ed at su ch i n vest i gat i on .
24 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than
two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or
caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been
sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as
from the date on which the resolution is so passed.
62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill
casual vacancy. —(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be
completed before the expiration of the term.
(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death,
resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case
later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to
fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56, be entitled to hold office for the
full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office.
63. The Vice-President of India.—There shall be a Vice-President of India.
64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.—The Vice-
President shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other
office of profit:
Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges
the functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of
Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable
to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97.
65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the
office, or during the absence, of President.— (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the
President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date
on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his
office.
(2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or
any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the
President resumes his duties.
(3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as,
or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President
and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by
Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments,
allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.
66. Election of Vice-President.—(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members
of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance
with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and
the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.
(2 ) Th e Vi ce-Pres i d en t s h all n ot b e a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t or of a Hou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of an y St at e, an d i f a memb er
o f ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t or of a Hou s e o f t h e Legi s lat u re of an y St at e
b e elect ed Vi ce-Pres i d en t , h e sh all b e d eemed t o h ave vacat ed h i s s eat i n
25 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h at Hou s e on t h e d at e on wh i ch h e ent ers u p on h i s offi c e as Vi ce-


Pres i d en t .
(3 ) No p ers on s h all b e eli gi b le for elect i on as Vi ce-Pres i d en t un les s
h e—
(a ) i s a ci ti zen of In d i a;
(b ) h as comp let ed th e age of t h i rt y-fi ve years ; an d
(c) i s qu ali fi ed for elect i on as a memb er of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es.
(4 ) A p ers on s h all n ot b e eli gib le for e lect i on as Vi ce-Pres i den t i f h e
h old s an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er th e G overn ment of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of an y St at e or u n d er an y l ocal or ot h er au t h ori t y s u b j ect t o
t h e con t rol of an y o f t h e s ai d G overn men t s.
Exp l a na ti on .— For t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s art i cle, a p ers on s h all n ot b e
d eemed t o h old an y o ffi ce o f p r o fi t b y reas on on l y t h at h e i s t he Pres i d ent
or Vi ce- Pres i d en t of t h e Union or t h e G overn or o f an y St at e or i s a
Mi n is t er ei th er for t h e Un i on or for an y St at e.
6 7 . Term of off i ce of Vi ce-P res i dent.—Th e Vi ce-Pres i d en t sh all h o ld
o ffi ce fo r a t erm of fi ve years fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch h e ent ers up on hi s
o ffi ce:
Provi d ed t h at —
(a ) a Vi ce-Pres i d en t may, b y wri t i n g u nd er h is h an d add ress ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t , res i gn h is offi ce;
(b ) a Vi ce-Pres i d en t may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on
o f t h e Coun ci l of St at es p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e th en memb ers of
t h e Coun ci l an d agreed t o b y t he Hou s e of t h e Peop le; b ut n o res olu t i on
for t h e p u rp os e of t h i s clau s e s h all b e moved u n les s at leas t fou rt een
d ays ' n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t he i n t en ti on t o move t h e res olu ti on ;
(c) a Vi ce-Pres i d ent sh all, n ot wi t hs t an d in g th e exp i rat i on of h is
t erm, con t in u e t o h old offi ce u n ti l h i s s u cces s or ent ers u p on h i s o ffi ce.
6 8 . Tim e of hol di ng el ecti on to f il l va ca ncy i n the off i ce of Vi ce-
P res i dent a nd the term of of fi ce of pers on el ected to f il l ca s ual
va ca ncy .—(1 ) An elect i on t o fi l l a vacan c y cau s ed b y t h e exp i rat i on of t h e
t erm of o ffi ce o f Vi ce -Pres i d ent s h all b e comp let ed b efore t h e ex p i rat i on
o f t h e t erm.
(2 ) An elect i on t o fi ll a va can cy i n t h e offi ce o f Vi ce -P res i d en t
occu rri n g b y reas on o f h i s d eat h, res i gn at i on or remova l, or ot h erwi s e s h all
b e h eld as s oon as p oss ib le aft er t h e occu rren ce of t h e vacan cy, an d t h e
p ers on elect ed t o fi ll t h e vacan cy s h all, s u b j ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of art i cle
6 7 , b e en ti t led t o h old offi ce fo r t h e fu ll t erm of fi ve years fr o m t h e d at e
on wh i ch h e ent ers u p on h is offi ce.
69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.—Every Vice-President shall, before
entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed
26 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say—
"I, A.B., d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I wi l l b ear t ru e fai t h and
s o l e mn l y a f f i r m
alle gi an ce t o th e Cons ti tu t i on of In d i a as b y law es t ab li s h ed an d t h at I wi ll
fai t h fu l l y d i s ch arge t h e d ut y u p on wh i ch I am ab ou t t o en t er. "
70. Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.—Parliament may make
such provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any
contingency not provided for in this Chapter.
71. Ma tters rela ti ng to, o r connected w i th, the el ection of a
P res i dent or Vi ce-P res i dent.—(1 ) All d ou b t s an d d i sp ut es aris i n g ou t of
or i n con n ect i on wit h t h e elect i on of a Pres i d ent or Vi ce-Pres i d en t s h all b e
i n qu i red in t o and d eci d ed b y t he Su p reme Cou rt wh os e d eci si on sh all b e
fi n al.
(2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the
Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of
the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the
decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration.
(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any
matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.
(4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question
on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the
electoral college electing him.
72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.— (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons,
reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence
of any person convicted of any offence—
(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial;
(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law
relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.
(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any
officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by
a Court Martial.
(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or
commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the
time being in force.
73. Extent of executive power of the Union.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this
Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend—
(a ) t o t h e matt ers wi th resp ect t o wh i ch Parli amen t h as p ower t o
make laws ; an d
27 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) t o t h e ex ercis e of s u ch ri gh t s , au th ori t y an d ju ri sd i ct i on as are


ex erci s ab le b y t h e G overn men t o f In d i a b y vi rt u e of an y t re at y or
agreemen t :
Provi d ed th at t h e ex ecu ti ve power re ferred t o i n s ub -clau s e (a ) sh all
n ot , s ave as ex p ress ly p rovi d ed i n t hi s Cons ti t ut i on or i n an y law mad e b y
Parli amen t , ext end i n an y St at e t o mat t ers wi th res p ect t o wh i ch t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e h as als o p ower t o make laws .
(2 ) Un t i l ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed by Parli amen t , a St at e an d an y o ffi cer or
au t h orit y o f a St at e ma y, n ot wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t hi s art i cle, con t i n u e
t o ex ercis e in mat t ers wi th res pect t o whi ch Parli amen t h as p ower t o make
laws for t h at St at e s u ch ex ecu t i ve p ower or fu n ct i on s as th e St at e or o ffi cer
or au t h ori t y t h ereof cou ld ex erci s e immedi at ely b efore t h e commen cement
o f t h i s Cons ti t ut i on .
Co un ci l o f Mi n is t er s
7 4 . Counci l of Mi nis ters to a i d a nd a dvi s e P res i dent.—(1 ) Th ere
s h all b e a Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers wi t h th e Pri me Mi n is t er at t h e h ead t o aid
an d ad vis e t h e Pres id en t wh o shall, i n t h e ex ercis e of h i s fu n ct ion s , act in
accord an ce wi t h su ch ad vi ce:
Provi d ed th at t h e Presi d en t may req u i re t h e Cou n ci l of Mi n is t ers t o
recon s i d er su ch ad vi ce, ei th er gen erall y or ot h erwi s e, an d th e Pres i d en t
s h all act i n accord an ce wi th th e ad vi ce t end ered aft er su ch recons i d erat i on .
(2 ) Th e q u es ti on wh et h er an y, an d i f s o wh at , ad vi ce was t end ered b y
Mi n is t ers t o th e Pres id ent sh all n ot b e i nq u i red in t o in an y cou rt .
7 5 . Other provi si ons a s to Mi ni s ters .—(1 ) Th e Pri me Min is ter s h all
b e app oi nt ed b y t h e Pres id ent and th e oth er Mi ni s t ers s h all b e app oi n t ed b y
t h e Presi d en t on t h e ad vi ce of t h e Pri me Min is t er.
(1 A) Th e t ot al n u mb er of Mi n is ters , i n clud in g t h e Prime Min i st er, i n th e
Cou n ci l o f Mi n i s t ers s h all n ot e x ceed fi ft een p er cen t . o f t h e t o t al n u mb er
o f memb ers of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(1 B) A memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parli amen t b elon gi n g t o an y p oli t i cal
p art y wh o i s d i s qu ali fi ed for b ei n g a memb er of t h at Hou s e u nd er
p aragrap h 2 of t h e Ten th Sch ed u le sh all als o b e d i s qu alifi ed t o b e
ap p oi nt ed as a Mi ni st er u nd er clau s e (1 ) for d u rat i on of t h e p eri od
commen ci n g from t h e dat e of h is di sq u ali fi cat i on t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e
t erm of h i s offi ce as su ch memb er wou ld exp i re or wh ere h e con t es ts an y
elect i on t o ei th er Hou s e of Parli amen t b efore t h e ex pi ry o f s u ch p eri od , t i ll
t h e d at e on whi ch h e is d eclared elect ed , wh i ch ever i s earli er.
(2 ) Th e Min is t ers s h all h old offi ce du ri n g th e p leasu re of t h e Pres i d en t .
(3 ) Th e Cou n ci l of Mi ni st ers s h all b e collect i vel y res p on s i b le t o th e
Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
28 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) Before a Mi n is t er en t ers u p on hi s offi ce, t h e Presi d en t s h all


ad min i st er t o h i m t h e oat hs of o ffi ce an d of s ecrecy acc ord i n g to t h e forms
s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n t h e Thi rd Sch ed u le.
(5 ) A Mi ni st er wh o for an y p eri od of s i x con s ecut i ve mon th s i s n ot a
memb er of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t s h all at th e ex pi rat i on of t h at p eri od
ceas e t o b e a Mi ni st er.
(6 ) Th e s alari es an d allo wan ces of Mi n i s t ers s h all b e s u ch as Parli amen t
may from t i me t o t i me b y l aw d et ermi n e an d , u nt i l Parli amen t s o
d et ermin es , s h all b e as s p eci fi ed i n t h e Second Sch ed u le.
The Attorney-General for India
76. Attorney-General for India.—(1) The President shall appoint a person who is
qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India.
(2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India
upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from
time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions
conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force.
(3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience in
all courts in the territory of India.
(4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall
receive such remuneration as the President may determine.
Conduct of Government Business
77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.—(1) All executive action of the
Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be
authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and
the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question
on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President.
(3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of
the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business.
* * * * *
78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the
President, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister—
(a ) t o commu n i cat e t o t h e Presi d ent all d eci s i on s of t h e Cou n ci l o f
Mi n is t ers relat i n g t o t h e ad min is t rati on of t h e affai rs o f t h e Un i on and
p rop os als for legi s lat i on ;
(b ) t o fu rn i s h s u ch i n format i on relat i n g t o t h e ad min i st rati on of t h e
affai rs o f t h e Un i on an d p rop osals for le gi s lat i on as t h e Pres iden t may
call for; an d
(c) i f t h e Pres i d en t s o req u i res, t o s u b mi t for t h e con s i d erat i on o f
t h e Cou n ci l of Mi n i st ers an y ma t t er on wh i ch a d eci si on h as b een t aken
b y a Mi n i s ter bu t whi ch h as n ot b een cons i d ered b y t h e Cou n ci l.
29 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT
General
79. Constitution of Parliament.—There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall
consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and
the House of the People.
80. Composition of the Council of States.—(1) The Council of States shall consist of—
(a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the
provisions of clause (3); and
(b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of
the Union territories.
(2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the
States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf
contained in the Fourth Schedule.
(3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1)
shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such
matters as the following, namely:—
Literature, science, art and social service.
(4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the
elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of
proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
(5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in
such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.
81. Composition of the House of the People.—(1) Subject to the provisions of article
331, the House of the People shall consist of—
(a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from
territorial constituencies in the States, and
(b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such
manner as Parliament may by law provide.
(2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),—
(a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People
in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far
as practicable, the same for all States; and
(b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the
ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is,
so far as practicable, the same throughout the State:
Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the
purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population
of that State does not exceed six millions.
30 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the
last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the
relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken
after the year 2026 have been published, be construed, —
(i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a
reference to the 1971 census; and
(ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census.
82. Readjustment after each census.—Upon the completion of each census, the
allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into
territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as
Parliament may by law determine:
Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People
until the dissolution of the then existing House:
Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President
may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may
be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment:
Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026
have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust—
(i) the allocation of seats in the House of People to the States as readjusted on
the basis of the 1971 census; and
(ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted
on the basis of the 2001 census,
under this article.
8 3 . Dura ti on of Hous es of Pa rl ia m ent.—(1 ) Th e Cou n ci l of St at es
s h all n ot b e s u b j ect t o d is s olu t ion , b u t as n early as p os s i b le on e-t h i rd of
t h e memb ers th ereof s h all ret i r e as s oon as may b e on t h e exp i rati on of
ever y s econ d year i n accord an ce wi t h th e p rovi s i ons mad e i n th at b eh alf b y
Parli amen t b y law.
(2 ) Th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, u n les s s oon er d is s olved , s h all con t i nu e
for fi ve years from t h e d at e ap p oi n t ed for i t s fi rs t meet i n g and n o lon ger
an d t h e ex pi rat i on of t h e s aid p eri od of fi ve years s h all op erat e as a
d i ss olu t i on of t h e Hou s e:
Provi d ed th at t h e s aid p eri od may, wh i le a Proc lamat i on of E mergen cy
i s i n op erati on , b e ext end ed b y Par li amen t b y law for a p eri od n ot
ex ceed in g on e year at a t i me an d n ot ex t en di n g i n an y cas e b eyon d a p eri od
o f s i x mon th s aft er t h e Proclamat i on h as ceas ed t o op erat e.
8 4 . Qua lif i ca ti on f or m em bershi p of Pa rl iam ent.—A p ers on s h all n ot
b e qu ali fi ed t o b e ch os en t o fi ll a s eat in Parli ament un les s h e—
(a ) i s a cit i zen of In d i a, an d makes an d su b s cri b es b efore s ome
p ers on au th ori s ed in t h at b eh alf b y t h e Elect i on Commi ss i on an oat h or
31 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n th e Th i rd


Sch ed u le;
(b ) i s , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , n ot les s t h an
t h i rt y yea rs o f age an d , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le,
n ot les s th an t wen t y- fi ve years o f age ; an d
(c) p os s es s es su ch ot h er qu ali fi cat i on s as may b e p res crib ed in t h at
b eh alf b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Parli amen t .
8 5 . Sess i ons of Pa rl ia m ent, prorog a ti on a nd di s s ol uti on.—(1 ) Th e
Pres i d en t sh all from t i me t o t i me s u mmon each Hou s e of Par li amen t t o
meet at s u ch t i me and p lace as h e t h in ks fi t , b u t si x mon ths s h all n ot
i n t erven e b et ween i t s las t si t ti ng i n on e s es s i on an d th e d at e app oi n t ed for
i t s fi rs t s it t in g i n t h e n ex t s es si on .
(2 ) Th e Pres id ent may fr om t i me t o t i me—
(a ) p rorogu e t h e Hou s es or ei t h er Hou s e;
(b ) d is s olve t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
8 6 . Rig ht of P res i dent to a ddres s a nd s end m es sa g es to Houses .—(1 )
Th e Pres i d ent may ad d res s ei th er Hou s e o f Parli amen t or b ot h Hou s es
as s emb led t oget h er, an d for t h at p u rp os e requ i re t h e at t en d ance of
memb ers .
(2 ) Th e Pres id ent may s en d mes s ages t o ei th er Hou s e of Par li amen t ,
wh et h er wi th resp ect t o a Bi ll t h en p en d in g i n Parli amen t or ot h erwi s e, and
a Hou s e t o wh i ch an y mes s age i s s o s en t sh all wi t h al l c on ven i en t d esp at ch
con s i d er an y mat t er req ui red b y t h e mes s age t o b e t aken in t o cons i d erat i on .
8 7 . Speci al a ddres s by the P resi dent.—(1 ) At th e commen cemen t of t h e
fi rs t s ess i on aft er each gen eral elect i on t o th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d at
t h e commen cemen t of t h e fi rs t s es si on of each year t h e Presi d ent sh all
ad d ress b ot h Hou s es of Par l i amen t ass emb led t oget h er an d i n form
Parli amen t of t h e cau s es of i t s su mmon s .
(2 ) Provi s i on s h all b e mad e by t h e ru les regu lat i n g t h e p roced u re of
ei t h er Hou s e for t h e allot men t of t i me for d i s cu ss i on of t h e mat t ers
referred t o i n s u ch add ress .
8 8 . Ri g hts of Mi ni s ters a nd Attorney -Genera l a s res pects Hous es .—
Ever y Mi n i s t er an d t h e At t orn ey-G en eral o f In d i a s h all h ave th e ri gh t t o
s p eak i n , and ot h erwi s e t o t ake p art i n th e p roceed in gs of, ei t h er Hou s e,
an y j oi n t s i t ti n g of t h e Hou s es , an d an y commi t t ee o f Par li amen t of wh i ch
h e may b e n amed a memb er, b u t sh all n ot b y vi rt u e o f t h i s art i cle b e
en t it led t o vot e.
Of f i cers of Pa rl ia men t
8 9 . The Chai rm a n a nd Deputy Cha i rma n of the Counci l of Sta tes .—
(1 ) Th e Vi ce- Pres i d en t of In d i a sh all b e ex o f f i cio Ch ai rman of t h e
Cou n ci l of St at es .
32 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Th e Cou n ci l of St at es s h all, as s oon as may b e, ch oos e a memb er of


t h e Coun ci l t o b e Dep u t y Ch ai rman th ereof an d , s o oft en as t he offi ce o f
Dep u t y Ch ai rman b ecomes vacan t , th e Cou n ci l s h all ch oo s e an ot h er
memb er t o b e Dep u t y Ch ai rman t h ereof.
9 0 . Va ca ti on a nd res i g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the of fi ce of
Deputy Cha i rm a n.—A memb er h old i n g offi ce as Depu t y Ch ai rman of t h e
Cou n ci l of St at es —
(a ) s h all vacat e h i s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e
Cou n ci l;
(b ) may at an y t i me, b y w ri t in g u n d er h is h and ad d res s ed t o t h e
Ch ai rman , resi gn hi s offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on of t h e Cou n ci l
p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e Cou nci l:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ’ n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on .
9 1 . P ow er of the Deputy Chairm a n or other pers on to perf orm the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to act a s , Cha i rma n.—(1 )Wh i le the offi ce o f
Ch ai rman i s vacan t, or d u ri n g an y p eri od wh en t h e Vi ce-Pres i d en t is act in g
as , or d i s ch argin g t h e fu n ct i on s o f, Pres i d en t, t h e du ti es of t h e o ffi ce s h all
b e p erformed b y t h e Dep ut y Ch ai rman , or, i f t h e offi ce of Dep u t y
Ch ai rman i s als o vacan t , b y s u ch memb er of t h e Cou n ci l of S t at es as th e
Pres i d en t may ap p oi nt for t h e p urp os e.
(2 ) Du ri n g th e abs en ce of t h e Ch ai rman from an y s i t t i n g of t h e Cou n ci l
o f St at es t h e Depu t y Ch ai rman , or, i f h e is als o abs ent , s u ch p ers on as may
b e d et ermin ed b y t h e ru les o f p roced u re of t h e Cou n ci l, or, i f n o s u ch
p ers on is p res ent , su ch oth er p ers on as may b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Cou n ci l,
s h all act as Ch ai rman.
9 2 . The Cha i rma n or the De puty Cha i rma n not to pres i de w hi l e a
res ol uti on f or hi s rem ova l f rom off i ce i s under cons i dera ti on.— (1 ) At
an y s i t t i n g of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e removal
o f t h e Vi ce-Pres i d en t from h i s offi ce i s un d er cons id erat i on, th e Ch ai rman ,
or wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e remova l o f t h e Dep u t y Ch ai rman from h i s
o ffi ce i s u nd er con s id erati on , t he Dep u t y Ch ai rman , sh all n ot , t h ou gh h e i s
p res ent , p resi d e, and t h e p rovi si on s of clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 9 1 s h all ap p ly
i n relat i on t o every s u ch s it ti n g as th ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o a si t ti n g from
wh i ch t h e Ch ai rman , or, as t h e cas e ma y b e, t h e Dep u t y C h ai rman, i s
ab s ent .
(2 ) Th e Ch ai rman sh all h ave t h e ri gh t t o s p eak i n, an d oth erwi se t o t ake
p art i n t h e p roceedi n gs of, t h e Cou n ci l of St at es wh i le an y res olu t i on for
t h e removal o f t h e Vi ce -Pres i d en t from h i s o ffi ce i s u n d er con sid erat i on in
t h e Coun ci l, bu t , n ot wi t hs t an din g an yt h i n g i n art i cle 10 0 , s hall n ot b e
33 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

en t it led t o vot e at all on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er d u rin g su ch


p roceed i n gs .
9 3 . The Spea ker a nd Deputy S pea ker of the H ous e of the P eopl e.—
Th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le s h all, as s oon as may b e, ch oos e t wo memb ers of
t h e Hou s e t o b e res p ecti vel y Sp eaker an d Dep u t y Sp eaker t h ereo f an d , s o
o ft en as th e offi ce of Sp eaker or Dep u t y Sp eaker b ecomes vacan t , th e
Hou s e s h all ch oos e an ot h er memb er t o b e Sp eaker or Dep ut y Sp eaker, as
t h e cas e may b e.
9 4 . Va ca ti on a nd resi g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the off i ces of
Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker. — A memb er h old i n g o ffi ce as Sp eaker o r
Dep u t y Sp eaker o f t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le—
(a ) s h all vacat e hi s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e Hou s e
o f t h e Peop le;
(b ) may at an y t i me, b y wri t i ng u n d er hi s h an d add res s ed , i f s u ch
memb er is th e Sp eaker, t o t h e Dep u t y Sp eaker, an d i f s u ch memb er is
t h e Depu t y Sp eaker, t o t h e Sp eaker, res i gn h is offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on of t h e Hou s e of
t h e Peop le p ass ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e Hou s e:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ’ n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at , wh en ever t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le i s di s s olved ,
t h e Sp eaker sh all n ot vacat e h is offi ce u nt i l i mmed i at ely b e fo re t h e fi rs t
meet i n g of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le aft er t h e d is s olu t i on .
9 5 . P ow er of the Deputy Spea ker or other pers on t o perf orm the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to a ct a s, Spea ker.—(1 ) Wh i le t he offi ce o f
Sp eaker i s vacan t , t h e d ut i es o f t h e offi ce s h all b e p erform ed b y t h e
Dep u t y Sp eaker or, i f t h e o ffi ce o f Dep u t y Sp eaker i s als o vaca n t , b y s u ch
memb er of t h e Hou s e o f t h e Pe op le as t h e Pres i d en t may ap p oi n t for t h e
p u rp os e.
(2 ) Du ri n g t h e ab s en ce of t h e Sp eaker from an y s i t t in g of t h e Hou s e o f
t h e Peop le t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker or, i f h e i s als o ab s en t , su ch p ers on as may
b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e ru les of p roced u re of t h e Hou s e, or, i f n o s u ch p ers on
i s p res ent , su ch oth er p ers on as may b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Hou se, s h all act
as Sp eaker.
9 6 . The Spea ker or the Dep uty Spea ker not t o pres i de w hi l e a
res ol uti on f or hi s rem ova l f rom off i ce i s under cons i dera ti on.— (1 ) At
an y s i t t i n g of t h e H ou s e of t h e Peop le, wh i le an y res o lu t i on for t h e
remova l o f t h e Sp eaker from h i s o ffi ce i s u nd er con si d erati on , th e Sp eaker,
or wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e removal o f t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker from h i s
o ffi ce i s un d er con s id erati on , th e Dep ut y Sp eaker, s h all n ot , th ou gh h e i s
p res ent , p resi d e, and t h e p rovi si on s of clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 9 5 s h all ap p ly
34 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

i n relat i on t o every s u ch s it ti n g as th ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o a si t ti n g from


wh i ch t h e Sp eaker, or, as t h e case may b e, t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker, i s ab s en t .
(2 ) Th e Sp eaker s h all h ave t h e ri gh t t o s p eak i n , an d ot h erwis e t o t ake
p art in th e p roceed in gs of, t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le wh i le an y res olu t i on for
h i s removal from o ffi ce i s u nd er con si d erati on in t h e Hou s e an d s h all,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g in article 1 0 0 , b e ent it led t o vot e on ly i n t h e fi rs t
i n st an ce on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er d u ri n g su ch proceed i n gs
b u t n ot in th e cas e of an eq u ali ty o f v ot es .
9 7 . Sa la ri es a nd a ll ow a nces of the Cha i rma n a nd Deputy Cha i rm a n
a nd the Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker.— Th ere s h all b e p ai d t o t h e
Ch ai rman an d th e Dep u t y Ch airman of t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es , an d t o t h e
Sp eaker an d th e Dep u t y Sp eaker o f t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le, s u ch s alari es
an d allowan ces as ma y b e res p ect i vel y fi x ed b y Par li amen t by la w an d ,
u n ti l p rovi s i on i n th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, s u ch s alari es an d allowan ces as
are s p eci fi ed i n t h e Second Sch ed u le.
9 8 . Secreta ria t of P a rli am ent.— (1 ) Each Hou s e of Parli ame n t sh all
h ave a s ep arat e s ecret ari al s t aff:
Provi d ed th at n ot h in g in th is clau s e s h all b e cons t ru ed as p revent i n g the
creat i on of p os t s common t o b oth Hou s es of Parli amen t .
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y law regu lat e t h e recru it ment , and t h e con d it i ons
o f s ervi ce o f p ers on s ap p oi nt ed , t o t h e s ecret ari al s t aff o f ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t .
(3 ) Un t i l p rovi s i on is mad e b y P arli amen t u nd er clau s e (2 ), t h e Pres i d ent
may, a ft er con s u lt at i on wi t h th e Sp eaker o f t h e Hou s e o f t h e Pe op le o r t h e
Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , as th e cas e may b e, make ru les
regu lat i n g t h e recru it ment , and th e con di ti on s of s ervi ce o f p ers on s
ap p oi nt ed , t o th e s ecret ari al s t aff o f t h e H ou s e o f t h e Peop le or t h e Cou n ci l
o f St at es , an d an y ru les s o mad e s h all h ave e ffect s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s
o f an y law mad e u n d er t h e s ai d clau s e.
Co nd u ct o f Bu s in ess
9 9 . Oa th or aff i rm a ti on by m em bers .— Ever y memb er o f ei t her Hou s e
o f Parli amen t s h all, b efore t aki n g h i s s eat , make and su b s cri b e b efore t h e
Pres i d en t , or s ome p ers on appoi n t ed i n th at b eh alf b y h i m, an oat h or
affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e p u rp os e in t h e Th i rd
Sch ed u le.
1 0 0. Voti ng i n Hous es , pow er of Hous es to a ct notw i ths ta ndi ng
va ca nci es a nd quorum .— (1) Save as ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed i n th is
Con s t it ut i on , all q u es ti on s at any s i t t in g of ei t h er Hou s e or j oi n t s i tt in g o f
t h e Hou s es sh all b e d et ermin ed b y a maj ori t y o f v ot es o f t h e memb ers
p res ent and vot i n g, ot h er th an th e Sp eaker or p ers on act in g as Ch ai rman or
Sp eaker.
35 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Th e Ch ai rman or Sp eaker, or p ers on act i n g as su ch, s h all n ot vo t e i n th e


fi rs t i n s t an ce, bu t sh all h ave an d ex erci s e a cast i n g vot e i n t h e cas e o f an
eq u ali t y o f v ot es .
(2 ) Ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t s h all h ave p ower t o act n ot wit hs t and in g
an y vacan c y i n t h e memb ers h ip t h ereof, an d an y p roceed in gs in Parli amen t
s h all b e va li d n ot wi t h st and in g t h at i t is d is covered s u b s eq u en t ly t h at s ome
p ers on wh o was n ot en t i t led s o to d o s at or v ot ed or ot h erwi s e too k p art i n
t h e p roceed i n gs .
(3 ) Un t i l Parli amen t b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , th e q u oru m t o con s t it u t e
a meet in g of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t sh all b e on e-t en t h o f t h e t ot al
n u mb er of memb ers of t h e Hou s e.
(4 ) If at an y t i me d u rin g a mee t i n g of a H ou s e t h ere i s n o q uoru m, i t
s h all b e t h e d u t y o f t h e Ch ai rman or Sp eaker, or p ers on act i n g as s u ch,
ei t h er t o ad j ou rn t h e Hou s e or t o s u sp end t h e meet in g u n ti l t h ere is a
q u oru m.
Di s q ua li f i ca ti on s o f Memb ers
1 0 1. Va ca ti on of s ea ts.— (1 ) No p ers on sh all b e a memb er of b ot h
Hou s es of Parli amen t and p rovi si on sh all b e mad e b y Parli amen t b y law for
t h e vacati on b y a p ers on wh o is ch os en a memb er of b ot h Hou s es of h i s
s eat in on e Hou s e or th e ot h er.
(2 ) No p ers on s h all b e a memb er b ot h of Par li amen t an d of a Hou s e o f
t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e, an d i f a p ers on i s ch os en a member b ot h o f
Parli amen t and of a H ou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e, th en , at t h e
ex p i rat i on of s u ch p eri od as may b e s p eci fi ed i n ru les mad e b y t h e
Pres i d en t , th at p ers on ’s s eat in Parli amen t sh all b ecome vacan t , u n les s h e
h as p revi ou s ly res i gn ed h i s s eat i n th e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
(3 ) If a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parli amen t —
(a ) b ecomes su bj ect t o an y o f t h e di s qu ali fi cat i on s men ti on ed i n
clau s e (1 ) or clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 1 02 , or
(b ) res i gns hi s s eat b y wri t i n g u nd er h is h an d ad d res s ed t o t h e
Ch ai rman or t h e Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e, an d h is res i gn at i on i s
accep t ed b y t h e Ch ai rman or th e Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e,
h i s s eat s h all t h ereu p on b ecome vacan t :
Provi d ed t h at in th e cas e of an y res i gn ati on referred t o i n s u b -cl au s e (b ),
i f from i n format i on recei ved or ot h erwi s e and aft er maki n g s u ch i n qu i ry as
h e t hi n ks fi t , th e Ch ai rman or th e Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e, i s s ati s fi ed
t h at s u ch res i gn ati on is n ot vol u n t ary or gen u i n e, h e s h all n ot accep t s u ch
res i gn ati on .
(4 ) If for a p eri od of s i xt y d a ys a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t
i s wi t h out p ermi s si on of t h e H ou s e ab s en t from a ll meet i n gs t h ereof, t h e
Hou s e may d eclare h i s s eat vacan t :
36 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed t h at in comp ut i n g th e sai d p eri od of s i x t y d a ys n o acco u n t s h all


b e t aken of an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch t h e Hou s e i s p rorogu ed or i s ad j ou rn ed
for more t h an fou r con s ecu t i ve days .
1 0 2. Di s qua l ifi ca ti ons f or mem bers hi p.— (1 ) A p ers on sh all b e
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ei n g ch os en as, an d for b ei n g, a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e
o f Parli amen t —
(a ) i f h e h old s an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u nd er t h e G overn men t of In d i a
or t h e G overn men t of an y St at e, ot h er t h an an offi ce d ecl ared b y
Parli amen t b y law n ot t o d i s qu ali fy i t s h old er;
(b ) i f h e i s of u n s ou n d min d and s t an ds s o d eclared b y a c omp et en t
cou rt ;
(c) i f h e i s an un di s ch arged i ns olven t ;
(d ) i f h e i s n ot a ci t i zen of In d i a, or h as volu n t ari ly acq u i red t h e
ci t i zen sh i p of a forei gn St at e, or i s u nd er an y ackn owled g men t of
alle gi an ce or ad h eren ce t o a fore i gn St at e;
(e) i f h e i s s o d i sq u ali fi ed b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t .
Exp l a na ti on .—For t h e pu rp os es of t h i s clau s e a p ers on s h all n ot be
d eemed t o h old an offi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of an y St at e b y rea s on on l y t h at h e i s a Mi ni st er eit h er for t h e
Un i on or for s u ch St at e.
(2 ) A p ers on s h all b e d i s q u ali fi ed fo r b ei n g a memb er o f ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t i f h e is s o di sq u ali fi ed un d er t h e Tent h Sch edu le.
1 03 . Deci si on on ques ti ons as to di s qua lif i ca ti ons of m em bers .—
(1 ) If an y q u es t i on aris es as t o wh et h er a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t h as b ecome su bj ect to an y o f t h e d i sq u ali fi cat i ons men t i on ed in
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 0 2 , t h e q ues t i on s h all b e referred for t h e d eci si on of
t h e Presi d en t an d h is d eci si on shall b e fi n al.
(2 ) Before gi vi n g an y d eci s i on on an y s u ch q u es ti on , t h e Pres i d ent
s h all ob t ai n t h e opi n i on of t h e Elect i on Commi ss i on an d s h all act
accord i n g t o s u ch op in i on .
1 04 . P ena l ty f or si tti ng and voti ng bef ore m a ki ng oa th or
a ffi rma ti on under a rti cl e 9 9 or w hen not qua li fi ed or w hen
di s qual if i ed.—If a p ers on s i t s or v ot es as a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t b efore h e h as comp l i ed wi t h th e req ui rement s of art i cle 9 9 , or
wh en h e kn ows t h at h e is n ot q u ali fi ed or t h at h e i s d is quali fi ed fo r
memb ersh ip th ereof, or t h at h e is p rohi bi t ed from s o d oi n g b y t h e
p rovi s i on s of an y la w mad e b y Parli amen t , h e sh all b e li ab le in res p ect of
each d ay on wh i ch h e s o s i t s or vot es t o a p en alt y o f fi ve h u n d red ru p ees t o
b e recovered as a d eb t d u e t o t he Un i on .
37 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Po wer s , Pri vi l eg es a nd Immu ni t ies o f Pa r li a ment


a n d i ts Memb ers
1 0 5. P ow ers , pri vi l eg es , etc., of the Hous es of Pa rl iam ent a nd of the
m em bers a nd comm i ttees thereof .— (1 ) Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s ion s of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on an d t o t h e ru les and s t and in g ord ers regu lat i n g t h e p roced u re
o f Parli amen t , t h ere s h all b e freed om of s p eech i n Parli amen t .
(2 ) No memb er o f Parli amen t s h all b e li ab le t o an y p roceed i n gs i n an y
cou rt i n resp ect of an y t h i n g s aid or an y vot e gi ven b y h i m i n Parli amen t or
an y c ommi t t ee th ereof, an d n o p ers on sh all b e s o li ab le i n res p ect of t h e
p u b li cat i on b y or u n d er t h e au t hori t y o f ei t h er Hou s e of Par li amen t of an y
rep ort , p ap er, vot es or p roceed ings .
(3 ) In ot h er res p ects , th e p owers , p ri vi leges an d i mmu n it i es o f each
Hou s e of Par li amen t , an d of t h e memb ers an d th e commi tt ees of each
Hou s e, s h all b e s u ch as may fro m t i me t o t i me b e d efi n ed b y Pa rli amen t b y
law, an d , un t i l s o d efi n ed , s h all b e th os e of t h at Hou s e an d of i t s memb ers
an d commit t ees immedi at ely b efore t h e comin g i nt o force o f s e ct i on 1 5 of
t h e Con st it ut i on (Fort y-fou rt h Amen d men t ) Act , 1 97 8.
(4 ) Th e p rovi s i on s of clau s es (1 ), (2 ) and (3 ) sh all ap p ly i n relat i on t o
p ers on s wh o b y vi rt u e of t h i s Con s t it u ti on h ave t h e ri gh t t o speak i n , an d
ot h erwi s e t o t ake p art in th e p roceed i n gs of, a Hou s e o f Parli a men t or an y
commi t t ee th ereof as t h ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o memb ers of Parli amen t .
1 0 6. Sal a ries a nd a ll ow a nces of m em bers .— Memb ers of ei t h er Hou s e
o f Parli amen t sh all b e ent i t led t o recei ve s u ch s alari es an d all owan ces as
may fr om t i me t o t i me b e d etermi n ed b y Parli amen t b y la w an d , u nt i l
p rovi s i on in t h at resp ect i s s o mad e, allowan ces at s u ch rat es an d up on
s u ch cond it i on s as were i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on ap p li cab le in the cas e of memb ers of t h e Con s t it u en t
As s emb ly o f t h e Domi n i on of In d i a.
Leg i sl at i ve Pro cedu r e
1 0 7. P rovi si ons a s to i ntroducti on a nd pa ss i ng of B il ls .— (1) Su b j ect
t o t h e p rovi s i ons of art i cles 1 0 9 an d 1 17 wi th res p ect t o Mon ey Bi lls an d
ot h er fi n an ci al Bi lls , a Bi ll may ori gi n at e in ei th er Hou s e of Parl i amen t.
(2 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons of art i cles 1 08 an d 10 9, a Bi ll s h al l n ot b e
d eemed t o h ave b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s es of Parli amen t u n les s it h as b een
agreed t o b y b ot h Hou s es , ei t h er wi th ou t amen dmen t or wi t h s u ch
amen d men ts on ly as are agreed t o b y b ot h Hou s es .
(3 ) A Bi ll p end in g i n Parli amen t s h all n ot lap s e b y reas on of t h e
p rorogat i on o f t h e Hou s es .
(4 ) A Bi ll p end in g i n th e Cou n cil o f St at es whi ch h as n ot b een pas s ed b y
t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le s h all n o t lap s e on a d i s s olu t i on of t h e H ou s e of t h e
Peop le.
38 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5 ) A Bi l l wh i ch i s p en di n g i n th e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le, o r wh i ch h avi n g


b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le i s p en d in g i n t h e Coun cil o f St at es ,
s h all, s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s o f art i cle 1 0 8 , lap s e on a d i s s olu t i on of t h e
Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
1 0 8. J oi nt s i tti ng of both Houses i n certa i n cas es .— (1 ) If a ft er a Bi ll
h as b een p ass ed b y on e Hou s e an d t ran s mi tt ed t o t h e oth er Hou se—
(a ) t h e Bi ll i s rej ect ed b y t h e ot h er Hou s e; or
(b ) t h e Hou s es h ave fi n all y d i s agreed as t o t h e amen d men ts to b e
mad e in th e Bi ll; or
(c) more t h an s ix mon th s elap s e fr om t h e d at e of t h e recep t i on of t h e
Bi ll b y t h e ot h er Hou s e wi th ou t t h e Bi ll b ein g p ass ed b y i t ,
t h e Pres id ent may, u n les s t h e Bill h as elap s ed b y reas on o f a d i s s olu t i on of
t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, n ot i fy t o t h e Hou s es b y mes s age i f t h e y are s i t ti n g
or b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on i f t h ey are n ot s i tt in g, hi s i nt ent i on t o s u mmon
t h em t o meet i n a j oin t si t ti n g fo r t h e p u rp os e of d e li b erat in g an d vot i n g on
t h e Bi ll:
Provi d ed t h at n oth in g i n t h is clau s e sh all ap p ly t o a Mon e y Bi l l.
(2 ) In reck on i n g an y s u ch p eri od o f s i x mon t h s as i s referred t o i n clau s e
(1 ), n o accou nt sh all b e t aken of an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch t h e Hou s e
referred t o i n s ub -clau s e (c) of t h at clau s e is p rorogu ed or ad jou rn ed for
more t h an fou r con s ecut i ve d ays .
(3 ) Wh ere t h e Pres id ent h as und er clau s e (1 ) n ot i fi ed h is i nt en t i on of
s u mmoni n g t h e Hou s es t o meet i n a j oi n t s it t in g, n eit h er Hou s e s h all
p roceed fu rt h er wi t h t h e Bi ll, bu t th e Pres id ent may at an y t i me aft er t h e
d at e of h i s n ot i fi cat i on s ummon th e Hou s es t o meet i n a j oin t s i tt in g for
t h e pu rp os e s p eci fi ed i n th e not i fi cat i on an d , i f h e d oes s o, t h e Hou s es
s h all meet accord i n gly.
(4 ) If at t h e j oi nt s i tt in g of t h e t wo Hou s es th e Bi ll, wi t h su ch
amen d men ts , i f an y, as are agreed t o i n j oi nt si tt i n g, i s pas s ed b y a
maj ori t y o f t h e t ot al n u mb er o f memb ers of b ot h Hou s es pres en t an d
vot i n g, i t s h all b e d eemed for t h e pu rp os es of t h i s Con s ti tu t ion t o h ave
b een p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es :
Provi d ed t h at at a j oi nt si t ti n g—
(a ) i f t h e Bi ll, h avi n g b een pas s ed b y on e Hou s e, h as n ot b een
p as s ed b y t h e ot h er Hou s e wit h amend ment s an d retu rn ed t o t he Hou s e
i n wh i ch i t ori gi n at ed , n o amen dmen t sh all b e p rop os ed t o t h e Bi ll ot h er
t h an su ch amen d men ts (i f an y) a s are mad e n eces s ary b y t h e d ela y i n t h e
p as s age of t h e Bi ll;
(b ) i f t h e Bi l l h as b een s o p as s ed and ret u rn ed , on ly s u ch
amen d men ts as afores ai d s h all b e p rop os ed t o t h e Bi ll an d s uch ot h er
amen d men ts as are relevan t t o t h e mat t ers wi th res p ect t o wh i ch t h e
Hou s es h ave n ot agreed ;
an d t h e d eci si on of t h e p ers on p res id in g as t o t h e amen d men t s wh i ch are
ad mi ss ib le u nd er th is clau s e s h all b e fi n al.
39 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5 ) A j oi n t s it t in g may b e h eld un d er th is arti cle an d a Bi ll p as s ed


t h ereat , n ot wi t hs t an di n g t h at a d i ss olu t i on of t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le h as
i n t erven ed s in ce t h e Presi d en t not i fi ed h i s in t en t i on t o su mmon t h e Hou s es
t o meet th erei n .
1 0 9. Specia l procedure i n res pect of M oney Bi ll s .—(1 ) A Mon ey Bi l l
s h all n ot b e in t rodu ced i n t h e Cou n ci l of St at es .
(2 ) Aft er a Mon e y Bi ll h as b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le i t
s h all b e t ran s mi t t ed t o t h e Coun ci l o f St at es for i t s recommend at i ons an d
t h e Coun ci l of St at es s h all wi t hi n a p eri od of fou rt een d ays fro m t h e d at e
o f i t s recei pt of t h e Bi ll ret u rn th e Bi ll t o th e Hou s e of t h e People wi t h its
recommen d at i ons an d t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le ma y t h ereu p on eit h er accep t
or rej ect all or an y o f t h e recommen d at i on s of t h e Coun ci l of St at es .
(3 ) If t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le ac cep t s an y o f t h e recommen d at i on s of t h e
Cou n ci l o f St at es , t h e Mon ey Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een p as s ed b y
b ot h Hou s es wi t h th e amen d men t s recommend ed b y t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es
an d accep t ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(4 ) If t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le d oes n ot accept an y of t h e
recommen d at i ons of t h e Cou n ci l of St at es , th e Mon ey Bi ll s h all b e d eemed
t o h ave b een p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es in th e form i n wh i ch it was p ass ed b y
t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le wi th out an y of t h e amend ment s recommen d ed b y
t h e Coun ci l of St at es .
(5 ) If a Mon e y Bi l l p as s ed b y t he Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d t ransmi t t ed t o
t h e Cou n ci l of St at es for i t s recommen d ati on s i s n ot ret u rn ed t o t h e Hou s e
o f t h e Peop le wi th in th e s aid p eri od of fou rt een d ays , i t sh all b e d eemed t o
h ave b een p ass ed b y b ot h Hou s es at t h e ex pi rati on of t h e s ai d p eri od i n t h e
form i n wh i ch it was p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
1 1 0. Defi ni ti on of "M oney Bi l ls ' ' .—(1 ) For t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s
Ch ap t er, a Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o b e a Mon ey Bi ll i f i t con t ain s on ly
p rovi s i on s d eali n g wi t h all or an y o f t h e fo l lo wi n g mat t ers , n amel y:—
(a ) th e i mp os it i on , ab oli t i on , remi s si on , alt erati on or regu lat i on of
an y t ax ;
(b ) t h e regu lat i on of t h e b orrowi n g o f mon e y or t h e gi vi n g o f an y
gu aran t ee b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a, or t h e amend ment of t h e l aw wi t h
res p ect t o an y fi n an ci al ob li gat i on s u nd ert aken or t o b e u n d ertaken b y
t h e G overn men t of In d i a;
(c) t h e cus t od y o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d or th e Con t in gen cy Fu n d of
In d i a, t h e p aymen t of mon e ys i n t o or t h e wi t h d rawal o f mon eys from
an y s u ch Fu n d ;
(d ) th e ap p rop ri at i on of mon e ys ou t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of
In d i a;
40 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(e) t h e d eclari n g of an y ex p end i tu re t o b e ex p en di tu re ch arged on


t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a or t h e i n creas i n g of t h e amou n t o f an y
s u ch exp end i tu re;
(f ) t h e recei pt of mon e y on ac cou n t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of
In d i a or t h e p ub li c accou n t of In d i a or t h e cu s t od y or i s s u e o f s u ch
mon ey or t h e au di t of t h e accou nt s of t h e Un i on or of a St at e; or
(g ) an y mat t er i n cid ent al t o an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed i n s u b -
clau s es (a ) t o (f ).
(2 ) A Bi ll s h all n ot b e d eemed to b e a Mon ey Bi ll b y reas on on ly t h at i t
p rovi d es for t h e i mp os it i on of fi n es or ot h er p ecu n i ary p en alt i es , or for t h e
d emand or p a ymen t of fees for l i cen ces or fees for s ervi ces ren dered , or b y
reas on th at i t p rovi d es for t h e imp os i ti on , ab oli t i on , remis si on , alt erat i on
or regu lat i on o f an y t ax b y an y l ocal au t h ori t y or b od y for l ocal p u rp os es .
(3 ) If an y q u es t i on ari s es wh eth er a Bi ll i s a Mon ey Bi l l or n ot , t h e
d eci si on of t h e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le t h ereon s h all b e fi n al.
(4 ) Th ere s h all b e en d ors ed on ever y Mon e y Bi ll wh en i t i s t ran s mit t ed
t o t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es un d er art i cle 1 09 , and wh en i t is p res en t ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t for as s en t un d er art i cle 1 1 1, t h e certi fi cat e of t h e Sp eaker o f t h e
Hou s e of t h e Peop le s i gn ed b y h i m th at it is a Mon ey Bi ll.
1 1 1. As s ent to B il ls .—Wh en a Bi ll h as b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s es of
Parli amen t , it sh all b e p res ent ed t o t h e Pres id en t, and t h e Presi d ent sh all
d eclare ei th er th at h e ass en ts t o t h e Bi ll, or t h at h e wit hh old s ass ent
t h erefrom:
Provi d ed th at t h e Presi d en t may, as s oon as p os si b le aft er t h e
p res ent ati on t o h i m of a Bi ll for as s ent , ret u rn th e Bi ll i f i t i s not a Mon e y
Bi ll t o t h e Hou s es wit h a mess age req u es ti n g th at t h ey wi ll rec on s i d er t h e
Bi ll or an y s p eci fi ed p rovi s i on s t h ereof an d , i n p arti cu lar, wi ll c on s i d er th e
d es i rab i li t y o f i n t rod u ci n g an y s u ch amend ment s as h e may rec ommen d in
h i s mes s age, an d wh en a Bi ll i s s o ret u rn ed, t h e Hou s es sh all recon s i d er
t h e Bi ll accord i n gl y, an d i f t h e Bi ll i s p as s ed agai n b y t h e Hou s es wi t h or
wi t h ou t amend ment and p res ent ed t o th e Presi d en t for as s ent , the Pres i d en t
s h all n ot wi t hh old as s en t th erefrom.
Pr o ced ur e in Fin an ci al Ma tt ers
1 1 2. Annua l fi na ncia l s ta tem ent.—(1 ) Th e Pres id ent sh all i n res p ect of
ever y fi n an ci al year cau s e t o b e lai d b efore b ot h t h e Hou s es of Parli amen t
a s t at emen t of t h e es t i mat ed recei p ts an d ex p en d it u re of t h e G overn men t of
In d i a for t h at year, i n t hi s Part referred t o as t h e "an n u al fi n an ci al
s t at emen t ''.
(2 ) Th e es t imat es of ex p end i tu re emb od i ed in t h e an nu al fi n an ci al
s t at emen t s h all s h ow s ep arat el y—
41 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a ) th e su ms requ i red t o meet exp end i tu re d es crib ed b y t h is


Con s t it ut i on as exp end it u re charged u p on t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu n d of
In d i a; an d
(b ) t h e s ums req ui red t o meet ot h er ex p en d it u re p rop os ed t o b e mad e
fr om t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a,
an d s h all di s ti n gui sh ex p en di t u re on revenu e accoun t fr om ot h er
ex p en d it u re.
(3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of
India—
(a) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to
his office;
(b) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the
Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People;
(c) debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest,
sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising
of loans and the service and redemption of debt;
(d) (i) the salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the
Supreme Court;
(ii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court;
(iii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which
exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at
any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction in relation
to any area included in a Governor's Province of the Dominion of India;
(e) the salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and
Auditor-General of India;
(f) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral
tribunal;
(g) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be
so charged.
113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.—(1) So much of the estimates
as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted
to the vote of Parliament, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the
discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates.
(2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the
form of demands for grants to the House of the People, and the House of the People shall
have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand
subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.
(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President.
114. Appropriation Bills.— (1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have
been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the
appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet—
(a) the grants so made by the House of t h e Peop le; an d
42 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India but not exceeding in
any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament.
(2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which
will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or
of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the
decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause
shall be final.
(3) Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116, no money shall be withdrawn from
the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance
with the provisions of this article.
115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.— (1) The President shall—
(a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of
article 114 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to
be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current
financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not
contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or
(b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of
the amount granted for that service and for that year,
cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament another statement showing the
estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the House of the People a
demand for such excess, as the case may be.
(2) The provisions of articles 112, 113 and 114 shall have effect in relation to any such
statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the
appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or
the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial
statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be
made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India
to meet such expenditure or grant.
116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding
anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the House of the People shall have
power—
(a) to make any grant in advance in resp ect of t h e es t i mat ed exp end i tu re for
a p art of an y fi n an ci al year p e n d in g th e comp let i on of t h e p roced u re
p res crib ed i n art i cle 1 13 for t h e vot i n g o f s u ch gran t an d t h e p as s in g of
t h e law i n accord an ce wi t h t h e p rovi s i on s of art i cle 1 1 4 i n relat i on t o
t h at ex p en di tu re;
(b ) t o make a gran t for meet i n g an un exp ect ed d eman d up on th e
res ou rces of In d i a wh en on accou n t of t h e magn i tu d e or t h e ind efi n i t e
ch aract er of t h e s ervi ce t h e d eman d can n ot b e s t at ed wi th the d et ai ls
ord i n ari ly gi ven i n an ann u al fi nan ci al s t at ement ;
(c) t o make an ex cep ti on al gran t wh i ch forms n o p art of t h e cu rren t
s ervi ce of an y fi n an ci al year ;
43 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

an d Parli amen t sh all h ave p ower t o aut h ori s e b y law t h e wi th d rawal of


mon eys from t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a for t h e p u rp os es for wh i ch th e
s ai d grant s are mad e.
(2 ) Th e p rovi s i ons of art i cles 1 13 and 11 4 s h all h ave effect i n relat i on t o
t h e maki n g of an y g ran t u nd er clau s e (1 ) and t o an y la w t o b e mad e un d er
t h at claus e as th ey h ave e ffect i n relat i on t o th e maki n g of a gran t wi t h
regard t o an y ex p end i tu re men tion ed in th e an nu al fi n an ci al st at emen t and
t h e law t o b e mad e for t h e au thori s at i on of ap p rop ri ati on of mo n eys ou t o f
t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a to meet s u ch exp end it u re.
1 1 7. Specia l provi s i ons as to fina nci al B il l s .—(1 ) A Bi ll or am en d men t
maki n g p rovi s i on for an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed in su b -clau s es (a ) t o (f )
o f clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 10 s h all n ot b e i nt rod u ced or moved excep t on t h e
recommen d at i on of t h e Pres i d en t an d a Bi ll maki n g s u ch p rovi s i on s h all
n ot b e i n t rodu ced i n t h e Cou n ci l of St at es :
Provi d ed t h at n o recommen d at i on s h all b e requ i red u nd er th is clau s e for
t h e movi n g of an amen d ment maki n g p rovi s i on for t h e red u cti on or
ab oli t i on of an y t ax .
(2 ) A Bi ll or amen d men t sh all n ot b e d eemed t o make p rovi s i on for an y
o f t h e mat t ers afores ai d b y reas on on l y t h at i t p rovi d es for t h e i mp os it i on
o f fi n es or ot h er p ecun i ary p en alt i es , or for t h e d emand or p aym en t of fees
for li cen ces or fees for s ervi ces ren d ered , or b y reas on t h at i t provi d es for
t h e i mp osi t i on , ab oli t i on , remiss i on , alt erati on or regu lat i on of an y t ax b y
an y l oca l au t h ori t y or b od y for l ocal p u rp os es .
(3 ) A Bi ll wh i ch , i f en act ed and b rou ght i nt o op erat i on , wou ld i n volve
ex p en d it u re from t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a sh all n ot b e p ass ed b y
ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t un les s t h e Pres id en t h as recommend ed t o t h at
Hou s e t h e cons i d erat i on of t h e Bi ll.
Pr o ced ur e Gen er a ll y
1 1 8. Rul es of procedure.— (1) Each Hou s e of Par li amen t may ma ke
ru les for regu lat i n g, s ub j ect to t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on , it s
p roced u re an d t h e cond u ct of i t s b us i n es s .
(2 ) Un t i l ru les are mad e u n d er clau s e (1 ), t h e ru les of p roce d u re and
s t and in g ord ers in force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on wi th resp ect t o t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e Domi n i on of In d i a s h all
h ave effect i n re lat i on t o Parl i amen t su bj ect t o s u ch mod i fi cat i on s and
ad ap t at i ons as may b e mad e therei n b y t h e Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l o f
St at es or th e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, as t h e cas e may b e.
(3 ) Th e Pres id ent , aft er con s u lt at i on wi th th e Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l of
St at es an d t h e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, ma y make ru les as t o
t h e p roced u re wit h res p ect to j oi n t si tt i n gs of, an d commu ni cat i ons
b et ween , t h e t wo Hou s es .
44 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) At a j oi nt s it ti n g of t h e t wo Hou s es t h e Sp eaker of t h e Hou s e of t h e


Peop le, or i n h i s ab sen ce s u ch p ers on as may b e d et ermin ed b y ru les o f
p roced u re mad e un d er claus e (3 ), s h all p res id e.
119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.—
Parliament may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by
law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, each House of Parliament in relation to
any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated
Fund of India, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any
rule made by a House of Parliament under clause (1) of article 118 or with any rule or
standing order having effect in relation to Parliament under clause (2) of that article, such
provision shall prevail.
120. Language to be used in Parliament.— (1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII,
but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi
or in English:
Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People,
or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately
express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue.
(2) Unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a
period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the
words “or in English” were omitted therefrom.
121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament.— No discussion shall take place in
Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court
in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President
praying for the removal of the Judge as hereinafter provided.
122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.— (1) The validity of any
proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged
irregularity of procedure.
(2) No officer or member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this
Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in
Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of
those powers.
CHAPTER III—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.—(1)
If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied
that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may
promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an
Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the
expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of
45 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the
second of those resolutions; and
(b ) may b e wi t h d rawn at an y t i me b y t h e Pres i den t.
Exp l a na ti on .—Wh ere th e Hou s es of Par li amen t are s u mmon ed t o
reas s emb le on d i fferen t d at es , th e p eri od of s i x weeks s h all b e reckon ed
fr om t h e lat er of t h os e d at es for t h e p u rp os es of t h i s claus e.
(3 ) If an d s o far as an Ordi n an ce u nd er th is art i cle makes an y p rovi s i on
wh i ch Parli amen t wou ld n ot un der t h is Cons t it ut i on b e comp et en t t o en act ,
i t sh all b e voi d .
* * * * *
C H AP T E R IV.—T H E U N I O N J U D I C I A R Y
1 2 4. Es ta bl is hm ent a nd cons tituti on of Suprem e Court.—(1) Th ere
s h all b e a Su p reme Cou rt of In d i a con si s ti n g of a Ch i ef J u s t i ce o f In d i a
an d , u nt i l Parli ament b y law p r es cri b es a larger nu mb er, of n ot more t h an
1
s even ot h er J ud ges .
(2 ) Ever y J u d ge o f t h e Sup reme Cou rt sh all b e ap p oi nt ed b y t h e
Pres i d en t b y warran t un d er h is h an d and s eal aft er con s u lt ati on wi t h su ch
o f t h e J ud ges of t h e Su p reme Cou rt and of t h e Hi gh Cou rt s i n t he St at es as
t h e Presi d en t may d eem n ecessar y for t h e p u rp os e an d s h all h old offi ce
u n ti l h e att ain s th e age of s i x t y-fi ve years :
Provi d ed t h at in t h e cas e of ap p oi n t ment of a J u d ge ot h er t h an t h e Ch i ef
J u st i ce, t h e Ch i ef J us ti ce of In d ia s h all alwa ys b e con s u lt ed :
Provi d ed fu rt h er th at —
(a ) a Ju d ge may, b y wri t i n g u nd er h is h an d ad d res s ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t , res i gn h is offi ce;
(b ) a Ju d ge may b e removed from h i s offi ce i n t h e mann er p rovi d ed i n
clau s e (4 ).
(2 A) Th e age o f a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt sh all b e d et ermi n ed b y
s u ch au th ori t y an d in su ch manner as Parli amen t may b y la w p ro vi d e.
(3 ) A p ers on s h all n ot b e q u alifi ed for ap p oi n t men t as a J ud ge of t h e
Su p reme Cou rt un les s h e i s a citi zen of In d i a an d —
(a ) h as b een for at leas t fi ve yea rs a J u d ge of a Hi gh Cou rt o r o f t wo
or more s u ch Cou rts in su ccess ion ; or
(b ) h as b een for at leas t t en yea rs an ad vocat e o f a Hi gh Co u rt or o f
t wo or more s u ch Cou rt s i n s u cces s i on ; or
(c) i s , i n t h e op i ni on of t h e Pres i d en t , a d is ti n gu is h ed ju ris t .
Exp l a na ti on I.—In t h is clau s e "Hi gh Cou rt '' mean s a Hi gh Cou rt wh i ch
ex erci s es , or wh i ch at an y t i me b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h is
Con s t it ut i on ex erci s ed , ju ris di cti on i n an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a.

_______________________________________________
1. Now “twenty-five”, vide Act 22 of 1986, s. 2
46 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Exp l a na ti on II.—In comp ut in g for t h e pu rp os e of t h i s claus e the p eri od


d u rin g wh i ch a p ers on h as b een an ad vocat e, an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch a
p ers on h as h eld ju d i ci al offi ce n ot in feri or t o t h at of a d is t ri ct j ud ge aft er
h e b ecame an ad vocat e s h all b e in clu d ed.
(4 ) A Ju d ge of t h e Sup reme Cou rt s h all n ot b e removed from hi s offi ce
ex cep t b y an ord er o f t h e Pres i den t p as s ed aft er an add res s b y e ach Hou s e
o f Parli amen t s u pp ort ed b y a maj ori t y o f t h e t ot al memb ersh i p of t h at
Hou s e an d b y a maj ori t y o f n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e memb ers of t h at
Hou s e p res en t and vot i n g h as been p res ent ed t o t h e Presi d en t in t h e s ame
s es si on for s u ch removal on t h e grou n d of p roved mi s b eh avi ou r or
i n cap aci t y.
(5 ) Parli amen t may b y law regu l at e th e p rocedu re for t h e p res entat i on of
an ad d res s an d for t h e i n vest igat i on an d p roof o f t h e mi s b eh avi ou r or
i n cap aci t y o f a J u d ge un d er claus e (4 ).
(6 ) Ever y p ers on ap p oi nt ed t o b e a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all,
b efore h e en t ers u p on hi s offi ce , make an d s u b s cri b e b efore t h e Pres i d ent ,
or s ome p ers on ap p oi n t ed in th at b ehalf b y h i m, an oat h or affi rmat i on
accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e p u rp os e i n t he Th i rd Sch ed ule.
(7 ) No p ers on wh o h as h eld o ffi ce as a J u d ge o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all
p lead or act i n an y c ou rt or b e fore an y au t h ori t y wi t h i n t h e terri t ory o f
In d i a.
1 2 5. Sal a ri es , etc., of J udg es .—(1 ) Th ere s h all b e p aid t o th e J u d ges of
t h e Su p reme Cou rt su ch s alari es as may b e d et ermi n ed b y Par li amen t b y
law an d , un t i l p rovi si on in th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, s u ch s alari es as are
s p eci fi ed i n t h e Second Sch ed u le.
(2 ) Ever y J u d ge sh all b e en ti t led t o su ch p ri vi leges and allowa n ces and
t o s u ch ri gh ts i n resp ect of leav e o f ab s en ce an d p ens i on as may fr om t i me
t o t i me b e d et ermi n ed b y or u nd er law mad e b y Parli amen t and , u n ti l s o
d et ermin ed , t o s u ch p ri vi leges , all owan ces an d ri ght s as are sp eci fi ed in
t h e Second Sch ed u le:
Provi d ed t h at n ei th er th e p ri vi leges n or t h e allowan ces of a J u d ge n or
h i s ri gh ts i n res p ect of leave o f ab s en ce or p en si on s h all b e vari ed t o h is
d i s ad van t age aft er h is app oi n tmen t .
1 2 6. Appoi ntm ent of a cti ng Chi ef J us ti ce.—Wh en t he offi ce o f Ch i ef
J u st i ce of In d i a i s vacan t or wh en th e Chi ef J u s ti ce is , b y reas on of
ab s en ce or ot h erwi s e, un ab le t o p erform t h e du t i es of h i s offi ce, t h e du t i es
o f t h e o ffi ce s h all b e p erforme d b y s u ch on e o f t h e ot h er J u dges o f t h e
Cou rt as th e Presi d en t may ap p oi n t for t h e pu rp os e.
1 2 7. Appoi ntm ent of ad ho c Judg es .—(1 ) If at an y t i me t h ere s h ou ld
n ot b e a q u oru m of t h e J u d ges o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt avai lab le t o h o ld or
con t i nu e an y s es s i on of t h e Court , th e Chi ef J u st i ce of In d i a may, wi t h th e
p revi ou s con s ent of t h e Pres i d en t and aft er con s u lt at i on wi t h t h e
Ch i ef J u st i ce of t h e Hi gh Cou rt con cern ed , req u es t in wri t in g t h e
47 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

at t end an ce at th e s i tt in gs of t h e Cou rt , as an a d ho c J ud ge, for s u ch p eri od


as may b e n eces s ary, o f a J ud ge of a Hi gh Cou rt d u ly q u ali fi ed for
ap p oi nt ment as a J ud ge o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt t o b e d es i gn at ed by t h e Ch i ef
J u st i ce of In d i a.
(2 ) It s h al l b e t h e d u t y o f t h e J u d ge wh o h as b een s o d es i gn at ed, i n
p ri ori t y t o ot h er d ut i es of h i s offi ce, t o at t en d t h e s it ti n gs of t h e Sup reme
Cou rt at th e ti me an d for t h e peri od for wh i ch hi s at ten dan ce is requ i red ,
an d wh i le s o at ten di n g h e s hall h ave a ll t h e j u ri s di cti on , p owers an d
p ri vi leges , an d s h all d is ch arge th e du t i es , of a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt .
1 2 8. Attenda nce of reti red J udg es a t si tti ngs of the Suprem e
Court.—Not wi t h s t and i n g an yt hi n g i n th is Ch apt er, t h e Ch i ef J u st i ce of
In d i a may at an y t i me, wi t h t h e p revi ou s cons en t of t h e Pres id en t , req u es t
an y p ers on wh o h as h eld th e offi ce of a J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt or of
t h e Fed eral C ou rt or wh o h as h eld t h e o ffi ce o f a J u d ge o f a Hi gh Cou rt
an d i s du ly q u ali fi ed for ap p oi nt men t as a J ud ge of t h e Sup reme Cou rt t o
s i t an d act as a J ud ge o f t h e Su p reme Cou rt , an d every s u ch p ers on s o
req u est ed sh all, wh i le s o s it t in g an d acti n g, b e ent it led t o su ch all owan ces
as t h e Pres id en t may b y ord er d et ermin e and h ave all t h e ju ri sd i ct i on ,
p owers an d p ri vi leges of, b u t s hall n ot ot h erwi s e b e d eemed t o b e, a J ud ge
o f t h at Cou rt :
Provi d ed t h at n oth in g i n t hi s arti cle s h all b e d eemed t o req u i re an y s u ch
p ers on as afores ai d t o s i t an d act as a J u d ge o f t h at Cou rt u n les s h e
con s en ts s o t o d o.
1 2 9. Suprem e Court to be a c o urt of record.—Th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all
b e a cou rt of record an d s h all h ave al l t h e p owers o f s u ch a cou rt i n clud in g
t h e p ower t o p u ni s h for con t emp t of i t s elf.
1 3 0. Sea t of Suprem e Court.—Th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all s i t in Delh i or
i n su ch oth er p lace or p laces , as t h e Ch i ef J u st i ce of In d i a may, wi t h t h e
ap p roval o f t h e Pres i d en t , from t i me t o t ime, app oi nt .
1 3 1. Orig i na l juri s di cti on of the Suprem e Court.—Su b j ect t o t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con st i tu ti on , t h e Sup reme Cou rt sh all, t o t h e ex clu s i on
o f an y ot h er cou rt , h ave ori gi n al j u ris di ct i on i n an y d i s pu t e—
(a ) b et ween th e G overn ment of In d i a and on e or more St at es ; or
(b ) b et ween t h e G overn men t of In d i a an d an y St at e or St at es on on e
s i d e an d on e or more ot h er St at es on th e ot h er; or
(c) b et ween t wo or more St at es ,
i f an d i n s o far as t h e d i s pu t e i n volves an y q u es t i on (wh eth er o f law or
fact ) on wh i ch th e exi s t en ce or ex t ent of a le gal ri gh t d ep end s :
Provi d ed t h at t h e s aid j u ri sd i cti on s h all n ot ex t en d t o a di s pu te ari s in g
ou t of an y t reat y, agreemen t , co ven an t , en gagemen t , sa na d or ot h er s i mi lar
i n st ru men t whi ch , h avin g b een ent ered i nt o or ex ecu t ed b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h is Con st i tu t i on , con t in u es in op erati on aft er s u ch
48 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

commen cemen t , or wh i ch p rov i d es t h at th e s aid ju ris di ct i on s h all n ot


ex t end t o su ch a di s pu t e.
1 3 1 A. [Exclu si ve ju ri sd i cti on o f t h e Su p r eme Cou r t in r eg a rd to
q u est io ns as to con st i tu ti on a l va l id it y of Cent ra l la ws.] Rep . b y t he
Co n st it ut i on (Fo rt y-th i rd Amen dmen t ) Act , 19 77 , s. 4 (w.e.f . 1 3 -4 -1 9 7 8 ).
1 3 2. Appel la te juri s di cti on of Suprem e Court i n a ppea ls f rom Hig h
Courts i n certa i n ca s es .— (1 ) An ap p eal s h all li e t o t h e Su p reme Cou rt
fr om an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or fi n al ord er of a Hi gh Cou rt in t h e t erri t ory o f
In d i a, wh eth er in a ci vi l, cri min al or ot h er p roceed i n g, i f t h e Hi gh Cou rt
cert i fi es un d er arti cle 1 34 A th at t h e cas e in volves a s u bs t an ti al q u est i on of
law as t o t h e in t erp ret at i on of t h i s Con st it u ti on .
* * * * *
(3 ) Wh ere su ch a cert i fi cat e is gi ven , an y p art y i n t h e cas e may ap p eal t o
t h e Su p reme Cou rt on th e groun d t h at an y s u ch q u es ti on as afores ai d h as
b een wron gl y d eci d ed .
Exp l a na ti on .— For t h e p u rp os es of t h i s art i cle, t h e ex p ress i on “fi n al
ord er” i n clud es an ord er d eci din g an i ss u e wh i ch , i f d ecid ed in favou r o f
t h e ap p ellan t , wou ld b e s u ffi ci en t for t h e fi n al d i sp os al of t h e cas e.
1 3 3. Appel la te juri s di cti on of Suprem e Court i n a ppea ls f rom Hig h
Courts i n reg a rd to ci vi l ma tters .— (1 ) An app eal s h all li e t o t h e
Su p reme Cou rt from an y j u dgmen t , d ecree or fi n al ord er i n a ci vi l
p roceed i n g of a Hi gh Cou rt i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a i f t h e Hi gh Cou rt
cert i fi es un d er arti cle 1 34 A—
(a ) t h at th e cas e i n volves a s ub s t an ti al q u es t i on of law o f ge n eral
i mp ort an ce; and
(b ) th at i n th e op in i on of t h e High Cou rt th e s aid q u est i on n eeds t o
b e d eci d ed b y t h e Sup reme Cou rt .
(2 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h in g i n art i cle 1 32 , an y p art y ap p eali n g t o t h e
Su p reme Cou rt u nd er clau s e (1) ma y u rge as on e o f t h e grou n d s i n su ch
ap p eal t h at a s ub st ant i al q u es tion o f la w as t o t h e i nt erp ret at ion o f t h i s
Con s t it ut i on h as b een wron gl y d eci d ed.
(3 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in t hi s arti cle, n o ap p eal s h all, u n les s
Parli amen t b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , li e t o t h e Sup reme Court from t h e
j u d gmen t , d ecree or fi n al ord er o f on e J u d ge of a Hi gh Cou rt .
1 3 4. Appel la te juri s di cti on of Suprem e Court i n rega rd to cri m i nal
m a tters.—(1 ) An ap p eal s h all li e t o th e Su p reme Cou rt from an y j ud gmen t ,
fi n al ord er or s en t en ce in a cri mi n al p roceed in g o f a Hi gh C ou rt i n t h e
t erri t ory o f In d i a i f t h e Hi gh Cou rt —
(a ) h as on app eal revers ed an ord er of acq u it t al of an accu s ed
p ers on and s en t en ced h im t o d eat h ; or
49 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) h as wit hd rawn for t ri al b efore i t s elf an y cas e from an y cou rt


s u b ordi n at e t o i ts aut h ori t y an d h as in su ch t ri al con vi ct ed t h e accu s ed
p ers on and s en t en ced h im t o d eat h ; or
(c) cert i fi es u n d er arti cle 1 3 4 A t h at th e cas e i s a fi t on e for ap p eal
t o t h e Sup reme Cou rt :
Provi d ed t h at an ap p eal un d er s u b -clau s e (c) sh all li e s u b j ect t o s u ch
p rovi s i on s as may b e mad e i n th at b eh alf u n d er clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 45
an d t o s u ch con di t i ons as t h e High Cou rt may es t ab li s h or req u i re.
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y law c o n fer on t h e Sup reme Cou rt any fu rt h er
p owers t o en t ert ai n an d h ear ap p eals from an y j u d gmen t , fi nal ord er or
s en t en ce in a cri min al p roceed in g of a Hi gh Cou rt in th e t erritor y o f In d i a
s u bj ect t o s u ch con di ti on s an d limi t ati on s as may b e s p eci fi ed i n s u ch law.
1 3 4 A. Certifi ca te f or a ppeal to the Suprem e Court.—Ever y Hi gh
Cou rt , p as si n g or maki n g a j u d gmen t , d ecree, fi n al ord er, or s en t en ce,
referred t o i n claus e (1 ) of ar t i cle 13 2 or claus e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 3 , or
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 4 , —
(a ) may, i f i t d eems fi t s o t o d o, on i t s own mot i on ; an d
(b ) sh all, i f an oral ap p li cat i on is mad e, b y or on b eh alf o f t h e part y
aggri eved , i mmed i at ely a ft er t h e p as si n g or maki n g o f s u ch jud gmen t ,
d ecree, fi n al ord er or s en t en ce,
d et ermin e, as s oon as may b e a ft er s u ch p ass i n g or maki n g, t he q u est i on
wh et h er a cert i fi cat e of t h e n atu re referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 2,
or clau s e (1 ) of a rt i cle 1 3 3 or, as t h e cas e may b e, s u b -clau s e (c) o f clau s e
(1 ) of art i cle 1 3 4 , may b e gi ven i n resp ect of t h at cas e.
1 3 5. J uri s di cti on a nd pow ers of the F edera l Court under e xi s ti ng law
to be e xerci s a bl e by the Suprem e Court.— Un t i l Parli amen t b y la w
ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , th e Sup reme Cou rt sh all als o h ave j u ri sd i cti on and
p owers wi t h resp ect t o an y mat t er t o wh i ch th e p rovi si on s of art i cle 1 3 3 or
art i cle 1 34 d o n ot ap p ly i f j u ri sdi ct i on an d p owers i n relat i on t o t h at mat t er
were ex erci s ab le b y t h e Fed eral Cou rt i mmed i at ely b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h is Con st i tu ti on u nd er an y ex i s t in g law.
1 3 6. Specia l l ea ve to a ppea l by the Suprem e Court.—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n t his Ch ap t er, t h e Sup reme Cou rt may, i n i t s
d i s cret i on , grant sp eci al leave t o ap p eal from an y j u d gmen t , d ecree,
d et ermin ati on , s en t en ce or ord er i n an y cau s e or mat t er p as s ed or mad e b y
an y cou rt or t ri b u n al in th e t errit or y o f In d i a.
(2 ) Not h in g i n clau s e (1 ) s h all ap p ly t o an y j u d gmen t, d et ermi n ati on ,
s en t en ce or ord er p as s ed or mad e b y an y c ou rt or t ri b u n al con s tit u t ed b y or
u n d er an y law re lat i n g t o t h e Armed Forces .
1 3 7. Revi ew of judgm ents or o rders by the Suprem e Court.— Su b j ect
t o t h e p rovi s i on s of an y law ma d e b y Par li amen t or an y ru les mad e u nd er
50 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

art i cle 1 4 5 , th e Su p reme Cou rt s h all h ave p ower t o re vi ew an y j u d gmen t


p ron ou n ced or ord er mad e b y i t .
1 3 8. Enla rg em ent of the juris di cti on of the Suprem e Court.— (1 ) Th e
Su p reme Cou rt sh all h ave s u ch fu rt h er j u ri s di cti on and p owers wi t h res p ect
t o an y o f t h e mat t ers in th e Uni on Li s t as Parli ament may b y law con fer.
(2 ) Th e Su p reme Cou rt sh all h ave s u ch fu rt h er ju ris d i ct i on an d p owers
wi t h res p ect t o an y mat t er as t he G overn men t of In d i a an d t h e G overn men t
o f an y St at e may b y s p eci al agreemen t con fer, i f Par li amen t b y law
p rovi d es for t h e ex erci s e of s u ch j u ris di ct i on and p owers b y t h e Su p reme
Cou rt .
1 3 9. Conf erm ent on the Suprem e Court of pow ers to i ss ue certa i n
w ri ts .— Parli amen t may b y la w con fer on t h e Su p reme Cou rt p ower t o
i s su e d i rect i on s , ord ers or wri t s , i n clu di n g wri t s i n th e n atu re o f h a b ea s
co r pu s , ma nd a mu s , p roh ib it i on , q uo wa rr an to and cer t io ra ri , or an y o f
t h em, for an y p u rp os es ot h er t han t h os e ment i on ed i n clau s e (2) o f art i cle
32.
1 3 9 A. Tra nsf er of certa i n ca s es .— (1 ) Wh ere cas es in volvi n g t h e s ame
or s u bs t ant i all y t h e s ame qu es tion s of la w are p en di n g b efore t h e Sup reme
Cou rt an d on e or more Hi gh Co u rt s or b efore t w o or more Hi gh Cou rt s an d
t h e Su p reme Cou rt is s at is fi ed on it s own mot i on or on an app li cat i on mad e
b y t h e At t orn ey-G en eral o f In d ia or b y a p art y t o an y s u ch case t h at su ch
q u est i ons are s u bs t ant i al q u es ti on s of gen eral i mp ort an ce, t he Su p reme
Cou rt may wi t h d raw th e cas e or cas es p end i n g b efore t h e Hi gh Cou rt or t h e
Hi gh Cou rt s an d d i sp os e of al l t h e cas es i ts elf:
Provi d ed t h at t h e Sup reme Cou rt may a ft er d et ermi n i n g th e s aid
q u est i ons of law ret u rn an y cas e s o wi th d rawn t oget h er wit h a cop y o f i t s
j u d gmen t on s u ch q u es t i ons t o t h e Hi gh Cou rt from wh i ch t he cas e h as
b een wit hd rawn , an d th e Hi gh Cou rt sh all on recei pt th ereof, p roceed t o
d i sp os e of t h e cas e in con formi t y wi t h su ch j ud gmen t .
(2 ) Th e Sup reme Cou rt may, i f i t d eems i t exp ed i en t s o t o d o for t h e
en d s of j u st i ce, t ran s fer an y c as e, app eal or ot h er p roceed i ngs p en di n g
b efore an y Hi gh Cou rt t o an y ot h er Hi gh Cou rt .
1 4 0. Anci ll a ry pow ers of Suprem e Court.— Parli ament may b y law
make p rovi s i on for con ferri n g u p on th e Sup reme Cou rt su ch sup p lemen t al
p owers n ot i n con s is t en t wi th any o f t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con st i tu t i on as
may ap p ear t o b e n eces s ary or d es i rab le fo r t h e p u rp os e of e n ab li n g th e
Cou rt more effect i ve l y t o ex ercis e th e j u ris di cti on con ferred upon i t b y or
u n d er t hi s Cons ti t ut i on .
1 4 1. Law decla red by Supreme Court t o be bi ndi ng on a l l courts .—
Th e law d eclared b y t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all b e b i n di n g on al l cou rt s
wi t h in th e t erri t ory o f In d i a.
1 4 2. Enf orcem ent of decrees and orders of Suprem e Court a nd orders
a s to di s covery , etc.— (1 ) T h e Su p reme Cou rt in t h e ex erci s e of i t s
51 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

j u ris di ct i on may p as s su ch d ecree or make s u ch ord er as i s n eces s ary for


d oi n g comp let e ju st i ce i n an y cau s e or mat t er p end in g b efore i t , and an y
d ecree s o p as s ed or ord er s o mad e sh all b e en forceab le t h rou gh ou t th e
t erri t ory o f In d i a in su ch mann er as may b e p res crib ed b y or u nd er an y law
mad e b y Par li amen t and , u nt i l provi s i on i n t h at b eh alf i s s o mad e, i n su ch
man n er as th e Presi d en t may b y ord er p res crib e.
(2 ) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s o f an y law mad e i n t h is beh alf b y
Parli amen t , t h e Sup reme Cou rt sh all, as resp ect s th e wh ole of t h e t erri t ory
o f In d i a, h ave all an d ever y p o wer t o make an y ord er for t h e p u rp os e of
s ecu rin g t h e at t en d an ce of an y p ers on , t h e d is cover y or p rod u ct i on of an y
d ocu ment s , or th e in ves t i gati on or p u n is h men t of an y con t emp t of i t s elf.
1 4 3. P ow er of P resi dent to cons ul t Suprem e Court.— (1 ) If at an y
t i me i t ap p ears t o t h e Pres id ent t h at a qu est i on of law or fact h as ari s en, or
i s li kel y t o ari s e, wh i ch is of s uch a n atu re an d of s u ch pu b li c imp ort an ce
t h at i t is exp edi ent t o ob t ain the op i n i on of t h e Sup reme Cou rt u p on it , h e
may re fer t h e q u es t i on t o t h at Cou rt for c on s i d erati on and t h e Cou rt may,
aft er s u ch h earin g as i t th in ks fi t , rep ort t o th e Pres id ent i t s op i ni on
t h ereon .
(2 ) Th e Pres i d en t may, n ot wi t h stan d in g an yt h i n g i n th e p rovi s o to art i cle
1 3 1, refer a d i sp ut e of t h e ki n d men ti on ed i n t h e s aid p rovi s o t o t h e
Su p reme Cou rt for op i n i on an d th e Sup reme Cou rt sh all, aft er s u ch h eari n g
as i t t hi n ks fi t , rep ort t o t h e Pres i d en t i ts op in i on th ereon .
1 4 4. Ci vi l a nd judi ci a l a uthori ti es to a ct i n a i d of the S uprem e
Court.—A ll au t h ori t i es , ci vi l an d ju di ci al, i n th e t errit ory o f In d i a s h all
act i n ai d of t h e Su p reme Cou rt .
1 4 4 A. [S p eci a l p r o vi si on s as t o d i sp os al o f qu es ti on s r ela t in g to
co n st it u ti on al va li di t y o f l a ws.] Rep . b y t h e Con st i tu ti on (Fo r t y-th ir d
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 77 , s . 5 (w.e.f . 13 -4 -1 9 7 8 ).
1 4 5. Rul es of Court, etc.— (1) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of an y la w
mad e b y Parli amen t , t h e Sup reme Cou rt may fr om t i me t o t i me, wi t h th e
ap p roval o f t h e Pres id ent , make ru les for regu lat i n g gen erall y t h e p ract i ce
an d p roced u re of t h e Cou rt i n clud i n g—
(a ) ru les as t o t h e p ers ons p ract is i n g b efore t h e Cou rt ;
(b ) ru les as t o t h e p roced u re fo r h earin g ap p eals and ot h er matt ers
p ert ain in g t o ap p eals i n clud in g t h e t i me wit hi n wh i ch app eals t o th e
Cou rt are t o b e en t ered ;
(c) ru les as t o t h e p roceed i n gs i n t h e Cou rt for t h e en forcemen t o f
an y o f t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y P art III;
(cc) ru les as t o th e p roceedi n gs in th e Cou rt u nd er art i cle 13 9 A;
(d ) ru les as t o t h e en t ert ai n ment of ap p eals u n d er s ub -clau s e (c) o f
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 3 4 ;
52 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(e) ru les as t o t h e con d i ti ons s ub j ect t o wh i ch an y j u d gmen t


p ron ou n ced or ord er mad e b y t h e Cou rt may b e revi ewed an d th e
p roced u re for s u ch revi ew in clud i n g th e t i me wit h in whi ch ap p li cat i ons
t o t h e Cou rt for s u ch revi ew are t o b e ent ered ;
(f ) ru les as t o th e cos ts of an d i n cid ent al t o an y p roceed i n gs i n t h e
Cou rt an d as t o t h e fees t o b e charged i n resp ect of p roceed i n gs th erei n ;
(g ) ru les as t o t h e grant in g of b a i l;
(h ) ru les as t o s t ay o f p roceed i ngs ;
(i ) ru les p rovi d i n g for t h e s u mmary d et ermi n at i on of an y a p p eal
wh i ch app ears t o th e Cou rt t o be fri v o lou s or vex at i ou s or b rou gh t for
t h e p u rp os e of d ela y;
(j ) ru les as t o t h e p roced u re for i n qu i ri es referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) o f
art i cle 3 17 .
(2 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of clau s e (3 ), ru les mad e u nd er t his art i cle
may fi x t h e mi ni mu m nu mb er of J u d ges wh o are t o s i t for an y p u rp os e, and
may p ro vi d e for t h e p owers o f s i n gle J u d ges and Di vi si on Cou rts.
(3 ) Th e mi n imu m nu mb er of J u d ges wh o are t o s i t for t h e p u rp os e of
d eci di n g an y cas e i n volvi n g a s u bs t an t i al qu es ti on of law as t o t h e
i n t erp ret ati on of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on or for t h e p u rp os e of h eari n g an y
referen ce u n d er arti cle 1 43 sh all b e fi ve:
Provi d ed t h at , wh ere th e Cou rt h eari n g an app eal u n d er any o f t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Ch ap t er ot h er t h an art i cle 13 2 cons is t s of les s t h an fi ve
J u d ges and in th e cou rs e of t h e h eari n g of t h e ap p eal th e Cou rt i s s at is fi ed
t h at th e app eal in volves a s u bs t an t ial q u es t i on of law as t o t h e
i n t erp ret ati on of t h i s Con s ti tu t ion t h e d et ermi n at i on of wh i ch i s n ecess ary
for t h e d is p os al of t h e ap p eal, s u ch Cou rt s h all refer t h e q ues t i on for
op i n i on t o a Cou rt con s ti tu t ed as req ui red b y t h i s clau s e for t h e p u rp os e of
d eci di n g an y cas e i n vo lvi n g s u ch a q u es ti on an d sh all on rec ei p t of t h e
op i n i on d is p os e of t h e app eal i n con formi t y wi t h su ch opi ni on .
(4 ) No j u d gmen t sh all b e d eli v ered b y t h e Su p reme Cou rt s ave i n op en
Cou rt , an d n o rep ort sh all b e mad e un d er arti cle 1 43 s ave i n accord an ce
wi t h an op in i on als o d eli vered in op en Cou rt .
(5 ) No j u d gment and n o s u ch opi n i on s h all b e d eli vered b y t h e Su p reme
Cou rt s ave wi t h th e con cu rren ce o f a maj ori t y o f t h e J u d ges p res en t at th e
h eari n g of t h e cas e, b ut n ot h in g i n t hi s claus e s h all b e d eemed to p reven t a
J u d ge wh o d oes n ot con cu r from d eli veri n g a di ss ent i n g ju d gment or
op i n i on .
1 4 6. Offi cers a nd s erva nts a nd the e xpens es of the Suprem e Court.—
(1 ) Ap p oin t men ts of o ffi cers an d s ervan ts of t h e Sup reme Cou rt s h all b e
mad e b y t h e Ch i ef J us ti ce of In d i a or s u ch ot h er Ju d ge or offi cer of t h e
Cou rt as h e may d i rect :
53 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed t h at t h e Presi d en t may b y ru le req u i re t h at in s u ch cas es as


may b e s p eci fi ed i n th e ru le, no p ers on n ot alread y at t ach ed to t h e Cou rt
s h all b e ap p oi nt ed t o an y o ffi ce con n ect ed wit h th e Cou rt , s ave aft er
con s u lt at i on wi t h t h e Un i on Pu bli c Servi ce Commi s s i on .
(2 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons o f an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t , th e
con d i ti on s of s ervi ce o f o ffi cer s an d s ervant s of t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all
b e s u ch as may b e p res cri b ed by ru les mad e b y t h e Ch i ef J u s t ice o f In d i a
or b y s ome ot h er J ud ge or o ffi cer o f t h e Cou rt au t h oris ed b y t h e Ch i ef
J u st i ce of In d i a t o make ru les fo r t h e p u rp os e:
Provi d ed th at t h e ru les mad e u nd er th is clau s e sh all, s o far as t hey re lat e
t o s alari es , all owan ces , lea ve or p en s i on s , req u i re th e app roval o f t h e
Pres i d en t .
(3 ) Th e ad min i st rat i ve ex p en s es of t h e Sup reme Cou rt, in clud i n g all
s alari es , allo wan ces an d p ens i on s p ayab le t o or i n res p ect of t h e offi cers
an d s ervan t s of t h e Cou rt , s h all b e ch arged up on th e Con s oli d ated Fu n d of
In d i a, an d an y fees or ot h er mo n eys t aken b y t h e Cou rt s h all form p art o f
t h at Fu nd .
1 4 7. I nterpreta ti on.—In t h is Ch ap t er an d i n Ch apt er V o f Part VI,
referen ces t o an y s u b st ant i al ques t i on of law as t o t h e in t erp ret at i on of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on sh all b e con s t ru ed as i n clu di n g referen ces t o an y s u bs t an t i al
q u est i on of law as t o t h e i n t erp ret ati on of t h e G overn men t of In d i a Act ,
1 9 35 (in clu di n g an y en act men t amen di n g or s u pp lemen ti n g t h at Act ), or o f
an y Ord er i n Cou n ci l or or d er mad e t h ereu nd er, or o f t h e In d i an
In d ep en d en ce Act , 1 94 7 , or of a n y ord er mad e t h ereun d er.

C H A P T ER V.—C O M P TR O L LE R A N D A U D I TO R -G E N ER A L O F I N D I A
1 4 8. Com ptrol l er a nd Audi tor-Genera l of I ndia .—(1 ) Th ere sh all b e a
Comp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f In d i a wh o s h all b e ap p oi n t ed b y t h e
Pres i d en t b y warran t u n d er h is h an d and s eal an d s h all on l y b e removed
fr om o ffi ce i n li ke man n er and on t h e li ke grou n d s as a J ud ge o f t h e
Su p reme Cou rt .
(2 ) Ever y p ers on ap p oi nt ed t o b e t h e Compt roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f
In d i a sh all, b efore h e en t ers up on hi s offi ce, make an d s ub s cri b e b efore t h e
Pres i d en t , or s ome p ers on appoi n t ed i n th at b eh alf b y h i m, an oat h or
affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e p u rp os e in t h e Th i rd
Sch ed u le.
(3 ) Th e s alar y an d ot h er con d i ti on s of s ervi ce o f t h e Comp t ro ller an d
Au d i t or- G en eral s h all b e s u ch as may b e d et ermi n ed b y Par li amen t b y la w
an d , un t i l th ey are s o d et ermin ed , s h all b e as s p eci fi ed in th e Secon d
Sch ed u le:
Provi d ed t h at n eit h er th e s alary o f a C omp t rol ler an d Au d i t or-G en eral
n or h i s ri gh ts i n resp ect of lea v e o f ab s en ce, p ens i on or age o f ret i remen t
s h all b e vari ed t o hi s d is ad vant age aft er h i s ap p oin t men t .
54 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) Th e Comp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral s h all n ot b e eli gi b le fo r fu rt h er


o ffi ce ei t h er un d er th e G overn men t of In d i a or u n d er t h e G overn men t of
an y St at e aft er h e h as ceas ed t o h old h i s offi ce.
(5 ) Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Cons t it ut i on an d of an y la w mad e b y
Parli amen t , t h e cond i ti on s of s er vi ce o f p ers on s s ervi n g i n t h e In d i an Aud i t
an d Accou nt s Dep art men t an d t he ad min is t rati ve p owers of t h e Comp t roller
an d Aud it or-G en eral s h all b e s uch as may b e p res crib ed b y ru le s mad e b y
t h e Presi d en t aft er con su lt at i on wi t h th e Compt roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral.
(6 ) Th e ad min is t rati ve exp en s es of t h e offi ce of t h e Comp t roller an d
Au d i t or- G en eral, i n clu di n g all s alari es , allowan ces an d p ens i on s p ayab le
t o or i n res p ect of p ers on s s ervin g i n t h at offi ce, s h all b e ch arged up on t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a.
149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.—The Comptroller
and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the
accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be
prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so
made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the
Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India
immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the
Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively.
1 5 0. F orm of a ccounts of the Uni on a nd of the Sta tes .—Th e accou n ts
o f t h e Un i on and of t h e St at es sh all b e kep t i n su ch form as t h e Pres i d en t
may, on t h e ad vi ce o f t h e C omp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f In d i a,
p res crib e.
1 5 1. Audi t reports .—(1 ) Th e rep ort s of t h e Comp t rol ler an d Au d i t or-
G en eral of In d i a relat in g t o th e accou n t s of t h e Un i on s h all b e su b mi t t ed t o
t h e Presi d en t , wh o s h all cau s e t h em t o b e laid b efore each Hou s e of
Parli amen t .
(2 ) Th e rep ort s of t h e Comp t roll er an d Au di t or-G en eral o f In d i a relat i n g
t o t h e accou nt s of a St at e s h all b e su bmi tt ed t o th e G overn or of t h e St at e,
wh o s h all cau s e t hem t o b e laid b efore t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
55 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VI
THE STATES
C H A P T ER I.—G EN ER A L
1 5 2. Defi ni ti on.—In th is Part , un les s th e cont ex t ot h erwi s e requi res , t h e
ex p ress i on “St at e” d oes n ot i n clu d e t h e St at e of J ammu and Kash mi r.
C H AP T E R II.—T H E E X E C U T I V E
Th e Go vern or
1 5 3. Governors of Sta tes .—Th ere s h all b e a G overn or for each St at e:
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g i n th is art i cle s h all p re ven t t h e ap p oin t men t of t h e
s ame p ers on as G overn or for t w o or more St at es .
1 5 4. Executi ve pow er of Sta te.—(1 ) Th e ex ecut i ve p ower o f t h e St at e
s h all b e ves t ed in th e G overnor an d sh all b e ex ercis ed b y h i m ei t h er
d i rect ly or t h rou gh o ffi cers s u b ord i n at e t o h im i n accord an ce wi t h th is
Con s t it ut i on .
(2 ) Not h i n g in th is arti cle s h all—
(a ) b e d eemed t o t ran s fer t o t he G overn or an y fu n ct i on s con ferred
b y an y ex i s t in g law on an y ot h er au th ori t y; or
(b ) p reven t Parli amen t or t he Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e from
con ferri n g b y la w fu n ct i on s on an y au t h ori t y s u b ord i n at e t o t h e
G overn or.
1 5 5. Appoi ntm ent of Governor.—Th e G overn or o f a St at e s h all b e
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e Pres id ent b y w arran t un d er h is h an d an d s eal.
1 5 6. Term of of fi ce of Governor.—(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all h o ld o ffi ce
d u rin g t h e p leas u re of t h e Presi den t .
(2 ) Th e G overn or ma y, b y wr i t in g u n d er h i s h and ad d res s ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t , res i gn h is offi ce.
(3 ) Sub j ect t o th e foregoi n g p ro vi s i on s of t h is art i cle, a G overn or s h all
h old offi ce for a t erm o f fi ve ye ars from t h e d ate on whi ch h e en t ers up on
h i s offi ce:
Provi d ed t h at a G overn or s h all , n ot wi t h st and in g t h e ex pi rat i on of h i s
t erm, con t in u e t o h old offi ce u n ti l h i s s u cces s or ent ers u p on h i s o ffi ce.
1 5 7. Qual if i ca ti ons f or a ppoi ntm ent a s Governor.—N o p ers on s h all b e
eli gi b le for ap p oi n t men t as G overn or u n les s h e i s a ci t i zen of In d i a an d h as
comp let ed t h e age of t h i rt y-fi ve yea rs .
1 5 8. Condi ti ons of Governor' s of fi ce.—(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all n ot b e a
memb er of ei t h er Hou s e o f Parl i amen t or of a H ou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of
an y St at e s p eci fi ed i n t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le, an d i f a memb er of ei t h er Hou s e

55
56 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f Parli amen t or of a H ou s e o f t h e Legi s lat u re of an y s u ch St at e b e


ap p oi nt ed G overn or, h e s h all b e d eemed t o h ave vacat ed h i s seat i n th at
Hou s e on t h e d at e on wh i ch h e en t ers u p on h is offi ce as G overn or.
(2 ) Th e G overn or s h all n ot h old an y ot h er o ffi ce o f p ro fi t .
(3 ) Th e G overn or s h all b e en ti t led wi th ou t p aymen t of ren t t o t he u s e of
h i s offi ci al res i d en ces an d s hall b e als o en t i t led t o s u ch emolu men t s ,
all owan ces an d p ri vi leges as may b e d et ermin ed b y Parli amen t by law an d ,
u n ti l p rovi s i on in th at b eh alf i s s o mad e, su ch emolu ment s , allo wan ces and
p ri vi leges as are sp eci fi ed in th e Secon d Sch ed u le.
(3 A) Wh ere th e s ame p ers on is ap p oin t ed as G overn or of t wo or more
St at es , th e emolu men ts an d allowan ces p ayab le t o t h e G overn or s h all b e
all ocat ed amon g t h e St at es i n s u ch p rop ort i on as th e Presi d en t may b y
ord er d et ermin e.
(4 ) Th e emolu ment s an d allo wan ces of t h e G overn or sh all n ot b e
d i min is h ed du rin g h is t erm of o ffi ce.
1 5 9. Oa th or a ffi rma ti on by the Govern or.—Ever y G overn or a n d every
p ers on d is ch argin g t h e fu n ct i on s of t h e G overn or s h all, b efo re en t eri n g
u p on hi s offi ce, make an d s ub s cri b e i n th e p res en ce of t h e Ch i ef J u s ti ce of
t h e Hi gh Cou rt ex erci si n g ju ri sd i cti on i n relati on t o t h e Stat e, or, i n h is
ab s en ce, th e s eni or mos t J udge o f t h at Cou rt avai lab le, an oat h or
affi rmat i on i n t h e fol lowi n g for m, t h at is t o s ay—
“I, A. B., d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I wi ll
solemnly affirm
fai t h fu l l y ex ecu t e t h e offi ce o f G overn or (or d i s ch arge t h e fu n ct i on s of t h e
G overn or) o f .............(na me of th e St at e) and wi ll t o th e b est of
my ab i li t y p res erve, p rot ect an d d efen d t h e Con st i tu ti on an d th e
law an d t h at I wi ll d evot e m ys elf t o t h e s ervi ce an d well -b e i n g of t h e
p eop le o f ..………(n a me o f t h e St a t e) .”
1 6 0. Di s cha rg e of the f uncti ons of the Go vernor i n certa i n
conti ng enci es .—Th e Pres id ent may ma ke s u ch p rovi s i on as he t h in ks fi t
for t h e d i s ch arge of t h e fu n cti on s of t h e G overn or of a St at e in an y
con t i n gen cy n ot p rovi d ed for i n t h is Ch ap t er.
1 6 1. P ow er of Governor to g ra nt pa rdons , etc., a nd to s us pend, rem it
or com m ute s entences i n certa i n ca s es.—Th e G overn or o f a St at e s h all
h ave t h e p ower t o gran t p ardon s , rep ri eves , res p it es or remi s si on s of
p u ni sh ment or t o s us p en d , remit or commu t e th e s en t en ce of an y p ers on
con vi ct ed of an y o ffen ce a gai n st an y law relat i n g t o a mat t er t o wh i ch t h e
ex ecu ti ve p ower of t h e St at e ex ten d s.
1 6 2. Extent of e xecuti ve pow er of Sta te.—Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of
t h is Con s ti tu t i on, t h e ex ecu ti ve p ower o f a St at e s h all ex t en d t o t h e matt ers
wi t h resp ect t o wh i ch t h e Legi s l at u re of t h e St at e h as p ower t o make laws :
Provi d ed t h at in an y mat t er wi t h res p ect t o wh i ch t h e Legi s lat u re o f a
St at e an d Parli amen t h ave p ower t o make laws , t h e ex ecut i ve power o f t h e
57 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

St at e s h all b e s ub j ect t o, an d li mi t ed b y, t h e ex ecut i ve p ower ex p res s ly


con ferred b y t h i s Con s t i tu ti on or b y an y law mad e b y Parli amen t u p on t h e
Un i on or au th ori t i es th ereof.
Co un ci l o f Mi n is t er s
1 6 3. Counci l of M i ni s ters to a i d a nd a dvi s e Governor.—( 1 ) Th ere
s h all b e a Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers wi t h th e Ch i ef Mi ni s t er at th e head t o aid
an d ad vi s e th e G overn or i n t h e ex erci s e of h i s fu n ct i on s , ex cep t in s o far as
h e i s b y o r u n d er t h is Con s ti t ut ion req u i red t o ex ercis e h i s fu n cti on s or an y
o f t h em in hi s d i s cret i on .
(2 ) If an y q u es t i on ari s es wh eth er an y mat t er i s or i s n ot a mat t er as
res p ects wh i ch th e G overn or i s b y or u n d er th is Con s ti tu t i on req u i red t o
act i n h is di s cret i on , t h e d eci si on of t h e G overn or i n hi s d i s cret ion s h all b e
fi n al, an d t h e vali d it y o f an yt h in g d on e b y t h e G overn or s h all n ot b e called
i n q u es t i on on th e grou nd th at h e ou gh t or ou gh t n ot t o h ave act ed i n h is
d i s cret i on .
(3 ) Th e qu est i on wh et h er an y, an d i f s o wh at , ad vi ce was t end ered b y
Mi n is t ers t o th e G overn or s h all n ot b e i nq u i red in t o in an y cou rt .
1 6 4. Other provi s i ons a s to M i ni s ters .—(1 ) Th e Ch i ef Mi n i st er s h all b e
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e G overn or an d t h e ot h er Mi ni s t ers sh all b e ap p oi nt ed b y
t h e G overn or on t h e ad vi ce of t h e Chi ef Mi ni s t er, and t h e Min is t ers s h all
h old o ffi ce d u rin g t h e p leas u re of t h e G overn or:
Provi d ed t h at in th e St at es of Bi h ar, Mad h ya Prad es h an d Oris sa, t h ere
s h all b e a Mi n i st er i n ch arge of t ri b al wel fare wh o ma y i n ad d it i on b e in
ch arge o f t h e wel fare o f t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es an d b ackward clas s es or an y
ot h er work.
(1 A) Th e t ot al n u mb er of Mi n i sters , in clu d in g t h e Ch i ef Min is t er, i n t h e
Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers in a St at e sh all n ot ex ceed fi ft een p er cen t . of t h e
t ot al n u mb er of memb ers of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h at St at e:
Provi d ed t h at th e n u mb er of Mi n i st ers , in clu d in g t h e Ch i ef Mi n is t er i n a
St at e sh all n ot b e les s t h an t welve:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at wh ere th e t ot al n umb er of Mi ni st ers i n clud i n g t h e
Ch i ef Mi n is t er i n t h e Counci l o f Mi n i st ers in an y St at e at th e
commen cemen t of t h e Cons t it ut i on (Nin et y-fi rs t Amend ment ) Act , 2 00 3
ex ceed s t h e s aid fi ft een p er cen t . or t h e n u mb er sp eci fi ed in t h e fi rs t
p rovi s o, as t h e cas e may b e, t h en th e t ot al n u mb er of Mi n i s ters i n th at
St at e s h all b e b rou gh t i n con formi t y wi t h t h e p rovi s i ons of t h is clau s e
wi t h in s ix mon th s from s u ch d at e* as t h e Pres i d en t may b y p u b li c
n ot i fi cat i on app oi nt .
(1 B) A memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e or ei t her Hou s e
o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e h avi n g Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l b el on g i n g t o an y
p oli t i cal p art y wh o i s d i s qu ali fi ed for b ei n g a memb er of t h at H ou s e u nd er
p aragrap h 2 of t h e Ten th Sch edu le s h all als o b e d is qu ali fi ed t o b e
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
*7.1.2004: vide Notification No. S.O. 21(E), dated 7.1.2004.
58 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ap p oi nt ed as a Mi ni st er u nd er clau s e (1 ) for d u rat i on of t h e p eri od


commen ci n g from t h e dat e of h is di sq u ali fi cat i on t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e
t erm of h i s offi ce as su ch memb er wou ld exp i re or wh ere h e con t es ts an y
elect i on t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e or ei t h er Ho u s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e h avi n g Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, as th e case may b e,
b efore t h e ex p i ry o f s u ch p eriod , t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch h e i s d eclared
elect ed , wh i ch ever i s earli er.
(2 ) Th e Coun ci l of Mi n i st ers s h all b e collect i vel y res p on s ib le t o t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St ate.
(3 ) Before a Mi n i st er ent ers u p on h is offi ce, t h e G overn or s h all
ad min i st er t o h i m t h e oat hs of o ffi ce an d of s ecrecy acc ord i n g to t h e forms
s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n t h e Thi rd Sch ed u le.
(4 ) A Mi n is t er wh o for an y p eri od of s i x con s ecut i ve mont hs i s n ot a
memb er of t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e s h all at t h e ex p i rati on of t h at p eri od
ceas e t o b e a Mi ni st er.
(5 ) Th e s alari es an d allowan c es of Mi n i st ers sh all b e s u ch as t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e may fr o m t i me t o t i me b y law d et ermi ne an d, u n ti l
t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e s o d et ermin es , sh all b e as s p eci fi ed in t h e
Secon d Sch ed u le.
Th e Ad vo ca t e-Gen er a l f or th e S ta t e
1 6 5. Advoca te-Genera l f or the Sta te.—(1 ) Th e G overn or o f ea ch St ate
s h all ap p oin t a p ers on wh o i s qu ali fi ed t o b e app oi nt ed a J ud ge of a Hi gh
Cou rt t o b e Ad vocat e-G en eral fo r t h e St at e.
(2 ) It s h all b e t h e d ut y o f t h e Ad vocat e -G en eral t o gi ve ad vi c e t o t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e u p on s u ch legal mat t ers , an d t o p erform s u ch
ot h er d u ti es of a lega l ch aract er, as ma y fr om t i me t o t i me b e referred or
as s i gn ed t o h i m b y t h e G overn or, an d t o d is ch arge t h e fu n cti ons con ferred
on h i m b y or u n d er t hi s Cons ti tu t i on or an y ot h er law for t h e t ime b ein g i n
force.
(3 ) Th e Ad vocat e -G en eral s h all h old o ffi ce d u ri n g t h e p leasu re o f t h e
G overn or, an d sh all recei ve s u ch remu n erati on as t h e G overn or ma y
d et ermin e.
Co nd u ct o f Go vern men t Bus in es s
1 6 6. Conduct of bus i ness of the Governm ent of a Sta te.—(1 ) All
ex ecu ti ve act i on of t h e G overn men t of a St at e sh all b e expressed to be taken in
the name of the Governor.
(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be
authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor, and
the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question
on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor.
59 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) The Governor shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of
the Government of the State, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so
far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under this Constitution
required to act in his discretion.
* * * * *
167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor,
etc.—It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State—
(a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of
Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for
legislation;
(b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State
and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and
(c) if the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of
Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not
been considered by the Council.
CHAPTER III.—THE STATE LEGISLATURE
General
168. Constitution of Legislatures in States.—(1) For every State there shall be a
Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and—
(a) in the States of Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh, two Houses;
(b) in other States, one House.
(2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the
Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly, and where there is only one
House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly.
169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.—(1) Notwithstanding
anything in article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative
Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State
having no such Council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that
effect by a majority of th e t ot al memb ers hi p of t h e As s emb ly an d b y a maj ori t y
o f n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e memb ers of t h e As s emb ly p res en t an d
vot i n g.
(2 ) An y law re ferred t o i n claus e (1 ) sh all con t ai n s u ch p rovi si on s for
t h e amen dmen t of t h i s Con st i tut i on as may b e n eces s ary t o gi ve effect t o
t h e p rovi s i ons of t h e law an d may a ls o c on t ai n su ch su pp lemen t al,
i n cid ent al an d cons equ ent i al p rovi s i on s as Parli ament may d eem n eces s ary.
(3 ) No s u ch law as afores ai d s h all b e d eemed t o b e an amend ment of t h is
Con s t it ut i on for t h e pu rp os es of art i cle 3 68 .
1 7 0. Com pos i ti on of the Leg is l a ti ve As s em bl i es .—(1 ) Sub j ect t o th e
p rovi s i on s of art i cle 3 33 , t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f each St at e s h all
60 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

con s i st of n ot more t h an fi ve hu n d red , an d n ot less th an s ix t y, memb ers


ch os en b y d i rect elect i on from t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es i n t h e St at e.
(2 ) For t h e p u rp os es of clau s e (1 ), each St at e s h all b e d i vi d ed i nt o
t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es in su ch mann er t h at t h e rat i o bet ween t h e
p op u lat i on of each con s t i tu en cy an d th e n umb er of s eat s all ot t ed t o i t s h all,
s o far as p ract i cab le, b e t h e s ame t h rou gh ou t t h e St at e.
Exp l an a ti on .—In t hi s clau s e, t h e exp res si on “p op u lat i on ” mean s th e
p op u lat i on as as cert ai n ed at th e las t p reced in g cen su s of wh i ch th e relevan t
fi gu res h ave b een p ub li s h ed :
Provi d ed t h at th e referen ce i n t h is Exp la na ti on t o th e las t preced i n g
cen s us of wh i ch t h e relevan t fi gu res h ave b een p ub li sh ed sh all, u n t i l t h e
relevan t fi gu res for t h e fi rs t cen s us t aken aft er th e year 2 02 6 h ave b een
p u b lis h ed , b e con s t ru ed as a referen ce t o t h e 20 01 cens us .
(3 ) Up on t h e comp let i on of each cen s us , t h e t ot al n u mb er of s ea t s i n th e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f each St at e an d th e di vi si on of each St at e in t o
t erri t ori al con st i tu en ci es s h all be read ju st ed b y s u ch aut h ori t y an d i n su ch
man n er as Parli amen t may b y la w d et ermin e:
Provi d ed t h at su ch readj us t men t s h all n ot affect rep res en t at ion i n t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly u n t i l t h e di s s olu t i on of t h e th en ex is ti n g As s emb ly:
Provi d ed fu rt h er th at s u ch read ju s t men t s h all t ake effect from s u ch d ate
as th e Pres i d en t may, b y ord er, s p eci fy an d u n ti l su ch read ju stmen t t akes
effect , an y e lect i on t o t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly ma y b e h eld o n t h e b as i s
o f t h e t errit ori al con s t it u en ci es ex i st in g b efore s u ch readj u st men t :
Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026
have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust—
(i) the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State as readjusted
on the basis of the 1971 census; and
(ii) the division of such State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on
the basis of the 2001 census,
under this clause.
171. Composition of the Legislative Councils.—(1) The total number of members in the
Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third of the total
number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State:
Provi d ed t h at th e t ot al nu mb er o f memb ers in th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of
a St at e sh all i n n o cas e b e les s th an fort y.
(2 ) Un t i l Parli amen t b y la w ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , th e comp os i ti on of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e s hall b e as p rovi d ed in clau s e (3 ).
(3 ) Of t h e t ot al n u mb er of me mb ers of t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a
St at e—
61 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a ) as n early as ma y b e, on e-t h i rd s h all b e elect ed b y e lect o rat es


con s i st i n g of memb ers of mu n i ci p ali t i es , d i st ri ct b oards and such ot h er
loca l au t h ori t i es in th e St at e as Parli amen t may b y law s p eci fy;
(b ) as n early as ma y b e, on e-t wel ft h s h all b e elect ed b y elect or at es
con s i st i n g of p ers on s res id i n g in th e St at e wh o h ave b een for at leas t
t h ree years grad u at es of an y u n i vers i t y i n t h e t erri t or y o f In d i a or h ave
b een for at leas t t h ree years i n p os s es si on of q u ali fi cat i on s p res cri b ed
b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Parli amen t as eq ui valen t t o th at of a
grad u at e of an y s u ch u ni vers i t y;
(c) as n early as ma y b e, on e -t w el ft h s h all b e elect ed b y elect or at es
con s i st i n g of p ers on s wh o h ave b een for at leas t t h ree years en g aged i n
t each in g i n su ch edu cati on al i ns t it u ti on s wi th in t h e St at e, n ot lo wer i n
s t and ard th an th at of a s econ d ar y s ch oo l, as ma y b e p res cri b ed b y or
u n d er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t ;
(d ) as n early as may b e, on e-t h i rd s h all b e elect ed b y t h e memb ers
o f t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e from amon gs t p ers on s wh o are
n ot memb ers of t h e As s emb ly;
(e) t h e remain d er s h all b e n omin at ed b y t h e G overn or i n accordan ce
wi t h th e p rovi s i on s of clau s e (5 ).
(4 ) Th e memb ers t o b e elect ed u n d er s ub -clau s es (a ), (b ) and (c) o f
clau s e (3 ) s h all b e ch os en in s u ch t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es as may b e
p res crib ed b y or u n d er an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t , an d t he elect i on s
u n d er t h e s ai d s ub -clau s es an d un d er su b -clau s e (d ) of t h e s ai d clau s e s h all
b e h eld i n accord an ce wi t h t h e s ys t em o f p rop ort i on al rep res e n t ati on b y
mean s of t h e si n gle t ran s ferab le vot e.
(5 ) Th e memb ers t o b e n omin ated b y t h e G overn or u n d er s ub -clau s e (e)
o f clau s e (3 ) sh all con s i s t of p ers on s h avi n g sp eci al kn owled ge o r p ract i cal
ex p eri en ce in resp ect of s u ch mat t ers as th e fol lo wi n g, n amel y:—
Li t erat u re, s ci en ce, art , co-op erat i ve movemen t and s oci al s ervi ce.
172. Duration of State Legislatures.—(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State,
unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first
meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a
dissolution of the Assembly:
Provi d ed t h at th e s aid p eri od may, wh i le a Proclamat i on o f E mergen cy
i s i n op erati on , b e ext end ed b y Par li amen t b y law for a p eri od n ot
ex ceed in g on e year at a t i me an d n ot ex t en di n g i n an y cas e b eyon d a p eri od
o f s i x mon th s aft er t h e Proclamat i on h as ceas ed t o op erat e.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a St at e sh all n ot b e su b j ect t o di ss olu t i on ,
b u t as n early as p os s i b le on e-t hi rd of t h e memb ers t h ereof s h all ret i re as
s oon as may b e on th e exp i rat i on of ever y s econ d year i n accord an ce wit h
t h e p rovi s i on s mad e in th at b eh al f b y Parli amen t b y law.
62 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

1 7 3. Qua lif i ca ti on f or m em bers hi p of the Sta te Leg is l a ture.—A


p ers on sh all n ot b e qu ali fi ed t o b e ch os en t o fi ll a s eat i n th e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e un les s h e—
(a ) i s a cit i zen of In d i a, an d makes an d su b s cri b es b efore s ome
p ers on au th ori s ed in t h at b eh alf b y t h e Elect i on Commi ss i on an oat h or
affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e form s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e i n th e Th i rd
Sch ed u le;
(b ) i s , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y, n ot les s
t h an t wen t y-fi ve years o f age an d , i n t h e cas e of a s eat i n th e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, n ot les s th an th i rt y years o f age ; an d
(c) p os s es s es su ch ot h er qu ali fi cat i on s as may b e p res crib ed in t h at
b eh alf b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y Parli amen t .
1 7 4. Ses s i ons of the Sta te Leg is l a ture, prorog a ti on a nd di ss ol uti on.—
(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all fr om t i me t o t i me su mmon t h e Hou s e or each Hou s e
o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e to meet at s u ch ti me and p lace as h e t hi n ks
fi t , b u t s ix mont hs sh all n ot i n t erven e b et ween i ts las t s it t in g i n one
s es si on and th e d at e app oi nt ed for i t s fi rs t si tt in g i n t h e n ext s ess i on .
(2 ) Th e G overn or may fr om t i me t o t i me—
(a ) p rorogu e t h e Hou s e or ei th er Hou s e;
(b ) d is s olve t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
1 7 5. Ri g ht of Governor to a ddres s a nd s end m ess ag es to the Hous e or
Hous es .—(1 ) Th e G overn or may ad d res s th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly or, i n
t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, ei t h er Hou s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e, or b oth Hou s es as s emb led t oget h er, an d may for
t h at p u rp os e requ i re t h e at t en d an ce of memb ers .
(2 ) Th e G overn or may s en d mes s ages t o th e Hou s e or Hou s es of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e, wh eth er wi t h res p ect t o a Bi ll t h en p end i n g i n t h e
Le gi s lat u re or ot h erwi s e, and a Hou s e t o wh i ch an y mes s age i s s o s en t
s h all wi t h all con ven i en t d es pat ch con si d er an y mat t er req u ired b y t h e
mes s age t o b e t aken in t o con s id erat i on .
1 7 6. Specia l a ddres s by the Govern or.—(1 ) At t h e commen cemen t of
t h e fi rs t s ess i on aft er each gen eral e lect i on t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly
an d at t h e commen cemen t of t he fi rs t s es si on of each year, t he G overn or
s h all ad d res s t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly or, i n t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, b ot h Hou s es as s emb led t oget h er an d i n form t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e cau s es of i t s su mmon s .
(2 ) Provi s i on s h all b e mad e b y t h e ru les regu lat i n g th e p rocedu re o f t h e
Hou s e or ei t h er Hou s e for t h e all ot men t of t i me for d i s cus si on of t h e
mat t ers referred t o in su ch ad d res s .
1 7 7. Ri g hts of Mi nis ters a nd Adv oca te-Genera l a s res pects the
Hous es .—Ever y Mi n i st er and the Ad vocat e-G en eral for a St at e s h all h ave
t h e ri gh t t o s p eak i n , and ot h erwi s e t o t ake p art i n th e p roceedi n gs of, t h e
63 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e or, i n t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a


Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, b ot h Hou s es , an d t o s p eak i n , and ot h erwi s e t o t ake
p art i n th e p roceed in gs of, an y commi t t ee of t h e Le gi s lat u re o f wh i ch h e
may b e n amed a memb er, b ut s hall n ot , b y vi rt u e o f t h i s art i cle, b e en t i t led
t o vot e.
Of f i cers of th e St at e Legi s la tu r e
1 7 8. The Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker of the Leg i sl a ti ve As sem bly .—
Ever y Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f a St at e s h all, as s oon as ma y b e, ch oos e t wo
memb ers of t h e As s emb ly t o b e res p ect i vel y Sp eaker an d Dep ut y Sp eaker
t h ereof an d , s o oft en as t h e offi ce of Sp eaker or Dep u t y Sp eaker b ecomes
vacan t , t h e Ass emb ly s h all ch o o s e an ot h er memb er t o b e Sp eaker or Dep u t y
Sp eaker, as th e cas e may b e.
1 7 9. Va ca ti on a nd resi g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the off i ces of
Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker. —A memb er h old in g offi ce as Sp eaker or
Dep u t y Sp eaker o f an As s emb ly—
(a ) s h all vacat e h i s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e
As s emb ly;
(b ) may at an y t i me b y wri t i n g u n d er h is h and ad d res s ed , i f s u ch
memb er is th e Sp eaker, t o t h e Dep u t y Sp eaker, an d i f s u ch memb er is
t h e Depu t y Sp eaker, t o t h e Sp eaker, res i gn h is offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed from h i s offi ce b y a res o lu t i on of t h e As s emb ly
p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e As s emb ly:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ' n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at, wh en ever t h e As s emb ly i s d i ss olved , t h e Sp eaker
s h all n ot vacat e h is offi ce u n t i l i mmedi at ely b efore t h e fi rs t meet i n g of t h e
As s emb ly a ft er t h e d is s olu t i on .
1 8 0. P ow er of the Deputy Spea ker or other pers on to perf orm the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to a ct a s, Spea ker.—(1 ) Wh i le t he o ffi ce o f
Sp eaker i s vacan t , t h e d ut i es o f t h e offi ce s h all b e p erform ed b y t h e
Dep u t y Sp eaker or, i f t h e o ffi ce o f Dep u t y Sp eaker i s als o vaca n t , b y s u ch
memb er of t h e As s emb ly as t h e G overn or ma y ap p oi n t for t h e purp os e.
(2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly the Deputy
Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure
of the Assembly, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by
the Assembly, shall act as Speaker.
1 8 1. The Spea ker or the De puty Spea ker n ot to pres i de w hi l e a
res ol uti on f or his rem ova l f rom offi ce i s under cons i dera ti on.—(1 ) At
an y s i t t i n g of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly, wh i le an y res o lu t i on for t h e
remova l o f t h e Sp eaker from h i s o ffi ce i s u nd er con si d erati on , th e Sp eaker,
or wh i le an y res olu t i on for t h e removal o f t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker from h i s
64 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o ffi ce i s un d er con s id erati on , th e Dep ut y Sp eaker, s h all n ot , th ou gh h e i s


p res ent , p resi d e, and t he p rovi s ion s o f c lau s e (2 ) o f art i cle 1 8 0 s h all ap p l y
i n relat i on t o every s u ch s it ti n g as th ey ap p l y i n relat i on t o a si t ti n g from
wh i ch t h e Sp eaker or, as t h e case may b e, t h e Dep ut y Sp eaker, i s ab s en t .
(2 ) Th e Sp eaker sh all h ave t h e ri gh t t o sp eak i n, and ot h erwis e t o t ake
p art in th e p roceedi n gs of, t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly wh i le an y res olu t i on
for h i s removal fr om o ffi ce i s u n d er cons id erat i on i n t h e Ass emb ly an d
s h all, n ot wi t hs t an di n g an yt h in g i n art i cle 18 9, b e ent i t led t o vot e on l y i n
t h e fi rs t in s t an ce on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er du ri n g s u ch
p roceed i n gs b ut n ot i n t h e cas e o f an eq u ali t y o f vot es .
1 8 2. The Cha i rma n a nd Deputy Cha i rma n of the Leg i sl a ti ve
Counci l .—Th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f e ver y St at e h avi n g s uch Cou n ci l
s h all, as s oon as ma y b e, ch oos e t w o memb ers o f t h e Co u n ci l t o b e
res p ecti vel y Ch ai rman and Depu t y Ch ai rman t h ereof an d , s o oft en as t h e
o ffi ce o f Ch ai rman or Dep u t y Ch ai rman b ecomes vacan t , t h e Cou n ci l sh all
ch oos e an ot h er memb er t o b e Ch ai rman or Dep ut y Ch ai rman , as th e cas e
may b e.
1 8 3. Va ca ti on a nd resi g na ti on of , a nd rem ova l f rom , the off i ces of
Cha i rma n a nd Deputy Cha i rma n.—A memb er h old i n g offi ce a s Ch ai rman
or Dep u t y Ch ai rman of a Legi s la t i ve Cou n ci l—
(a ) s h all vacat e h i s offi ce i f h e ceas es t o b e a memb er of t h e
Cou n ci l;
(b ) may at an y t i me b y wri t i n g u n d er h is h and ad d res s ed , i f s u ch
memb er i s t h e Ch ai rman , t o t h e Dep u t y Ch ai rman , and i f s u ch memb er i s
t h e Depu t y Ch ai rman , t o t h e Ch ai rman , res i gn h i s offi ce; an d
(c) may b e removed fr om h i s offi ce b y a res olu t i on of t h e Cou n ci l
p as s ed b y a maj ori t y o f al l t h e t h en memb ers of t h e Cou nci l:
Provi d ed t h at n o res olu t i on for t h e p u rp os e of c lau s e (c) s h all b e moved
u n les s at leas t fou rt een d ays ' n ot i ce h as b een gi ven of t h e in t ent i on t o
move t h e res olu t i on .
1 8 4. P ow er of the Deputy Chai rma n or other pers on to perform the
duti es of the off i ce of , or to a ct a s , Cha i rm a n.—(1 ) Wh i le the o ffi ce o f
Ch ai rman is vacan t , th e du ti es of t h e offi ce s h all b e p erfor med b y t h e
Dep u t y Ch ai rman or, i f t h e o ffi ce o f Dep u t y Ch ai rman i s als o vacan t , b y
s u ch memb er of t h e Cou nci l as th e G overn or may ap p oi n t for t h e p u rp os e.
(2 ) Du ri n g th e abs en ce of t h e Ch ai rman from an y s i t t i n g of t h e Cou n ci l
t h e Depu t y Ch ai rman or, i f he i s als o ab s en t , su ch p ers on as may b e
d et ermin ed b y t h e ru les o f p roc ed u re of t h e Cou n ci l, or, i f n o s u ch p ers on
i s p res en t , su ch ot h er p ers on as ma y b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Cou n ci l, s h all
act as Ch ai rman .
185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.—(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council,
while any resolution for the removal of the Chairman from his office is under consideration,
65 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

the Chairman, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office
is under consideration, the Deputy Chairman, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the
provisions of clause (2) of article 184 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they
apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman or, as the case may be, the Deputy
Chairman is absent.
(2 ) Th e Ch ai rman s h all h ave t h e ri gh t t o sp eak i n, and ot h erwise t o t ake
p art i n t h e p roceedi n gs of, t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l wh i le an y res olu t i on for
h i s removal from o ffi ce i s u nder con s i d erati on in t h e Coun ci l an d sh all,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g in article 1 8 9 , b e ent it led t o vot e on ly i n t h e fi rs t
i n st an ce on su ch res olu t i on or on an y ot h er matt er d u ri n g su ch proceed i n gs
b u t n ot in th e cas e of an eq u ali ty o f v ot es .
1 8 6. Sa la ri es a nd al l ow a nces of the Spea ker a nd Deputy Spea ker a nd
the Cha i rm a n a nd Deputy Chai rma n.—Th ere sh all b e p ai d t o t h e Sp eaker
an d th e Dep ut y Sp eaker o f t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y, an d t o t he Ch ai rman
an d th e Dep ut y Ch ai rman of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, s u ch salari es an d
all owan ces as may b e resp ect i vel y fi x ed b y t h e Legi s lat u re of t he St at e b y
law an d , u nt i l p rovi s i on in that b eh alf i s s o mad e, s u ch s alari es an d
all owan ces as are s peci fi ed in the Secon d Sch ed u le.
1 8 7. Secreta ria t of Sta te Leg is la ture.—(1 ) Th e Hou s e or each Hou s e o f
t h e Legi s lat u re of a St at e s h all h ave a s ep arat e s ecret ari al st aff:
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g in th is clau s e sh all, i n th e cas e of t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e h avi n g a Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, b e cons t ru ed as p reven t in g th e
creat i on of p os t s common t o b oth Hou s es of s u ch Legi s lat u re.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may b y law re gu lat e t h e recru itmen t , an d
t h e con di t i ons of s ervi ce o f p er s on s app oi n ted , t o th e s ecret arial s t aff o f
t h e Hou s e or Hou s es of t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
(3 ) Un ti l p rovi s i on i s mad e b y th e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e un d er clau s e
(2 ), t h e G overn or may, a ft er con s u lt ati on wi t h t h e Sp eaker o f t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly or t h e Chai rman of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou nci l, as th e
cas e may b e, make ru les regu la t i n g t h e recrui t men t , an d th e con d it i ons of
s ervi ce of p ers on s ap p oin t ed , t o t h e s ecret ari al s t aff o f t h e As s emb ly o r t h e
Cou n ci l, and an y ru les s o mad e s h all h ave effect s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s
o f an y law mad e u n d er t h e s ai d clau s e.
Co nd u ct o f Bu s in ess
1 8 8. Oa th or a ffi rma ti on by m em bers .—Every memb er o f t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y or t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e s hall, b e fore
t aki n g h is s eat , make an d su bs cri b e b efore t h e G overn or, or s ome p ers on
ap p oi nt ed in th at b eh alf b y h im, an oat h or affi rmat i on accord i n g t o t h e
form s et ou t for t h e pu rp os e in th e Th i rd Sch ed u le.
1 8 9. Voti ng i n Hous es , pow er of Hous es to a ct notw i thsta ndi ng
va ca nci es a nd quorum .—(1 ) Save as ot h erwi s e p rovi d ed in th i s
Con s t it ut i on , all q u es ti on s at any s i t t in g of a H ou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a
66 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

St at e sh all b e d et ermi n ed b y a maj ori t y o f vot es o f t h e members p res ent


an d vot i n g, oth er t h an th e Sp eaker or Ch ai rman , or p ers on acti n g as su ch .
Th e Sp eaker or Ch ai rman , or p ers on act i n g as su ch, s h all n ot vo t e i n th e
fi rs t i n s t an ce, bu t sh all h ave an d ex erci s e a cast i n g vot e i n t h e cas e o f an
eq u ali t y o f v ot es .
(2 ) A Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e s h all h ave p ower t o act
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an y vacan c y i n t h e memb ers h ip t h ereof, an d an y
p roceed i n gs in t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e s h all b e vali d n ot wi t h st and in g
t h at i t is d is covered s ub s eq u en t ly t h at s ome p ers on wh o was n ot en t it led s o
t o d o s at or vot ed or ot h erwi s e too k p art i n t h e p roceed in gs .
(3 ) Un ti l t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d es , t he
q u oru m t o con s ti t ut e a meet in g of a H ou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e
s h all b e t en memb ers or on e-t en t h of t h e t ot al nu mb er of memb ers of t h e
Hou s e, wh i ch ever is great er.
(4 ) If at an y t i me d u rin g a meet i n g of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly or t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a St at e t h ere i s n o q u oru m, i t sh all b e t h e d u t y o f
t h e Sp eaker or Ch ai rman , or p ers on acti n g as su ch , ei th er t o ad j ou rn th e
Hou s e or t o s u sp end th e meeti n g u nt i l t h ere i s a q u oru m.
Di s q ua li f i ca ti on s o f Memb ers
1 9 0. Va ca ti on of s ea ts .—(1 ) No p ers on s h all b e a memb er of b ot h
Hou s es of t h e Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e an d p rovi s i on s h all b e mad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e b y la w for t h e vacat i on b y a p ers on wh o i s ch os en
a memb er of b ot h Hou s es of h i s s eat in on e h ou s e or th e ot h er.
(2 ) No p ers on s h all b e a memb er of t h e Legi s lat u res of t wo or more
St at es sp eci fi ed i n th e Fi rs t Sch ed u le and i f a p ers on i s ch os en a memb er
o f t h e Legi s lat u res of t wo or more s u ch St at es , th en , at t h e exp i rati on of
s u ch p eri od as may b e s p eci fied i n ru les mad e b y t h e Presi d ent , th at
p ers on 's s eat in t h e Legi s lat u res of al l s u ch St at es s h all b ecome vacan t,
u n les s h e h as p revi ou s ly res i gn ed h is s eat in t he Legi s lat u res of all b u t on e
o f t h e St at es .
(3 ) If a memb er of a H ou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e—
(a ) b ecomes su bj ect t o an y o f t h e d is qu ali fi cat i on s ment i on ed in
clau s e (1 ) or clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 1 91 ; or
(b ) res i gns h is s eat b y wri t i ng u n d er hi s hand ad d res s ed t o t h e
s p eaker or t h e Ch ai rman , as t he cas e may b e, an d h is resi gnat i on is
accep t ed b y t h e Sp eaker or t h e Ch ai rman, as t h e cas e may b e,
h i s s eat s h all t h ereu p on b ecome vacan t :
Provi d ed t h at in th e cas e of an y res i gn ati on referred t o i n s u b -cl au s e (b ),
i f from i n format i on recei ved or ot h erwi s e and aft er maki n g s u ch i n qu i ry as
h e t hi n ks fi t , th e Sp eaker or t h e Ch ai rman, as th e cas e may b e, i s s at i s fi ed
t h at s u ch res i gn ati on is n ot vol u n t ary or gen u i n e, h e s h all n ot accep t s u ch
res i gn ati on .
67 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) If for a p eri od o f s i x t y d a ys a memb er o f a Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re


o f a St at e i s wi th ou t p ermi s si on of t h e Hou s e abs ent from al l meet i n gs
t h ereof, t h e Hou s e may d eclare h i s s eat vacant :
Provi d ed t h at in comp ut i n g th e sai d p eri od of s i x t y d a ys n o acco u n t s h all
b e t aken of an y p eri od d u rin g wh i ch t h e Hou s e i s p rorogu ed or i s ad j ou rn ed
for more t h an fou r con s ecu t i ve days .
1 9 1. Di s qua lif i ca ti ons f or m em bers hi p.—(1 ) A p ers on s h all b e
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ein g ch os en as , an d for b ei n g, a member of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly or Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e—
(a ) i f h e h old s an y o ffi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er th e G overn men t of In d i a or
t h e G overn men t of an y St at e s p eci fi ed i n t h e Fi rs t Sch edu le, ot h er t h an
an offi ce d eclared b y t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e b y law n ot t o
d i sq u ali fy i t s h old er;
(b ) i f h e is of u n s ou nd mi nd and st and s s o d eclared b y a comp et ent
cou rt ;
(c) i f h e i s an un di s ch arged in sol ven t ;
(d ) i f h e i s n ot a ci t i zen of In d i a, or h as volu n t ari ly acq u i red t he
ci t i zen sh i p of a forei gn St at e, or i s u nd er an y ackn owled g men t of
alle gi an ce or ad h eren ce t o a fore i gn St at e;
(e) i f h e i s s o d i sq u ali fi ed b y or u nd er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t .
Exp l an a ti on .—For t h e p u rp os es of t h i s claus e, a p ers on s h all n ot b e
d eemed t o h old an offi ce o f p ro fi t u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of an y St at e s p ecifi ed i n t h e Fi rs t Sch edu le b y r eas on on l y
t h at h e is a Mi ni s t er ei th er for t h e Un i on or for s u ch St at e.
(2 ) A p ers on sh all b e d i sq u ali fied for b ei n g a memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly or Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f a St at e i f h e i s s o d i s qu alifi ed u n d er
t h e Ten th Sch edu le.
1 92 . Deci s i on on ques ti ons a s to di s qua l if i ca ti ons of m em bers .—(1)
If an y q u es t i on ari s es as t o wh eth er a memb er of a Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e h as b ecome su bj ect to an y o f t h e di sq u ali fi cat i on s men t i on ed i n
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 9 1 , t h e q ues t i on s h all b e referred for t h e d eci si on of
t h e G overn or an d hi s d eci si on shall b e fi n al.
(2 ) Before gi vi n g an y d eci s i on on an y s u ch q u es ti on , t h e G overn or s h all
ob t ai n th e op i n i on of t h e E lect i on Commi s s i on an d sh all act ac cord i n g t o
s u ch op i ni on .
1 93 . P ena l ty f or s i tti ng and voti ng bef ore m a ki ng oa th or
a ffi rma ti on under a rti cl e 18 8 or w hen not qual ifi ed or w hen
di s qual if i ed.—If a p ers on s i ts or vot es as a memb er of t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly or t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of a St at e b efore h e h as comp li ed wi th
t h e requ i remen ts of art i cle 1 8 8 , or wh en h e kn ows t h at h e i s not q u ali fi ed
or t h at h e is d i sq u ali fi ed for memb ers hi p th ereof, or t h at h e i s p roh ib i t ed
fr om s o d oi n g b y t h e p rovi s i on s of an y law mad e b y Par li amen t or th e
68 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e, h e s hall b e li ab le i n resp ect of each d ay on wh i ch


h e s o s i t s or vot es t o a p en alt y o f fi ve h u n d red rup ees t o b e recovered as a
d eb t du e t o th e St at e.
Po wer s , Pri vi l eg es a nd Immu ni t ies o f S ta t e Leg is la tu r es
a n d t hei r Memb er s
1 9 4. P ow ers , pri vi l eg es , etc., of the Hous es of Leg is la tures a nd of the
m em bers a nd comm i ttees thereof .—(1 ) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s ion s of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on an d t o t h e ru les and s t and in g ord ers regu lat i n g t h e p roced u re
o f t h e Legi s lat u re, th ere s h all be freed om o f s p eech i n th e Leg i s lat u re of
ever y St at e.
(2 ) No memb er of t h e Legi s l at u re of a St at e sh all b e li ab le t o an y
p roceed i n gs i n an y cou rt i n resp ect of an yt h i n g s aid or an y vo t e gi ven b y
h i m i n t h e Legi s lat u re or an y co mmi t t ee t h ereof, an d n o p ers on s h all b e s o
li ab le i n resp ect of t h e pu b li cation b y or u n d er th e au th ori t y o f a Hou s e of
s u ch a Legi s lat u re o f an y rep ort , p ap er, vot es or p roceedi n gs .
(3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature
of a State, and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature, shall be
such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and, until so defined,
shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the
coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978.
(4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by
virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the
proceedings of, a House of the Legislature of a State or any committee thereof as they apply
in relation to members of that Legislature.
195. Salaries and allowances of members.—Members of the Legislative Assembly and
the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as
may from time to time be determined, by the Legislature of the State by law and, until
provision in that respect is so made, salaries and allowances at such rates and upon such
conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in
the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the corresponding Province.
Legislative Procedure
196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.—(1) Subject to the provisions of
articles 198 and 207 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may
originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council.
(2) Subject to the provisions of articles 197 and 198, a Bill shall not be deemed to have
been passed by the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it
has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only
as are agreed to by both Houses.
(3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation
of the House or Houses thereof.
69 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the
Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly.
(5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State, or which having been
passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council, shall lapse on a
dissolution of the Assembly.
197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money
Bills.—(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a
Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council—
(a) the Bill is rejected by the Council; or
(b) more than three months elapse from the date on which the Bill is laid before the
Council without the Bill being passed by it; or
(c) the Bill is passed by the Council with amendments to which the Legislative
Assembly does not agree;
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly may, s u b j ect t o th e ru les regu lat i n g i t s
p roced u re, pas s t h e Bi ll agai n i n th e s ame or in an y s u bs equen t s es si on
wi t h or wi t h ou t s u ch amend ments , i f an y, as h ave b een mad e, s ugges t ed or
agreed t o b y t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l an d th en t rans mi t t h e Bi ll a s s o p as s ed
t o t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
(2 ) If a ft er a Bi l l h as b een s o p as s ed for t h e s econ d t i me b y t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly an d t ran smi t t ed t o th e Legi s lat i ve Cou n cil—
(a ) th e Bi ll i s rej ect ed b y t h e Cou n ci l; or
(b ) more t h an on e mon t h elap ses fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e Bi ll
i s lai d b efore t h e Cou n ci l wi th ou t th e Bi ll b ein g p ass ed b y i t ; or
(c) t h e Bi ll i s p ass ed b y t h e Cou n ci l wi t h amend ment s t o which
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly d oes n ot agree;
t h e Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een p ass ed b y t h e Hou s es of t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e i n t he form i n wh i ch i t was p as sed b y t he
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y for t h e s econ d t i me wi th s u ch amend men ts , i f an y, as
h ave b een mad e or su gges t ed by t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l an d agreed t o b y
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
(3 ) Not h i n g in th is arti cle s h all ap p ly t o a Mon e y Bi l l.
1 98 . Specia l procedure i n respect of M oney Bi l ls .—(1 ) A Mon e y Bi l l
s h all n ot b e in t rodu ced i n a Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
(2 ) Aft er a Mon e y Bi l l h as b een p ass ed b y t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
a St at e h avi n g a Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, i t s h all b e t ran s mit t ed t o t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l for i t s recommen d at i on s, and t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l
s h all wi t h in a p eri od of fou rt een d ays from t h e d at e of i t s recei p t of t h e
Bi ll ret u rn t h e Bi ll t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y wi t h i t s recommen d at i on s ,
an d th e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y m ay t h ereu p on ei th er accept or re j ect all or
an y o f t h e recommen d at i ons of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
70 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3 ) If t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y accep t s an y o f t h e recommen d at i on s of


t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, t h e Mon e y Bi ll s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een
p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es wi th t h e amend ment s recommen ded b y t h e
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l an d accep t ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y.
(4 ) If t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly d oes n ot accep t an y of t h e
recommen d at i ons of t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, t h e Mon ey Bi l l s h all b e
d eemed t o h ave b een p as s ed b y b ot h Hou s es in th e form i n wh i ch i t was
p as s ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly wi t h ou t an y of t h e amen d men ts
recommen d ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l.
(5 ) If a Mon e y Bi l l p as s ed b y th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly an d t ran s mit t ed
t o t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l for i t s recommend at i ons is n ot ret u rn ed t o t he
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y wi t h i n t he s ai d p eri od of fou rt een d ays , i t s h all b e
d eemed t o h ave b een p ass ed b y b ot h Hou s es at t h e ex pi rat i on o f t h e s aid
p eri od in th e form i n wh i ch i t was p ass ed b y t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
199. Definition of “Money Bills”.—(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be
deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the
following matters, namely:—
(a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;
(b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the
State, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or
to be undertaken by the State;
(c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of the State, the
payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund;
(d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State;
(e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated
Fund of the State, or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure;
(f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of the State or the
public account of the State or the custody or issue of such money; or
(g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f).
(2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the
imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for
licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition,
abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for
local purposes.
(3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has
a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative
Assembly of such State thereon shall be final.
(4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative
Council under article 198, and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under article
200, the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a
Money Bill.
71 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

200. Assent to Bills.—When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State
or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the
Legislature of the State, it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare
either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the
Bill for the consideration of the President:
Provided that the Governor may, as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the
Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that
the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in
particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may
recommend in his message and, wh en a Bi ll i s s o ret u rn ed , t he Hou s e or H ou s es
s h all recon s i d er t h e Bi ll accord i n gl y, an d i f t h e Bi ll i s p as s ed agai n b y t h e
Hou s e or Hou s es wi t h or wi t h out amen d men t and p res ent ed t o t he G overn or
for as s en t , t h e G overn or s h all n ot wi t hh old as s en t t h erefrom:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at th e G overn or s h all n ot ass ent t o, b u t sh all res erve
for t h e con si d erat i on of t h e Presi d ent , an y Bi ll wh i ch i n th e op in i on of t h e
G overn or wou ld , i f i t b ecame law, s o d erogat e from t h e p owers o f t h e Hi gh
Cou rt as t o en d an ger t h e p osi t ion wh i ch t h at Cou rt i s b y t h i s Con s t it ut i on
d es i gn ed t o fi ll.
2 0 1. Bi l ls res erved f or cons i dera ti on.—Wh en a Bi ll i s res erved b y a
G overn or for t h e con si d erat i on o f t h e Presi d en t , th e Presi d en t sh all d eclare
ei t h er t h at h e as s en ts t o th e Bi ll or t h at h e wi t hh old s ass ent th erefr om:
Provi d ed t h at , wh ere th e Bi ll i s n ot a Mon ey Bi ll, t h e Pres i den t may
d i rect t h e G overn or t o ret u rn the Bi ll t o t h e Hou s e or, as th e cas e may b e,
t h e Hou s es of t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e t oget h er wi t h s u ch a mes s age as
i s men ti on ed in t h e fi rs t p rovi s o t o art i cle 2 0 0 an d , wh en a Bi ll i s s o
ret u rn ed , th e Hou s e or Hou s es s h all recon s i d er i t accord in gly wi t h i n a
p eri od of s i x mon t hs from t h e d at e of recei p t o f s u ch mes s age an d , i f i t is
agai n p ass ed b y t h e Hou s e or H ou s es wi th or wi t h ou t amend men t , it s h all
b e p res en t ed agai n t o t h e Pres iden t for h i s con si d erat i on .
Pr o ced ur e in Fin an ci al Ma tt ers
2 0 2. Annua l f i na ncia l s ta tem ent.—(1 ) Th e G overn or s h all i n res p ect of
ever y fi n an ci al year cau s e t o b e lai d b efore t h e Hou s e or H o u s es of t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e a s t at ement of t h e es t i mat ed recei p ts an d
ex p en d it u re of t h e St at e for t h at year, i n th is Part referred t o as th e
“an n u al fi n an ci al s t at emen t ".
(2 ) Th e es t imat es of ex p end i tu re emb od i ed in t h e an nu al fi n an ci al
s t at emen t s h all s h ow s ep arat el y—
(a ) t h e su ms req u i red t o meet ex p en di t u re d es crib ed b y t h i s
Con s t it ut i on as exp end i tu re ch arged u p on t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e
St at e; an d
(b ) t h e s u ms req ui red t o meet ot h er ex p en di tu re p rop os ed t o b e
mad e from t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e St at e;
72 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

an d s h all di s ti n gui sh ex p en di t u re on revenu e accoun t fr om ot h er


ex p en d it u re.
(3 ) Th e fo ll owi n g ex p en di tu re s h all b e ex p en di tu re ch arged on t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of each St at e—
(a ) t h e emolu men t s and allo wan ces of t h e G overn or an d ot h er
ex p en d it u re relat in g t o h is offi ce;
(b ) t h e s alari es an d allowan c es of t h e Sp eaker an d t h e Dep u t y
Sp eaker o f t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly an d , i n th e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a
Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l, als o o f t h e Ch ai rman and th e Dep ut y Ch ai rman of
t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l;
(c) d ebt ch arges for wh i ch t he St at e is li ab le i n clu di n g i nt eres t ,
s i n kin g fu n d ch arges and red emp t i on ch arges , and ot h er expen d it u re
relat i n g t o t h e rai s in g of loan s an d t h e s ervi ce and red emp t i on of d ebt ;
(d ) ex p en di tu re i n res p ect of t h e s alari es an d allowan ces of J u d ges
o f an y Hi gh Cou rt ;
(e) an y s u ms requ i red t o s at is fy an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or award of
an y cou rt or arb i t ral t ri b un al;
(f ) an y ot h er ex p end i tu re d eclared b y t h i s Con s t it ut i on , or b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e b y law, t o b e s o ch arged .
2 0 3. P rocedure i n Leg i sl a ture w i th res pect to es ti ma tes .—(1 ) So mu ch
o f t h e es t i mat es as relat es t o ex p end it u re ch arged u p on t h e Con s oli d at ed
Fu n d of a St at e s h all n ot b e s u bmi tt ed t o t h e vot e of t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly, b u t n ot h i n g i n th is clau s e s h all b e con s t ru ed as p reven t i n g t he
d i s cu ss i on i n t h e Legi s lat u re of an y o f t h os e es t i mat es .
(2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the
form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly shall
have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand
subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.
(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor.
204. Appropriation Bills.—(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have
been made by the Assembly, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation
out of the Consolidated Fund of the State of all moneys required to meet—
(a) the grants so made by the Assembly; and
(b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State but not exceeding
in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before the House or
Houses.
(2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in the House or either House of the
Legislature of the State which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the
destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the
Consolidated Fund of the State, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an
amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final.
73 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) Subject to the provisions of articles 205 and 206, no money shall be withdrawn from
the Consolidated Fund of the State except under appropriation made by law passed in
accordance with the provisions of this article.
205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.—(1) The Governor shall—
(a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of
article 204 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to
be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current
financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not
contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or
(b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of
the amount granted for that service and for that year,
cause to be laid before the House or the Houses of the Legislature of the State another
statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the
Legislative Assembly of the State a demand for such excess, as the case may be.
(2) The provisions of articles 202, 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to any such
statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the
appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure
or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial
statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be
made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the
State to meet such expenditure or grant.
206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding
anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the Legislative Assembly of a State shall
have power—
(a) to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of
any financial year pending the completion of the procedure prescribed in article 203 for
the voting of such grant and the passing of the law in accordance with the provisions of
article 204 in relation to that expenditure;
(b) to make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of the
State when on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service the
demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement;
(c) to make an exceptional grant which forms no part of the current service of any
financial year;
and the Legislature of the State shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of
moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the State for the purposes for which the said grants are
made.
(2) The provisions of articles 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to the making of any
grant under clause (1) and to any law to be made under that clause as they have effect in
relation to the making of a grant with regard to any expenditure mentioned in the annual
financial statement and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys
out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure.
74 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

207. Special provisions as to financial Bills.—(1) A Bill or amendment making provision


for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not
be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor, and a Bill making
such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council:
Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an
amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax.
(2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters
aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary
penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or
by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of
any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.
(3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from
the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State
unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill.
Procedure Generally
208. Rules of procedure.—(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for
regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its
business.
(2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the rules of procedure and standing orders in
force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the
Legislature for the corresponding Province shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of
the State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or the Chairman of the Legislative Council, as the case
may be.
(3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor, after consultation with the
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council, may make
rules as to the procedure with respect to communications between the two Houses.
209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to
financial business. —The Legislature of a State may, for the purpose of the timely
completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of
business in, the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State in relation to any financial
matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the
State, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule
made by the House or either House of the Legislature of the State under clause (1) of article
208 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to the Legislature of the State
under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail.
210. Language to be used in the Legislature.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part
XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in the Legislature of a State shall
be transacted in the official language or languages of the State or in Hindi or in English:
Provided that the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or Chairman of the Legislative
Council, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot
75 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

adequately express himself in any of the languages aforesaid to address the House in his
mother-tongue.
(2) Unless the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after
the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have
effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom:
Provided that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur,
Meghalaya and Tripura this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen" years
occurring therein, the words "twenty-five years" were substituted:
Provided further that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Arunachal Pradesh,
Goa and Mizoram, this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen years" occurring
therein, the words "forty years" were substituted.
211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. —No discussion shall take place in
the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of
a High Court in the discharge of his duties.
212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.—(1) The validity of
any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of
any alleged irregularity of procedure.
(2) No officer or member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or
under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining
order, in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the
exercise by him of those powers.

CHAPTER IV.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR


213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.—(1)
If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is
a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session,
the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take
immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to
require:
Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate
any such Ordinance if—
(a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required
the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or
(b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same
provisions for the consideration of the President; or
(c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under
this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of
the President, it had received the assent of the President.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an
Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a
Legislative Council in the State, before both the Houses, and shall cease to operate at the
76 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration
of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and
agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the
case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and
(b) may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor.
Explanation.—Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council
are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned
from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause.
(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not
be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it
shall be void:
Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect
of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an
existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance
promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed
to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of
the President and assented to by him.
* * * * *

CHAPTER V.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES


214. High Courts for States.—There shall be a High Court for each State.
* * * * *
215. High Courts to be courts of record.—Every High Court shall be a court of record
and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of
itself.
216. Constitution of High Courts.—Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and
such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint.
* * * * *
217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.—(1) Every
Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal
after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of
appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court, and
shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and
in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty-two years:
Provided that—
(a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his
office;
(b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided
in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court;
77 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to
be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other
High Court within the territory of India.
(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is
a citizen of India and—
(a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or
(b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such
Courts in succession.
* * * * *
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause—
(a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the
territory of India, there shall be included any period, after he has held any judicial office,
during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a
member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge
of law;
(aa) in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High
Court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or
the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring
special knowledge of law after he became an advocate;
(b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the
territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period
before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in
any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within India as
defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court
in any such area, as the case may be.
(3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court, the question shall be
decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of
the President shall be final.
218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.—
The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as
they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High
Court for references to the Supreme Court.
219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.—Every person appointed to be a
Judge of a High Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the
Governor of the State, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation
according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.
220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.—No person who, after the
commencement of this Constitution, has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court
shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court and
the other High Courts.
78 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Explanation.—In this article, the expression “High Court” does not include a High Court
for a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule as it existed before the commencement of
the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956.
221. Salaries, etc., of Judges.—(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court
such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is
so made, such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule.
(2) Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowances and to such rights in respect of leave
of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by
Parliament and, until so determined, to such allowances and rights as are specified in the
Second Schedule:
Provided that neither the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of
absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.
222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.—(1) The President may,
after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any
other High Court.
(2) When a Judge has been or is so transferred, he shall, during the period he serves, after
the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, as a Judge of the
other High Court, be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance
as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until so determined, such compensatory
allowance as the President may by order fix.
223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.—When the office of Chief Justice of a High
Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable
to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of
the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose.
224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.—(1) If by reason of any temporary
increase in the business of a High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to
the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being
increased, the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the
Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify.
(2) When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence
or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act
temporarily as Chief Justice, the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a
Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties.
(3) No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office
after attaining the age of sixty-two years.
224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.—Notwithstanding
anything in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with
the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of a Judge
of that Court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a Judge of the High Court for that
State, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such
allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and
privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that High Court:
79 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as
aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that High Court unless he consents so to do.
225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution
and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers
conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law
administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in
relation to the administration of justice in the Court, including any power to make rules of
Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in
Division Courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this
Constitution:
Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the
High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered
or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this
Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction.
226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in
article 32 every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it
exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any
Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature
of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for
the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose.
(2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any
Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising
jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part,
arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or
authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories.
(3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay
or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause
(1), without—
(a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of
the plea for such interim order; and
(b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard,
makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of
such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such
party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the
date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so
furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period,
before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the
application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as
the case may be, the expiry of the said next day, stand vacated.
(4) The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the
power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32.
80 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

226A. [Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under


article 226.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 8 (w.e.f. 13-4-
1978).
227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.—(1) Every High
Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in
relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the High Court may—
(a) call for returns from such courts;
(b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and
proceedings of such courts; and
(c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers
of any such courts.
(3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks
and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein:
Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause
(3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and
shall require the previous approval of the Governor.
(4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of
superintendence over any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the
Armed Forces.
* * * * *
228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court.—If the High Court is satisfied that a case
pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the
interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of
the case, it shall withdraw the case and may—
(a) either dispose of the case itself, or
(b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the
case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question, and the
said court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such
judgment.
228A. [Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of
State laws.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 10 (w.e.f. 13-4-
1978).
229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.—(1) Appointments of
officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such
other Judge or officer of the Court as he may direct:
Provided that the Governor of the State may by rule require that in such cases as may be
specified in the rule no person not already attached to the Court shall be appointed to any
office connected with the Court save after consultation with the State Public Service
Commission.
81 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State, the
conditions of service of officers and servants of a High Court shall be such as may be
prescribed by rules made by the Chief Justice of the Court or by some other Judge or officer
of the Court authorised by the Chief Justice to make rules for the purpose:
Provided that the rules made under this clause shall, so far as they relate to salaries,
allowances, leave or pensions, require the approval of the Governor of the State.
(3) The administrative expenses of a High Court, including all salaries, allowances and
pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Court, shall be charged
upon the Consolidated Fund of the State, and any fees or other moneys taken by the Court
shall form part of that Fund.
230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.—(1) Parliament
may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High
Court from, any Union territory.
(2) Where the High Court of a State exercises jurisdiction in relation to a Union
territory,—
(a ) n oth in g i n th is Cons t it ut i on s h all b e con s t ru ed as emp oweri n g
t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e t o i n creas e, rest ri ct or ab oli s h th at
j u ris di ct i on ; and
(b ) th e referen ce in arti cle 22 7 t o t h e G overn or s h all, in relat i on t o
an y ru les , forms or t ab les for s u b ordi n at e cou rts in th at t errit or y, b e
con s t ru ed as a referen ce t o t h e Pres i d en t .
231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.—(1)
Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament
may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States
and a Union territory.
(2) In relation to any such High Court,—
(a) the reference in article 217 to the Governor of the State shall be construed as a
reference to the Governors of all the States in relation to which the High Court exercises
jurisdiction;
(b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall, in relation to any rules, forms or
tables for subordinate courts, be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in
which the subordinate courts are situate; and
(c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference
to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat:
Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory, the references in articles 219
and 229 to the Governor, Public Service Commission, Legislature and Consolidated Fund of
the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President, Union Public Service
Commission, Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India.
82 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

CHAPTER VI.—SUBORDINATE COURTS


233. Appointment of district judges.—(1) Appointments of persons to be, and the
posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the
State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State.
(2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to
be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a
pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment.
233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain
district judges. —Notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court,—
(a) (i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of
any person who has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader, to be a
district judge in that State, and
(ii) no posting, promotion or transfer of any such person as a district judge,
made at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act,
1966, otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be
deemed to be illegal or void or ever to have become illegal or void by reason only of the fact
that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the
said provisions;
(b) no jurisdiction exercised, no judgment, decree, sentence or order passed or made,
and no other act or proceedings done or taken, before the commencement of the
Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966 by, or before, any person appointed,
posted, promoted or transferred as a district judge in any State otherwise than in
accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal
or invalid or ever to have become illegal or invalid by reason only of the fact that such
appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said
provisions.
234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.—
Appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be
made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made by him in that behalf after
consultation with the State Public Service Commission and with the High Court exercising
jurisdiction in relation to such State.
235. Control over subordinate courts.— The control over district courts and courts
subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons
belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district
judge shall be vested in the High Court, but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking
away from any such person any right of appeal which he may have under the law regulating
the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than
in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law.
236. Interpretation.— In this Chapter—
(a) the expression “district judge” includes judge of a city civil court, additional
district judge, joint district judge, assistant district judge, chief judge of a small cause
83 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

court, chief presidency magistrate, additional chief presidency magistrate, sessions judge,
additional sessions judge and assistant sessions Judge;
(b) the expression “judicial service” means a service consisting exclusively of
persons intended to fill the post of district judge and other civil judicial posts inferior to
the post of district judge.
237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of
magistrates.—The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions
of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as may be
fixed by him in that behalf apply in relation to any class or classes of magistrates in the State
as they apply in relation to persons appointed to the judicial service of the State subject to
such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification.
84 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VII.—[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. Rep. by the


Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

84
85 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VIII
THE UNION TERRITORIES
239. Administration of Union territories.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by
Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to
such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such
designation as he may specify.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President my appoint the Governor
of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so
appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council
of Ministers.
239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain
Union territories.—(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of
Pondicherry—
(a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a
Legislature for the Union territory, or
(b) a Council of Ministers,
or both with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the
law.
(2) Any such law as is referred to in clause (1) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of
this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision
which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution.
239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.—(1) As from the date of
commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, the Union territory
of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred
to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239
shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor.
(2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the
seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial
constituencies in the National Capital Territory.
(b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, the number of seats reserved for
Scheduled Castes, the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies
(including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the
Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament.
(c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National
Capital Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory and the
members thereof as they apply, in relation to a State, the Legislative Assembly of a State and
the members thereof respectively; and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to “appropriate
Legislature” shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament.
(3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislative Assembly shall have
power to make laws for the whole or any part of the National Capital Territory with respect to

85
86 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

any of the matters enumerated in the State List or in the Concurrent List in so far as any such
matter is applicable to Union territories except matters with respect to Entries 1, 2 and 18 of
the State List and Entries 64, 65 and 66 of that List in so far as they relate to the said Entries
1, 2 and 18.
(b) Nothing in sub-clause (a) shall derogate from the powers of Parliament under this
Constitution to make laws with respect to any matter for a Union territory or any part thereof.
(c) If any provision of a law made by the Legislative Assembly with respect to any matter
is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament with respect to that matter,
whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislative Assembly, or of an earlier law,
other than a law made by the Legislative Assembly, then, in either case, the law made by
Parliament, or, as the case may be, such earlier law, shall prevail and the law made by the
Legislative Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void:
Provided that if any such law made by the Legislative Assembly has been reserved for the
consideration of the President and has received his assent, such law shall prevail in the
National Capital Territory:
Provided further that nothing in this sub-clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at
any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending,
varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislative Assembly.
(4) There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent. of the
total number of members in the Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Minister at the head to
aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters
with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, except in so far as
he is, by or under any law, required to act in his discretion:
Provided that in the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor and his
Ministers on any matter, the Lieutenant Governor shall refer it to the President for decision
and act according to the decision given thereon by the President and pending such decision it
shall be competent for the Lieutenant Governor in any case where the matter, in his opinion,
is so urgent that it is necessary for him to take immediate action, to take such action or to give
such direction in the matter as he deems necessary.
(5) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be
appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold
office during the pleasure of the President.
(6) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly.
(7) (a) Parliament may, by law, make provisions for giving effect to, or supplementing the
provisions contained in the foregoing clauses and for all matters incidental or consequential
thereto.
(b) Any such law as is referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not be deemed to be an
amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it
contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending, this Constitution.
(8) The provisions of article 239B shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the National
Capital Territory, the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Assembly, as they apply in
relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry, the administrator and its Legislature,
87 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

respectively; and any reference in that article to “clause (1) of article 239A” shall be deemed
to be a reference to this article or article 239AB, as the case may be.
239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.—If the President, on
receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor or otherwise, is satisfied—
(a) that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital
Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of
any law made in pursuance of that article; or
(b) that for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory it is necessary
or expedient so to do,
the President may by order suspend the operation of any provision of article 239AA or of all
or any of the provisions of any law made in pursuance of that article for such period and
subject to such conditions as may be specified in such law and make such incidental and
consequential provisions as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for administering
the National Capital Territory in accordance with the provisions of article 239 and article
239AA.
239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
Legislature.—(1) If at any time, except when the Legislature of the Union territory of
Pondicherry is in session, the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances exist which
render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as
the circumstances appear to him to require:
Provided that no such Ordinance shall be promulgated by the administrator except after
obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf:
Provided further that whenever the said Legislature is dissolved, or its functioning
remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in
clause (1) of article 239A, the administrator shall not promulgate any Ordinance during the
period of such dissolution or suspension.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the
President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory which has
been duly enacted after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such
law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid before the Legislature of the Union territory and shall cease to
operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature or if, before
the expiration of that period, a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislature,
upon the passing of the resolution; and
(b) may be withdrawn at any time by the administrator after obtaining instructions
from the President in that behalf.
(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not
be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory made after complying
with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of
article 239A, it shall be void.
* * * * *
88 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.— (1) The
President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union
territory of—
(a ) t h e An d aman and Ni cob ar Is lan d s ;
(b ) Laks h ad weep ;
(c) Dad ra an d Nagar Haveli ;
(d ) Daman and Di u ;
(e) Pon d i ch erry:
Provided that when any body is created under article 239A to function as a Legislature for
the Union territory of Pondicherry, the President shall not make any regulation for the peace,
progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for
the first meeting of the Legislature:
Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved,
or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as
is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the President may, during the period of such dissolution or suspension, make
regulations for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory.
(2) Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other
law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and, when promulgated by
the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to
that territory.
241. High Courts for Union territories—(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High
Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all
or any of the purposes of this Constitution.
(2) The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court
referred to in clause (1) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in article 214
subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide.
(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the
appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under
this Constitution, every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the
commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, in relation to any Union
territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such
commencement.
(4) Nothing in this article derogates from the power of Parliament to extend or exclude the
jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof.
242. [Coorg.] Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
89 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IX
THE PANCHAYATS
2 4 3. Defi ni ti ons .—In t h is Part , u n les s t h e cont ext ot h erwis e requ i res ,—
(a) “district” means a district in a State;
(b) “Gram Sabha” means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls
relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level;
(c) “intermediate level” means a level between the village and district levels specified
by the Governor of a State by public notification to be the intermediate level for the
purposes of this Part;
(d) “Panchayat” means an institution (by whatever name called) of self- government
constituted under article 243B, for the rural areas;
(e) “Panchayat area” means the territorial area of a Panchayat;
(f) “Population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of
which the relevant figures have been published;
(g) “village” means a village specified by the Governor by public notification to be a
village for the purposes of this Part and includes a group of villages so specified.
2 4 3 A. Gra m Sa bha .— A G ram Sab h a may ex erci s e su ch p owers an d
p erform s u ch fu n ct i ons at t h e vi lla ge leve l as t h e Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e
may, b y law, p rovi d e.
2 4 3B. Cons ti tuti on of Pa nchay a ts .—(1 ) Th ere sh all b e con s ti t ut ed in
ever y St at e, Pan ch ayat s at t h e vi lla ge, i n t ermed i at e an d di st rict leve ls i n
accord an ce wi t h t h e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part .
(2 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n clau s e (1 ), Pan ch ayat s at t h e
i n t ermed i at e level ma y n ot b e con s t it u t ed in a St at e h avi n g a p op u lat i on
n ot ex ceed i n g t wen t y la kh s .
2 4 3 C. Com pos i ti on of P a nchay a ts .— (1 ) Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons of
t h is Part , th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, make p r ovi s i on s wi th
res p ect t o t h e comp os i ti on of Pa n ch ayat s :
Provi d ed t h at t h e rat i o b et ween t h e p opu lat i on of t h e t erri t ori al area o f a
Pan ch ayat at an y le ve l an d t h e n u mb er of s eat s i n su ch Pan ch ayat t o b e
fi l led b y e lect i on s h all, s o far as p racti cab le, b e th e s ame th rou gh ou t t h e
St at e.
(2 ) Al l t h e s eat s i n a Pan ch ayat s h all b e fi l led b y p ers on s ch os en b y
d i rect elect i on from t erri t ori al con s t it u en ci es i n th e Pan ch ayat area an d ,
for t h i s pu rp os e, each Pan ch ayat area s h all b e d i vid ed i nt o t erri t ori al
con s t it u en ci es in su ch mann er that th e rat i o b et ween t h e p opu lat ion of each
con s t it u en cy an d t h e n u mb er o f s eat s all ot t ed t o i t s h all, s o far as
p ract i cab le, b e th e s ame th rou gh ou t t h e p an ch ayat area.
(3 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a S t at e may, b y law, p ro vi d e for t h e
rep res ent at i on—

89
90 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the village level, in the Panchayats at the
intermediate level or, in the case of a State not having Panchayats at the intermediate
level, in the Panchayats at the district level;
(b) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats
at the district level;
(c) of the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative
Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly a
Panchayat area at a level other than the village level, in such Panchayat;
(d) of the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative
Council of the State, where they are registered as electors within—
(i) a Panchayat area at the intermediate level, in Panchayat at the intermediate
level;
(ii) a Panchayat area at the district level, in Panchayat at the district level.
(4 ) Th e Ch ai rp ers on of a Pan ch ayat an d ot h er memb ers of a P an ch ayat
wh et h er or n ot ch os en b y d i rect elect i on fr om t erri t ori al con s t i tu en ci es i n
t h e Pan ch ayat area s h al l h ave t h e ri gh t t o vot e i n t h e meet in gs o f t h e
Pan ch ayat s .
(5 ) Th e Ch ai rp ers on of—
(a) a panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the Legislature
of a State may, by law, provide; and
(b) a Panchayat at the intermediate level or district level shall be elected by, and from
amongst, the elected members thereof.
2 4 3 D. Res erva ti on of s ea ts .—(1) Seat s sh all b e res erved for—
(a) the Scheduled Castes; and
(b) the Scheduled Tribes,
i n every Pan ch ayat an d t h e n umb er of s eat s s o res erved s h all b ear, as
n earl y as may b e, th e s ame p rop ort i on t o t h e t ot al nu mb er of s eat s t o b e
fi l led b y d i rect elect i on i n t h at Pan ch ayat as t h e p op u lat ion o f t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es i n t h at Pan ch ayat area or o f t h e Sch edu led Tri b es in th at
Pan ch ayat area b ears t o t h e t otal p op u lat i on of t h at area an d s u ch s eat s
may b e al lot t ed b y rot at i on t o d ifferen t con s t i tu en ci es i n a Pan chayat .
(2 ) Not les s th an on e-t h i rd of t h e t ot al nu mb er of s eat s res erved un d er
clau s e (1 ) s h all b e res erved for women b elon gi n g t o th e Sch edu led Cast es
or, as t h e cas e may b e, t h e Sch ed u led Tri b es .
(3 ) Not les s t h an on e-t h i rd (in clu d i n g t h e n umb er of s eat s res erved for
women b elon gi n g t o t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es and t h e Sch ed u led Trib es ) of t h e
t ot al n u mb er of s eat s t o b e fi l led b y d i rect elect i on i n every Pan ch ayat
s h all b e res erved for women an d s u ch s eat s may b e all ot t ed b y rot at i on t o
d i fferen t con s t i tu en ci es i n a Panch ayat .
(4 ) Th e o ffi ces o f t h e Ch ai rp ers on s i n t h e Pan ch ayat s at t h e vi llage or
an y ot h er leve l s h all b e res erved for t h e Sch edu led Cas t es , th e Sch edu led
91 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Tri b es an d women in s u ch mann er as th e Legi s lat u re of a St at e may, b y


law, p rovi d e:
Provi d ed th at t h e nu mb er of o ffi ces of Ch ai rp ers on s res erved for t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es an d t h e Sch edu led Tri b es i n t h e Pan ch ayat s at each level
i n an y St at e s h all b ear, as n ear l y as ma y b e, t h e s ame p rop ort i on t o t h e
t ot al n u mb er of s u ch offi ces i n t h e Pan ch ayat s at each level as t h e
p op u lat i on of t h e Sch edu led Cast es in t h e St at e or of t h e Sch ed uled Tri b es
i n th e St at e b ears t o th e t ot al p op u lat i on of t h e St at e:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at n ot les s t h an on e-t h i rd of t h e t ot al n u mb er of
o ffi ces o f Ch ai rp ers on s i n th e Pan ch ayat s at each level s h all b e res erved
for women :
Provi d ed als o t h at th e nu mb er of o ffi ces res erved u nd er th i s clau s e sh all
b e allot t ed b y rot at i on t o d i ffere n t Panch ayat s at each level.
(5 ) Th e res ervat i on o f s eat s u n der clau s es (1 ) an d (2 ) and t h e res ervat i on
o f o ffi ces o f Ch ai rp ers ons (ot her t h an th e res ervat i on for w o men ) u nd er
clau s e (4 ) s h all ceas e t o h ave effect on t h e ex pi rati on of t h e p eri od
s p eci fi ed i n art i cle 3 34 .
(6 ) Not h i n g i n th is Part s h all p reven t t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e from
maki n g an y p rovi s i on for res erv at i on of s eat s i n an y Pan ch ayat or offi ces
o f Ch ai rp ers ons in t h e Pan ch ayat s at an y leve l i n fav ou r o f b ackward clas s
o f ci t i zens .
2 4 3E. Dura ti on of P a ncha yats , etc.—(1 ) Every Pan ch a yat , u n les s
s oon er d is s olved u nd er an y law for t h e ti me b ein g i n force, s h all con t i n u e
for fi ve years from t h e d at e ap poi n t ed for i t s fi rs t meet in g an d no lon ger.
(2 ) No amen d men t of an y law for t h e ti me b ei n g i n force s h all h ave t h e
effect o f cau s i n g d is s olu t i on o f a Pan ch ayat at an y leve l, wh i ch is
fu n ct i on in g i mmed i at ely b efore s u ch amend ment , t i ll t h e exp i rat i on of i t s
d u rati on sp eci fi ed in clau s e (1 ).
(3 ) An elect i on t o con s t it ut e a Pan ch ayat s h all b e comp let ed —
(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1);
(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution:
Provi d ed t h at wh ere t h e remaind er of t h e p eri od for wh i ch t h e d i ss olved
Pan ch ayat wou ld h ave con t in u ed is les s t h an s i x mon th s , i t sh all n ot b e
n eces s ary t o h old an y elect i on un d er th is clau s e for con s t i t ut in g t he
Pan ch ayat for s u ch p eri od .
(4 ) A Pan ch ayat con s t i t ut ed u pon t h e d is s olu t i on of a Pan ch ayat b efore
t h e exp i rati on of i t s d u rat i on shall con t i n u e on ly for t h e remai n d er of t h e
p eri od for wh i ch t h e d i ss olve d Pan ch ayat wou ld h ave con t in u ed un d er
clau s e (1 ) h ad it n ot b een s o di ss olved .
2 43 F . Dis qua lif i ca ti ons f or m em bers hi p.—(1 ) A p ers on s h all b e
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ei n g ch os en as , an d for b ei n g, a memb er of a Pan ch ayat —
(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the
purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State concerned:
92 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than twenty-five
years of age, if he has attained the age of twenty-one years;
(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State.
(2 ) If an y q u es ti on ari s es as t o wh et h er a memb er of a Pan chayat h as
b ecome s ub j ect t o an y o f t h e di sq u ali fi cat i on s ment i on ed i n claus e (1 ), t h e
q u est i on sh all b e refe rred for t h e d ecis i on of s u ch au t h orit y a n d in s u ch
man n er as th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, p rovi d e.
2 43 G. P ow ers, a uthori ty a nd res pons i bi li ti es of Pa nchay a ts .—Su bj ect
t o t h e p rovi s i on s of t h is Con st it u ti on , th e Legi s lat u re of a St a t e may, b y
law, en d ow t h e Pan ch ayat s wi t h s u ch p owers an d au t h orit y as may b e
n eces s ary t o en ab le t h em t o fu n ct i on as i ns ti t ut i ons of s el f-g ove rn men t an d
s u ch law ma y c on t ai n p rovi si on s for t h e d evolu t i on o f p owers an d
res p on si bi li t i es up on Pan ch ayat s at th e ap p rop ri at e level, s ub ject t o s u ch
con d i ti on s as may b e s p eci fi ed th erei n , wi t h res p ect t o—
(a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice;
(b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as
may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh
Schedule.
2 4 3H. P ow ers to i m pos e ta xes by , a nd F unds of , the Pa nchaya ts .—Th e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e ma y, b y la w,—
(a) authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and
fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits;
(b) assign to a Panchayat such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the
State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits;
(c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated
Fund of the State; and
(d) provide for constitution of such Funds for crediting all moneys received,
respectively, by or on behalf of the Panchayats and also for the withdrawal of such
moneys therefrom,
as may b e s p eci fi ed i n t h e law.
2 4 3 -I . Cons ti tuti on of Fi nance Com m i ss i on to revi ew f i na ncial
pos i ti on.—(1 ) Th e G overn or of a St at e sh all, as s oon as may b e wi t h in on e
yea r fr om t h e commen cemen t of t h e Con s t it u ti on (Seven t y-t h i rd
Amen d ment ) Act , 1 99 2 , an d th ereaft er at t h e ex p i rat i on of e ver y fi ft h year,
con s t it u t e a Fi n an ce Commis sion t o revi ew t h e fi n an ci al p os it i on of t h e
Pan ch ayat s an d t o make recommen d ati on s t o t h e G overn or as t o—
(a) the principles which should govern—
(i) the distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the net proceeds of
the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State, which may be divided between
them under this Part and the allocation between the Panchayats at all levels of their
respective shares of such proceeds;
93 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(ii) the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees which may be assigned
to, or appropriated by, the Panchayats;
(iii) the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the
State;
(b) the measures needed to improve the financial position of the Panchayats;
(c) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the
interests of sound finance of the Panchayats.
(2 ) Th e Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y la w, p rovi d e for t h e comp os i ti on
o f t h e Commi s s i on , th e q u ali fi cat i on s wh i ch s h all b e req u is it e fo r
ap p oi nt ment as memb ers th ereof an d th e man n er in wh i ch t h ey s h all b e
s elect ed .
(3 ) Th e Commis si on s h all d et ermi n e t h ei r p roced u re an d sh all h ave s u ch
p owers i n th e p erforman ce o f t h ei r fu n ct i ons as t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St ate
may, b y law, con fer on t h em.
(4 ) Th e G overn or s h all cau s e ever y recommen d at i on mad e b y t h e
Commi s s i on un d er t h is arti cle toget h er wi t h an exp lan at ory me moran d u m
as t o t h e act i on t aken th ereon t o b e lai d b efore t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
2 4 3J . Audi t of a ccounts of Pa ncha ya ts .—Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e
may, b y law, ma ke p rovi s i on s w i t h resp ect t o t h e main t en an ce of acc ou n t s
b y t h e Pan ch ayat s and th e aud i tin g of s u ch accou n ts .
2 4 3K. El ecti ons to the P a ncha ya ts .—(1 ) Th e s up erin t end ence, di rect i on
an d cont rol o f t h e p rep arati on of e lect oral r ol ls for, an d t h e cond u ct of, al l
elect i on s t o th e Pan ch ayat s s h all b e ves t ed in a St at e Elect i on Commi s s i on
con s i st i n g of a St at e Elect i on Commi s s i on er t o b e ap p oin ted b y t h e
G overn or.
(2 ) Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of an y law mad e b y t h e Le gi s lat u re of a
St at e, t h e cond i ti on s of s ervi ce an d t enu re of o ffi ce o f t h e St at e Elect i on
Commi s s i on er s h all b e su ch as th e G overn or may b y ru le d et ermi n e:
Provi d ed t h at th e St at e Elect i on Commi s s i on er s h all n ot b e removed
fr om h i s offi ce ex cep t i n li ke man n er and on t h e li ke grou n d s as a J u d ge of
a Hi gh Cou rt and t h e cond it i on s of s ervi ce of t h e St ate Elect i on
Commi s s i on er s h all n ot b e vari ed t o h i s di s ad van t age aft er h i s
ap p oi nt ment .
(3 ) Th e G overn or o f a St at e s h all, wh en s o req u es t ed b y t h e St at e
Elect i on Commi s s i on , make av ai lab le t o t h e St at e E lect i on Commi s s i on
s u ch s t aff as ma y b e n eces s ary for t h e d is ch arge of t h e fu n ct i ons con ferred
on t h e Stat e Elect i on Commi ss i on b y clau s e (1 ).
(4 ) Sub j ect t o th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Cons t it ut i on , t h e Legi s lat u re of a
St at e may, b y la w, make p rovi s i on wi th resp ect t o all mat t ers relat i n g t o,
or i n con n ecti on wi th , elect i ons t o t h e Pan ch ayat s .
2 4 3L. Appl i ca ti on to Uni on t erri tori es .—Th e p rovi s i ons of t h is Part
s h all ap p ly t o t h e Un i on t erri tori es an d s h all, i n t h ei r app li cat i on t o a
Un i on t errit ory, h ave e ffect as if t h e referen ces t o t h e G overn or of a St at e
94 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

were re feren ces t o t h e Ad mi ni st rat or o f t h e Un i on t errit ory ap p oi n t ed u nd er


art i cle 2 39 an d referen ces t o t h e Le gi s lat u re or t h e legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
a St at e were referen ces , i n relat i on t o a Un i on t errit ory h avi n g a
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly, t o t h at Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly:
Provi d ed th at t h e Pres id ent may, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , d i rect t h at th e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part s h all app l y t o an y Un i on t erri t ory or p art t h ereof
s u bj ect t o su ch ex cept i on s an d mod i fi cat i on s as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e
n ot i fi cat i on .
2 4 3M . P a rt not to a ppl y to certa i n a rea s .—(1 ) Not h in g i n th i s Part
s h all ap p ly t o t h e Sch edu led Areas referred t o i n clau s e (1 ), and t h e t rib al
areas referred t o i n clau s e (2 ), of art i cle 2 4 4 .
(2 ) Not h i n g in th is Part s h all app l y t o—
(a) the States of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram;
(b) the hill areas in the State of Manipur for which District Councils exist under any
law for the time being in force.
(3 ) Not h i n g in th is Part —
(a) relating to Panchayats at the district level shall apply to the hill areas of the
District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill
Council exists under any law for the time being in force;
(b) shall be construed to affect the functions and powers of the Darjeeling Gorkha
Hill Council constituted under such law.
(3 A) Not h i n g i n art i cle 2 4 3 D, relat i n g t o res ervat i on o f s eat s for t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es , sh all ap p ly t o t h e St at e of Aru n ach al Prad esh .
(4 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g i n t h is Con st i tu ti on , —
(a) the Legislature of a State referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause (2) may, by law,
extend this part to that State, except the areas, if any, referred to in clause (1), if the
Legislative Assembly of that State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the
total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the
members of that House present and voting;
(b) Parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas
and the tribal areas referred to in clause (1) subject to such exceptions and modifications
as may be specified in such law, and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of
this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.
2 4 3 N. Conti nua nce of exi s ti ng l aw s a nd Pa nchay a ts .—Not wi t hs t and in g
an yt h i n g i n th i s Part, an y p rovi s i on of an y law relat i n g t o Pan ch ayat s i n
force i n a St at e i mmedi at ely b efore t h e commen cement of t h e Con s t it u ti on
(Seven t y-t h i rd Amen d ment ) Act , 1 99 2 , wh i ch i s in con s is t en t wi t h t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part , s h all con t i nu e t o b e i n force u n t i l amen d ed or
rep ealed b y a comp et en t Legi s l at u re or ot h er comp et ent aut h ori t y or u n t i l
t h e ex p i rat i on of on e year from s u ch commen cement , whi ch ever i s earli er:
Provi d ed t h at all t h e Pan ch ayat s ex i s t in g i mmed i at ely b efore s u ch
commen cemen t sh all con t i n u e ti ll t h e ex p i rat i on of t h ei r d u rati on , u n les s
s oon er d i ss olved b y a res olu t i on p as s ed t o th at effect b y t h e Le gi s lat i ve
95 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

As s emb ly o f t h at St at e or, i n t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a Le gi s lat i ve


Cou n ci l, b y each Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re of t h at St at e.
2 4 3 -O. Ba r to i nterf erence by courts i n el ectoral ma tters .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on ,—
(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the
allotment of seats to such constituencies, made or purporting to be made under article
243K, shall not be called in question in any court;
(b) no election to any Panchayat shall be called in question except by an election
petition presented to such authority and in such manner as is provided for by or under any
law made by the Legislature of a State.

P ART I XA
96 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IXA
THE MU N IC IPA LIT IES
2 4 3P . Defi ni ti ons .—In t h i s Part , u n les s t h e con t ex t ot h erwi s e
req u i res ,—
(a ) “Commi t t ee” means a Commi t t ee cons t it ut ed u nd er arti cle 2 43 S;
(b ) “d i s t ri ct ” mean s a d is t ri ct in a St at e;
(c) “Met rop o li t an area” means an area h avin g a p op u lat i on of t en
lakh s or m ore, c omp ri s ed in on e or m ore d i s t ri cts an d cons i st ing o f t w o
or more Mu n i cip ali t i es or P an ch ayat s or ot h er con t i gu ou s areas ,
s p eci fi ed b y t h e G overn or b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on t o b e a Met rop oli t an
area fo r t h e pu rp os es of t h is Part ;
(d ) “Mu n i ci p al area” means th e t erri t ori al area of a Mun i cip ali ty as
i s n oti fi ed b y t h e G overn or;
(e) “Mu n i cip ali t y” mean s an in st i tu ti on of s elf-go vern men t
con s t it u t ed u nd er art i cle 24 3 Q;
(f ) “Pan ch ayat ” mean s a Pan ch ayat con s t i t u t ed u nd er art i cle 24 3B;
(g ) “p op u lat i on ” mean s t h e p op u lat i on as as cert ai n ed at t h e las t
p reced in g cen su s of wh i ch th e relevan t fi gu res h ave b een pu b lis hed .
2 4 3Q. Cons ti tuti on of M uni cipa l i ti es .—(1 ) Th ere s h all b e con s ti tu t ed
i n every St at e,—
(a ) a Nagar Pan ch ayat (b y wh at ever n ame called ) for a t ran s it ion al
area, t h at is t o s ay, an area i n tran s it i on from a ru ral area t o a n u rb an
area;
(b ) a Mun i ci p al Cou n ci l for a s maller u rb an area; an d
(c) a Mu ni cip al Corp orat i on for a larger u rb an area,
i n accord an ce wi t h t h e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part :
Provi d ed th at a Mun i ci p ali t y u nd er th is clau s e may n ot b e cons ti t ut ed i n
s u ch u rb an area or p art t h ereof as t h e G overn or may, h avi n g re gard t o t h e
s i ze of t h e area an d t h e mun i cip al s ervi ces b ein g p rovi d ed or p rop os ed t o
b e p rovi d ed b y an i nd us t ri al es t ab lis h men t i n t h at area and s u ch ot h er
fact ors as h e ma y d eem fi t , b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , s p eci fy t o b e an
i n du st ri al t own s hi p .
(2 ) In t h i s art i cle, “a t ran s i t i on al area”, “a s mal ler u rb an area” or “a
larger u rb an area” mean s s u ch area as t h e G overn or ma y, h avi n g regard t o
t h e p op u lat i on of t h e area, t he d ens it y o f t h e p opu lat i on th erei n , th e
reven u e gen erat ed for l ocal ad mi n is t rat i on , th e p ercent age o f emp lo ymen t
i n n on -agri cu lt u ral act i vi t i es , t h e econ omi c i mp ort an ce or su ch oth er
fact ors as h e may d eem fi t , s p eci fy b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on for t h e pu rp os es
o f t h i s Part .
2 4 3 R. Com pos i ti on of M uni ci pa l i ti es .—(1 ) Save as p rovi d ed in clau se
(2 ), all t h e s eats in a Mu n i ci pali t y s h all b e fi l led b y p ers on s ch os en b y
d i rect elect i on from t h e t errit orial con s t i tu en ci es in t h e Mun i cipal area an d

96
97 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

for t h i s p u rp os e each Mun i cipal area s h all b e d i vi d ed in t o t erri t ori al


con s t it u en ci es t o b e kn own as ward s .
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, p rovi d e—
(a ) for t h e rep res ent at i on i n a Mu n i ci p ali t y o f—
(i ) p ers on s h avin g s p eci al kn ow led ge or ex p eri en ce in
Mu ni ci p al admi ni st rat i on ;
(i i ) t h e memb ers of t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le an d t h e memb ers of
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e rep res en ti n g cons t it u enci es
wh i ch comp ri s e wh oll y or p art l y t h e Mu ni cip al area;
(i i i ) th e memb ers of t h e Cou n cil o f St at es an d th e memb ers of
t h e Legi s lat i ve Cou n ci l of t h e St at e regi st ered as elect ors wi th i n
t h e Mu ni ci p al area;
(i v) t h e Ch ai rp ers ons of t h e Commi t t ees con st it ut ed un d er
clau s e (5 ) of art i cle 2 4 3 S:
Provi d ed t h at th e p ers ons referr ed t o i n p aragrap h (i ) sh all n ot h ave t h e
ri gh t t o vot e i n t h e meet in gs of t h e Mun i ci p ali t y;
(b ) t h e man n er of elect i on of t h e Ch ai rp ers on of a Mu n i ci p ali t y.
2 4 3 S. Cons ti tuti on a nd c om pos i ti on of Wa rds Com m i ttees, etc.—(1 )
Th ere s h all b e con s ti tu t ed Ward s Commit t ees, con s is ti n g of o n e or more
ward s , wi t hi n t h e t erri t ori al area o f a Mu n i cip ali t y h avi n g a p op u lat i on of
t h ree lakh s or more.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, ma ke p ro vi s i on wi t h res p ect
t o—
(a ) t h e comp osi t i on and th e t erri t ori al area of a Ward s Commi t t ee;
(b ) th e man n er in wh i ch t he s eat s i n a Ward s Commit t ee s h all b e
fi l led .
(3 ) A memb er of a Mu ni ci pali t y rep res en t i n g a ward wit h in th e
t erri t ori al area of t h e Ward s Commi t t ee sh all b e a member of t h at
Commi t t ee.
(4 ) Wh ere a Wards Commi tt ee con s i st s of—
(a ) on e ward, th e memb er rep res en t in g th at ward in t h e
Mu ni ci p alit y; or
(b ) t wo or more ward s , on e of t h e memb ers rep res en t in g s uch ward s
i n th e Mu ni ci p alit y elect ed b y t h e memb ers of t h e Wards Commi tt ee,
s h all b e t h e Ch ai rp ers on of t h at Commi t t ee.
(5 ) Not h i n g i n t hi s art i cle sh all b e d eemed t o p reven t t h e Legi s lat u re of
a St at e from maki n g an y p rovi s i on for t h e con st i tu ti on of Com mi t t ees in
ad d it i on t o t h e Wards Commit t ees .
2 4 3T. Res erva ti on of s ea ts .—(1 ) Seat s sh all b e res erved for t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es and th e Sch edu led Tri b es i n every Mu n i cip ali t y an d t h e
n u mb er of s eat s s o res erved sh all b ear, as n early as may b e, t h e s ame
p rop ort i on t o t h e t ot al n u mb er o f s eat s t o b e fi l led b y d i rect elect i on i n
98 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h at Mun i cip ali t y as t h e p opu lat i on of t h e Sch edu led Cast es in th e


Mu ni ci p al area or of t h e Sch edu led Tri b es in t h e Mun i ci p al area b ears t o
t h e t ot al p opu lat i on of t h at area an d s u ch s eat s may b e all ot t ed b y rot at i on
t o d i fferen t con s t i tu en ci es i n a Mu ni ci p alit y.
(2 ) Not les s th an on e-t h i rd of t h e t ot al nu mb er of s eat s res erved un d er
clau s e (1 ) s h all b e res erved for women b elon gi n g t o th e Sch edu led Cast es
or, as t h e cas e may b e, t h e Sch ed u led Tri b es .
(3 ) Not les s t h an on e-t h i rd (in clu d i n g t h e n umb er of s eat s res erved for
women b elon gi n g t o t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es and t h e Sch ed u led Trib es ) of t h e
t ot al n u mb er of s eat s t o b e fi lle d b y d i rect elect i on in every M u n i ci p ali t y
s h all b e res erved for women an d s u ch s eat s may b e all ot t ed b y rot at i on t o
d i fferen t con s t i tu en ci es i n a Mun i cip ali t y.
(4 ) Th e o ffi ces o f Ch ai rp ers on s i n t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es s h all b e res erved
for t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es, th e Sch ed u led Tri b es and women i n s uch mann er
as t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y la w, p rovi d e.
(5 ) Th e res ervat i on o f s eat s u n der clau s es (1 ) an d (2 ) and t h e res ervat i on
o f o ffi ces o f Ch ai rp ers ons (ot her t h an th e res ervat i on for w o men ) u nd er
clau s e (4 ) s h all ceas e t o h ave effect on t h e ex pi rati on of t h e p eri od
s p eci fi ed i n art i cle 3 34 .
(6 ) Not h i n g i n th is Part s h all p reven t t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e from
maki n g an y p rovi s i on for res ervat i on o f s eat s i n an y Mu n i ci p ali t y or
o ffi ces of Ch ai rp ers on s i n t h e Mu ni ci p alit i es i n favou r o f b ac kward clas s
o f ci t i zens .
2 4 3 U. Dura ti on of M uni ci pa li ties , etc.—(1 ) Ever y Mu n i cip ali t y, u n less
s oon er d is s olved u nd er an y law for t h e ti me b ein g i n force, s h all con t i n u e
for fi ve years from t h e d at e ap poi n t ed for i t s fi rs t meet in g an d no lon ger:
Provi d ed t h at a Mu ni cip ali t y s h all b e gi ven a reas on ab le op p or t u ni t y o f
b ei n g h eard b efore i t s d is s olu t i on .
(2 ) No amen d men t of an y law for t h e t i me b ein g i n force s h al l h ave t h e
effect o f cau s i n g d is s olu t i on o f a Mu n i ci p ali t y at an y leve l, wh i ch is
fu n ct i on in g i mmed i at ely b efore s u ch amend ment , t i ll t h e exp i rat i on of i t s
d u rati on sp eci fi ed in clau s e (1 ).
(3 ) An elect i on t o con st it u t e a Mu n i ci p ali t y s h all b e comp let ed ,—
(a ) b efore t h e exp i ry o f i t s d u rati on s p eci fi ed in clau s e (1 );
(b ) b efore t h e ex p i rat i on of a p eri od of s i x mon t h s from t h e d at e of
i t s d is s olu t i on :
Provi d ed t h at wh ere th e remain der o f t h e p eri od for wh i ch t h e di s s olved
Mu ni ci p alit y wou ld h ave con t inu ed i s les s t h an si x mon th s , i t sh all n ot b e
n eces s ary t o h old an y elect i on un d er th is clau s e for con s t i t ut in g t he
Mu ni ci p alit y for s u ch p eri od .
(4 ) A Mun i ci p ali t y con s t it ut ed u p on t h e di s s olu ti on of a Mu nici p ali t y
b efore t h e ex p i rat i on of i t s du rat i on s h all con t i nu e on l y for t h e remai n d er
99 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f t h e p eri od for wh i ch th e d iss olved Mu n i ci p ali t y wou ld h ave con t in u ed


u n d er clau s e (1 ) h ad i t n ot b een s o d i ss olved .
2 4 3 V. Di s qua lif i ca ti ons f or m em bers hi p.—(1 ) A p ers on s h all b e
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ei n g ch os en as , an d for b ei n g, a memb er of a
Mu ni ci p alit y—
(a ) i f h e is s o d i sq u ali fi ed b y or u nd er an y law for t h e t i me b eing i n
force for t h e p u rp os es of ele ct i on s t o t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e
con cern ed :
Provi d ed t h at n o p ers on s h all be d i sq u ali fi ed on t h e grou n d t hat h e i s
les s t h an t wen t y-fi ve years o f a ge, i f h e h as at t ai n ed th e age o f t wen t y-on e
yea rs ;
(b ) i f h e i s s o di sq u ali fi ed by or u n d er an y law mad e b y t he
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
(2 ) If an y q u es t i on ari s es as t o wh et h er a memb er of a Mu n i ci pali t y h as
b ecome s ub j ect t o an y o f t h e di sq u ali fi cat i on s ment i on ed i n claus e (1 ), t h e
q u est i on sh all b e refe rred for t h e d ecis i on of s u ch au t h orit y a n d in s u ch
man n er as th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, p rovi d e.
2 4 3W. P ow ers , a uthori ty a nd res pons i bi li ti es of M uni ci pal i ti es , etc.—
Su b j ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Con st it u ti on , th e Legi s lat u re of a St at e
may, b y law, en d ow—
(a ) th e Mu ni cip ali t i es wi th s u ch p owers an d aut h ori t y as may b e
n eces s ary t o en ab le t h em t o fu nct i on as in st it u ti on s of s el f-g ov ern men t
an d s u ch law may con t ai n p rovi s i on s for t h e d evolu t i on of p owers and
res p on si bi li t i es u p on Mu ni ci pali t i es , s ub j ect t o s u ch con d it i on s as may
b e sp eci fi ed th erein , wi th resp ect t o—
(i ) t h e p rep arat i on of p lan s for econ omi c d evelop men t an d
s oci al j u st i ce;
(i i ) t h e p erforman ce o f fu n ct ion s an d th e i mp lement at i on of
s ch emes as may b e en t rus t ed t o t h em in clu di n g th os e i n relat i on t o
t h e mat t ers lis t ed i n t he Twel ft h Sch edu le;
(b ) t h e Commi t t ees wi th su ch p owers an d au t h orit y as may b e
n eces s ary t o en ab le t h em t o carr y ou t t h e resp on s ib i li ti es con ferred
u p on th em i n clud in g t h os e i n relat i on t o t h e mat t ers li st ed i n th e
Twel ft h Sch ed u le.
2 4 3 X. P ow er to i m pos e ta xes by , a nd F unds of, the M uni ci pal i ti es .—
Th e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e may, b y la w,—
(a ) aut h ori s e a Mu ni cip ali t y t o lev y, co llect an d app rop ri at e s u ch
t ax es , du t i es , t olls an d fees in accord an ce wit h s u ch p roced u re an d
s u bj ect t o s u ch li mit s ;
(b ) as si gn t o a Mu ni cip ali t y s u ch t ax es , du ti es , t olls an d fees levi ed
an d collect ed b y t h e St at e G overn men t for s u ch p u rp os es and sub j ect t o
s u ch con d it i ons and li mit s ;
100 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(c) p rovi d e for maki n g s u ch gran t s -i n -ai d t o t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es fr om


t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e St at e; an d
(d ) p rovi d e for con s t i tu t i on of s u ch Fu n d s for cred i t i n g all mo n eys
recei ved , res p ect i vel y, b y or on b eh alf o f t h e Mu n i cip ali t i es and als o fo r
t h e wi th d rawal of s u ch mon eys t h erefrom,
as may b e s p eci fi ed i n t h e law.
2 4 3 Y. F i na nce Com mi ss i on.—(1 ) Th e Fi n an ce Commi s si on con s ti tu t ed
u n d er arti cle 2 4 3 -I s h al l a ls o revi ew t h e fi n an ci al p os i tion o f t h e
Mu ni ci p alit i es and make recommen d at i on s t o t h e G overn or as to—
(a ) t h e p rin cip les wh i ch sh ou ld go vern —
(i ) t h e d is t ri bu t i on b et ween th e St at e and t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es of
t h e n et p roceed s of t h e t ax es , du t i es , t olls an d fees levi ab le b y t h e
St at e, wh i ch may b e d i vid ed b etween t h em u nd er th i s Part and th e
all ocat i on b et ween t h e Mun ici p ali t i es at all le vels o f t h ei r
res p ecti ve s h ares of s u ch p roceed s ;
(i i ) th e d et ermi n at i on of t h e t axes , du ti es , t olls an d fees wh i ch
may b e as s i gn ed t o, or ap p rop ri at ed b y, t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es ;
(i i i ) t h e grant s -i n -ai d t o th e Mun i ci p ali ti es from t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e St at e;
(b ) t h e meas u res n eed ed t o i mp rove t h e fi n an ci al p os it i on of t h e
Mu ni ci p alit i es ;
(c) an y ot h er mat t er referred t o t h e Fi n an ce Commis si on b y t h e
G overn or i n t h e i nt erest s of s ou n d fi n an ce of t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es .
(2 ) Th e G overn or s h all cau s e ever y recommen d at i on mad e b y t h e
Commi s s i on un d er t h is arti cle toget h er wi t h an exp lan at ory me moran d u m
as t o t h e act i on t aken th ereon t o b e lai d b efore t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
2 4 3 Z. Audi t of a ccounts of M uni ci pal i ti es .—Th e Legi s lat u re of a St at e
may, b y law, ma ke p rovi s i on s w i t h resp ect t o t h e main t en an ce of acc ou n t s
b y t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es and th e aud i ti n g of s u ch accou nt s .
2 4 3 ZA. El ecti ons to the M uni ci pal i ti es .—(1 ) Th e s up erin ten d en ce,
d i recti on and con t rol o f t h e p rep arat i on of elect ora l r ol ls fo r, an d th e
con d u ct of, all e lect i on s t o t h e Mu ni ci p alit i es s h all b e ves t ed in t h e St at e
Elect i on Commi s s i on referred t o i n arti cle 2 43 K.
(2 ) Sub j ect t o th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Cons t it ut i on , t h e Legi s lat u re of a
St at e may, b y la w, make p rovi s i on wi th resp ect t o all mat t ers relat i n g t o,
or i n con n ecti on wi th , elect i ons t o t h e Mu ni ci p alit i es.
2 4 3 ZB . Appl i ca ti on to Uni on t erri tori es .—Th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Part
s h all ap p ly t o t h e Un i on t erri tori es an d s h all, i n t h ei r app li cat i on t o a
Un i on t errit ory, h ave e ffect as if t h e referen ces t o t h e G overn or of a St at e
were re feren ces t o t h e Ad mi ni st rat or o f t h e Un i on t errit ory ap p oi n t ed u nd er
art i cle 23 9 and referen ces t o the Legi s lat u re or t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y
o f a St at e were referen ces i n relat i on t o a Un i on t erri t ory h avi n g a
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly, t o t h at Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly:
101 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed t h at th e Presi d en t may, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cati on , di rect th at th e


p rovi s i on s of t hi s Part s h all ap pl y t o an y Un i on t erri t ory or p art th ereof
s u bj ect t o su ch ex cep ti on s an d mod i fi cat i on s as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e
n ot i fi cat i on .
2 4 3 ZC. P art not to a ppl y to certa i n a rea s.—(1 ) Not hi n g in th i s Part
s h all ap p ly t o t h e Sch edu led Areas referred t o i n clau s e (1 ), and t h e t rib al
areas referred t o i n clau s e (2 ), of art i cle 2 4 4 .
(2 ) Not h i n g in th i s Part sh all b e con s t ru ed t o affect t h e fu n ct ion s an d
p owers o f t h e Darj eeli n g G ork h a Hi ll Cou n ci l con s t i t ut ed u nder an y law
for t h e ti me b ein g i n force for t h e hi ll areas of t h e di s t ri ct of Darj eeli n g i n
t h e St at e of Wes t Ben gal.
(3 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in th i s Con s ti tu t i on, Parli ament may, b y
law, ex t en d th e p rovi s i ons of t h is Part t o t h e Sch edu led Areas an d t h e
t ri b al areas referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) su bj ect t o su ch ex cep t i ons an d
mod i fi cat i on s as may b e s p eci fi ed i n s u ch law, an d n o s u ch law s h all b e
d eemed t o b e an amend ment of t h i s Cons ti tu t i on for t h e pu rp os es of art i cle
3 6 8.
2 4 3 ZD. Com m i ttee f or dis tri ct pl a nni ng .—(1 ) Th ere sh all b e
con s t it u t ed i n every St at e at t h e d i st ri ct level a Di s t ri ct Plan n i n g
Commi t t ee t o con s oli d at e t h e p lan s p rep ared b y t h e Pan ch ayat s an d th e
Mu ni ci p alit i es i n t h e d is t ri ct and t o p rep are a d raft d evelop men t p lan for
t h e d i st ri ct as a wh ole.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, ma ke p ro vi s i on wi t h res p ect
t o—
(a ) t h e comp os i ti on of t h e Di s t rict Plan n in g Commi t t ees ;
(b ) t h e mann er in wh i ch th e s eats i n s u ch Commit t ees sh all b e fi l led :
Provi d ed th at n ot les s t han fou r -fi ft h s of t h e t ot al n u mb er of
memb ers of s u ch Commi t t ee sh all b e elect ed b y, an d from amon gs t , th e
elect ed memb ers of t h e Pan chayat at t h e d is t ri ct level an d of t h e
Mu ni ci p alit i es in th e d is t ri ct in p rop ort i on t o t h e rat i o b et ween t h e
p op u lat i on of t h e ru ral areas an d of t h e u rb an areas in th e di s t ri ct ;
(c) t h e fu n ct i on s relat i n g t o d i s tri ct p lan ni n g wh i ch may b e as s i gn ed
t o s u ch Commi tt ees ;
(d ) th e man n er i n whi ch t h e Chai rp ers ons of s u ch Commi t t ees s h all
b e ch os en .
(3 ) Ever y Di s t ri ct Plan ni n g Commi t t ee s h all, in p rep arin g th e d raft
d evelop men t p lan ,—
(a ) h ave regard t o—
(i ) mat t ers of c ommon i n t erest b et ween th e Pan ch ayat s an d t h e
Mu ni ci p alit i es in clu d in g sp ati al p lan n in g, s h ari n g of wat er an d
ot h er p h ys i cal an d n atu ral res ou rces , t h e in t egrat ed d evelop men t o f
i n fras t ru ctu re and en vi ron men t al con s ervat i on ;
102 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i i ) t h e ex t en t and t yp e o f avai la b le res ou rces wh et h er fi n an ci al


or ot h erwi s e;
(b ) con s u lt s u ch in st i tu ti on s an d organ i s at i ons as t h e G overn or
may, b y ord er, s p eci fy.
(4 ) Th e Ch ai rp ers on of e ver y Di s t ri ct Plan n i n g Commi t t ee sh all forward
t h e d evelop men t p lan , as recommen d ed b y s u ch Commit tee, t o t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e.
2 4 3 ZE. Comm i ttee f or M etropol i ta n pl a nni ng .—(1 ) Th ere s h all b e
con s t it u t ed i n every Met rop oli t a n area a Met rop o li t an Plan n i n g Commi t t ee
t o p rep are a d raft d evelop men t plan for t h e Met rop oli t an area as a wh ole.
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may, b y law, ma ke p ro vi s i on wi t h res p ect
t o—
(a ) t h e comp os i ti on of t h e Met rop oli t an Plan ni n g Commi tt ees ;
(b ) t h e mann er in wh i ch th e s eats i n s u ch Commit t ees sh all b e fi l led :
Provi d ed t h at n ot les s th an t wo-t h i rds of t h e memb ers o f s u ch Commi t t ee
s h all b e elect ed b y, an d fro m amon gs t , th e elect ed memb ers of t h e
Mu ni ci p alit i es and Ch ai rp ers ons of t h e Pan ch ayat s i n t h e Met ropoli t an area
i n p rop orti on t o t h e rat i o b et ween t h e p op u lati on of t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es and
o f t h e Pan ch ayat s i n th at area;
(c) t h e rep res ent at i on in s u ch Commi t t ees of t h e G overn me n t of
In d i a an d th e G overn ment of t h e St at e and of s u ch organ i s at ion s an d
In s t i tu t i ons as may b e d eemed n eces s ary for carr yi n g ou t t h e fu n cti ons
as s i gn ed t o su ch Commi t t ees ;
(d ) th e fu n cti on s relati n g t o p lan n in g and coord i n at i on for t h e
Met rop oli t an area wh i ch may b e as s i gn ed t o su ch Commi t t ees ;
(e) t h e man n er i n wh i ch t h e Chai rp ers ons of s u ch Commi t t ees sh all
b e ch os en .
(3 ) Ever y Met rop oli t an Plan n i ng Commi t t ee sh all, i n p repari n g t h e d raft
d evelop men t p lan ,—
(a ) h ave regard t o—
(i ) t h e p lans p rep ared b y t h e Mu n i ci p ali ti es an d th e Pan ch ayat s
i n th e Met rop oli t an area;
(i i ) mat t ers of comm on i n t eres t b et ween t h e Mu ni ci p alit i es and
t h e Pan ch ayat s , i n clu di n g co-o rd i n at ed sp ati al p lan n in g of t h e
area, s h arin g o f wat er an d ot h er p h ys i cal an d n atu ral res ou rces , th e
i n t egrat ed d evelop men t of i n fras t ru ctu re and en vi ron ment al
con s ervat i on ;
(i i i ) t h e overall ob j ect i ves an d p ri ori ti es s et b y t h e
G overn men t of In d i a an d t h e G overn men t of t h e St at e;
(i v) t h e ext ent an d n at u re of i n ves t men ts li kel y t o b e mad e i n
t h e Met rop oli t an area b y agen ci es of t h e G overn men t of In d i a an d
103 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f t h e G overn ment of t h e St at e and ot h er avai lab le res ou rces


wh et h er fi n an ci al or ot h erwi s e;
(b ) con s u lt su ch i ns t it ut i on s an d organ i s at i on s as t h e G overn or
may, b y ord er, s p eci fy.
(4 ) Th e Ch ai rp ers on of ever y Met rop oli t an Plan ni n g Commit tee s h all
forward t h e d evelop men t p lan , as recommen d ed b y s u ch Commi tt ee, t o t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e.
2 43 ZF . Conti nua nce of exi s ti ng l aw s a nd M uni ci pa l i ti es .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t his Part , an y p r ovi s i on o f an y la w relat i n g t o
Mu ni ci p alit i es i n force i n a St ate i mmedi at ely b efore t h e commen cement of
t h e Con st i tu ti on (Seven t y-fou rt h Amen dmen t ) Act , 1 99 2 , wh i ch i s
i n con si s ten t wit h t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part , sh all con t i n u e t o b e i n force
u n ti l amen d ed or rep ealed b y a comp et en t Legi s lat u re or ot h er comp et en t
au t h orit y or u n t i l t h e exp i rati on of on e year from s u ch commen cement ,
wh i ch ever i s earli er:
Provi d ed t h at all t h e Mu n i ci p ali t i es exi st i n g i mmed i at ely b efore s u ch
commen cemen t s h all con t in u e t ill t h e exp i rati on of t h ei r d u rati on , un les s
s oon er d i ss olved b y a res olu t i on p as s ed t o th at effect b y t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly o f t h at St at e or, i n t h e cas e of a St at e h avi n g a Le gi s lat i ve
Cou n ci l, b y each Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re of t h at St at e.
2 43 ZG. B a r to i nterf erence by courts i n el ectora l m a tters .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on ,—
(a ) th e vali d i t y of an y la w relat i n g t o th e deli mi t at i on of
con s t it u en ci es or t h e allot men t o f s eat s t o s u ch con st i tu en ci es , mad e or
p u rp orti n g t o b e mad e u n d er art i cle 2 4 3 ZA s h all n ot b e ca lled i n
q u est i on i n an y cou rt ;
(b ) n o elect i on t o an y Mu n i ci p ali t y s h all b e ca lled i n q u est i on
ex cep t b y an e lect i on p et it i on p res ent ed t o s u ch aut h ori t y an d i n s u ch
man n er as is p rovi d ed for b y or u nd er an y law mad e b y t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f a St at e.
104 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART X
THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS
2 44 . Adm i ni s tra ti on of Schedul ed Area s a nd tri ba l a rea s .—(1 ) Th e
p rovi s i on s of t h e Fi ft h Sch ed ule s h all ap p l y t o t h e ad mi n is trat i on and
con t rol o f t h e Sch edu led Areas an d Sch ed u led Tri b es in an y St at e ot h er
t h an t h e St at es of As s am, Megh ala ya, Tri p u ra an d Mi zoram.
(2 ) Th e p rovi s i ons of t h e Si x th Sch ed u le sh all ap p l y t o t h e
ad min i st rat i on of t h e t ri b al areas i n t h e St at es of As s am, Megh ala ya,
Tri p u ra and Mi zoram.
2 44 A. F orma ti on of a n a utonom ous Sta te com pri s i ng certa in tri ba l
a rea s i n Ass am a nd crea ti on of l oca l Leg is l a ture or Counci l of
M i ni s ters or both theref or.—(1 ) Not wi t hs t an di n g an yt h i ng i n t hi s
Con s t it ut i on , Parli ament may, b y la w, form wi t h i n th e St at e of As s am an
au t on omou s St at e comp ris in g (wh et h er wh oll y or i n p art ) al l o r an y o f t h e
t ri b al areas sp eci fi ed i n Part I of t h e t ab le ap p en d ed t o p aragraph 20 of t h e
Si x th Sch ed u le and creat e t h erefor—
(a ) a b od y, wh et h er elect ed or p art ly n omi n at ed and p art ly ele ct ed ,
t o fu n ct i on as a Legi s lat u re for t h e aut on omou s St at e, or
(b ) a Cou n ci l of Mi n i s t ers ,
or b ot h wi t h s u ch con s ti tu t i on, p owers an d fu n ct i on s , in each cas e, as may
b e sp eci fi ed in th e law.
(2 ) An y s u ch law as i s referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) may, i n p art i cu lar,—
(a ) sp eci fy t h e mat t ers enumerat ed in th e St at e Li s t or t h e
Con cu rren t Li s t wi t h resp ect t o wh i ch t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e au ton omou s
St at e sh all h ave p ower t o make laws for t h e wh ole or an y p art t h ereof,
wh et h er t o th e ex clus i on of t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e of As s am or
ot h erwi s e;
(b ) d efi n e t h e mat t ers wi t h respect t o wh i ch th e ex ecu ti ve p ower o f
t h e au t on omou s St at e sh all ex t end ;
(c) p rovi d e th at an y t ax levi ed b y t h e St at e of As s am s hall b e
as s i gn ed t o th e au t on omou s St at e i n s o far as t h e p roceeds th ereo f are
at t rib u t ab le t o t h e au t on omou s St at e;
(d ) p rovi d e t h at an y re feren ce t o a St at e i n an y art i cle o f t h is
Con s t it ut i on s h all b e con st rued as i n clud in g a referen ce t o t h e
au t on omou s St at e; an d
(e) make su ch s up p lemental, i n cid ent al and con s eq u en t i al
p rovi s i on s as may b e d eemed n eces s ary.
(3 ) An amen d men t of an y s u ch law as a fores ai d i n s o far as s u ch
amen d men t relat es t o an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed i n su b -clau s e (a ) or
s u b -clau s e (b ) of clau s e (2 ) s h all h ave n o e ffect u n les s t h e amen d men t i s
p as s ed i n each Hou s e o f Par li amen t b y n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e
memb ers p res en t an d vot in g.

104
105 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) An y s u ch law as i s referred t o i n th i s art i cle s h all n ot b e deemed t o


b e an amen d men t of t h i s Con s t it u ti on for t h e p u rp os es of art i cle 3 6 8
n ot wi t hs t an d in g t h at i t con t ai ns an y p rovi s i on wh i ch amen ds or h as t h e
effect o f amen d i n g t hi s Cons ti tut i on .
106 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P ART XI
RE LA T IONS B ETW EE N TH E U NION A ND THE S TA TES
C H AP T E R I.— L E G I S L AT I V E R E L A T I O N S
Di s t ri bu t io n o f Leg is la t i ve Po wer s
2 45 . Extent of law s m a de by P a rli am ent a nd by the Legi s latures of
Sta tes .—(1 ) Sub j ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on, Parli amen t may
make la ws for t h e wh ole or a n y p art o f t h e t erri t or y o f In d i a, an d t h e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e may ma ke laws for t h e wh ole or an y p art of t h e
St at e.
(2 ) No law mad e b y Par li amen t s h all b e d eemed t o b e in vali d on t h e
grou n d t h at it wou ld h ave ex t ra-t erri t ori al op erat i on .
2 46 . Subject-m a tter of l aws m a de by P a rl ia m ent a nd by the
Leg i sl a tures of Sta tes .— (1 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h i n g i n clau s es (2 ) and
(3 ), Parli amen t h as ex clus i ve power t o make la ws wi t h res p ect t o an y o f
t h e mat t ers en umerat ed in Li s t I i n t h e Seven t h Sch ed u le (i n t h is
Con s t it ut i on referred t o as th e “Un i on Li s t ”).
(2 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in clau s e (3 ), Parli amen t , and , su b j ect t o
clau s e (1 ), t h e Legi s lat u re of an y St at e als o, h ave p ower t o mak e laws wi t h
res p ect t o an y of t h e mat t ers en u merat ed in Li s t III i n t he Seven th
Sch ed u le (in th is Con st i tu ti on referred t o as t h e “Con cu rren t Li s t”).
(3 ) Su bj ect t o clau s es (1 ) and (2 ), t h e Legi s lat u re o f an y S t at e h as
ex clu s i ve p ower t o make laws for s u ch St at e or an y p art t hereo f wi t h
res p ect t o an y of t h e mat t ers enu merat ed in Li s t II i n t h e Sevent h Sch edu le
(i n th is Con st i tu ti on referred t o as t h e “St at e Li s t ” ').
(4 ) Parli ament h as p ower t o make laws wi t h resp ect t o an y mat t er for
an y p art o f t h e t erri t or y o f In d i a n ot i n clu d ed i n a St at e n ot wit h st and in g
t h at s u ch matt er is a matt er enumerat ed in th e St at e Li s t .
2 4 7. P ow er of Pa rli am ent to provi de f or the es ta bl is hm ent of certai n
a ddi ti onal courts .—Not wi th s t an d in g an yt h in g i n th i s Ch ap t er, Parli ament
may b y la w p ro vi d e for t h e es t ab li s h men t of an y ad d i t i on al cou rt s for t h e
b et t er ad min i st rati on of laws m ad e b y Parli amen t or o f an y ex i s ti n g laws
wi t h resp ect t o a mat t er en umerat ed in th e Uni on Li s t .
2 4 8. Res i dua ry pow ers of l egi s la ti on.—(1 ) Parli amen t h as ex clu s i ve
p ower t o make an y law wi t h res p ect t o an y mat t er n ot en u merat ed i n t h e
Con cu rren t Li s t or St at e Li s t .
(2 ) Su ch p ower s h all i n clu d e the p ower of maki n g an y law i mp os i n g a
t ax n ot ment i on ed i n ei th er of t h os e Li s t s .
2 4 9. P ow er of P a rl i am ent to l eg i sl a te w i th res pect to a ma tter i n the
Sta te Lis t i n the na ti ona l i nteres t.—(1 ) Not wi th st and in g an yt h i n g i n t h e
foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s o f t h i s Chap t er, i f t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es h as d eclared
b y res o lu t i on s u pp ort ed b y n ot l es s th an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e members p res ent
an d vot i n g th at it i s n ecess ary or ex p ed i en t in th e n at i on al in t erest t h at

106
107 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Parli amen t sh ou ld make laws wi t h resp ect t o an y mat t er enu merat ed in th e


St at e Li s t s p eci fi ed in th e res ol u t i on , i t sh all b e lawfu l for Parli amen t t o
make laws for t h e wh ole or an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a wi th res p ect t o
t h at mat t er whi le t h e res olu t i on remai n s i n force.
(2 ) A res olu t i on p as sed un d er clau s e (1 ) s h all remai n in force for s u ch
p eri od n ot ex ceedi n g on e year as may b e s p eci fi ed th erei n :
Provi d ed t h at , i f an d s o oft en a s a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g t h e con t i nu an ce
i n force of an y s u ch res olu t i on i s p ass ed i n th e man n er p rovi d ed in claus e
(1 ), s u ch res olu t i on sh all con t i nu e i n force for a fu rt h er p eri od o f on e yea r
fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch u nd er t hi s clau s e i t wou ld ot h erwi s e h ave ceas ed t o
b e in force.
(3 ) A law mad e b y Par li amen t wh i ch Parli ament wou ld n ot b ut for t h e
p as si n g of a res o lu t i on u nd er clau s e (1 ) h ave b een comp et ent t o make
s h all, t o t h e ex t en t of t h e i ncomp et en cy, ceas e t o h ave effect on th e
ex p i rat i on of a p eri od of s i x mon t hs aft er th e res olu t i on h as ceas ed t o b e in
force, ex cep t as res p ects t h in gs d on e or omit t ed t o b e d on e b efore t h e
ex p i rat i on of t h e s ai d p eri od .
2 5 0. P ow er of Pa rl ia ment to l eg i sl a te w i th res pect to a ny ma tter i n
the Sta te Li s t if a P rocl ama ti on of Em erg ency i s i n opera ti on.—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n t h is Ch ap t er, Parli amen t s h all, wh i le a
Proclamat i on o f Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on , have p ower t o mak e laws fo r
t h e wh ole or an y p art o f t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a wi t h resp ect t o an y o f t h e
mat t ers en umerat ed i n t h e St at e Li s t .
(2 ) A law mad e b y Par li amen t wh i ch Parli ament wou ld n ot b ut for t h e
i s su e of a Proclamat i on o f Emer gen cy h ave b een comp et ent t o make s h all,
t o t h e ex t ent of t h e i n comp et en cy, ceas e t o h ave e ffect on t h e ex p i rati on of
a p eri od of s i x mont hs aft er th e Proclamat i on h as ceas ed t o op erat e, ex cept
as resp ect s th in gs d on e or omi t ted t o b e d one b efore t h e ex pi rat i on of t h e
s ai d p eri od .
2 5 1. I ncons i s tency betw een l aw s ma de by P a rl ia m ent under a rti cl es
2 4 9 a nd 25 0 a nd law s m a de by the Leg is la tures of Sta tes .—Not h i n g in
art i cles 2 49 an d 2 50 s h all res t rict t h e p ower o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e t o
make an y la w wh i ch un d er th i s Con s t i tu ti on i t h as p ower t o make, b u t i f
an y p ro vi s i on of a law mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e i s rep u gn ant t o
an y p ro vi s i on of a law mad e b y Parli amen t wh i ch Parli amen t h as u nd er
ei t h er of t h e s ai d art i cles p ower t o make, t h e law mad e b y Parli amen t ,
wh et h er p as s ed b efore or a ft er t h e law mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e
St at e, s h all p revai l, and th e law mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e s h all
t o t h e ext en t of t h e rep u gn an cy, b u t s o lon g on l y as t h e law mad e b y
Parli amen t con ti nu es t o h ave effect , b e i n op erati ve.
2 5 2. P ow er of P a rli am ent to l egi sl a te f or tw o or m ore Sta tes by
cons ent a nd a dopti on of s uch l eg is la ti on by a ny other Sta te.—(1 ) If i t
ap p ears t o t h e Legi s lat u res of t wo or m ore St at es t o b e d esi rable t h at an y
o f t h e matt ers wi th resp ect t o wh i ch Parli amen t h as n o p ower t o make laws
for t h e St at es ex cep t as p rovi d ed in art i cles 2 49 an d 25 0 s h ou ld b e
108 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

regu lat ed i n su ch St at es b y Par li amen t b y law, an d i f res o lu t i on s t o t h at


effect are p as s ed b y al l t h e H o u s es of t h e Le gi s lat u res of t h os e St at es , it
s h all b e law fu l for Parli amen t t o p as s an act for re gu lat i n g t h at mat t er
accord i n gl y, an d an y Act s o p as s ed s h all ap p ly t o s u ch St at es an d t o an y
ot h er St at e b y wh i ch it i s ad op ted aft erward s b y res olu t i on p ass ed i n th at
b eh alf b y t h e Hou s e or, wh ere th ere are t wo Hou s es , b y each of t h e Hou s es
o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h at St ate.
(2 ) An y Act s o p ass ed b y Parli amen t may b e amend ed or rep ealed b y an
Act of Par li amen t p ass ed or ad op t ed i n li ke mann er bu t s h all n ot , as
res p ects an y St at e t o whi ch i t app li es , b e amend ed or rep ealed by an Act o f
t h e Legi s lat u re of t h at St at e.
2 5 3. Leg i sl a ti on f or g i vi ng eff ect to i nterna ti ona l ag reem ents .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n th e foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s of t h is Ch ap t er,
Parli amen t h as p ower t o make an y la w for t h e wh ole or an y p art of t h e
t erri t ory o f In d i a for i mp lemen t i n g an y t reat y, agreemen t or con ven t i on
wi t h an y ot h er cou n t ry or c ou n t ri es or an y d eci s i on mad e at an y
i n t ern at i on al con feren ce, as s ociat i on or ot h er b od y.
2 5 4. I ncons is tency betw een law s ma de by P a rli am ent a nd law s ma de
by the Leg is la tures of Sta tes .—(1 ) If an y p rovi s i on o f a la w mad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e i s repu gn an t t o an y p rovi s i on of a law mad e b y
Parli amen t wh i ch Parli amen t is comp et en t t o en act , or t o an y p rovi s i on o f
an ex is t in g law wi t h res p ect to on e o f t h e mat t ers enu merat ed in t h e
Con cu rren t Li s t , t h en , su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of clau s e (2 ), t h e law mad e
b y Parli amen t , wh et h er p ass ed b efore or a ft er t h e law mad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f s u ch St at e, or, as t h e cas e may b e, t h e ex is t in g law, s h all
p revai l an d t h e law mad e b y t h e Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e s h all, t o t h e ex t ent
o f t h e repu gn an cy, b e voi d .
(2 ) Wh ere a law mad e b y t h e Legi s lat u re of a St at e wi t h resp ect t o on e
o f t h e mat t ers en u merat ed in t h e Con cu rren t Li s t con t ai ns any p ro vi s i on
rep u gn ant t o th e p rovi s i ons of an earli er law mad e b y Par li amen t or an
ex i st in g law wi t h res p ect t o th at mat t er, th en , th e law s o mad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f s u ch St at e sh all, i f i t h as b een res erved for t h e co n s id erati on
o f t h e Pres id ent and h as recei ved hi s ass ent , p revai l i n th at St ate:
Provi d ed t h at n ot h in g i n th i s clau s e sh all p reven t Parli amen t from
en act in g at an y t i me an y law w i t h res p ect t o t h e s ame mat t er in clu d in g a
law ad d i n g t o, amen d i n g, var yi n g or rep eali n g t h e law s o m ad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e.
2 5 5. Requi rem ents as to reco m m enda ti ons a nd previ ous s a ncti ons to
be reg a rded a s ma tters of procedure onl y .—No Act o f Par li a men t or o f
t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e, an d n o p rovi s i on i n an y s u ch Act , s h all b e
i n vali d b y reas on on ly t h at s ome recommen d ati on or p revi ous s an ct i on
req u i red b y t h i s Con s t it ut i on was n ot gi ven , i f as s en t t o t hat Act was
gi ven —
(a ) wh ere t h e recommen d ati on req u i red was th at of t h e G overn or,
ei t h er b y t h e G overn or or b y t h e Pres i d en t ;
109 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) wh ere th e recommen d at i on req u i red was th at of t h e Raj p ramu kh ,


ei t h er b y t h e Raj p ramu kh or b y t h e Pres id ent ;
(c) wh ere t h e recommend ati on or p revi ou s s an ct i on req ui red was
t h at of t h e Presi d en t , b y t h e Presi d ent .
C H AP T E R II.—A D M I N I S T R AT I V E R E L AT I O N S
Gen er a l
2 5 6. Obli ga ti on of Sta tes a nd the Uni on.—Th e ex ecu ti ve p ower o f
ever y St at e s h all b e s o ex erci sed as t o en s u re comp li an ce wi th th e laws
mad e b y Par li amen t and an y ex i s ti n g laws wh i ch ap p ly i n t h at St at e, an d
t h e ex ecut i ve p ower o f t h e U n i on s h all ex t end t o t h e gi vi n g o f s u ch
d i recti on s t o a St at e as may ap p ear t o th e G overn men t of In d i a t o b e
n eces s ary for t h at pu rp os e.
2 5 7. Control of the Uni on o ver Sta tes i n certa i n cas es .—(1 ) Th e
ex ecu ti ve p ower o f e ver y St at e s h all b e s o ex erci s ed as n ot t o i mp ed e or
p rej ud i ce t h e ex ercis e of t h e ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e Un i on , and th e
ex ecu ti ve p ower of t h e Un i on sh all ex t end t o th e gi vin g of s u ch di rect i ons
t o a St at e as may ap p ear t o t h e G overn men t of In d i a t o b e n eces s ary for
t h at p u rp os e.
(2 ) Th e ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e Un i on sh all als o ex t end t o t h e gi vi n g of
d i recti on s t o a St at e as t o t h e con s t ru ct i on an d main t en an ce of mean s of
commu n i cat i on d eclared in th e d i recti on t o b e of n at i on al o r mi li t ary
i mp ort an ce:
Provi d ed t h at n oth i n g i n th is clau s e s h all b e t aken as res t ri ct i n g t he
p ower o f Parli amen t t o d eclare h i gh ways or wat erwa ys t o be n ati on al
h i gh ways o r n at i on al wat erwa ys or t h e p ower o f t h e Un i on wi t h res p ect t o
t h e h i gh ways or wat erwa ys s o d eclared or th e p ower of t h e Un i on t o
con s t ru ct an d mai nt ain means o f commu n i cat i on as p art of i t s fu n ct i on s
wi t h resp ect t o n aval, mi li t ary a n d ai r force w orks .
(3 ) Th e ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e Un i on sh all als o ex t end t o t h e gi vi n g of
d i recti on s t o a St at e as t o t h e meas u res t o b e t aken for t h e p rot ect i on of t h e
rai lwa ys wi t h i n t h e St at e.
(4 ) Wh ere i n carr yi n g ou t an y d i rect i on gi ven t o a St at e u n d er cl au s e (2 )
as t o t h e cons t ru ct i on or main ten an ce of an y mean s o f commu n i cati on or
u n d er claus e (3 ) as t o t h e measu res t o b e t aken for t h e p rot ect i on of an y
rai lwa y, c os t s h ave b een i n cu rred i n ex cess of t h os e wh i ch wou ld h ave
b een i n cu rred i n th e di s ch arge o f t h e n ormal du ti es of t h e St at e i f s u ch
d i recti on h ad n ot b een gi ven , th ere sh all b e p aid b y t h e G overn men t of
In d i a t o t h e St at e su ch s u m as may b e agreed , or, i n d efau lt o f agreemen t ,
as may b e d et ermi n ed b y an ar b i t rat or ap p oi n t ed b y t h e Ch i ef J u s ti ce of
In d i a, i n res p ect of t h e ex t ra cost s s o in cu rred b y t h e St at e.
2 5 7 A. [Ass is ta n ce t o S ta t es b y d epl o yment of a r med f or ces o r o th er
f o r ces o f t h e Un io n .] Rep . b y th e Con st it u ti on (For t y-fo ur th Amen d men t )
Act , 1 97 8 , s . 3 3 (w.e.f . 2 0 -6 -1 9 79 ).
110 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

2 5 8. P ow er of the Uni on to co nf er pow ers , etc., on Sta tes i n certa i n


ca s es .—(1 ) Not wi th st and i n g anyt h i n g i n t hi s Cons ti t ut i on , the Pres id en t
may, wi t h th e con s ent of t h e G overn men t of a St at e, en t ru s t ei th er
con d i ti on all y or u n con d i ti on all y t o t h at G overn men t or t o it s offi cers
fu n ct i on s i n relat i on t o an y m at t er t o whi ch t h e ex ecu t i ve power o f t h e
Un i on ex ten ds .
(2 ) A law mad e b y Parli amen t whi ch ap p li es in an y St at e may,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g t h at it relat es t o a mat t er wi t h res p ect t o wh i ch t he
Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e h as n o p ower t o make laws , con fer p owers an d
i mp os e d ut i es, or aut h ori s e th e con ferri n g o f p owers an d th e i mp os i ti on of
d u ti es , u p on t h e St at e or offi cers and aut h ori ti es t h ereof.
(3 ) Wh ere b y vi rt u e of t h i s art i cle p owers an d d u ti es have b een
con ferred or i mp os ed u p on a Stat e or o ffi cers or au t h ori t i es t hereo f, t h ere
s h all b e p aid b y t h e G overn ment of In d i a t o th e St at e s u ch s u m as may b e
agreed , or, i n d efau lt o f a greem en t , as may b e d et ermi n ed b y an arb i t rat or
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e Chi ef J u st i ce o f In d i a, in res p ect of an y ex t ra cos t s of
ad min i st rat i on in cu rred b y t h e St at e i n con n ect i on wit h t h e ex erci s e of
t h os e p owers an d d ut i es .
2 5 8 A. P ow er of the Sta tes to entrus t f uncti ons to the Uni on.—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n thi s Cons t it ut i on , t h e G overn or o f a St at e
may, wi t h th e con s en t of t h e G overn ment of In d i a, entru s t ei th er
con d i ti on all y or u n con d i ti on all y t o t h at G overn men t or t o it s offi cers
fu n ct i on s i n relat i on t o an y m at t er t o whi ch t h e ex ecu t i ve power o f t h e
St at e ext end s .
2 5 9. [Ar med Fo r ces i n S ta t es in Pa r t B of th e Fi r st S ch edu l e.] Rep . b y
t h e Co n st it ut i on (S even th Amen dmen t ) Act , 19 56 , s. 29 an d S ch.
2 6 0. J uri s di cti on of the Union i n rela ti on to terri tori es outs i de
I ndi a .—Th e G overn men t of In d i a may b y agreemen t wi t h t h e G overn men t
o f an y t erri t or y n ot b ein g p art of t h e t errit ory o f In d i a u ndert ake an y
ex ecu ti ve, legi s lat i ve or j u di cial fu n ct i on s ves t ed in th e G overn men t of
s u ch t errit ory, b u t ever y s u ch agreemen t sh all b e s ub j ect t o, and govern ed
b y, an y la w re lat i n g t o t h e exerci s e of forei gn j u ris d i ct i on for t h e t i me
b ei n g in force.
2 6 1. P ubl i c a cts , records a nd judi ci al proceedi ng s .—(1 ) Fu ll fai t h and
cred i t s h all b e gi ven th rou gh ou t th e t erri t ory o f In d i a t o pu b li c acts ,
record s an d j ud i ci al p roceed in gs of t h e Un i on an d of ever y St at e.
(2 ) Th e mann er in whi ch and t h e con di t i ons u nd er whi ch th e acts ,
record s an d p roceed in gs referre d t o i n claus e (1 ) s h all b e p roved and t h e
effect t h ereof d et ermi n ed s h all be as p rovi d ed b y law mad e b y Pa rli amen t .
(3 ) Fi n al j ud gmen ts or ord ers deli vered or p as s ed b y ci vi l cou rt s i n an y
p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a s h all b e cap ab le o f ex ecu t i on an yw h ere wi t h in
t h at t erri t ory accord i n g t o law.
111 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Di s p ut es r ela t in g t o Wa t er s
2 6 2. Adjudi ca ti on of di s putes rel a ti ng to w a ters of i nter-State ri vers
or ri ver va l l eys .—(1 ) Parli amen t may b y la w p rovi d e for t h e ad j ud i cat i on
o f an y d i s p u t e or comp lai n t wi th res p ect t o t h e u s e, di st rib u ti on or con t ro l
o f t h e wat ers of, or i n , an y i n t er-St at e ri ver or ri ver va l le y.
(2 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h in g in t hi s Cons t it ut i on , Parli amen t may b e
law p ro vi d e t h at n ei th er t h e Su p reme Cou rt n or an y ot h er cou rt s h all
ex erci s e ju ri sd i ct i on i n resp ect of an y s u ch di sp u t e or complai n t as is
referred t o i n clau s e (1 ).
Co -o rd in at io n b et ween St at es
2 6 3. P rovi s i ons w i th res pect to a n i nter-Sta te Counci l .—If at an y t i me
i t ap p ears t o t h e Pres id ent t h at th e p ub li c i n t eres ts wou ld b e s erved b y t h e
es t ab lis h men t of a Cou n ci l ch arged wi th th e du t y o f—
(a ) i n qu i ri n g i nt o an d ad vi si n g u p on di s pu t es wh i ch may h ave a ri s en
b et ween St at es ;
(b ) i n vest i gat in g and di s cu ss i n g s u bj ects in wh i ch s ome or all o f t h e
St at es , or th e Un i on and on e or more o f t h e St at es , h ave a common
i n t eres t ; or
(c) maki n g recommen d at i on s u p on an y s u ch su b j ect and , in
p art i cu lar, recommen d ati on s for t h e b ett er co-ord i n at i on of p ol i cy an d
act i on wi th resp ect t o t h at su b j ect ,
i t s h all b e law fu l for t h e Pres i d en t b y ord er t o es t ab li s h su ch a Cou n ci l,
an d t o d efi n e t h e n atu re of t h e du t i es t o b e p erformed b y i t and it s
organ i s at i on an d p roced u re.
112 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P ART XI I
FIN ANC E, PROPER TY, CON TR ACTS AN D SU ITS
C H AP T E R I.—F I N AN C E
Gen er a l
2 6 4. I nterpreta ti on.—In t hi s Part , “Fi n an ce Commi s si on ” mean s a
Fi n an ce Commi ss i on con st it ut ed u nd er art i cle 28 0.
2 6 5. Ta xes not to be i m pos ed s a ve by a uthori ty of law .—No t ax s h all
b e levi ed or col lect ed ex cept b y au t h orit y o f law.
2 6 6. Cons ol i da ted F unds a nd publ i c a ccounts of I ndi a a nd of the
Sta tes .—(1 ) Sub j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons of art i cle 26 7 an d t o t h e p rovi s i on s
o f t h i s Ch ap t er wi th resp ect t o t h e ass i gn men t of t h e wh ole or p art of t h e
n et p roceed s of cert ai n t ax es and du t i es t o St at es, all reven u es recei ved b y
t h e G overn ment of In d i a, all lo an s rai s ed b y t h at G overn men t b y t h e i s s u e
o f t reas u ry b i lls , l oan s or wa ys an d mean s ad van ces an d all mon e ys
recei ved b y t h at G overn men t i n rep aymen t o f loan s s h all form on e
con s oli d at ed fu nd t o b e ent it led “t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a”, and all
reven u es recei ved b y t h e G over n ment o f a St at e, a ll l oan s rai s ed b y t h at
G overn men t b y t h e i s su e of t reas u ry b i lls , loan s or wa ys an d means
ad van ces and all mon e ys recei ved b y t h at G overn men t in rep aymen t o f
loan s s h all form on e con s oli d at ed fu nd t o b e en ti t led “t h e Con s oli d at ed
Fu n d of t h e St at e”.
(2 ) All ot h er p ub li c mon eys rec ei ved b y or on b eh alf o f t h e G overn men t
o f In d i a or t h e G overn men t of a St at e s h all b e cred i t ed t o t h e pu b li c
accou n t of In d i a or t h e pu b li c accou n t of t h e St at e, as t h e cas e may b e.
(3 ) No mon eys ou t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d ia or t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of a St at e sh all b e ap p rop ri at ed ex cep t in accord an ce
wi t h law and for t h e pu rp oses and i n th e man n er p rovi ded in t hi s
Con s t it ut i on .
2 6 7. Conti ng ency F und.—(1 ) Parli amen t may b y la w es tab li s h a
Con t i n gen cy Fu n d i n t h e n atu re of an i mp res t t o b e en ti t led “t h e
Con t i n gen cy Fu n d o f In d i a” i nt o wh i ch s h all b e p aid from t i me t o t i me
s u ch s u ms as may b e d et ermi n ed b y s u ch law, an d t h e s aid Fu n d sh all b e
p laced at t h e d i sp os al o f t h e Pres i d en t t o en ab le ad van ces t o be mad e b y
h i m out of s u ch Fu nd for t h e pu rp os es of meet in g u n fores een ex p en d it u re
p en di n g au th ori s at i on of s u ch ex p en d it u re b y Parli amen t b y law u n d er
art i cle 1 15 or art i cle 11 6 .
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re of a St at e may b y la w es t ab li sh a Con t in gency Fu n d
i n th e n at u re of an i mp res t t o b e ent i t led “t h e Cont in gen cy Fu n d of t h e
St at e” in t o wh i ch s h all b e p ai d from t i me t o t i me s u ch su ms as may b e
d et ermin ed b y s u ch law, an d t he s ai d Fu n d s h all b e p laced at t h e d i sp os al
o f t h e G overn or o f t h e St at e t o en ab le ad van ces t o b e mad e b y h i m ou t of
s u ch Fu nd for t h e p u rp os es of meet i n g un fores een ex p en di ture p en di n g

112
113 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

au t h oris at i on of s u ch ex p en di ture b y t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e Stat e b y la w


u n d er art i cle 20 5 or arti cle 2 06 .
Di s t ri bu t io n o f Reven u es b et ween th e Un io n a nd th e St at es
2 6 8. Duti es l evi ed by the Uni on but col l ected a nd a ppropri a ted by the
Sta tes .—(1 ) Su ch s t amp d ut i es an d s u ch d ut i es of ex ci s e on med i cin al and
t oi let p rep arat i ons as are men t ion ed i n th e Un i on Li s t s h all b e levi ed b y
t h e G overn men t of In d i a b ut sh all b e co llect ed —
(a ) i n th e cas e wh ere s u ch dut i es are levi ab le wi t h i n an y U n i on
t erri t ory, b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a, and
(b ) in ot h er cas es , b y t h e Stat es wit h in whi ch su ch d ut i es are
res p ecti vel y le vi ab le.
(2 ) Th e p roceed s i n an y fi n an cial yea r o f an y s u ch d u t y le vi ab l e wi t h i n
an y St at e s h all n ot form p art of t h e Con s oli d ated Fu n d of In d i a, b u t s h all
b e as si gn ed t o t h at St at e.
2 6 9. Ta xes l evi ed a nd col l ected by the Uni on but a s s ig ned to the
Sta tes .—(1 ) Tax es on t h e s ale or p u rch as e o f g o od s an d t ax es on t h e
con s i gn ment of g ood s s h all b e l evi ed an d collect ed b y t h e G ov ern men t of
In d i a b ut s h all b e as si gn ed an d s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een as s i gn ed t o
t h e St at es on or a ft er t h e 1 s t d ay o f Ap ri l, 1 9 9 6 i n th e man n er p rovi d ed i n
clau s e (2 ).
Exp l a na ti on .—For t h e pu rp os es o f t h i s claus e,-
(a ) t h e ex p res s i on "t ax es on t he s ale or p u rch as e of go od s " s h all
mean t ax es on s ale or p u rch as e of go od s ot h er th an n ewsp ap ers , wh ere
s u ch s ale or p u rch as e t akes p lace i n t h e cou rs e of i n t er-St at e t rad e or
commerce;
(b ) th e ex p res s i on "t ax es on t he con s i gn men t of go od s " s h all mean
t ax es on th e con si gn ment of g o od s (wh eth er th e con si gn ment is t o th e
p ers on makin g i t or t o an y ot h er p ers on ), wh ere s u ch cons i gn men t t akes
p lace i n th e cou rs e of i n t er-St at e t rad e or commerce.
(2 ) Th e n et p roceed s in an y fi n an ci al yea r o f an y s u ch t ax , ex cep t i n s o
far as t h os e p roceed s rep res en t p roceed s at t ri bu t ab le t o Un i on t erri t ori es,
s h all n ot form p art of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a, b ut s h all b e ass i gn ed
t o t h e St at es wi th i n whi ch t h at t ax i s levi ab le i n t h at year, a n d s hall b e
d i st rib u t ed amon g t h os e St at es i n accord an ce wi th s u ch p ri n cip les of
d i st rib u ti on as may b e formu lat ed b y Parli amen t b y law.
(3 ) Parli amen t may b y law form u lat e p rin ci p les for d et ermin i n g wh en a
s ale or p u rch as e of, or c on s i gnmen t of, go od s t akes p lace in the cou rs e of
i n t er-St at e t rad e or commerce.
2 7 0. Ta xes l evi ed a nd di s tri buted betw een the Uni on a nd the
Sta tes .—(1 ) All t ax es an d du t i es referred t o i n th e Un i on Li s t , ex cep t th e
d u ti es and t ax es referred t o in art i cles 2 68 and 2 69 , res p ect i vel y, s u rch arge
on t ax es and d ut i es referred to i n arti cle 2 71 an d an y ces s levi ed fo r
s p eci fi c pu rp os es un d er an y la w mad e b y Parli amen t sh all b e levi ed an d
114 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

col lect ed b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a and s h all b e di st ri bu t ed bet ween th e


Un i on and th e St at es in th e mann er p rovi d ed i n clau s e (2 ).
(2 ) Su ch p ercen t age, as may b e p res cri b ed , of t h e n et p roceed s of an y
s u ch t ax or d u t y i n an y fi n an ci al year s h all n ot form p art o f t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a, bu t sh all b e as s i gn ed t o th e Stat es wi th in
wh i ch th at t ax or d u t y i s levi a b le i n t h at year, an d s h all b e d i st rib u t ed
amon g t h os e St at es in su ch man n er an d from s u ch t i me as may b e
p res crib ed i n t h e man n er p rovi ded in clau s e (3 ).
(3 ) In t h is arti cle, "p res cri b ed " mean s , —
(i ) u n ti l a Fi n an ce Commi s si on h as b een con s ti tu t ed, p res cri b ed b y
t h e Presi d en t b y ord er, an d
(i i ) aft er a Fi n an ce Commis s i on h as b een cons t it ut ed , p res cri b ed b y
t h e Pres id en t b y ord er aft er con s i d eri n g th e recommen d at i ons of t h e
Fi n an ce Commi ss i on .
2 7 1. Surcha rg e on certa i n duti es a nd ta xes f or purpos es of the
Uni on.—Not wi t h s t an d in g an yt h i n g i n art i cles 2 69 and 2 70 , Parli amen t may
at an y t i me in creas e an y o f t h e d u ti es or t ax es referred t o i n thos e art i cles
b y a s u rch arge for p u rp os es of t h e Un i on and th e wh ole p roc eed s of an y
s u ch s u rch arge s h all form p art o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a.
2 7 2. [ Ta xes wh i ch a r e l evi ed an d co ll ect ed b y t h e Un io n an d ma y b e
d i st r ib ut ed b et ween t h e Uni on a n d t h e St at es .] —Rep . b y th e Co n st it u ti on
(Ei g h ti eth Amen d men t ) Act , 20 00 , s .4 .
2 7 3. Gra nts i n l i eu of export duty on jute a nd jute produ cts .—(1 )
Th ere s h all b e ch arged on t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a i n each year as
gran t s -i n -ai d of t h e reven u es of t h e St at es of As s am, Bi h ar, Ori s s a an d
Wes t Ben gal, i n li eu of as s i gn men t of an y s h are of t h e n et p roceed s i n each
yea r o f ex p ort d u t y on j u t e and j u t e p rod u ct s t o th os e St at es , such s ums as
may b e p res cri b ed .
(2 ) Th e su ms s o p res cri b ed s h all con t i nu e t o b e ch arged on t he
Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a s o l on g as an y ex p ort d u t y on j u t e or j u t e
p rod u cts con t in u es t o b e levi ed b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a or u n t i l t h e
ex p i rat i on of t en years from t h e commen cement of t h i s Con s t it ut i on
wh i ch ever i s earli er.
(3 ) In t hi s art i cle, th e exp ress i on “p res crib ed ” h as th e s ame mean i n g as
i n arti cle 2 70 .
2 7 4. P ri or recomm enda ti on of P res i dent requi red to Bi l ls aff ecti ng
ta xa ti on i n w hi ch Sta tes a re i nteres ted.—(1 ) No Bi ll or amen d men t
wh i ch imp os es or vari es an y t ax or d u t y i n wh i ch St at es are in teres t ed , or
wh i ch vari es t h e mean i n g of t h e ex p ress i on “agri cu lt u ral i n come” as
d efi n ed for t h e p u rp os es of t h e en act men t s relat in g t o In d i an in come-t ax ,
or wh i ch affect s t h e p ri n ci p les on wh i ch un d er an y o f t h e foreg oi n g
p rovi s i on s of t h is Ch apt er mon eys are or ma y b e d i st rib u t ab le to St at es , or
wh i ch i mp os es an y s u ch su rcharge for t h e pu rp os es of t h e Un i on as is
men t i on ed i n th e foreg oi n g p rovi s i ons of t h is Ch apt er, sh all b e i n t rodu ced
115 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

or mo ved i n eit h er Hou s e of Pa rli amen t ex cep t on th e recommen d ati on of


t h e Presi d en t .
(2 ) In t h i s art i cle, t h e ex p ress i on “t ax or d u t y i n wh i ch Stat es are
i n t eres t ed ” means —
(a ) a t ax or d ut y t h e wh ole or p art of t h e n et p roceed s wh ereof are
as s i gn ed t o an y St at e; or
(b ) a t ax or d u t y b y re feren ce t o t h e n et p roceed s wh ereof s u ms are
for t h e t i me b ei n g p ayab le ou t o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d ia t o an y
St at e.
2 7 5. Gra nts f rom the Uni on to certa i n Sta tes .—(1 ) Su ch s u ms as
Parli amen t may b y law p rovi d e s h all b e ch arged on t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd
o f In d i a i n each year as gran t s -i n -ai d o f t h e reven u es o f s u ch St at es as
Parli amen t may d et ermi n e t o b e i n n eed of as s i s t an ce, an d di fferen t s ums
may b e fi x ed for d i fferen t St at es:
Provi d ed t h at th ere sh all b e p aid ou t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d o f In d i a
as gran t s -i n -ai d of t h e revenu es of a St at e s u ch cap i t al an d recu rri n g su ms
as may b e n eces s ary t o en ab le t h at St at e t o meet t h e cos ts of s u ch s ch emes
o f d evel op men t as may b e u n d ert aken b y t h e St at e wi t h t h e ap p rova l o f t h e
G overn men t of In d i a for t h e p u rp os e of p romot i n g t h e wel fare o f t h e
Sch ed u led Tri b es in th at St at e or rai s in g t h e level o f ad mi n i st rat i on of t h e
Sch ed u led Areas th erei n t o t h at o f t h e ad mi n is t rat i on of t h e res t of t h e
areas of t h at St at e:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at t h ere sh all b e p ai d ou t of t h e Con s o li d at ed Fu n d o f
In d i a as gran ts -i n -ai d of t h e reven u es of t h e St at e of As s am sums , capi t al
an d recu rri n g, eq u i valen t t o—
(a ) th e average ex ces s of ex p end i tu re over t h e reven u es d u ri n g t h e
t wo years i mmed i at el y p reced i ng t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s t it u ti on
i n res p ect of t h e ad mi n is t rati on o f t h e t ri b al areas s p eci fi ed in Part I o f
t h e t ab le ap p en d ed t o p aragrap h 2 0 of t h e Six t h Sch ed u le; an d
(b ) t h e cos ts of s u ch s ch emes of d eve lop men t as may b e u n d ertaken
b y t h at St at e wi t h t h e app roval o f t h e G overn men t of In d i a for t h e
p u rp os e of rai s in g t h e level o f a d min i st rat i on of t h e s ai d areas to t h at of
t h e ad min i st rat i on of t h e res t of t h e areas of t h at St at e.

(1 A) On and from t h e format i on of t h e aut on omou s St at e u nd er art i cle


2 4 4 A,—
(i ) an y s u ms p ayab le u n d er clau s e (a ) of t h e s econd p rovi s o t o
clau s e (1 ) s h all, i f t h e au t on omou s St at e comp ris es all t h e t ribal areas
referred t o t h erei n , b e p aid to t h e aut on omou s St at e, and , i f t h e
au t on omou s St at e comp ri s es on l y s ome o f t h os e t ri b al areas , b e
ap p ort i on ed b et ween t h e St at e of As s am an d t h e aut on omou s St at e as t h e
Pres i d en t may, b y ord er, s p eci fy;
(i i ) th ere s h all b e p ai d out of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a as
gran t s -i n -ai d of t h e reven u es of t h e au t on omou s St at e su ms , cap i t al and
116 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

recu rri n g, eq ui valen t t o t h e cos t s of s u ch s ch emes of d evel op men t as


may b e u n d ert aken b y t h e au t on omou s St at e wi th th e ap p roval o f t h e
G overn men t of In d i a for t h e p u rp os e of rai s in g t h e level o f
ad min i st rat i on of t h at St at e t o t h at of t h e ad mi n i st rati on of t h e res t o f
t h e St at e of As s am.
(2 ) Un t i l p rovi s i on is mad e b y Parli amen t un d er clau s e (1 ), the p owers
con ferred on Parli amen t un d er t h at clau s e s h all b e ex erci s ab le b y t h e
Pres i d en t b y ord er an d an y ord er mad e b y t h e Pres id ent un d er t h is clau s e
s h all h ave effect s u b j ect t o an y p rovi s i on s o mad e b y Parli amen t :
Provi d ed t h at aft er a Fi n an ce Commi s s i on h as b een cons ti tu t ed n o ord er
s h all b e mad e u nd er th i s clau s e b y t h e Pres i d en t ex cept aft er con s i d eri n g
t h e recommend at i ons of t h e Fi n an ce Commi ss i on .
2 7 6. Ta xes on pr of es s i ons , tra des , cal l i ng s a nd em pl oym ents .—
(1 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h in g i n art i cle 2 46 , n o law o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of a
St at e relat i n g t o t ax es for t h e b en efi t of t h e St at e or o f a mu n i ci p ali t y,
d i st ri ct b oard , local b oard or ot h er loca l au t h ori t y t h erei n i n res p ect of
p rofes s i on s , t rad es , calli n gs or emp lo ymen t s sh all b e in vali d on t h e grou nd
t h at i t relat es t o a t ax on in come.
(2 ) Th e t ot al amou n t p ayab le i n res p ect of an y on e p ers on t o t h e St at e
or t o an y on e mu ni ci p alit y, d i s t ri ct b oard , local b oard or ot h er local
au t h orit y i n t h e St at e b y wa y o f t ax es on p rofes s i on s , t rad es, calli n gs an d
emp lo ymen t s sh all n ot ex ceed two t h ou s and an d fi ve hu nd red ru p ees p er
an n um.
(3 ) Th e p ower of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e t o make laws as afores ai d
wi t h res p ect t o t ax es on p rofe s s i ons , t rad es , calli n gs an d emp lo ymen t s
s h all n ot b e con s t ru ed as li mit in g i n an y wa y t h e p ower o f Pa rli amen t t o
make la ws wi t h res p ect t o t ax es on i n come accru i n g from or ari s i n g ou t of
p rofes s i on s , t rad es , calli n gs and emp lo ymen t s .
2 77 . Sa vi ngs .—An y t ax es , d u ti es , cess es or fees wh i ch , i mmed i at ely
b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on , were b ein g law fu ll y levi ed
b y t h e G overn men t of an y St a t e or b y an y mu n i cip ali t y or ot h er local
au t h orit y o r b od y for t h e p u rpos es of t h e St at e, mu ni cip ali t y, d i st ri ct or
ot h er loca l area ma y, n ot wi t h s tan d in g t h at t h os e t ax es , d ut i es , ces s es or
fees are men t i on ed in t h e Un ion Li s t , con t i nu e t o b e levi ed an d t o b e
ap p li ed t o t h e s ame p u rp os es un t i l p rovi s i on t o t h e con t rary i s mad e b y
Parli amen t b y law.
2 7 8. [Ag r eemen t wi th S ta t es i n Pa r t B o f t h e Fi r st S ch ed u l e with r eg ar d
t o cer ta in f i na n ci al ma t t ers.] Rep . b y t h e Co n st i tu ti on (S even t h
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 56 , s . 29 and S ch .
2 79 . Ca l cula ti on of “ net proceeds ” , etc.—(1 ) In t h e foreg oi n g
p rovi s i on s of t h is Ch ap t er, “n et p roceed s ” mean s i n relat i on t o an y t ax or
d u t y t h e p roceed s t h ereof red uced b y t h e cos t of co l lect i on , an d for t h e
p u rp os es of t h os e p rovi s i on s th e n et p roceeds of an y t ax or du t y, or of an y
p art of an y t ax or d u t y, i n or att ri bu t ab le t o an y area s h all b e as cert ain ed
117 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

an d certi fi ed b y t h e Comp t roller an d Au d it or-G en eral o f In d i a, wh os e


cert i fi cat e s h all b e fi n al.
(2 ) Su bj ect as afores ai d , an d t o an y ot h er ex p res s p rovi s i on o f t h i s
Ch ap t er, a law mad e b y Parli amen t or an ord er of t h e Pres i d en t may, i n an y
cas e wh ere un d er th is Part t h e proceed s of an y d u t y or t ax are, or ma y b e,
as s i gn ed t o an y St at e, p ro vi d e for t h e man n er i n wh i ch t h e p roceed s are t o
b e calcu lat ed , for t h e t i me from or at wh i ch an d t h e mann er in wh i ch an y
p aymen t s are t o b e mad e, for t h e maki n g of ad j u s tmen ts bet ween on e
fi n an ci al yea r an d an ot h er, an d for an y ot h er i n ci d en t al or an ci llar y
mat t ers .
2 80 . F i na nce Com mi ss i on.—(1) Th e Presi d en t s h all, wi t hi n two years
fr om t h e commen cement of t h is Cons t it ut i on an d th ereaft er at t h e
ex p i rat i on of ever y fi ft h year or at s u ch earli er t i me as t he Pres id ent
con s i d ers n eces s ary, b y ord er co n s ti tu t e a Fi n an ce Commis si on wh i ch s h all
con s i st of a Ch ai rman an d fou r ot h er memb ers t o b e ap p oin ted b y t h e
Pres i d en t .
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y la w d et ermi n e th e qu ali fi cat i on s whi ch s h all b e
req u is it e for ap p oi nt ment as memb ers of t h e Commi ss i on and the mann er in
wh i ch t h ey s h all b e s elect ed .
(3 ) It s h all b e t h e d u t y o f t h e Commi s s i on t o make recommen d at i ons t o
t h e Presi d en t as t o—
(a ) t h e d is t rib ut i on b et ween the Un i on and t h e St at es of t h e n et
p roceed s of t ax es wh i ch are t o b e, or may b e, d i vi d ed b et ween t h em
u n d er t hi s Ch ap t er an d t h e all ocat i on b et ween th e St at es o f t h e
res p ecti ve s h ares of s u ch p roceed s ;
(b ) t h e p ri n ci p les wh i ch s h ou ld gove rn t h e gran t s -i n -ai d of t h e
reven u es of t h e St at es ou t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a;
(b b ) th e measu res n eed ed t o au gmen t th e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d o f a
St at e t o s up p lement t h e res ou rces of t h e Pan ch ayat s i n th e St ate on t h e
b as is of t h e recommen d at i ons mad e b y t h e Fi n an ce Commi s sion o f t h e
St at e;
(c) t h e measu res n eed ed t o au gmen t th e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d o f a
St at e t o su pp lemen t t h e res ou rces of t h e Mu ni cip ali t i es in th e St at e on
t h e b asi s of t h e recommen d at i on s mad e b y t h e Fi n an ce Commi s s i on of
t h e St at e;
(d ) an y ot h er mat t er referred t o t h e Commi ss i on b y t h e Pres i d ent i n
t h e in t eres t s of s ou n d fi n an ce.
(4 ) Th e Commi s s i on sh all d et ermi n e th ei r p roced u re and s h all h ave s u ch
p owers i n t h e p erforman ce of t h ei r fu n ct i ons as Parli ament may b y la w
con fer on t h em.
2 81 . Recom m enda ti ons of the F i na nce Com mi s si on.—Th e Pres i d en t
s h all cau s e ever y rec ommen d at ion mad e b y t h e Fi n an ce Commi s s i on un d er
t h e p rovi s i on s of t h is Cons t it u ti on t oget h er wi t h an ex p lan at ory
118 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

memoran d u m as t o t h e act i on t aken t h ereon t o b e lai d b efore each Hou s e of


Parli amen t .
Mi s cel la n eo us Fi na n ci al Pr o vi s io n s
2 82 . Expendi ture def ray a bl e by the Uni on or a Sta te out of i ts
revenues .—Th e Un i on or a St at e may ma ke an y gran t s for an y p u b li c
p u rp os e, n ot wi t hs t an di n g t h at t he p u rp os e i s n ot on e wi t h res p ect t o wh i ch
Parli amen t or t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e, as t h e cas e may b e, may make
laws .
2 83 . Cus tody , etc., of Cons ol i da ted F unds , Conti ng ency F unds a nd
m oney s credi ted to the publ i c a ccounts .—(1 ) Th e cus t od y o f t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a an d t h e Cont in gen cy Fu n d of In d i a, t h e
p aymen t o f mon e ys i n t o s u ch Fu n ds , t h e wi th d rawal o f m on e ys t h erefrom,
t h e cus t od y o f p u b li c mon eys ot h er t h an th os e cred it ed t o s u ch Fu nds
recei ved b y or on b eh alf o f t h e G overn men t of In d i a, t h ei r p aym en t in t o th e
p u b li c accou nt of In d i a an d t h e wi t h d rawal o f m on e ys from s u ch accou n t
an d all ot h er matt ers con n ect ed wi t h or an ci llar y t o mat t ers afor es ai d sh all
b e regu lat ed b y law mad e b y Par li amen t , and , u nt i l p rovi s i on i n t h at b eh alf
i s s o mad e, sh all b e regu lat ed b y ru les mad e b y t h e Pres id ent .
(2 ) Th e cu s t od y o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of a St at e an d t he
Con t i n gen cy Fu n d o f a St at e, t he p aymen t o f mon e ys i n t o s u ch Fu n d s , th e
wi t h d rawal of mon e ys t h erefro m, t h e cus t od y o f p u b li c mon eys ot h er t h an
t h os e cred it ed t o s u ch Fu n ds recei ved b y or on b eh alf o f t h e G ov ern men t of
t h e St at e, th ei r p aymen t in t o t h e p ub li c accoun t of t h e St ate an d th e
wi t h d rawal of mon e ys fr om s u ch accou nt an d all ot h er mat t ers con n ect ed
wi t h or an ci llar y t o mat t ers afores ai d sh all b e regu lat ed b y la w mad e b y
t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e, an d, u n ti l p rovi s i on i n th at b eh alf i s s o mad e,
s h all b e regu lat ed b y ru les mad e b y t h e G overn or o f t h e St at e.
2 84 . Cus tody of s ui tors' depos i ts a nd other m oney s recei ved by
publ i c s erva nts a nd courts .—All mon e ys recei ved b y or d ep os i ted wi th —
(a ) an y o ffi cer emp l o yed i n con n ect i on wi th t h e affai rs o f t h e
Un i on or o f a St at e i n h is cap aci t y as s u ch, ot h er th an reven u es or
p u b li c mon eys rai s ed or recei v ed b y t h e G overn men t o f In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e, as t h e cas e may b e, or
(b ) an y cou rt wi t h i n t h e t errit or y o f In d i a t o t h e cred it of an y
cau s e, mat t er, accoun t or p ers ons ,
s h all b e p ai d in t o t h e p ub li c accou n t of In d i a or th e p ub li c accou n t of
St at e, as t h e cas e may b e.
2 85 . Exem pti on of property o f the Uni on f rom Sta te ta xa tion.—(1 )
Th e p rop ert y of t h e Un i on s h all, s ave in s o far as Parli amen t may b y la w
ot h erwi s e p rovi d e, b e ex empt from al l t ax es i mp os ed b y a St at e or b y an y
au t h orit y wi t h i n a St at e.
(2 ) Not h in g in clau s e (1 ) s hall, u n t i l Parli ament b y law o t h erwi se
p rovi d es , p reven t an y au t h ori t y wi t h in a St at e from le v yi n g an y t ax on an y
119 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

p rop ert y o f t h e Un i on t o wh i ch s u ch p rop ert y was i mmed i at ely b efore t h e


commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti tut i on li ab le or t reat ed as li ab le, s o lon g as
t h at t ax cont in u es t o b e levi ed in th at St at e.
2 86 . Res tri cti ons as to i m pos iti on of ta x on the s a l e or purcha s e of
g oods .—(1 ) No la w o f a St at e s h all i mp os e, or au t h ori s e th e i mp os i ti on of,
a t ax on t h e s ale or p u rch as e of g ood s wh ere s u ch s ale or p u rch as e t akes
p lace—
(a ) ou ts i d e t h e St at e; or
(b ) in t h e cou rs e of t h e i mp ort of t h e good s i nt o, or exp ort of t he
go od s ou t of, t h e t errit ory o f In d i a.
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y law form u lat e p rin ci p les for d et ermin i n g wh en a
s ale or p u rch as e of go od s t akes p lace i n an y o f t h e wa ys men t i on ed in
clau s e (1 ).
(3 ) An y law o f a St at e s h all, i n s o far as i t i mp os es , or au th ori s es the
i mp os it i on of,—
(a ) a t ax on t h e s ale or p u rchas e of g ood s d eclared b y Par li amen t
b y la w t o b e o f s p eci al i mp ort ance i n i n t er-St at e t rad e or commerce; or
(b ) a t ax on t h e s ale or p u rch ase o f go od s , b ei n g a t ax of t h e n at u re
referred t o i n s ub -clau s e (b ), s ub -clau s e (c) or s ub -clau s e (d ) of clau s e
(2 9 A) of art i cle 3 6 6 ,
b e su bj ect t o su ch rest ri cti on s an d cond it i ons in regard t o th e s ys t em of
lev y, rat es an d ot h er in cid ent s of t h e t ax as Parli amen t may b y l aw s p eci fy.
2 87 . Exem pti on f rom ta xes on el ectri ci ty .—Save in s o far as
Parli amen t may b y law ot h erwi s e p rovi d e, n o law of a St at e shall i mp os e,
or au t h ori s e th e i mp osi t i on of, a t ax on t h e con s u mpt i on or s ale o f
elect ri ci t y (wh et h er p rodu ced by a G overn men t or ot h er p ers on s ) whi ch
is—
(a ) con su med b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a, or s old t o t he
G overn men t of In d i a for c on s u mp t i on b y t h at G overn men t ; or
(b ) con su med i n th e con st ru ction , mai nt en an ce or op erat i on of an y
rai lwa y b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a or a rai lwa y c omp an y op erat i n g t h at
rai lwa y, or s old t o t h at G overnmen t or an y s u ch rai lway comp an y for
con s u mp t i on i n t h e cons t ru ct ion , mai nt en an ce or op erat i on of an y
rai lwa y,
an d an y s u ch law i mp os in g, or au t h oris in g t h e i mp osi t i on of, a t ax on t he
s ale o f elect ri ci t y s h al l s ecu re t h at t h e p ri ce of elect ri ci t y s old t o t h e
G overn men t of In d i a for con s u mp t i on b y t h at G overn men t , or t o an y s u ch
rai lwa y comp an y as a fores ai d for con s u mp t i on i n th e con s t ru ct i on ,
mai n t en an ce or op erat i on of an y rai lwa y, s h all b e les s b y t h e amou n t of t h e
t ax th an th e p ri ce ch arged t o ot h er con s u mers of a s u b st an ti al q u ant it y o f
elect ri ci t y.
2 8 8. Exem pti on f rom ta xa ti on by Sta tes i n res pect of wa ter or
el ectri ci ty i n certai n cas es .—(1 ) Save in s o far as t h e Pres iden t may b y
120 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ord er ot h erwi s e p rovi d e, n o law of a St at e i n force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e


commen cemen t of t h i s Con sti t ut i on sh all i mp os e, or au th ori s e t h e
i mp os it i on of, a t ax i n res p ect of an y wat er or elect ri ci t y s t ored , gen erat ed ,
con s u med , di st ri bu t ed or s old by an y au t h ori t y es t ab li s h ed b y an y ex i s t in g
law or an y law mad e b y Parli am en t for re gu lat i n g or d eve l op i n g an y i n t er-
St at e ri ver or ri ver-va l le y.
Exp l an a ti on .—Th e ex p ress i on “law o f a St at e i n fo rce” i n t hi s clau s e
s h all i n clu d e a law o f a St at e p as s ed or mad e b efore t h e comme n cement of
t h is Con st i tu ti on and n ot p reviou s l y rep ealed , n ot wi t hs t an d in g t h at i t or
p art s of i t may n ot b e th en i n operat i on eit h er at all or i n p art i cular areas .
(2 ) Th e Legi s lat u re of a St at e may b y law i mp os e, or aut h ori s e t h e
i mp os it i on of, an y s u ch t ax as is men t i on ed in clau s e (1 ), b ut no s u ch law
s h all h ave an y e ffect u n les s i t h as , aft er h avi n g b een res erved for t h e
con s i d erat i on of t h e Pres id en t, recei ved h is as s en t ; and i f an y s u ch law
p rovi d es for t h e fi x at i on of t h e rat es and ot h er i n ci d en t s of s u ch t ax b y
mean s of ru les or ord ers t o b e mad e un d er th e law b y an y au t h ori t y, t h e law
s h all p rovi d e for t h e p revi ou s con s en t of t h e Pres i d en t b ein g ob t ai n ed t o
t h e makin g of an y s u ch ru le or o rd er.
2 89 . Exem pti on of property a nd i ncom e of a Sta te f rom Uni on
ta xa ti on.—(1 ) Th e p rop ert y an d in come of a St at e s h all b e exemp t from
Un i on t axat i on .
(2 ) Not h in g i n clau s e (1 ) sh all p reven t th e Un i on from i mp os i n g, or
au t h oris in g t h e i mp os it i on of, a n y t ax t o s u ch ex t ent , i f an y, as Parli amen t
may b y la w p ro vi d e i n resp ect of a t rad e or b u s in ess of an y ki n d carri ed on
b y, or on b eh al f o f, t h e G overn men t of a St at e, or an y op erat i on s con n ect ed
t h erewi th , or an y p rop ert y u s ed or occu p i ed for t h e pu rp os es of s u ch t rad e
or b u s in ess , or an y i n come accrui n g or ari s in g i n conn ecti on th erewi t h .
(3 ) Not h i n g i n claus e (2 ) sh all ap p ly t o an y t rad e or b u s i n ess , or t o an y
clas s of t rad e or b us in es s, wh ich Parli ament may b y la w d eclare t o b e
i n cid ent al t o t h e ord in ary fu n ct ion s of G overn men t .
2 9 0. Adjus tm ent i n res pect of certa i n expens es a nd pens i ons .—Wh ere
u n d er th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s t it u ti on t h e exp ens es of an y cou rt or
Commi s s i on, or t h e p en s i on p ayab le t o or i n res p ect of a p ers on wh o h as
s erved b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons t it ut i on u nd er the Crown i n
In d i a or aft er s u ch commen cemen t in con n ect i on wi th th e affai rs o f t h e
Un i on or o f a St at e, are ch arge d on t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a or t he
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of a St at e, t hen , i f—
(a ) i n t h e cas e of a ch arge on t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a, t h e
cou rt or Commi s s i on s erves an y o f t h e s ep arat e n eed s of a St at e, or t h e
p ers on h as s erved wh oll y or i n p art i n con n ecti on wit h th e affa i rs of a
St at e; or
(b ) i n t h e cas e of a ch arge on t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of a St at e, t h e
cou rt or Commi s s i on s erves any o f t h e s ep arat e n eeds of t h e Un i on or
an ot h er St at e, or th e p ers on h as s erved wh oll y or i n p art in con n ecti on
wi t h th e affai rs o f t h e Un i on or an ot h er St at e,
121 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h ere sh all b e ch arged on and p ai d ou t of t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of t h e


St at e or, as t h e cas e may b e, t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a or t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e ot h er St at e, su ch cont rib ut i on in resp ect of t h e
ex p en s es or p en si on as may b e agreed , or as may i n d efau lt o f agreemen t
b e d et ermi n ed b y an arb i t rat or t o b e ap p oi n t ed b y t h e Ch i ef J u s ti ce of
In d i a.
2 9 0 A. Annua l pa ym ent to certa i n Deva sw om F unds .—A s u m o f fort y-
s i x lakh s and fi ft y t h ou s and rup ees sh all b e ch arged on , an d pai d ou t of,
t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of t h e St at e of Kera la ever y year t o t h e Travan core
Devas wom Fu n d ; and a s um of t hi rt een lakh s an d fi ft y t h ou san d ru p ees
s h all b e ch arged on , an d p ai d out of, t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of t h e St at e of
Tami l Nad u ever y year t o t h e D evas wom Fu n d est ab li sh ed i n t hat St at e for
t h e main t en an ce of Hi n d u t emp les an d s h rin es i n th e t erri t ori es t ran s ferred
t o t h at St at e on t h e 1s t d ay o f No vemb er, 1 9 5 6, fr om t h e St at e o f
Travan core -C och i n .
2 9 1. [Pr i vy pu rs e su ms o f Ruler s .] Rep . b y t h e Co ns ti t ut io n (Twen t y-
s i xth Amen d men t ) Act , 19 7 l, s . 2.
C H AP T E R II.—B O R R O W I N G
2 9 2. B orrow i ng by the Govern m ent of I ndi a.—Th e ex ecut i ve p ower o f
t h e Un i on ex t en ds t o b orrowi n g u p on th e s ecu rit y o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd
o f In d i a wi t hi n s u ch li mi ts , i f an y, as ma y fr om t i me t o t i me be fi x ed b y
Parli amen t b y law an d t o t h e gi vi n g of gu aran t ees wit hi n s u ch li mi t s , i f
an y, as ma y b e s o fi x ed .
2 9 3. B orrow i ng by Sta tes .—(1 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of t h is art i cle,
t h e ex ecut i ve p ower of a St at e ex t end s t o b orrowi n g wi t h in th e terri t ory o f
In d i a u p on t h e s ecu ri t y o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e St at e wi t h in su ch
li mi t s , i f an y, as ma y from t i me t o t i me b e fi x ed b y t h e Le gi s lat u re of s u ch
St at e b y law an d t o t h e gi vi n g o f gu aran t ees wi t hi n s u ch li mi ts, i f an y, as
may b e s o fi x ed .
(2 ) Th e G overn men t of In d i a may, s u b j ect t o s u ch cond i ti on s as may b e
lai d d own b y or u n d er an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t , make l oan s t o an y
St at e or, s o lon g as an y li mi t s fi x ed u nd er arti cle 2 92 are n ot ex ceed ed ,
gi ve gu aran t ees in resp ect of loan s rai s ed b y an y St at e, an d an y s u ms
req u i red for t h e p u rp os e of m aki n g s u ch loan s s h all b e ch arged on t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of In d i a.
(3 ) A St at e may n ot wi t h ou t th e con s ent of t h e G overn men t o f In d i a
rai s e an y loan i f t h ere i s s ti ll ou t s t an di n g an y p art of a loan wh i ch h as b een
mad e t o t h e St at e b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a or b y i t s p red ecess or
G overn men t , or i n res p ect of wh i ch a gu aran t ee h as b een gi ven b y t h e
G overn men t of In d i a or b y i t s p red eces s or G overn men t .
(4 ) A con s en t un d er clau s e (3 ) may b e gran t ed su b j ect t o s u ch
con d i ti on s , i f an y, as t h e G overnmen t of In d i a may t h i n k fi t t o i mp os e.
122 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

C H AP T E R III.—P R O P E R T Y . C O N T R A C T S , R I G H T S , L I AB I L I T I E S ,
O B L I G AT I O N S AN D S U I T S
2 9 4. Success i on to property , as s ets , ri g hts , l i a bi li ti es a nd obl i ga ti ons
i n certa i n ca s es .—As from t h e commen cemen t of t h is Con st i tu tion —
(a ) all p rop ert y an d as s et s wh i ch i mmedi at ely b efore s u ch
commen cemen t were ves t ed in Hi s Maj es t y for t h e p u rp os es o f t h e
G overn men t of t h e Domi n i on o f In d i a an d all p rop ert y an d as s et s wh i ch
i mmedi at ely b e fore s u ch commen cement were ves t ed i n His Majes t y for
t h e p u rp os es of t h e G overn men t of each G overn or 's Pro vi n ce s hall ves t
res p ecti vel y i n t h e Uni on and the corres p on d in g St at e, an d
(b ) all ri gh t s , li ab i li t i es an d obli gat i on s of t h e G overn men t of t h e
Domi n i on of In d i a an d of t h e Govern men t of each G overn or 's P rovi n ce,
wh et h er ari s in g ou t of an y con t ract or ot h erwi s e, sh all b e t h e ri gh t s ,
li ab i li t i es an d ob li gat i ons res p ect i vel y o f t h e G overn ment of In d i a and
t h e G overn men t of each corres pon d i n g St at e,
s u bj ect t o an y ad j us t men t mad e or t o b e mad e b y reas on of t h e creat i on
b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on of t h e Domi n i on o f Paki s t an
or o f t h e Pro vi n ces of Wes t B en gal, Eas t Ben ga l, Wes t Pu n j ab an d Eas t
Pu n j ab ,
2 9 5. Success i on to property , as s ets , ri g hts , l i a bi li ti es a nd obl i ga ti ons
i n other ca s es.—(1 ) As from t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con st it ut i on —
(a ) all p rop ert y an d as s et s wh i ch i mmedi at ely b efore s u ch
commen cemen t were ves t ed in an y In d i an St at e corres p on di n g to a St at e
s p eci fi ed in Part B of t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le sh all ves t i n t h e Un i on , i f t h e
p u rp os es for wh i ch su ch p ropert y an d as s et s were h eld i mmed i at ely
b efore s u ch commen cement wi ll t h ereaft er b e p u rp os es of t h e Un i on
relat i n g t o an y o f t h e mat t ers enu merat ed i n t h e Un i on Li s t , an d
(b ) all ri gh t s , li abi li t i es and obli gat i on s of t h e G overn men t of an y
In d i an St at e corres p on di n g t o a St at e sp eci fi ed i n Part B of t h e Fi rs t
Sch ed u le, wh et h er ari si n g ou t of an y con t ract or ot h erwi s e, s h all b e t h e
ri gh t s , li abi li t i es an d ob li gat i on s of t h e G overn men t of In d i a, i f t h e
p u rp os es for wh i ch s u ch righ t s were acq ui red or li ab i li t i es or
ob li gat i on s were i n cu rred b efor e s u ch commen cemen t wi ll t h ereaft er b e
p u rp os es of t h e G overn ment of In d i a relat i n g t o an y o f t h e mat t ers
en u merat ed in th e Uni on Li s t ,
s u bj ect t o an y a greemen t en t ered i n t o i n th at b eh alf b y t h e G ov ern men t of
In d i a wi t h t h e G overn ment of t h at St at e.
(2 ) Su bj ect as afores ai d , t h e G overn men t of each St at e s p eci fi ed i n Part
B o f t h e Fi rs t Sch edu le s h all, as fr om t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on , b e t h e s u cces s or of t h e G overn ment of t h e corres p on di n g
In d i an St at e as regards all p rop ert y an d as s ets and all ri gh t s , li ab i li t i es and
ob li gat i on s , wh eth er ari si n g out of an y con t ract or ot h erwi s e, ot h er t h an
t h os e referred t o i n claus e (1 ).
123 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

2 9 6. P roperty a ccrui ng by eschea t or la ps e or a s b o na vaca nt ia .—


Su b j ect as h erei n aft er p rovi d ed , an y p rop ert y i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a
wh i ch , i f t h is Con st it u ti on h ad n ot come i nt o op erat i on , wou ld h ave
accru ed t o Hi s Maj est y or, as t h e cas e may b e, t o t h e Ru ler of an In d i an
St at e b y es ch eat or lap s e, or as b o na va ca nt ia for wan t o f a ri gh t fu l own er,
s h all, i f i t i s p rop ert y s i tu at e in a St at e, ves t i n s u ch St at e, an d s h all, i n
an y ot h er cas e, ves t in th e Un i on :
Provi d ed t h at an y p rop ert y wh i ch at t h e d at e wh en it wou ld h ave s o
accru ed t o Hi s Maj est y or t o t h e Ru ler of an In d i an St at e was i n t h e
p os s ess i on or u nd er t h e con trol o f t h e G overn ment of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of a St at e s h all, accord i n g as th e pu rp os es for w h i ch i t was
t h en u s ed or h eld were p u rp oses of t h e Un i on or o f a St at e, ves t i n t h e
Un i on or i n t h at St at e.
Exp l a na ti on .—In th is arti cle, the ex p res si on s “Ru ler” and “In d ian St at e”
h ave t h e s ame meani n gs as in arti cle 3 6 3.
2 9 7. Thi ng s of va l ue w i thi n terri tori a l w a ters or conti nenta l s helf
a nd res ources of the excl us i ve econom i c zone to ves t i n the Uni on.— (1 )
Al l lan d s , min erals and ot h er t hi n gs of valu e u n d erlyi n g t h e ocean wi th in
t h e t erri t ori al wat ers , or t h e con t in ent al s h elf, or t h e ex clu s i ve econ omi c
zon e, of In d i a s h all ves t i n t h e Un i on and b e h eld for t h e p u rpos es of t h e
Un i on .
(2 ) All ot h er res ou rces o f t h e ex clu s i ve econ omi c zon e o f In d i a sh all
als o ves t i n th e Un i on an d b e h eld for t h e p u rp os es of t h e Un i on.
(3 ) Th e li mi t s of t h e t erri t ori al wat ers , t h e con t i n en t al s hel f, t h e
ex clu s i ve econ omi c zon e, and oth er mari ti me zon es , of In d i a s hall b e s u ch
as may b e s p eci fi ed , from t i me t o t i me, b y or u n d er an y la w mad e b y
Parli amen t .
2 9 8. P ow er to ca rry on tra de, etc.— Th e ex ecu ti ve p ower of t h e Un i on
an d of each St at e s h all ex t en d to t h e carryi n g on o f an y t rad e or b u s in ess
an d t o t h e acq ui si t i on, h old i n g an d d is p os al of p rop ert y an d th e maki n g of
con t ract s for an y p u rp os e:
Provi d ed t h at —
(a ) th e s ai d ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e Un i on s h all, i n s o far as su ch
t rad e or bu si n es s or s u ch pu rp os e is n ot on e wi th res p ect to wh i ch
Parli amen t may make laws , b e s u b j ect in each St at e t o legi s lat i on b y t h e
St at e; an d
(b ) th e s ai d ex ecut i ve p ower of each St at e s h all, i n s o far as s u ch
t rad e or b u s in ess or s u ch pu rp os e i s n ot on e wi t h resp ect t o wh i ch th e
St at e Legi s lat u re may make laws , b e su b j ect t o legi s lat i on b y
Parli amen t .
2 9 9. Contra cts .—(1 ) All con t ract s mad e i n t h e ex erci s e of t h e ex ecu ti ve
p ower o f t h e Un i on or o f a St at e s h all b e ex p res s ed t o b e mad e b y t h e
Pres i d en t , or b y t h e G overn or o f t h e St at e, as t h e cas e may b e, an d all s u ch
con t ract s an d all as s u ran ces of p rop ert y mad e i n th e ex erci s e of t h at p ower
124 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s h all b e ex ecu t ed on b eh alf o f t h e Pres i d en t or t h e G overnor b y s u ch


p ers on s an d i n s u ch man n er as he may d i rect or au t h ori s e.
(2 ) Nei t h er th e Pres id ent n or t he G overn or s h all b e p ers on ally li ab le i n
res p ect of an y c on t ract or as s u ran ce mad e or ex ecu t ed for t h e p u rp os es of
t h is Con st i tu ti on , or for t h e pu rp os es of an y en act men t relat i n g t o t h e
G overn men t of In d i a h eret ofore i n force, n or s h al l an y p ers on maki n g or
ex ecu ti n g an y s u ch cont ract or as s u ran ce on b eh alf o f an y o f t h em b e
p ers on all y li ab le i n res p ect t h ereo f.
3 0 0. Sui ts a nd proceedi ng s .—(1 ) Th e G overn men t of In d i a may s u e or
b e s u ed b y t h e n ame o f t h e Un i on o f In d i a an d t h e G overn ment o f a St at e
may s u e or b e s u ed b y t h e n ame o f t h e St at e an d may, s u b ject t o an y
p rovi s i on s wh i ch may b e mad e b y Act o f Parli amen t or o f t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f s u ch St at e en act ed b y vi rt u e o f p owers con ferred b y t h i s Con s t it u ti on ,
s u e or b e su ed in relat i on t o th ei r resp ect i ve affai rs i n t h e li ke cas es as th e
Domi n i on of In d i a and th e corres p on di n g Provi n ces or th e corres p on di n g
In d i an St at es mi ght h ave s u ed or b een s u ed i f t h i s Cons t it ut ion h ad n ot
b een en act ed .
(2 ) If at t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons ti tu t i on—
(a ) an y legal p roceed i n gs are p en di n g t o wh i ch th e Domin i on of
In d i a is a p art y, t h e Un i on of In d i a s h all b e d eemed t o b e s ub st i tu t ed for
t h e Domi ni on in th os e p roceed ings ; an d
(b ) an y le gal p r oceed i n gs are p en di n g t o wh i ch a Provi n ce or an
In d i an St at e is a p art y, t h e corres p on di n g St at e sh all b e d eemed t o be
s u bs ti t ut ed for t h e Provi n ce or t h e In d i an St at e i n t h os e p roceedi n gs .
C H AP T E R IV.—R I G H T TO PROPERTY
300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.— No person
shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.
125 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XIII
TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE
TERRITORY OF INDIA
3 0 1. F reedom of tra de, com merce a nd i ntercours e.—Sub j ect t o th e
ot h er p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part , t rad e, commerce an d i n t ercou rs e t h rou gh out
t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a s h all b e fre e.
3 0 2. P ow er of Pa rl ia m ent to i m pos e res tri cti ons on tra de, com m erce
a nd i ntercours e.—Parli ament may b y law i mp os e s u ch rest ri ction s on t h e
freed om o f t rad e, commerce or i n t ercou rs e b et ween on e St at e an d an ot h er
or wi t h i n an y p art of t h e t errit or y o f In d i a as may b e req u i red i n t h e
p u b li c i nt eres t.
3 0 3. Res tri cti ons on the l eg is la ti ve pow ers of the Uni on a nd of the
Sta tes w i th reg a rd to tra de a nd com m erce.—(1 ) Not wi t hs t an d in g
an yt h i n g i n arti cle 3 02 , n ei t h er Parli amen t n or t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e
s h all h ave p o wer t o make an y la w gi vi n g, or au t h ori s i n g t h e gi vi n g o f, an y
p referen ce t o on e St at e over an ot h er, or makin g, or aut h ori si n g th e maki n g
o f, an y d i s cri mi n ati on b et ween on e St at e and an oth er, b y vi rt u e of an y
en t ry re lat i n g t o t rad e an d commerce i n an y o f t h e Li s t s i n t h e Seven th
Sch ed u le.
(2 ) Not h i n g i n clau s e (1 ) s h all p reven t Parli amen t from maki n g an y la w
gi vi n g, or au th ori s in g th e gi vi n g of, an y p re feren ce or maki n g, or
au t h oris in g t h e maki n g of, an y d i s cri min at i on i f i t is d eclared b y s u ch law
t h at i t i s n eces s ary t o d o s o for t h e pu rp os e of d eali n g wi th a s it u at i on
ari s in g from s carci t y o f g ood s i n an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d ia.
3 0 4. Res tri cti ons on tra de, com m erce a nd i ntercours e a m ong
Sta tes .—Not wi th s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n art i cle 3 01 or art i cle 3 0 3 , t h e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e may b y la w—
(a ) i mp os e on good s i mp ort ed from ot h er St at es or t h e Un i on
t erri t ori es an y t ax t o wh i ch s i mi lar g ood s man u fact u red or p rod u ced i n
t h at St at e are s ub j ect , s o, h owever, as n ot t o d i s cri min at e b et ween good s
s o i mp ort ed and good s s o man u fact u red or p rod u ced ; and
(b ) i mp os e s u ch reas on ab le res t ri ct i on s on t h e freed om o f t rad e,
commerce or i n t ercou rs e wi th or wi t h i n th at St at e as may b e req u i red in
t h e p ub li c i nt eres t :
Provi d ed t h at n o Bi ll or amen d men t for t h e pu rp os es of clau s e (b ) sh all
b e i nt rod u ced or moved i n t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e wi t h ou t th e p revi ous
s an cti on of t h e Pres id ent .
3 0 5. Sa vi ng of exi s ti ng l aw s a nd l aw s provi di ng f or Sta te
m onopol i es .—Not h in g i n art i cles 30 1 and 3 03 s h all affect th e p rovi s i on s
o f an y ex i s t in g law ex cep t in s o far as t h e Pres id ent may b y ord er
ot h erwi s e di rect ; and n ot h in g in art i cle 3 01 sh all affect t h e op erat i on of
an y law mad e b efore t h e co mmen cement of t h e Con s t i tu tion (Fou rt h
Amen d ment ) Act , 19 55 , in s o far as i t relat es t o, or p reven t Parli amen t or

125
126 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e fr om maki n g an y law re lat i n g t o, an y s u ch mat t er


as i s referred t o in su b -clau s e (i i) o f clau s e (6 ) of art i cle 1 9 .
3 0 6. [Po wer of cer ta in S ta t es i n Pa r t B o f t h e Fir s t S ch ed ul e t o i mp o se
r es tr i cti on s on tr ad e a nd co mmer ce.] Rep . b y th e Co ns ti tu t io n (S eventh
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 56 , s . 29 and S ch .
3 0 7. Appoi ntm ent of a uthority f or ca rryi ng out the purpos es of
a rti cl es 30 1 to 3 04 .—Parli ament may b y law ap p oi n t s u ch au th ori t y as i t
con s i d ers ap p rop ri at e for carr yi n g ou t t h e p u rp os es of art i cles 3 0 1 , 3 02 ,
3 0 3 an d 30 4, an d con fer on t h e au t h ori t y s o ap p oi n t ed su ch powers an d
s u ch du t i es as i t t hi n ks n eces s ary.
127 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XI V
SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
C H AP T E R I.— S E R V I C E S
3 0 8. I nterpreta ti on.—In t h i s Part , u n les s th e con t ex t ot h erwi se
req u i res , t h e ex p res si on “St at e” d oes n ot i n clud e th e St at e of J ammu an d
Kas h mi r.
3 0 9. Recrui tm ent a nd condi tions of s ervi ce of pers ons s ervi ng the
Uni on or a Sta te.—Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Con st i tu tion , Act s of
t h e ap p rop ri at e Legi s lat u re may regu lat e t h e recru it ment , an d con d it i ons of
s ervi ce of p ers on s ap p oi nt ed , to p u b li c s ervi ces an d p os t s i n con n ect i on
wi t h th e affai rs o f t h e Un i on or o f an y St at e:
Provi d ed t h at it s h all b e comp et en t for t h e Pres i d en t or s u ch pers on as
h e may d i rect i n th e cas e of s ervi ces and p os ts i n conn ecti on wi t h th e
affai rs o f t h e Un i on , and for t h e G overn or o f a St at e or su ch pers on as h e
may d i rect i n th e cas e of s ervi ces and p os t s in conn ect i on wi th t h e affai rs
o f t h e St at e, t o make ru les reg u lat i n g t h e recrui t men t , and t h e con d i ti on s
o f s ervi ce o f p ers on s app oi n t ed, t o s u ch s ervi ces an d p os ts u nt il p rovi s i on
i n th at b eh alf i s mad e b y or u n d er an Act of t h e app rop ri at e Le gi s lat u re
u n d er th i s art i cle, an d an y ru les s o mad e sh all h ave effect s u bj ect t o t h e
p rovi s i on s of an y s u ch Act .
3 1 0. Tenure of offi ce of pers ons s ervi ng the Uni on or a State.—(1 )
Ex cep t as exp ress ly p ro vi d ed by t h i s Con st i tu ti on , every p ers on wh o i s a
memb er of a d efen ce s er vi ce o r o f a ci vi l s er vi ce o f t h e Un i on or o f an
all -In d i a s ervi ce or h old s an y p os t conn ect ed wi th d efen ce or any ci vi l p os t
u n d er t h e Uni on h old s offi ce d u rin g t h e p leas u re of t h e Pres i d en t , an d
ever y p ers on wh o is a memb er of a ci vi l s ervi ce o f a St at e or h old s an y
ci vi l p os t u n d er a St at e h old s offi ce d u ri n g t h e p leas u re of t h e G overn or
o f t h e St at e.
(2 ) Not wi t hs t an d in g th at a p erson h old i n g a ci vi l p ost u nd er th e Un i on
or a St at e h old s offi ce d u ri n g th e p leasu re of t h e Pres id en t or, as t h e case
may b e, o f t h e G overn or of t h e St at e, an y con t ract un d er whi ch a p ers on ,
n ot b ein g a memb er of a d efen ce s ervi ce or o f an all -In d i a s ervi ce or o f a
ci vi l s ervi ce o f t h e Un i on or a St at e, i s app oi nt ed un d er th i s Con s t it u ti on
t o h old s u ch a p os t may, i f t h e Pres i d en t or t h e G overn or, as the cas e may
b e, d eems i t n ecess ary i n ord er t o s ecu re t h e s ervi ces of a p ers on h avin g
s p eci al qu ali fi cat i on s , p rovi d e for t h e p aymen t t o hi m of comp en s ati on , i f
b efore t h e ex p i rat i on of an agree d p eri od th at p ost i s ab oli s h ed or h e i s , for
reas on s n ot con n ect ed wi th an y mi s con du ct on h is p art , req ui red t o vacat e
t h at p os t .
3 1 1. Di s mi ss a l, rem ova l or red ucti on i n ra n k of pers ons em pl oy ed i n
ci vi l ca pa ci ti es under the Uni on or a Sta te.—(1 ) No p ers on wh o i s a
memb er of a ci vi l s ervi ce o f t h e Un i on or an al l -In d i a s ervi ce or a ci vi l
s ervi ce of a St at e or h o ld s a ci vi l p os t un d er th e Un i on or a St at e s h all b e

127
128 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

d i s mi ss ed or removed b y an au t h ori t y s u b ord i n at e t o t h at b y wh i ch h e was


ap p oi nt ed .
(2 ) No s u ch p ers on as afore s ai d s h all b e di s mi s s ed or removed or
red u ced in ran k ex cept aft er an i nq ui ry i n wh i ch h e h as b een in formed o f
t h e ch arges agai ns t h im and gi ven a reas on ab le opp ort un i t y of b ei n g h eard
i n resp ect of t h os e ch arges :
Provi d ed t h at wh ere i t i s p ropos ed aft er s u ch in qu i ry, t o i mpos e u p on
h i m an y s u ch p en alt y, s u ch p en alt y ma y b e i mp os ed on t h e bas i s of t h e
evi d en ce add u ced du rin g s u ch in q ui ry an d i t sh all n ot b e n ecess ary t o gi ve
s u ch p ers on an y op p ort u ni t y o f maki n g rep res en t at i on on th e p en alt y
p rop os ed :
Provi d ed fu rt h er th at t h is clau s e s h all n ot ap p ly—
(a ) wh ere a p ers on i s d i smi ss ed or removed or red u ced i n rank on
t h e grou n d of c on d u ct wh i ch has led t o h i s con vi ct i on on a cri mi n al
ch arge; or
(b ) wh ere t h e au th ori t y emp owe red t o d is mis s or remove a p erson or
t o red u ce h i m i n ran k i s s at is fi ed t h at for s ome reas on , t o b e record ed
b y t h at au t h ori t y i n wri t i n g, i t i s n ot reas on ab ly p ract i cab le t o h old
s u ch i nq ui ry; or
(c) wh ere t h e Presi d en t or th e G overn or, as t h e cas e may b e, i s
s at is fi ed t h at in th e in t erest o f t h e s ecu ri t y o f t h e St at e it i s n ot
ex p ed i ent t o h old su ch i nq ui ry.
(3 ) If, i n resp ect of an y s u ch p ers on as afores ai d , a qu est ion ari s es
wh et h er it is reas on ab ly p ract i cab le t o h old s u ch i nq u i ry as i s referred t o i n
clau s e (2 ), th e d ecis i on th ereon o f t h e au t h orit y emp owered t o d i s mi ss or
remove s u ch p ers on or t o red u ce h i m i n ran k s h all b e fi n al.
3 1 2. Al l -I ndia s ervi ces .—(1 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h i n g in Ch apt er VI o f
Part V I o r Part X I, i f t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es h as d eclared b y res olu t i on
s u pp ort ed b y n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e memb ers p res ent an d vot in g
t h at i t is n eces s ary or ex p edi en t in th e n at i on al i nt eres t s o t o d o,
Parli amen t may b y law p rovi d e for t h e creat i on o f on e or mo re al l In d i a
s ervi ces (i n clud in g an all -In d i a j u di ci al s ervi ce) common t o t h e Un i on an d
t h e St at es , and , su bj ect t o t h e oth er p rovi s i ons of t h i s Ch apt er, regu lat e t h e
recru i t men t , and th e con d it i on s o f s ervi ce o f p ers on s ap p oi nted , t o an y
s u ch s ervi ce.
(2 ) Th e s ervi ces kn own at th e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons t it ut ion as th e
In d i an Ad mi ni s t rat i ve Servi ce an d t h e In d i an Poli ce Servi ce s h all b e
d eemed t o b e s ervi ces creat ed by Par li amen t u nd er th is arti cle.
(3 ) Th e all -In d i a j ud i ci al s ervi ce referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) s h all n ot
i n clu d e an y p os t in feri or t o t h at of a d i s t ri ct j ud ge as d efi n ed i n art i cle
2 3 6.
(4 ) Th e law p rovi d i n g for t h e creat i on of t h e all -In d i a j ud i ci al s ervi ce
afores ai d may con t ai n s u ch p rovi s i ons for t h e amend ment of Ch ap t er VI o f
Part VI as ma y b e n eces s ary for gi vi n g e ffect t o t h e p rovi s i on s o f t h at law
129 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

an d n o s u ch law s h al l b e d eemed t o b e an amen d ment of t h i s Con s t it u ti on


for t h e p u rp os es of art i cle 3 68 .
3 1 2 A. P ow er of Pa rli am ent to va ry or revo ke condi ti ons of servi ce of
of fi cers of certai n s ervi ces .—(1) Parli amen t may b y law—
(a ) vary or re vo ke, wh et h er pros p ect i vely or ret ros p ect i vely, t h e
con d i ti on s of s ervi ces as res p ect s remun erat i on , leave an d p ensi on an d
t h e ri gh ts as resp ects di s cip li n ar y mat t ers of p ers on s wh o, h avi n g b een
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e Secret ary o f St at e or Secret ary o f St at e in Coun ci l t o a
ci vi l s ervi ce of t h e Crown i n In d i a b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on , con ti nu e on and aft er t h e commen cemen t of the
Con s t it ut i on (Twen t y-ei gh t h Am en d men t ) Act , 1 97 2 , t o s erve u n d er t he
G overn men t of In d i a or o f a St at e i n an y s ervi ce or p os t ;
(b ) var y or re vo ke, wh et h er pros p ect i vely or ret r os p ect i vel y, t h e
con d i ti on s of s ervi ce as res p ects p ens i on of p ers on s wh o, h avin g b een
ap p oi nt ed b y t h e Secret ary o f St at e or Secret ary o f St at e in Coun ci l t o a
ci vi l s ervi ce of t h e Crown in In d i a b efore t h e commen cement of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on , ret i red or ot h erwis e ceas ed t o b e i n s ervi ce at an y t i me
b efore t h e commen cemen t o f t h e Con s ti tu ti on (Twen ty-ei gh t h
Amen d ment ) Act , 1 97 2 :
Provi d ed t h at in t h e cas e of an y s u ch p ers on wh o i s h old i n g or h as h eld
t h e offi ce o f t h e Ch i ef J u s t i ce or ot h er J u d ge of t h e Su p reme Cou rt or a
Hi gh Cou rt , t h e Comp t roller an d Au d it or-G en eral of In d i a, th e Ch ai rman or
ot h er memb er of t h e Uni on or a St at e Pu b li c Servi ce Commis si on or t h e
Ch i ef Elect i on Commi s s i on er, not h i n g i n s ub -clau s e (a ) or s u b-c lau s e (b )
s h all b e con st ru ed as emp oweri n g Parli amen t t o vary or re vo k e, aft er h i s
ap p oi nt ment t o su ch p os t , th e con d i ti on s of h i s s ervi ce t o hi s d is ad van t age
ex cep t in s o far as s u ch con d it i on s of s ervi ce are ap p li cab le t o h i m b y
reas on of h i s b ei n g a p ers on ap p oin t ed b y t h e Secret ary o f St at e or
Secret ary o f St at e i n Cou n ci l t o a ci vi l s ervi ce of t h e Crown i n In d i a.
(2 ) Ex cept t o th e ex t en t p rovi d ed for b y Parli amen t b y law u n d er t his
art i cle, n ot h in g i n t h is arti cle s h all a ffect t h e p ower o f an y Le gi s lat u re or
ot h er au th ori t y u n d er an y ot h er p rovi s i on of t h i s Con st i tu ti on to regu lat e
t h e cond i ti on s of s ervi ce of p er s on s referred t o i n claus e (1 ).
(3 ) Nei t h er t h e Su p reme Cou rt n or an y ot h er cou rt s h all h ave
j u ris di ct i on i n—
(a ) an y d i s pu t e aris in g ou t of a n y p ro vi s i on of, or an y en d ors emen t
on , an y coven an t , agreemen t or ot h er s i mi lar i n st ru men t whi ch was
en t ered in t o or ex ecu t ed b y an y p ers on referred t o i n clau s e (1 ), or
ari s in g ou t of an y let t er i s s ued t o s u ch p ers on, i n relat i on t o h is
ap p oi nt ment t o an y ci vi l s ervi ce o f t h e Crown i n In d i a or h i s
con t i nu an ce in s ervi ce un d er t he G overn men t of t h e Domi n i on o f In d i a
or a Provi n ce t h ereof;
(b ) an y d i s p u t e i n res p ect of an y ri gh t , li ab i li t y or ob li gat i on u n d er
art i cle 3 14 as ori gin all y en act ed .
130 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) Th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s arti cle s h all h ave effect n ot wi t hs t and in g


an yt h i n g i n art i cle 3 14 as ori gi n all y en act ed or i n an y ot h er p rovi s i on of
t h is Con st i tu ti on .
3 1 3. Tra ns i ti onal provi s i ons .—Un t i l ot h er p rovi s i on is made i n t hi s
b eh alf u n d er t hi s Con st i tu ti on , all t h e laws i n force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con st i tu ti on and ap p li cab le t o an y p u b li c s ervi ce or
an y p os t wh i ch cont in u es t o ex i st aft er t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on , as an all-In d i a s ervi ce or as s ervi ce or p os t u n d er t h e Un i on
or a St at e s h all con t in u e in forc e s o far as con si st en t wi th t h e p rovi s i on s of
t h is Con st i tu ti on .
3 1 4. [Pr o vi si on f or p ro t ecti on o f exi st in g o ff i cer s o f cert ai n ser vi ces .]
Rep . b y th e Con st i tu ti on (Twent y-ei g ht h Amen d men t ) Act , 1 97 2 , s. 3 (w.e.f.
2 9 -8 -1 9 7 2 ).
C H A P T ER II.— P U B LI C S ER V I C E C O M M IS S IO N S
3 1 5. P ubli c Servi ce Com m i s si ons f or the Uni on a nd f or the S ta tes .—
(1 ) Su bj ect t o th e p rovi s i ons o f t h i s arti cle, t h ere s h all b e a Pu b li c
Servi ce Commi ss i on for t h e Uni on and a Pub li c Servi ce Commi s si on for
each St at e.
(2 ) Two or m ore St at es may agr ee t h at t h ere s h all b e on e Pub li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on for t h at grou p of St at es , and i f a res olu t i on t o that effect i s
p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e or, wh ere th ere are t wo Hou s es , b y each Hou s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f each o f t h os e St at es , Parli amen t may b y la w p rov i d e for t h e
ap p oi nt ment of a J oi n t St at e Publi c Servi ce Commi s si on (referred t o in th is
Ch ap t er as J oin t Commi s si on ) t o s erve t h e n eeds of t h os e St at es.
(3 ) An y s u ch law as a fores ai d may con t ai n s u ch i n ci d en t al an d
con s eq u en ti al p rovi s i on s as may b e n eces s ary or d es i rab le fo r gi vi n g e ffect
t o t h e p u rp os es of t h e law.
(4 ) Th e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ssi on for t h e Un i on, i f requ es t ed s o t o d o
b y t h e G overn or of a St at e may, wi t h th e ap p roval o f t h e Presid en t, agree
t o s erve all or an y o f t h e n eeds o f t h e St at e.
(5 ) Referen ces i n t h is Con s ti t ut i on t o t h e Un i on Pu b li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on or a St at e Pub li c Servi ce Commi s s i on s h all, u n les s th e con t ext
ot h erwi s e requ i res , b e con s t ru ed as referen ces t o t h e Commis sion s ervi n g
t h e n eed s of t h e Un i on or, as th e cas e may b e, t h e St at e as res p ects th e
p art i cu lar mat t er i n q u es t i on.
3 1 6. Appoi ntm ent a nd term of of fi ce of m em bers .—(1 ) Th e Ch ai rman
an d ot h er memb ers of a Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on s h all b e ap p oi n t ed , i n
t h e cas e of t h e Un i on Commi s si on or a J oi nt Commis sion , b y t h e
Pres i d en t , an d in th e cas e of a St at e Commis si on , b y t h e G overn or of t h e
St at e:
Provi d ed t h at as n early as may b e on e -h al f o f t h e memb ers o f ever y
Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s si on s hall b e p ers on s wh o at th e d ates of t h ei r
res p ecti ve ap p oi nt ment s h ave h eld o ffi ce for at leas t t en years ei t h er u nd er
131 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t h e G overn ment of In d i a or u n d er t h e G overn men t of a St at e, an d in


comp u t in g th e s aid p eri od o f t en years an y p eri od before t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti tu ti on d u rin g wh i ch a p ers on h as h eld offi ce
u n d er t h e Crown i n In di a or u nder t h e G overn men t of an In d i an St at e sh all
b e in clu d ed.
(1 A) If t h e offi ce of t h e Ch ai rman of t h e Commis si on b ecomes vacan t or
i f an y s u ch Ch ai rman i s b y reas on of ab s en ce or for an y ot h er reas on
u n ab le t o p erform t h e d u t i es of h i s offi ce, t h os e d u t i es s h all, u n ti l s ome
p ers on ap p oin t ed u nd er clau s e (1 ) t o t h e vacan t offi ce h as en t ered on t h e
d u ti es th ereof or, as t h e cas e may b e, u n ti l t h e Ch ai rman h as res u med h is
d u ti es , b e p erformed b y s u ch one of t h e ot h er memb ers of t h e Commi s s i on
as th e Presi d en t , i n t h e case of t h e Un i on Commi ss i on or a J oi n t
Commi s s i on, and th e G overn or o f t h e St at e i n th e cas e o f a St ate
Commi s s i on, may ap p oi n t for t he p u rp os e.
(2 ) A memb er of a Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ss i on sh all h old o ffi ce fo r a
t erm o f s i x years fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch h e en t ers u p on hi s offi ce or u n t i l
h e at t ai ns , in th e cas e of t h e Un i on Commi ss i on , t h e age of s i x t y-fi ve
yea rs , an d i n th e cas e of a St a t e Commi s si on or a J oi n t Commi s si on , th e
age o f s i x t y-t wo yea rs , wh i ch ever i s earli er:
Provi d ed t h at —
(a ) a memb er of a Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s si on may, b y wri t i n g
u n d er h is h an d add res s ed , i n th e cas e of t h e Un i on Commis sion or a
J oi n t Commis si on , t o t h e Pres i d en t , an d in th e cas e of a St at e
Commi s s i on, t o th e G overn or of t h e St at e, resi gn hi s offi ce ;
(b ) a memb er o f a Pu b li c Servi c e Commi s s i on may b e remo ved from
h i s offi ce i n t h e mann er p rovi ded i n clau s e (1 ) or clau s e (3 ) of art i cl e
3 1 7.
(3 ) A p ers on wh o h old s offi ce as a memb er of a Pu b li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on sh all, on t h e exp i rat i on of h i s t erm of o ffi ce, b e ineli gi b le for
re-ap p oi n t ment t o th at offi ce.
3 1 7. Rem ova l a nd s us pens i on of a m em ber of a P ubl i c Servi ce
Com m i ss i on.—(1 ) Su b j ect t o t he p rovi s i on s of c lau s e (3 ), t h e Ch ai rman or
an y ot h er memb er of a Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on s h all on l y b e removed
fr om h i s offi ce b y ord er o f t h e Pres i d en t on th e grou n d of mi s b eh avi ou r
aft er t h e Su p reme Cou rt, on referen ce b ein g mad e t o i t b y t h e Pres i d en t,
h as , on in qu i ry h eld in accord an ce wi th t h e p rocedu re p res crib ed i n th at
b eh alf u n d er art i cle 14 5, rep ort ed th at t h e Ch ai rman or s u ch other memb er,
as t h e cas e may b e, ou gh t on an y s u ch grou n d t o b e removed .
(2 ) Th e Pres i d en t , i n th e cas e o f t h e Un i on Commi s s i on or a J oi n t
Commi s s i on, and th e G overn or i n t h e cas e of a St at e Commi s si on , may
s u sp end from o ffi ce t h e Ch ai rman or an y ot h er memb er o f t h e Commi s s i on
i n res p ect of wh om a re feren ce h as b een mad e t o t h e Su p reme Cou rt u nd er
clau s e (1 ) un t i l t h e Pres id ent h as p as s ed ord ers on recei pt of t h e rep ort of
t h e Sup reme Cou rt on su ch referen ce.
132 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n clau s e (1 ), t h e Pres id ent may b y ord er


remove from o ffi ce t h e Ch ai rman or an y ot h er memb er of a Pu bli c Servi ce
Commi s s i on i f t h e Ch ai rman or s u ch ot h er memb er, as t h e cas e may b e,—
(a ) is ad j ud ged an in s olven t ; or
(b ) en gages d u rin g h is t erm o f o ffi ce i n an y p ai d emp loymen t ou t si de
t h e d u ti es of h i s offi ce ; or
(c) i s , i n t h e opi ni on of t h e Pres i d en t , u n fi t t o con ti nu e in offi ce b y
reas on of i n fi rmi t y o f mi n d or bod y.
(4 ) If t h e Ch ai rman or an y ot h er memb er o f a Pu b li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on i s or b ecomes in an y wa y c on cern ed or i n t eres t ed i n an y
con t ract or agreemen t mad e b y or on b eh alf o f t h e G overn ment o f In d i a or
t h e G overn ment of a St at e or part i cip at es in an y wa y i n th e p ro fi t t h ereof
or i n an y b en efi t or emolu men t ari s in g th erefrom ot h erwi s e t h an as a
memb er an d in common wi t h t h e ot h er memb ers of an i n corp orat ed
comp an y, h e sh all, for t h e p u rpos es of clau s e (1 ), b e d eemed to b e gu i lt y
o f mi s b ehavi ou r.
3 1 8. P ow er to m a ke reg ul a ti ons as to condi ti ons of s ervi ce of
m em bers a nd s taff of the Com m i ss i on.—In t h e cas e of t h e Un i on
Commi s s i on or a J oi n t Commi ss i on , t h e Presi d en t and , i n th e cas e o f a
St at e Commis s i on , t h e G overn or of t h e St at e may b y regu lat i on s —
(a ) d et ermi n e t h e nu mb er of memb ers of t h e Commi ss i on an d t h ei r
con d i ti on s of s ervi ce; an d
(b ) make p rovi s i on wi t h resp ect t o t h e nu mb er of memb ers of t h e
s t aff o f t h e Commi s si on and th eir con d i ti on s of s ervi ce:
Provi d ed t h at t h e con di t i ons of s ervi ce o f a memb er o f a Pu b li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on s h all n ot b e vari ed t o h i s d is ad vant age aft er h i s ap poi n t ment .
3 1 9. P rohi bi ti on a s to the hol di ng of off i ces by m em bers of
Com m i ss i on on ceas i ng to be s uch m em bers .—On ceasi ng t o h old
o ffi ce—
(a ) t h e Ch ai rman of t h e Un i on Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ss i on sh all b e
i n eli gi b le for fu rt h er emp loyme n t eit h er u nd er th e G overn men t o f In d i a
or u n d er th e G overn men t of a St at e;
(b ) t h e Ch ai rman of a St at e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s si on s h all b e
eli gi b le for ap p oi n t men t as th e Ch ai rman or an y ot h er memb er o f t h e
Un i on Pub li c Servi ce Commi s sion or as t h e Ch ai rman of an y ot h er St at e
Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on , b ut n ot fo r an y ot h er emp lo ymen t ei t h er
u n d er t h e G overn ment of In d i a or u nd er t he G overn ment of a St at e;
(c) a memb er ot h er t h an t h e Chai rman of t h e Un i on Pu b li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on s h all b e eli gi b le for ap p oi n t men t as th e Ch ai rman of t h e
Un i on Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s ion or as t h e Ch ai rman of a St at e Pu b li c
Servi ce Commi s si on , b ut n ot for an y ot h er emp loymen t ei t h er un d er t he
G overn men t of In d i a or u n d er t he G overn men t of a St at e;
133 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(d ) a memb er oth er t h an th e Ch ai rman of a St at e Pub li c Servi ce


Commi s s i on s h all b e eli gi b le for ap p oi n t men t as th e Ch ai rman or an y
ot h er memb er of t h e Uni on Pu b li c Servi ce Commis s i on or as th e
Ch ai rman of t h at or an y ot h er St at e Pub li c Servi ce Commis s i on, b ut n ot
for an y ot h er emp lo ymen t ei t h er u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or u n d er
t h e G overn men t of a St at e.
3 2 0. F uncti ons of P ubli c Servi ce Com m i s si ons .—(1 ) It s h all b e t h e
d u t y o f t h e Un i on and t he St ate Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ss i on s t o con d u ct
ex amin at i ons for ap p oi n t men ts t o t h e s ervi ces of t h e Uni on and th e
s ervi ces of t h e St at e res p ect i vely.
(2 ) It s h all als o b e th e d ut y o f t h e Un i on Pub li c Servi ce Commis s i on , i f
req u est ed b y an y t wo or more St at es s o t o d o, t o as s is t t h os e St at es i n
frami n g an d op erat in g s ch emes of j oi n t recru i t men t for an y s ervi ces for
wh i ch can di d at es p oss ess in g s p eci al q u ali fi cat i on s are req ui red .
(3 ) Th e Un i on Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on or t h e St at e Pub lic Servi ce
Commi s s i on, as t h e cas e may b e, s h all b e con s u lt ed —
(a ) on all mat t ers relat i n g t o met h od s of recru i t men t t o ci vi l
s ervi ces and for ci vi l p os t s ;
(b ) on th e p rin ci p les t o b e fol l o wed i n maki n g ap p oi nt ment s t o ci vi l
s ervi ces and p ost s an d in maki n g p romot i on s an d t ran s fers from on e
s ervi ce t o an ot h er an d on th e su it abi li t y o f can d id at es for s u ch
ap p oi nt ment s , p romot i on s or t ran s fers ;
(c) on al l d i s ci p li n ary mat t ers affect i n g a p ers on s ervi n g u n d er t h e
G overn men t of In d i a or t h e G overn men t of a St at e i n a ci vi l cap aci t y,
i n clu di n g memori als or p eti t i ons relat i n g t o s u ch matt ers ;
(d ) on an y c lai m b y o r i n res p ect of a p ers on wh o i s s ervi n g or h as
s erved un d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e G overn men t of a St at e or
u n d er th e Crown i n In d i a or un der t h e G overn men t of an In d i an St at e, in
a ci vi l cap acit y, t h at an y cos t s in cu rred b y h i m i n d efen di ng lega l
p roceed i n gs i ns t it ut ed again s t hi m i n res p ect of act s d on e or p urp ort i n g
t o b e d on e in t he ex ecut i on of h i s d ut y s h ou ld b e p aid ou t o f t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a, or, as th e cas e may b e, out of t h e
Con s oli d at ed Fu nd of t h e St at e;
(e) on an y clai m for t h e award of a p en s i on in resp ect of i n ju ri es
s u st ain ed b y a p ers on wh i le s ervi n g u nd er t h e G overn ment of In d i a or
t h e G overn men t of a St at e or u n d er t h e Crown in In d i a or un d er th e
G overn men t of an In d i an St at e, i n a ci vi l cap acit y, an d an y q u es t i on as
t o t h e amoun t of an y s u ch award ,
an d i t s h all b e th e d ut y o f a Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ss i on t o ad vi s e on an y
mat t er s o referred t o t h em and on an y ot h er matt er wh i ch t h e Pres i d en t , or,
as t h e cas e may b e, th e G overn or o f t h e St at e, may re fer t o t h em:
Provi d ed th at t h e Pres id en t as res p ects th e all-In d i a s ervi ces and als o as
res p ects oth er s ervi ces an d p os t s in conn ect i on wi th t h e affai rs of t h e
Un i on , and t h e G overn or, as res p ect s oth er s ervi ces an d p os ts in
134 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

con n ect i on wi th th e affai rs of a St at e, may make regu lat i on s s p eci fyi n g t h e


mat t ers in wh i ch eit h er gen erall y, or i n an y p art i cu lar clas s o f cas e or i n
an y p art i cu lar ci rcu mst an ces , i t s h all n ot b e n eces s ary for a Pu b li c Servi ce
Commi s s i on t o b e cons u lt ed.
(4 ) Not h i n g i n clau s e (3 ) s h all req u i re a Pub li c Servi ce Commi s s i on t o
b e con s u lt ed as res p ect s th e man n er in wh i ch an y p ro vi s i on referred t o i n
clau s e (4 ) of art i cle 16 may b e mad e or as resp ect s th e man n er i n wh i ch
effect ma y b e gi ven t o t h e p rovis i on s of art i cle 3 35 .
(5 ) All regu lat i on s mad e u nd er th e p rovi s o t o clau s e (3 ) b y t h e Pres i d en t
or t h e G overn or o f a St at e s h all b e lai d for n ot les s t h an fou rt een d ays
b efore each Hou s e o f Par li amen t or t h e Hou s e or each Hou s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e, as th e cas e may b e, as s oon as p os s i b le aft er t h e y
are mad e, an d sh all b e s u b j ect t o s u ch mod i fi cat i ons , wh eth er b y wa y o f
rep eal or amen d men t , as b ot h Hou s es of Pa rli amen t or t h e Ho u s e or b ot h
Hou s es of t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e may make d u ri n g t h e s es si on in
wh i ch t h ey are s o lai d .
3 2 1. P ow er to extend f uncti ons of P ubli c Servi ce Com mi ss i ons .— An
Act mad e b y Par li amen t or, as t h e cas e may b e, t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e
may p rovi d e fo r t h e ex erci s e of ad d i ti on al fu n ct i on s b y t h e Un i on Pu b li c
Servi ce Commi s s i on or t h e St at e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on as res p ects
t h e s ervi ces of t h e Uni on or th e St at e an d als o as res p ect s t h e s ervi ces of
an y loca l au t h ori t y or ot h er b od y corp o rat e con s t it u t ed b y la w or o f an y
p u b li c i ns t it ut i on .
3 2 2. Expens es of P ubl i c Servi ce Com m i s si ons .— Th e ex p en ses o f t h e
Un i on or a St at e Pu b li c Serv i ce Commi s s i on, i n clu di n g any s alari es ,
all owan ces an d p ens i on s p ayab le t o or i n res p ect of t h e memb ers or s t aff o f
t h e Commis si on , sh all b e ch arged on th e Cons oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a or, as
t h e cas e may b e, t h e Cons oli d at ed Fu n d of t h e St at e.
3 2 3. Reports of P ubli c Servi ce Com m is s i ons .— (1 ) It s h all b e t h e d ut y
o f t h e Un i on Commi s s i on t o p res en t ann u ally t o t h e Pres i d ent a rep ort as t o
t h e work d on e b y t h e Commi s s i on an d on recei pt of s u ch rep ort t h e
Pres i d en t sh all cau s e a cop y t h ereof t o get h er wi t h a memoran d u m
ex p lai ni n g, as res p ect s t h e cas es , i f an y, wh ere t h e ad vice of t h e
Commi s s i on was n ot accep t ed , t h e reas ons for s u ch n on -accep tan ce t o b e
lai d b efore each Hou s e of Par li a men t .
(2 ) It s h all b e t h e d ut y o f a St at e Commi s s i on t o p res ent ann u ally t o t h e
G overn or o f t h e St ate a rep ort as t o th e work d on e b y t h e Commi s si on , an d
i t sh all b e t h e d ut y o f a J oi n t Commi s si on t o p res en t ann uall y t o t h e
G overn or o f each o f t h e St at es t h e n eed s of wh i ch are s erved by t h e J oi n t
Commi s s i on a rep ort as t o t h e work d on e b y t h e Commi s s i on i n relat i on t o
t h at St at e, an d in eit h er cas e t h e G overn or, s h all, on recei p t of s u ch rep ort,
cau s e a cop y t h ereof t oget h er w i t h a memoran du m ex p lai ni n g, as res p ects
t h e cas es , i f an y, wh ere t h e advi ce o f t h e Commi s s i on was n ot accep t ed ,
t h e reas on s for s u ch n on -accep t an ce t o b e lai d b efore t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e
St at e.
135 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P ART XI VA
TRIB UN A LS
3 2 3 A. Adm i ni s tra ti ve tri bunals .—(1 ) Parli amen t may, b y la w, p rovi d e
for t h e adj ud i cati on or t ri al by ad mi n i s t rat i ve t ri bu n als of d i s pu t es and
comp lai n t s wit h resp ect t o recrui t ment and con di t i ons of s ervi ce o f p ers on s
ap p oi nt ed t o p ub li c s ervi ces an d p os t s i n conn ect i on wit h t h e affai rs of t h e
Un i on or o f an y St at e or o f an y loca l o r ot h er au t h ori t y wi t h i n th e t erri t ory
o f In d i a or u n d er t h e cont rol of t h e G overn men t of In d i a or o f an y
corp orat i on own ed or con t rolled b y t h e G overn men t .
(2 ) A law mad e u nd er clau s e (1 ) may—
(a ) p rovi d e for t h e est ab li sh men t of an ad min is t rati ve t rib un al for
t h e Un i on and a s ep arat e ad min i st rat i ve t rib un al for each St at e or for
t wo or more St at es ;
(b ) s p eci fy t h e j u ris d i ct i on , p owers (i n clu di n g t h e p ower t o p u n ish
for con t emp t ) an d au th ori t y wh i ch may b e ex erci s ed b y each o f t h e s ai d
t ri bu n als ;
(c) p rovi d e for t h e p roced u re (in clu d in g p rovi s i ons as t o li mi t at i on
an d ru les of evi d en ce) t o b e fo ll owed b y t h e s ai d t ri bu n als ;
(d ) ex clud e t h e j u ri sd i cti on of all cou rt s , ex cep t t h e ju ri sd i ct ion of
t h e Su p reme Cou rt u nd er arti cle 1 36 , wit h res p ect t o th e d i sp u t es or
comp lai n t s referred t o in clau s e (1 );
(e) p rovi d e for t h e t ran s fer t o each s u ch ad min is t rati ve t ri bu nal o f
an y cas es p en d in g b efore an y cou rt or ot h er au t h ori t y i mmed i at ely
b efore t h e es t ab li s h men t of s u ch t ri bu n al as wou ld h ave b een wit h in th e
j u ris di ct i on of s u ch t rib un al i f t h e cau s es of act i on on wh i ch s uch s ui t s
or p roceed i n gs are bas ed h ad aris en aft er s u ch est ab lis h men t ;
(f ) rep eal or amen d an y ord er m ad e b y t h e Pres i d ent u nd er clau se (3 )
o f art i cle 3 7 1 D;
(g ) con t ai n su ch su pp lemen tal, i n ci d ent al an d con s equ en t i al
p rovi s i on s (i n clu di n g p rovi s i ons as t o fees ) as Parli amen t may d eem
n eces s ary for t h e e ffect i ve fu n ct i on in g o f, an d for t h e s p eed y d i sp os al
o f cas es b y, an d th e en forcemen t of t h e ord ers of, s u ch t rib un als .
(3 ) Th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s arti cle s h all h ave effect n ot wi t hs t and in g
an yt h i n g i n an y ot h er p rovi s i on o f t h i s Con st i tu ti on or i n an y ot h er law for
t h e ti me b ei n g in force.
3 2 3B. Tri buna l s f or other matters .— (1 ) Th e ap p rop ri at e Legi s lat u re
may, b y law, p rovi d e for t h e ad j ud i cat i on or t ri al b y t ri bu nals o f an y
d i sp ut es , comp lain t s, or o ffen ces wi t h res p ect t o all or an y o f t h e mat t ers
s p eci fi ed i n clau s e (2 ) wi th respect t o wh i ch s u ch Legi s lat u re h as p ower t o
make laws .
(2 ) Th e matt ers referred t o i n clau s e (1 ) are th e fo ll owi n g, n amel y:—
(a ) lev y, as s es s ment , collect i on an d en forcemen t of an y t ax ;

135
136 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) forei gn ex ch an ge, i mp ort and exp ort acros s cus t oms fron t i ers ;
(c) i n du st ri al and lab ou r d is pu t es ;
(d ) lan d reforms b y wa y o f acq u i s it i on b y t h e St at e of an y es t at e as
d efi n ed i n arti cle 3 1 A or o f an y ri gh t s t h erein or t h e ex t in gu is hmen t or
mod i fi cat i on of an y s u ch ri gh t s or b y wa y o f cei li n g on a gri cu lt u ral lan d
or i n an y ot h er wa y;
(e) cei li n g on u rb an p rop ert y;
(f ) elect i on s t o ei t h er Hou s e o f Parli amen t or t h e Hou s e or ei t h er
Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of a S t at e, bu t ex clu di n g t h e mat t ers referred
t o i n arti cle 3 29 and arti cle 3 29A;
(g ) p rod u ct i on , p rocu remen t , s up p ly an d d i s t ri bu t i on of food -s t u ffs
(i n clu di n g edi b le oi ls eeds and oi ls ) an d s u ch oth er good s as th e
Pres i d en t may, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , d eclare t o b e es s en ti al go od s for
t h e p u rp os e of t h is arti cle an d con t rol o f p ri ces of s u ch good s ;
(h ) ren t, it s regu lat i on and con trol an d t en an cy i s s u es in clu di n g t h e
ri gh t , ti t le and in t erest of lan d lo rd s and t en ant s ;
(i ) offen ces agai n s t laws wi t h res p ect t o an y o f t h e mat t ers s p ecifi ed
i n su b -clau s es (a ) t o (h ) an d fees i n res p ect of an y o f t h os e mat ters ;
(j ) an y mat t er i n ci d ent al t o an y o f t h e mat t ers sp eci fi ed i n s u b -
clau s es (a ) t o (i ).
(3 ) A law mad e u nd er clau s e (1 ) may—
(a ) p rovi d e for t h e es t ab li s hment of a h i erarch y o f t ri b u n als ;
(b ) s p eci fy t h e j u ris d i ct i on , p owers (i n clu di n g t h e p ower t o p u n ish
for con t emp t ) an d au th ori t y wh i ch may b e ex erci s ed b y each o f t h e s ai d
t ri bu n als ;
(c) p rovi d e for t h e p roced u re (in clu d in g p rovi s i ons as t o li mi t at i on
an d ru les of evi d en ce) t o b e fo ll owed b y t h e s ai d t ri bu n als ;
(d ) ex clud e t h e j u ri sd i cti on of all cou rt s , ex cep t t h e ju ri sd i ct ion of
t h e Sup reme Cou rt un d er arti cle 1 3 6 , wit h resp ect t o all or an y o f t h e
mat t ers falli n g wi t h i n t h e j u ri sd ict i on of t h e s aid t ri bu n als ;
(e) p rovi d e for t h e t ran s fer t o each s u ch t rib un al o f an y cas es
p en di n g b efore an y cou rt or an y ot h er au th ori t y i mmed i at ely b e fore t h e
es t ab lis h men t of s u ch t ri bu nal as wou ld h ave b een wi th i n th e
j u ris di ct i on of s u ch t rib un al i f t h e cau s es of act i on on wh i ch s uch s ui t s
or p roceed i n gs are bas ed h ad aris en aft er s u ch est ab lis h men t ;
(f ) con t ain s u ch su pp lemen tal, i n cid ent al an d con s equ en t i al
p rovi s i on s (in clu di n g p rovi s ion s as t o fees ) as th e app rop ri ate
Le gi s lat u re may d eem n ecess ary for t h e effect i ve fu n ct i on i n g of, an d for
t h e s p eed y d i s p os al of cas es b y, an d t h e en forcemen t of t h e ord ers of,
s u ch t rib un als .
137 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4 ) Th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s arti cle s h all h ave effect n ot wi t hs t and in g


an yt h i n g i n an y ot h er p rovi s i on o f t h i s Con st i tu ti on or i n an y ot h er law for
t h e ti me b ei n g in force.
Exp l a na ti on .—In th i s art i cle, “ap p rop ri at e Legi s lat u re”, i n relat i on t o
an y mat t er, means Parli amen t or, as t h e cas e may b e, a St at e Le gi s lat u re
comp et en t t o make la ws wi t h res p ect t o s u ch mat t er in accord ance wi t h t h e
p rovi s i on s of Part XI.
138 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XV
ELECTIONS
3 2 4. Superi ntendence, di recti on a nd control of el ecti ons to be ves ted
i n a n El ecti on Com m i ss i on.— (1 ) Th e s u p eri n t en d en ce, di rect i on and
con t rol o f t h e p rep arat i on of t h e elect oral r ol ls for, an d t h e cond u ct of, all
elect i on s t o Parli amen t an d to t h e Legi s lat u re o f eve r y St at e an d of
elect i on s t o th e offi ces o f Pres i d en t and Vi ce-Pres i d en t h eld u nd er th is
Con s t it ut i on sh all b e ves t ed i n a Commis s i on (referred t o i n th i s
Con s t it ut i on as t h e Elect i on Commi s si on ).
(2 ) Th e E lect i on Commi s s i on s h all c on s i s t of t h e Ch i ef Elect i on
Commi s s i on er an d s u ch nu mb er o f ot h er Elect i on Commi s s i on ers, i f an y, as
t h e Presi d en t may from t i me t o t i me fi x and t h e ap p oin t men t of t h e Chi ef
Elect i on Commi s s i on er and ot h er Elect i on Commi s s i on ers sh all, s u bj ect t o
t h e p rovi s i on s of an y la w mad e i n t h at b eh alf b y Par li amen t , be mad e b y
t h e Presi d en t .
(3 ) Wh en an y ot h er Elect i on Commi s s i on er i s s o app oi nt ed t he Ch i ef
Elect i on Commi s si on er sh all act as th e Ch ai rman of th e Elect i on
Commi s s i on.
(4 ) Before each gen eral elect i o n t o th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d t o t he
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f each S t at e, and b efore t h e fi rs t gen eral elect i on
an d th ereaft er b efo re each b i enn i al elect i on t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve Cou n ci l o f
each St at e h avi n g s u ch Cou n ci l, t h e Presi d en t may als o ap p oi n t aft er
con s u lt at i on wit h t h e Elect i on Commi s s i on s u ch Regi on al Commi s si on ers
as h e may con s i d er n eces s ary t o as s i s t th e Elect i on Commi s si on i n t h e
p erforman ce o f t h e fu n ct i on s con ferred on t h e Commis si on b y cl au s e (1 ).
(5 ) Su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons o f an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t , th e
con d i ti on s of s ervi ce an d t enu re o f o ffi ce o f t h e Elect i on Co mmi s si on ers
an d th e Regi on al Commi s si on ers s h all b e s u ch as t h e Presi d en t may b y ru le
d et ermin e:
Provi d ed t h at th e Chi ef Elect i on Commi s si on er sh all n ot b e removed
fr om h i s offi ce ex cep t i n li ke man n er and on t h e li ke grou n d s as a J u d ge of
t h e Su p reme Cou rt and t h e con d it i ons of s ervi ce o f t h e Ch i ef E lect i on
Commi s s i on er s h all n ot b e vari ed t o h i s di s ad van t age aft er h i s
ap p oi nt ment :
Provi d ed fu rt h er th at an y ot h er Elect i on Commi s si on er or a Regi on al
Commi s s i on er sh all n ot b e removed from o ffi ce ex cep t on t h e
recommen d at i on of t h e Ch i ef El ect i on Commis s i on er.
(6 ) Th e Pres i d ent , or t h e G overn or o f a St at e, s h all, wh en s o r eq u est ed
b y t h e Elect i on Commi s s i on , make avai lab le t o t h e Elect i on Com mi s si on or
t o a Regi on al Commi s s i on er s u ch s t aff as ma y b e n eces s ar y for t h e
d i s ch arge o f t h e fu n ct i on s con ferred on t h e Elect i on Commi s s i on b y c lau s e
(1 ).

138
139 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

3 2 5. No pers on to be i nel i g i bl e f or i ncl usi on i n, or t o cl a i m to be


i ncl uded i n a s pecia l , el ectoral rol l on g rounds of rel ig i on, ra ce, cas te
or s e x.— Th ere s h all b e on e gen eral e lect oral ro ll for ever y t erri t ori al
con s t it u en cy for e lect i on t o ei ther Hou s e of Par li amen t or t o t he Hou s e or
ei t h er Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e an d n o p ers on s h all b e i n eli gi b le
for i n clu s i on in an y s u ch roll or clai m t o b e i n clu d ed i n an y s p eci al
elect oral r ol l for an y s u ch con st i tu en cy on grou n d s on ly o f re li gi on , race,
cas t e, s ex or an y o f t h em.
3 2 6. El ecti ons to the Hous e of the P eopl e a nd to the Leg i sl a ti ve
As s em bl i es of Sta tes to be on t he ba s i s of a dul t s uff ra g e.— Th e elect i on s
t o t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f ever y St at e
s h all b e on th e b as is of ad u lt s u ffra ge; t h at i s t o s ay, ever y p ers o n wh o i s a
ci t i zen of In d i a an d wh o is n ot les s th an ei gh t een years of a ge o n s u ch d at e
as may b e fi x ed i n th at b eh alf b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y t h e ap p rop ri at e
Le gi s lat u re an d is n ot ot h erwis e d i sq u ali fi ed un d er t h is Con st i tut i on or an y
law mad e b y t h e ap p rop ri at e Legi s lat u re on t h e grou n d of n on -res i d en ce,
u n s oun dn ess of mi n d , cri me or corru p t or i llega l p ract i ce, s h all b e en ti t led
t o b e regi s t ered as a vot er at an y s u ch elect i on .
3 2 7. P ow er of Pa rli am ent to ma ke provi s i on w i th res pect to el ecti ons
to Leg i s la tures .— Su b j ect to t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s t it u ti on ,
Parli amen t may fr om t i me t o t i me b y la w make p rovi s i on wi t h res p ect t o
all mat t ers relat i n g t o, or i n co n n ecti on wi t h , elect i on s t o ei ther Hou s e o f
Parli amen t or t o th e Hou s e or ei t h er Hou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a St at e
i n clu di n g th e p rep arat i on of elect oral ro lls , t h e d eli mit at i on of
con s t it u en ci es an d all ot h er mat t ers n eces s ary for s ecu ri ng the due
con s t it u ti on of s u ch Hou s e or Hou s es .
3 2 8. P ow er of Leg is l a ture of a Sta te to m a ke pro vi s i on w i th res pect
to el ecti ons to s uch Leg i s l a ture.—Su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on an d i n s o far as p rovi s i on in th at b eh alf i s n ot mad e b y
Parli amen t , th e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e may fr om t i me t o t i me by la w make
p rovi s i on wi t h res p ect t o all mat t ers relat i n g t o, or i n conn ect i on wi t h , t h e
elect i on s t o t h e Hou s e or ei t her Hou s e o f t h e Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e
i n clu di n g t h e p rep arati on of e le ct oral r ol ls an d all ot h er mat t ers n ecess ary
for s ecu ri n g th e du e con st it u ti on of s u ch Hou s e or Hou s es .
3 2 9. B a r to i nterf erence by courts i n el ectora l ma tters .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on —
(a ) t h e vali di t y o f an y la w relat i n g t o t h e d eli mi t at i on of
con s t it u en ci es or t h e allot men t o f s eat s t o s u ch con st i tu en ci es , mad e or
p u rp orti n g t o b e mad e u nd er art i cle 3 27 or art i cle 3 2 8, s h all n ot b e
called i n q u es ti on in an y cou rt ;
(b ) n o elect i on t o eit h er Hou se of Par li amen t or t o t h e Hou se or
ei t h er Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re of a St at e sh all b e called in q u est i on
ex cep t b y an e lect i on p et it i on p res ent ed t o s u ch aut h ori t y an d i n s u ch
man n er as may b e p rovi d ed for b y or u n d er an y law mad e b y t h e
ap p rop ri at e Legi s lat u re.
140 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

3 2 9 A. [S p eci al p ro vi si on a s t o el ecti o ns t o Pa r li a ment in t h e ca s e o f


Pr i me Mi n is t er an d S p ea ker.] Rep . b y th e Con st it u ti on (Fo r t y-fo ur th
Amen d men t ) Act , 19 78 , s . 36 (w.e.f . 20 -6 -1 9 7 9 ).
141 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XVI
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING
TO CERTAIN CLASSES
3 3 0. Res erva ti on of s ea ts f or Schedul ed Ca s tes a nd Schedul ed Tri bes
i n the Hous e of the P eopl e.—(1 ) Seats sh all b e res erved i n the Hou s e of
t h e Peop le for —
(a ) t h e Sch edu led Cast es ;
(b ) th e Sch edu led Tri b es ex cep t t h e Sch ed u led Tri b es in t h e
au t on omou s d i st ri cts of As s am; an d
(c) t h e Sch edu led Tri b es i n t h e au t on omou s d i st ri cts of As s am.
(2 ) Th e n u mb er of s eat s res erved i n an y St at e or Un i on t erri t ory for t h e
Sch ed u led Cas t es or t h e Sch eduled Tri b es un d er claus e (1 ) s h all b ear, as
n earl y as may b e, t h e s ame p roport i on t o t h e t ot al n u mb er of s eat s allot t ed
t o t h at St at e or Uni on t erritor y i n t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le as th e
p op u lat i on of t h e Sch ed u led Cast es in t h e St at e or Un i on t erri t ory or o f t h e
Sch ed u led Tri b es in th e St at e or Un i on t erri t ory or p art of t h e St at e or
Un i on t errit ory, as t h e cas e may b e, i n resp ect of wh i ch s eat s are s o
res erved , b ears t o t h e t ot al p op ulat i on of t h e St at e or Un i on t errit or y.
(3 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed i n clau s e (2 ), t h e numb er of
s eat s res erved i n t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le for t h e Sch ed u led Trib es i n t h e
au t on omou s d is t ri ct s of As s am s h all b ear t o t h e t ot al n u mb er o f s eat s
all ot t ed t o th at St at e a p rop ort i on n ot les s th an t h e p opu lat i on of t h e
Sch ed u led Tri b es i n t h e s aid au t on omou s d is t ri ct s b ears to t h e t ot al
p op u lat i on of t h e St at e.
Exp l a na ti on . —In t hi s arti cle an d in arti cle 3 3 2, t h e exp res si on
“p op u lat i on ” mean s t h e p op u lat i on as as cert ai n ed at t h e las t p reced in g
cen s us of wh i ch th e relevan t fi g u res h ave b een p ub li s h ed :
Provi d ed t h at t h e referen ce i n t h is Exp la na t io n t o t h e las t preced i n g
cen s us of wh i ch t h e relevan t fi gu res h ave b een p ub li sh ed sh all, u n t i l t h e
relevan t fi gu res for t h e fi rs t cen s us t aken aft er th e year 2 02 6 h ave b een
p u b lis h ed , b e con s t ru ed as a referen ce t o t h e 20 01 cens us .
3 3 1. Repres enta ti on of the Ang l o-I ndia n Comm uni ty i n the Hous e of
the P eopl e.— Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g i n arti cle 8 1 , th e Presi den t may, i f
h e i s of op i n i on th at th e Angl o -In d i an commun it y i s n ot ad equ at ely
rep res ent ed in th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le, n omi n at e n ot more t h an t wo
memb ers of t h at commun it y t o t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
3 3 2. Res erva ti on of s ea ts f or Schedul ed Ca s tes a nd Schedul ed Tri bes
i n the Leg is la ti ve As s em bli es of the Sta tes .— (1 ) Seats sh all b e res erved
for t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es an d th e Sch edu led Tri b es , ex cept t he Sch ed u led
Tri b es in t h e au t on omou s di s t rict s of As s am, i n th e Legi s lat i v e As s emb ly
o f ever y St at e.

141
142 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Seat s sh all b e res erved als o for t h e au t on omou s di s t ri cts i n t h e


Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St ate of As s am.
(3 ) Th e n u mb er of s eat s res erved for t h e Sch edu led Cas t es or t h e
Sch ed u led Trib es i n th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f an y St at e u nd er clau s e (1 )
s h all b ear, as n early as may b e, t h e s ame p rop ort i on t o t h e t ot al n u mb er of
s eat s in th e Ass emb l y as th e pop u lat i on of t h e Sch edu led Cast es i n th e
St at e or o f t h e Sch ed u led Trib es i n th e St at e or p art of t h e St at e, as th e
cas e may b e, in res p ect of wh i ch s eat s are s o res erved , b ears to t h e t ot al
p op u lat i on of t h e St at e.
(3 A) Not wi t h s t and in g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed i n clau s e (3 ), un ti l t h e t aki n g
effect , u n d er art i cle 1 7 0, of t h e re-ad j u s t ment , on t h e b as i s of t h e fi rs t
cen s us aft er th e year 2 0 26 , of t h e n umb er of s eat s i n th e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb li es of t h e St at es of Ar u n ach al Prad es h , Megh alaya, M i zoram an d
Nagalan d , t h e s eats wh i ch sh all b e res erved for t h e Sch edu led Tri b es i n t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f an y s u ch St at e s h all b e,—
(a ) i f all t h e s eats i n t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f s u ch St at e i n
ex i st en ce on th e d at e of comi ng i n t o force o f t h e Con st i tu ti on (Fi ft y-
s even t h Amend men t ) Act , 19 87 (h ereaft er i n t h is clau s e referred t o as
t h e ex i st in g As s emb ly) are h eld b y memb ers of t h e Sch edu led Tri b es ,
all t h e s eat s ex cept on e;
(b ) in an y ot h er cas e, s u ch n u mb er of s eat s as b ears t o th e t ot al
n u mb er of s eat s , a p rop ort i on not les s t h an t h e nu mb er (as on t h e s aid
d at e) of memb ers b elon gi n g t o t h e Sch edu led Tri b es i n th e ex i st in g
As s emb ly b ears t o t h e t ot al nu mb er of s eat s i n t h e ex is ti n g As s emb ly.
(3 B) Not wi t hs t an d in g an yt h in g con t ain ed in clau s e (3 ), un ti l t h e re-
ad j us t men t , un d er art i cle 1 70 , takes effect on th e b as is of t h e fi rs t cens u s
aft er t h e year 2 0 2 6 , of t h e n u mb er of s eat s i n t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
t h e St at e of Tri p u ra, t h e s eat s wh i ch sh all b e res erved for t h e Sch edu led
Tri b es i n t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y s h all b e, s u ch n u mb er of s e at s as b ears
t o t h e t ot al n u mb er of s eat s , a p rop ort i on n ot les s t h an t h e n umb er, as on
t h e d at e of c omi n g i n t o for ce o f t h e Con s t it u ti on (Seven t y-s econ d
Amen d ment ) Act , 1 99 2 , of memb ers b elon gi n g t o t h e Sch edu led Tri b es in
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly i n exi s t en ce on t h e s aid d at e b ears to t h e t ot al
n u mb er of s eat s i n t hat As s emb ly.
(4 ) Th e n u mb er of s eat s res erved for an au t on omou s d i s t ri ct i n th e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of As s am s h all b ear t o th e t ot al n u mb er
o f s eat s i n t h at Ass emb ly a p ro p ort i on n ot les s th an th e p opu lat i on of t h e
d i st ri ct b ears t o t h e t ot al p op u lat i on of t h e St at e.
(5 ) Th e con st it u en ci es for t h e s eat s res erved for an y au t on omou s d is t ri ct
o f As s am s h all n ot comp ri s e an y area ou t s id e th at d is t ri ct .
(6 ) No p ers on wh o i s n ot a memb er of a Sch ed u led Tri b e o f an y
au t on omou s di s t ri ct of t h e St at e o f As s am s h all b e eli gi b le for elect i on t o
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e from an y con s t i t u ency o f t h at
d i st ri ct :
143 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed t h at for e lect i on s t o t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of


As s am, th e rep res en t at i on of t h e Sch ed u led Trib es an d n on-Sch ed u led
Tri b es i n th e con s t it u en ci es i nclu d ed i n th e Bod olan d Terri t ori al Areas
Di s t ri ct , s o n ot i fi ed , an d ex i sti n g p ri or t o t h e cons t it ut i on of B od olan d
Terri t ori al Areas Di s t ri ct , s h all b e main t ain ed.
3 3 3. Repres enta ti on of the Ang l o-I ndi a n com m uni ty i n the
Leg i sl a ti ve As s em bl i es of the Sta tes .— Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in
art i cle 1 7 0, t h e G overn or o f a St at e may, i f h e i s of op i n i on t h at t h e An glo -
In d i an commun i t y n eed s rep res en t ati on in th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e
St at e and i s n ot ad eq u at ely rep res en t ed t h erei n , n omi n at e on e memb er of
t h at commu ni t y t o t h e As s emb ly.
334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.—
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, the provisions of this
Constitution relating to—
(a) the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the
House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States; and
(b) the representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People and
in the Legislative Assemblies of the States by nomination,
shall cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of sixty years from the commencement
of this Constitution:
Provided that nothing in this article shall affect any representation in the House of the
People or in the Legislative Assembly of a State until the dissolution of the then existing
House or Assembly, as the case may be.
335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.—The
claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into
consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the
making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of
a State:
Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent in making of any provision in favour of
the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying
marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for reservation in matters
or promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with the affairs of the
Union or of a State.
336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.— (1) During
the first two years after the commencement of this Constitution, appointments of members of
the Anglo-Indian community to posts in the railway, customs, postal and telegraph services of
the Union shall be made on the same basis as immediately before the fifteenth day of August,
1947.
During every succeeding period of two years, the number of posts reserved for the
members of the said community in the said services shall, as nearly as possible, be less by ten
per cent. than the numbers so reserved during the immediately preceding period of two years:
Provided that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution all such
reservations shall cease.
144 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall bar the appointment of members of the Anglo-Indian
community to posts other than, or in addition to, those reserved for the community under that
clause if such members are found qualified for appointment on merit as compared with the
members of other communities.
337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-
Indian community.— During the first three financial years after the commencement of this
Constitution, the same grants, if any, shall be made by the Union and by each State for the
benefit of the Anglo-Indian community in respect of education as were made in the financial
year ending on the thirty-first day of March, 1948.
During every succeeding period of three years the grants may be less by ten per cent. than
those for the immediately preceding period of three years :
Provided that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution such
grants, to the extent to which they are a special concession to the Anglo-Indian community,
shall cease:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at n o edu cat i on al i n st i tu ti on s h all b e en t i t led t o
recei ve an y gran t u n d er t h is art i cle u n les s at leas t fort y p er c en t . of t h e
an n ual ad mi ss i ons th erein are mad e avai lab le t o memb ers of commu n it i es
ot h er t h an th e An glo -In d i an commu ni t y.
338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes.— (1) There shall be a Commission
for the Scheduled Castes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the
Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice- Chairperson and three other Members and
the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other
Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule determine.
(3 ) Th e Ch ai rp ers on , Vi ce-Chai rp ers on an d oth er Memb ers o f t h e
Commi s s i on s h all b e ap p oin t ed b y t h e Pres i d en t b y warran t u nder h i s h and
an d s eal.
(4 ) Th e Commi ss i on s h all h ave th e p ower t o regu lat e i t s own p roced u re.
(5 ) It s h all b e t h e d ut y o f t h e Commi s si on —
(a ) t o i n vest i gat e and moni t or all mat t ers relat i n g t o t h e s afegu ard s
p rovi d ed for t h e Sch ed u led Castes u nd er th i s Con st i tu ti on or un d er an y
ot h er law for t h e t i me b eing i n force or u n d er an y ord er o f t h e
G overn men t an d t o evalu at e t h e worki n g o f s u ch s afegu ard s ;
(b ) t o i nq u i re i nt o s p eci fi c comp lai n t s wit h resp ect t o t h e
d ep ri vati on of ri gh t s and s afegu ard s of t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es ;
(c) t o p art i cip at e and ad vi s e on t h e p lann in g p roces s of s oci o-
econ omi c d evelop men t o f t h e Sch ed u led Cas t es and t o eval u at e t h e
p rogres s of t h ei r d evelop men t un d er th e Uni on and an y St at e;
(d ) t o p res en t t o t h e Pres id en t, an n uall y an d at s u ch ot h er t i mes as
t h e Commis s i on may d eem fi t , rep ort s up on th e worki n g o f t h os e
s afegu ard s ;
(e) t o make i n su ch rep ort s recommen d at i on s as t o th e meas u res t h at
s h ou ld b e t aken b y t h e Uni on or an y St at e for t h e effect i ve
145 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

i mp lemen t at i on of t h os e s afegu ard s an d ot h er meas u res for t h e


p rot ect i on , welfare an d s oci o -e con omi c d evelop men t of t h e Sch ed u led
Cas t es ; and
(f ) t o d is ch arge su ch ot h er fu nct i on s i n relat i on t o t h e p rot ect i on ,
wel fare an d d evelop men t and ad van cement of t h e Sch edu led Cas t es as
t h e Presi d en t may, s u b j ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons of an y law mad e b y
Parli amen t , b y ru le s p eci fy.
(6 ) Th e Pres id ent sh all cau s e all s u ch rep ort s t o b e lai d b efore each
Hou s e o f Parli amen t alon g wi t h a memoran d u m ex p lai ni n g th e act i on t aken
or p rop os ed t o b e t aken on t h e recommen d ati on s relat i n g t o th e Un i on an d
t h e reas ons for t h e n on -accep t an ce, i f an y, o f an y of s u ch
recommen d at i ons .
(7 ) Wh ere an y s u ch rep ort , or any p art t h ereof, re lat es t o an y mat t er wi t h
wh i ch an y St at e G overn men t i s con cern ed , a cop y o f s u ch report s h all b e
forward ed t o t h e G overn or o f t h e St at e wh o s h all cau s e i t t o b e lai d b efore
t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e alon g wi t h a memorand u m exp lai n in g th e
act i on t aken or p rop os ed t o b e t aken on th e recommen d ati on s relat i n g t o
t h e St at e and th e reas ons for t h e n on -accep t an ce, i f an y, o f a n y o f s u ch
recommen d at i ons .
(8 ) Th e Commi s s i on s h all, wh i le i n ves t i gati n g an y mat t er refer red t o i n
s u b -clau s e (a ) or i nq ui ri n g in t o an y c omp lai n t referred t o i n s ub-c lau s e (b )
o f clau s e (5 ), h ave all t h e p owers of a ci vi l c ou rt t ryi n g a s u i t an d in
p art i cu lar i n res p ect of t h e fo l lo wi n g mat t ers, n amely :—
(a ) s u mmoni n g an d en forci n g t h e at t end an ce of an y p ers on from an y
p art of In d i a and ex amin i n g h i m on oat h ;
(b ) req ui rin g t h e d is cover y an d p rod u cti on of an y d ocu men t ;
(c) recei vi n g evi d en ce on affi d avi t s ;
(d ) req u is i ti on in g an y p u b li c record or cop y t h ereof from an y c ou rt
or o ffi ce;
(e) i s s ui n g commi s si on s for t h e ex ami n at i on of wi t n ess es an d
d ocu ment s ;
(f ) an y ot h er mat t er wh i ch th e Pres i d en t may, b y ru le, d et ermi n e.
(9 ) Th e Un i on and every St at e Govern men t sh all con s u lt t h e Commi s si on
on all maj or p o li c y mat t es affect i n g Sch edu led Cast es .
(1 0 ) In t h is art i cle, referen ces t o t h e Sch edu led Cas t es s h all b e
con s t ru ed as in clu d in g referen c es t o s u ch ot h er b ackward clas s es as th e
Pres i d en t may, on recei p t of t h e rep ort o f a C ommi s s i on ap p oin t ed u nd er
clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 3 4 0 , b y o rd er s p eci fy an d als o t o t h e A n glo -In d i an
commu n it y.
338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.—(1) There shall be a
Commission for the Scheduled Tribes to be known as the National Commission for the
Scheduled Tribes.
146 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the
Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and
the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other
Members so appointed shall be such as the President by rule determine.
(3) The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members of the Commission shall be
appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
(4) The Commission shall have the power to regulate its own procedure.
(5) It shall be the duty of the Commission—
(a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for
the Scheduled Tribes under this Constitution or under any other law for the time being
in force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such
safeguards;
(b) to inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and
safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes;
(c) to participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic
development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development
under the Union and any State;
(d) to present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission
may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards;
(e) to make in such reports recommendation as to the measures that should be
taken by the Union or any State for the effective implementation of those safeguards
and other measures for the protection, welfare and socioeconomic development of the
Scheduled Tribes; and
(f) to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and
development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President may, subject to
the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify.
(6) The President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament
along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the
recommendations relating to the Union and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of
any such recommendations.

(7) Where any such report, or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any
State Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the Governor of
the State who shall cause it to be laid before the Legislature of the State along with a
memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations
relating to the State and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such
recommendations.
(8) The Commission shall, while investigating any matter referred to in sub-clause (a) or
inquiring into any complaint referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (5), have all the powers
of a civil court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely: —
(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India
and examining him on oath;
(b) requiring the discovery and production of any document;
(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;
147 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office;
(e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents;
(f) any other matter which the President may, by rule, determine.
(9) The Union and every State Government shall consult the Commission on all major
policy matters affecting Scheduled Tribes.
3 3 9. Control of the Uni on over the a dm i ni s tra ti on of Schedul ed Area s
a nd the w elf a re of Schedul ed Tri bes .—(1 ) Th e Presi d en t may at an y t i me
an d s h all, at th e exp i rati on of t en years fr om t h e commen cemen t of t h is
Con s t it ut i on b y ord er ap p oi nt a Commi s s i on t o rep ort on t h e admi n is t rat i on
o f t h e Sch edu led Areas an d t he wel fare o f t h e Sch ed u led Trib es i n t h e
St at es .
Th e ord er ma y d efi n e t h e comp os i ti on , p owers an d p roced ure o f t h e
Commi s s i on and may con t ain such in cid ent al or an ci llar y p rovi s i on s as th e
Pres i d en t may con s i d er n ecess ary or d es i rab le.
(2 ) Th e ex ecu ti ve p ower o f t h e Un i on s h all ex t en d t o t h e gi vi n g o f
d i recti on s t o a St at e as t o t he d rawi n g up an d ex ecut i on of s ch emes
s p eci fi ed i n th e d i recti on t o b e es s ent i al for t h e welfare o f t h e Sch ed u led
Tri b es in th e St at e.
3 4 0. Appoi ntm ent of a Commi s si on to i nves ti g a te the conditi ons of
ba c kw a rd cla s s es .—(1 ) Th e Pres i d en t may b y ord er ap p oi nt a Commi s s i on
con s i st i n g of s u ch p ers on s as he t hi n ks fi t t o in ves t i gat e th e con d i ti on s of
s oci all y an d ed u cat i on all y b ack ward clas s es wi t hi n th e t errit ory o f In d i a
an d th e d i ffi cu lt i es u nd er wh i ch t h ey lab ou r an d t o make recom men d at i on s
as t o th e st eps th at s h ou ld b e taken b y t h e Un i on or an y St at e t o remove
s u ch d i ffi cu lt i es an d t o i mp rove t h ei r con di ti on an d as t o t h e gran t s t h at
s h ou ld b e mad e for t h e p u rpos e b y t h e Un i on or an y St a t e an d th e
con d i ti on s s ub j ect t o whi ch s uch gran ts sh ou ld b e mad e, an d t h e ord er
ap p oi nt in g s u ch Commi s si on s hall d efi n e t h e p roced u re t o b e fol lo wed b y
t h e Commis s i on.
(2 ) A Commi ss i on s o ap p oin t ed s h all i n ves ti gat e th e mat t ers referred t o
t h em and p res en t t o t h e Pres id en t a rep ort s ett in g ou t t h e fact s as fou n d b y
t h em an d makin g s u ch recommen d ati on s as th ey t h i n k p rop er.
(3 ) Th e Pres id en t sh all cau s e a cop y o f t h e rep ort s o p res en t ed t oget h er
wi t h a memoran du m exp lai n in g t h e acti on t aken th ereon t o b e lai d b efore
each Hou s e of Parli amen t .
3 4 1. Schedul ed Ca s tes .—(1 ) Th e Pres i d ent may wi t h res p ect t o an y
St at e or Un i on t erri t ory, an d wh ere i t i s a St at e, aft er con s u lt at ion wi t h t he
G overn or t h ereo f, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , s p eci fy t h e cas t es , races or t ri b es
or p art s of or grou p s wi t h in cas t es , races or t ri b es wh i ch s hall for t h e
p u rp os es of t h i s Con s t it ut i on b e d eemed t o b e Sch ed u led Cast es i n relat i on
t o t h at St at e or Un i on t erri t ory, as t h e cas e may b e.
(2 ) Parli amen t may b y law i n clu d e i n or ex clu d e from t h e li s t o f
Sch ed u led Cas t es sp eci fi ed i n a n ot i fi cat i on is su ed u nd er clau s e (1 ) an y
cas t e, race or t rib e or p art of or grou p wi t h in an y cas t e, race or t ri b e, bu t
148 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s ave as afo res ai d a n ot i fi cat i on i s su ed un d er t h e s ai d clau s e sh all n ot b e


vari ed b y an y s u b s equ en t n ot i fi cat i on .
3 4 2. Schedul ed Tri bes .—(1 ) Th e Pres i d ent may wi t h res p ect t o an y
St at e or Un i on t erri t ory, an d wh ere i t i s a St at e, aft er con s u lt at ion wi t h t he
G overn or t h ereof, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , sp eci fy t h e t ri b es or t ri b al
commu n it i es or p art s of or gr ou p s wi t hi n t ri b es or t ri b al commu n it i es
wh i ch s h all for t h e p u rp os es o f t h i s Con s t i tu ti on b e d eemed t o b e
Sch ed u led Tri b es in relat i on t o t h at St at e or Uni on t erri t ory, as th e cas e
may b e.
(2) Parliament may by law include in or exclude from the list of Scheduled Tribes
specified in a notification issued under clause (1) any tribe or tribal community or part of or
group within any tribe or tribal community, but save as aforesaid a notification issued under
the said clause shall not be varied by any subsequent notification.
149 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XVII
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
C H A P T ER I.—L A N G U AG E O F T H E U N IO N
3 4 3. Off i cia l l a ng uag e of the Uni on.—(1 ) Th e offi ci al lan gu age o f t h e
Un i on sh all b e Hi n d i i n Devan agari s crip t .
Th e form o f n u merals t o b e u s ed for t h e o ffi ci al p u rp os es of t h e Un i on
s h all b e t h e i nt ern at i on al form o f In d i an nu merals .
(2 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in clau s e (1 ), for a p eri od of fi ft een years
fr om t h e commen cement of t h is Con s ti tu t i on, th e En gli s h langu age s h all
con t i nu e t o b e us ed for al l t h e o ffi ci al p u rp os es of t h e Un i on for wh i ch i t
was b ein g u s ed i mmed i at ely b e fore s u ch commen cemen t :
Provi d ed t h at t h e Presi d en t may, d u ri n g t h e s aid p eri od , by o rd er
au t h oris e th e u s e of t h e Hin di lan gu age i n add i ti on t o t h e En gli s h lan gu age
an d of t h e Devan agari form o f n u merals i n ad di t i on t o t h e int ern ati on al
form o f In d i an n u merals for an y o f t h e offi ci al p u rp os es of t h e Un i on .
(3 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in th i s art i cle, Parli ament may b y la w
p rovi d e for t h e u s e, aft er t h e s aid p eri od of fi ft een years , o f—
(a ) t h e En gli s h lan gu age, or
(b ) t h e Devan agari fo rm o f n u merals ,
for s u ch p u rp os es as may b e s p eci fi ed i n t h e law.
3 4 4. Com mi ss i on a nd Com mi ttee of Pa rl iam ent on off i cial
l a ng ua g e.—(1 ) Th e Pres id ent s hall, at t h e exp i rat i on of fi ve yea rs from t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s t it uti on an d t h ereaft er at t h e exp i rati on o f t en
yea rs from s u ch commen cemen t, b y ord er con s t it u t e a Commiss i on whi ch
s h all con s i st of a Ch ai rman an d s u ch oth er memb ers rep resen t in g th e
d i fferen t lan gu ages s p eci fi ed i n t h e Ei gh t h Sch edu le as t h e Pres i d en t may
ap p oi nt , an d t h e ord er s h all d efi n e t h e p rocedu re t o b e fo ll o wed b y t h e
Commi s s i on.
(2 ) It s h all b e t h e d u t y o f t h e Commi s s i on t o make recommen d at i on s t o
t h e Presi d en t as t o—
(a ) th e p rogres s i ve u s e of t h e Hi n di lan gu age for t h e offi ci al
p u rp os es of t h e Un i on ;
(b ) res t ri ct i ons on th e us e of t h e En gli s h lan gu age for al l or an y o f
t h e offi ci al p u rp os es of t h e Un i on ;
(c) t h e lan gu age t o be us ed for all or an y o f t h e pu rp os es men tion ed
i n arti cle 3 48 ;
(d ) t h e form o f n u merals t o b e u s ed for an y on e or more s p eci fi ed
p u rp os es of t h e Un i on ;
(e) an y ot h er mat t er referred t o t h e Commi ss i on b y t h e Pres id ent as
regard s t h e offi ci al lan gu age o f t h e Un i on and t h e lan gu age for

149
150 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

commu n i cat i on b et ween t h e Union an d a St at e or b et ween on e St at e and


an ot h er and th ei r u s e.
(3 ) In maki n g t h ei r recommendat i on s u nd er clau s e (2 ), t h e Commi s si on
s h all h ave d u e regard t o t h e i n du s t ri al, cu lt u ral an d s ci en t i fi c ad van cement
o f In d i a, an d t h e j us t clai ms and th e in t erest s of p ers on s b elon gi n g t o t he
n on -Hi n d i sp eaki n g areas i n regard t o t h e pu b li c s ervi ces .
(4 ) Th ere s h all b e con s t it u t ed a Commi t t ee con si s ti n g of t h i rt y memb ers ,
o f wh om t wen t y s h al l b e memb ers of t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le an d t en sh all
b e memb ers of t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es t o b e elect ed res p ecti vel y b y t h e
memb ers of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le an d th e memb ers of t h e Cou n ci l of
St at es i n accord an ce wi th th e s ys t em o f p rop ort i on al rep res en t ati on b y
mean s of t h e si n gle t ran s ferab le vot e.
(5 ) It s h all b e t h e d u t y o f t h e Commi t t ee t o ex amin e t h e
recommen d at i ons of t h e Commi s s i on con st i tu t ed u nd er clau s e (1 ) an d t o
rep ort t o t h e Pres id ent th ei r op ini on t h ereon .
(6 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in art i cle 3 4 3, t h e Presi d en t may, a ft er
con s i d erat i on of t h e rep ort re ferred t o i n clau s e (5 ), i s s u e direct i on s in
accord an ce wi t h t h e wh ole or an y p art o f t h at rep ort .
C H AP T E R II.—R E G I O N A L L A N G U A G E S
3 4 5. Off i ci a l la ng ua g e or lang ua g es of a Sta te.—Su b ject t o t h e
p rovi s i on s of art i cles 34 6 an d 34 7 , t h e Legi s lat u re of a St at e may b y law
ad op t an y on e or more o f t h e lan gu ages in us e in th e St at e or Hi n di as th e
lan gu age or lan gu ages t o b e u s ed for a l l or an y o f t h e o ffi ci al p u rp os es of
t h at St at e:
Provi d ed t h at , u nt i l t h e Legi s la t u re of t h e St at e ot h erwis e p rovi d es b y
law, t h e En gli s h lan gu age s h all c on t i nu e t o b e u s ed for t h os e offi ci al
p u rp os es wi t hi n th e St at e for w h i ch i t was b ein g u s ed i mmed i at el y b e fore
t h e commen cemen t of t h is Con sti t ut i on .
3 4 6. Off i ci a l l a ng uag e f or com m uni ca ti on betw een one Sta te a nd
a nother or betw een a Sta te and the Uni on.—Th e lan gu age for t h e t i me
b ei n g au t h oris ed for u s e i n t h e Un i on for o ffi ci al p u rp os es sh all b e t h e
o ffi ci al lan gu age for commu n i cat i on b et ween on e St at e and anot h er St ate
an d b et ween a St at e an d t h e Un ion :
Provi d ed th at i f t wo or more St at es agree th at t h e Hi nd i lan gu age s h ou ld
b e t h e offi ci al lan gu age for c ommu n i cat i on b et ween su ch St at es , t h at
lan gu age ma y b e u s ed for s u ch commu n i cat i on .
3 4 7. Speci al provi s i on rel a ti ng to l a ng ua g e s poken by a s ecti on of the
popul a ti on of a Sta te.—On a d eman d b ein g mad e in th at b eh alf t h e
Pres i d en t may, i f h e i s s at is fi ed th at a s ub st ant i al p rop ort ion of t h e
p op u lat i on of a St at e d es i re t h e u s e of an y lan gu age s p oken b y t h em t o b e
recogn i s ed b y t h at St at e, d i rect t h at su ch lan gu age s h all als o b e o ffi ci all y
recogn i s ed th rou gh ou t th at St at e or an y p art t h ereof for s u ch p u rp os e as h e
may s p eci fy.
151 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

C H AP T E R III.— L A N G U A G E O F T H E S U P R E M E C O U R T ,
HIGH COURTS, ETC.
3 4 8. La ng ua g e to be us ed i n the Suprem e C ourt a nd i n t he Hi g h
Courts a nd f or Acts , Bi l ls , etc.—(1 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g i n t h e
foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s of t h i s Part , un ti l Parli amen t b y law ot h erwi s e
p rovi d es —
(a ) all p roceed i n gs in th e Sup reme Cou rt and in every Hi gh Cou rt ,
(b ) t h e au th ori t ati ve t ext s —
(i ) of al l Bi lls t o b e in t rod u ced or amend ment s th eret o t o b e
moved i n ei t h er Hou s e of Parl i amen t or i n t h e Hou s e or ei th er
Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e,
(i i ) of all Act s p ass ed b y Parl i amen t or th e Legi s lat u re of a
St at e an d of all Ord i n an ces p romu lgat ed b y t h e Presi d en t or t h e
G overn or o f a St at e, an d
(i i i ) of al l ord ers , ru les , regu lati on s an d b ye-laws i s s u ed u nd er
t h is Con s ti t ut i on or u n d er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t or t h e
Le gi s lat u re of a St at e,
s h all b e i n t h e En gli s h lan gu age.
(2 ) Not wi t h s t an d in g an yt h i n g i n s u b -clau s e (a ) o f c lau s e (1 ), t h e
G overn or o f a St at e may, wi t h t h e p revi ou s con s en t of t h e Pres i d en t ,
au t h oris e th e u s e of t h e Hin d i lan gu age, or an y ot h er lan gu age u s ed for an y
o ffi ci al p u rp os es of t h e St at e, in p roceedi n gs i n t h e Hi gh Cou rt h avi n g its
p ri n ci p al s eat in th at St at e:
Provi d ed t h at n ot h in g in th is clau s e s h all ap p ly t o an y j u d gmen t , d ecree
or ord er p as s ed or mad e b y s u ch Hi gh Cou rt .
(3 ) Not wi t h st and i n g an yt h i n g i n s u b -clau s e (b ) of clau s e (1 ), wh ere t h e
Le gi s lat u re o f a St at e h as p res cri b ed an y lan gu age ot h er t h an th e En gli s h
lan gu age fo r u s e i n Bi lls i n t rodu ced in , or Act s p as s ed b y, t h e Le gi s lat u re
o f t h e St at e or i n Ord in an ces p romu lgat ed b y t h e G overn or of t h e St at e or
i n an y ord er, ru le, regu lat i on or b ye -la w re ferred t o i n p aragrap h (i i i ) of
t h at su b -clau s e, a t ran s lati on of t h e s ame in t h e En gli s h lan gu age p u b li sh ed
u n d er th e au th ori t y o f t h e G overn or o f t h e St at e i n t h e Offi ci al G azet t e of
t h at St at e s h all b e d eemed t o b e t h e au t h ori tat i ve t ext t h ereo f i n t h e
En gli s h lan gu age u n d er t hi s art icle.
3 4 9. Specia l procedure f or ena ctm ent of certa i n l aw s rela ti ng to
l a ng ua g e.—Du rin g t h e p eri od of fi ft een years from t h e commen cement of
t h is Con s ti tu t i on, n o Bi ll or am en d men t maki n g p rovi s i on for t h e lan gu age
t o b e u s ed for an y o f t h e p u rp os es ment i on ed i n clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 3 48
s h all b e in t rod u ced or moved in eit h er Hou s e of Parli amen t wi t h ou t t h e
p revi ou s s an ct i on of t h e Pres i den t , and t h e Presi d en t sh all n o t gi ve h i s
s an cti on t o t h e i nt rod u cti on of an y s u ch Bi ll or t h e movi n g o f an y s u ch
amen d men t ex cept aft er h e h as t aken i n t o con si d erat i on th e
recommen d at i ons of t h e Commi ss i on con st i tu t ed un d er claus e (1) o f art i cle
152 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

3 4 4 an d th e rep ort of t h e Commi t t ee con st it u t ed un d er clau s e (4 ) o f t h at


art i cle.
C H AP T E R IV.—S P E C I A L D I R E C T I V E S
3 5 0. La ng uag e to be us ed i n repres enta ti ons f or redres s of
g ri eva nces .—Ever y p ers on s h all b e en t it led t o s u bmi t a rep res en t ati on for
t h e red ress of an y gri e van ce t o an y o ffi cer o r au t h ori t y o f t h e Un i on or a
St at e i n an y o f t h e lan gu ages u s ed i n t h e Un i on or i n t h e St at e, as t h e cas e
may b e.
3 5 0 A. Fa cil i ti es f or i ns tructi on i n m other-tong ue a t pri m a ry s ta g e.—
It s h all b e t h e en d eavou r of ever y St at e an d of ever y loca l au t h ori t y wi t h in
t h e St at e t o p rovi d e ad eq u at e faci li t i es for i n s t ru ct i on i n t h e mot h er-t on gu e
at t h e p ri mary s t age o f ed u cat i on t o ch i ld ren b elon gi n g t o li n gu i s t ic
mi n ori t y gr ou p s ; an d t he Pres i den t may i s s u e s u ch d i rect i ons to an y St at e
as h e con s id ers n eces s ary or p rop er for s ecu ri n g t h e p rovi s i on of s u ch
faci li t i es .
3 5 0B. Specia l Offi cer f or l i ngui s ti c m i nori ti es .—(1 ) Th ere sh all b e a
Sp eci al Offi cer for li n gu i s ti c min ori t i es t o b e ap p oin t ed b y t h e Pres i d en t .
(2 ) It s h all b e t h e du t y o f t h e Sp eci al Offi cer t o i n ves t i gat e all mat t ers
relat i n g t o t h e s afegu ard s p rovi d ed for li n gu i s t i c min ori t i es u nd er th i s
Con s t it ut i on an d rep ort t o the Pres id ent u p on t h os e matt ers at su ch
i n t ervals as th e Pres id ent may d i rect , an d t h e Presi d en t s h all cau s e all s u ch
rep ort s t o b e laid b efore each Hou s e of Par li amen t , an d sen t t o th e
G overn men t s of t h e St at es con cern ed .
3 5 1. Di recti ve f or devel opm ent of the Hi ndi la ng ua g e.—It s h all b e t h e
d u t y of t h e Un i on t o p romot e the s p read of t h e Hin di lan gu age, t o d evelop
i t s o th at it may s erve as a med iu m of ex p res s i on for al l t h e elemen t s of t h e
comp os i t e cu lt u re of In d i a an d t o s ecu re i t s en ri ch men t b y a s s i mi lat i n g
wi t h ou t i nt erferi n g wi t h it s geniu s , t h e forms , s t yle an d ex p res s ion s u s ed in
Hi n d us t an i and i n t h e ot h er lan gu ages of In d i a sp eci fi ed i n t h e Ei ght h
Sch ed u le, an d b y d rawi n g, wh erever n ecess ary or d es i rab le, for i t s
vocab u lar y, p ri mari l y on San s kri t and s econd ari ly on ot h er lan gu ages .
153 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P ART XVI I I
EMERG ENCY PRO V IS IO NS
3 5 2. P rocl am a ti on of Em erg ency .—(1 ) If t h e Pres i d ent i s s ati sfi ed t h at
a grave emer gen c y ex i s t s wh ereb y t h e s ecu ri t y o f In d i a or o f a n y p art o f
t h e t erri t ory t h ereo f i s t h reat ened , wh et h er b y war or ex t ern al aggres s i on
or armed reb elli on , h e may, b y Proclamat i on , make a d eclarati on t o th at
effect i n res p ect of t h e wh ole of In d i a or o f s u ch p art of t h e t errit ory
t h ereof as may b e s p eci fi ed i n t he Proclamat i on .
Exp l a na ti on .—A Proclamat i on of Emergen c y d eclari n g t h at t h e s ecu rit y
o f In d i a or an y p art o f t h e t erri t ory t h ereof i s t h reat en ed b y war or b y
ex t ern al aggres s i on or b y arme d reb elli on ma y b e mad e b e fore t h e act u al
occu rren ce of war o r o f an y s u c h aggres s i on or reb elli on , i f t h e Pres i d ent
i s s at is fi ed t h at th ere is i mmi n ent d an ger t h ereof.
(2 ) A Proclamat i on i s s u ed un d er clau s e (1 ) may b e vari ed or rev oked b y
a s ub s equ ent Proclamat i on .
(3 ) Th e Presi d en t sh all n ot i ssu e a Proclamat i on u nd er clau s e (1 ) or a
Proclamat i on var yi n g s u ch Proclamat i on u n les s th e d ecis i on of t h e Un i on
Cab i n et (th at i s t o s ay, t h e Cou n ci l con si s ti n g of t h e Pri me Mi n is t er an d
ot h er Mi ni st ers of Cab i n et rank ap p oi n t ed un d er arti cle 7 5 ) th at su ch a
Proclamat i on ma y b e i s su ed h as b een commun i cat ed t o h i m i n wri t in g.
(4 ) Ever y Pr oclamat i on i s su ed un d er th is art icle s h all b e lai d b efore each
Hou s e o f Par li amen t an d s h all, ex cep t wh ere it i s a Proclamat i on revoki n g
a p revi ou s Proclamat i on , ceas e t o op erat e at th e exp i rat i on of on e mon th
u n les s b efore t h e exp i rati on o f t h at p eri od it h as b een ap p roved b y
res olu t i on s of b ot h Hou s es of Parli amen t :
Provi d ed t h at i f an y s u ch Proclamat i on (n ot b ein g a Proclamat i on
revo ki n g a p revi ou s Proc lamat i on ) i s i s su ed at a t i me wh en t he Hou s e o f
t h e Peop le h as b een d is s olved , or t h e d i s s olu t i on of t h e Ho u s e of t h e
Peop le t akes p lace d u ri n g t h e p eri od o f on e m on t h referred t o i n t h is
clau s e, an d i f a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g t h e Proclamat i on h as b een p ass ed b y
t h e Coun ci l of St at es , b ut n o res olu t i on wi th res p ect t o su ch Proclamat i on
h as been p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le b efore t h e ex p i rat i on of t h at
p eri od , th e Proclamat i on s h all ceas e t o op erat e at th e exp i rati on of t h i rt y
d ays fr om t h e d at e on whi ch th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le fi rs t s it s aft er i ts
recon s t it u ti on , un les s b efore t h e ex p i rat i on of t h e s ai d p eri od of t h i rt y d a ys
a res olu t i on app rovi n g t h e Proclamat i on h as b een als o p as s ed by t h e Hou s e
o f t h e Peop le.
(5 ) A Pr oclamat i on s o ap p rove d s h all, u n les s revoked , ceas e t o op erat e
on t h e ex pi rat i on of a p eri od of s i x mon t hs from t h e d at e of t h e p as si n g of
t h e s econd of t h e res olu t i ons app rovi n g t h e Proclamat i on un d er clau s e (4 ):
Provi d ed t h at i f an d s o oft en as a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g t h e con t i nu an ce
i n force o f s u ch a Proclamat i on i s p ass ed b y b ot h Hou s es of Parl i amen t th e
Proclamat i on s h all, u n less revoked , con t in u e in force for a fu rt h er p eri od

153
154 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

o f s i x mon t h s from t h e d at e on wh i ch i t wou ld ot h erwi s e h ave ceas ed t o


op erat e u nd er th is clau s e:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at i f t h e d i s solu t i on o f t h e H ou s e o f t h e Peo p le t akes
p lace d u rin g an y s u ch p eri od of s i x mon th s an d a res olu t i on app rovi n g t h e
con t i nu an ce in force o f s u ch Proclamat i on h as b een p as s ed b y th e Cou n ci l
o f St at es bu t n o res olu t i on wi t h res p ect t o t h e con ti nu an ce i n force o f s u ch
Proclamat i on h as b een p as s ed by t h e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le d u ri n g t h e s aid
p eri od , t h e Proclamat i on sh all ceas e t o op erat e at th e ex pi rat ion of t h i rt y
d ays fr om t h e d at e on whi ch th e Hou s e of t h e Peop le fi rs t s it s aft er i ts
recon s t it u ti on un les s b efore t h e ex pi rat i on of t h e s ai d p eri od of t h i rt y
d ays , a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g t h e con t i nu an ce i n force o f t h e Proclamat i on
h as b een als o p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le.
(6 ) For t h e p u rp os es of clau s es (4 ) an d (5 ), a res olu t i on may b e p as s ed
b y ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t on l y b y a maj ori t y o f t h e t ot al memb ers hi p
o f t h at Hous e and b y a maj ori t y o f n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rds of t he Memb ers
o f t h at Hou s e p res ent and vot i n g.
(7 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed i n t h e foreg oi n g clau s es , th e
Pres i d en t s h all revo ke a Pro clamat i on i ss u ed un d er claus e (1 ) or a
Proclamat i on var yi n g s u ch Proclamat i on i f t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le p as s es
a res olu t i on d i s ap p rovi n g, or, as t h e cas e may b e, d i s ap provi n g t h e
con t i nu an ce i n force o f, s u ch Proclamat i on .
(8 ) Wh ere a n ot i ce i n wri ti n g si gn ed b y n ot les s t h an on e-t en th of t h e
t ot al n u mb er of memb ers of t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le h as b een gi ven , of
t h ei r in t ent i on t o move a res olut i on for d i s ap p rovi n g, or, as t he cas e may
b e, for d i s ap p rovi n g th e con t inu an ce in force o f, a Pr oclamat i on i s su ed
u n d er clau s e (1 ) or a Proclamat ion var yi n g s u ch Proclamat i on ,—
(a ) t o t h e Sp eaker, i f t h e Hou s e i s in s es si on ; or
(b ) t o t h e Pres id ent , i f t h e Hou se i s n ot in s es s i on ,
a s p eci al s it t in g of t h e Hou s e sh all b e h eld wi t h i n fou rt een d ays fr om t h e
d at e on wh i ch su ch n ot i ce i s recei ved b y t h e Sp eaker, or, as t h e cas e ma y
b e, b y t h e Presi d en t , for t h e pu rp os e of con s i d eri n g su ch res olu t i on .
(9 ) Th e p ower c on ferred on t h e Pres i d en t b y t h i s art i cle s h all i nclu d e t h e
p ower t o i s s u e d i fferen t Procl amat i on s on d i fferen t grou n d s , b ei n g war
or ex t ern al ag gres s i on or arme d reb elli on or i mmi n ent d an ger o f war or
ex t ern al aggres s i on or armed reb elli on , wh et h er or n ot t h ere i s a
Proclamat i on alread y i s s u ed by t h e Pres i d ent un d er claus e (1) an d s u ch
Proclamat i on i s in op erati on .
* * * * *

3 5 3. Eff ect of P rocl am a ti on of Em erg ency.—Wh i le a Proclamat i on


o f Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on, then —
(a ) n ot wi t hs t an d in g an yt h i n g i n t h is Con s ti t ut i on , th e ex ecut i ve
p ower o f t h e Un i on s h all ex t en d t o t h e gi vi n g o f d i rect i on s t o an y St at e
155 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

as t o t h e man n er i n wh i ch th e ex ecu ti ve p ower t h ereof i s t o b e


ex erci s ed ;
(b ) t h e p ower o f Parli amen t t o make la ws wi t h res p ect t o an y m at t er
s h all i n clu d e p ower t o make laws con ferri n g p owers an d imp os i n g
d u ti es , or au th ori si n g th e con ferri n g of p owers an d t h e i mp os i ti on of
d u ti es , up on t h e Un i on or offi cers an d aut h ori ti es of t h e Un i on as
res p ects th at matt er, n ot wit hst an di n g th at it is on e whi ch i s n ot
en u merat ed in th e Uni on Li s t :
Provi d ed t h at wh ere a Proclamat i on of Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on on ly
i n an y p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a,—
(i ) t h e ex ecut i ve p ower of t h e U n i on t o gi ve d i rect i ons un d er clau s e
(a ), and
(i i ) th e p ower of Parli amen t t o make laws u n d er clau s e (b ),
s h all als o ex t en d t o an y St at e oth er th an a St at e in whi ch or in an y p art of
wh i ch t h e Proclamat i on of Em ergen c y i s in op erati on i f and in s o far as
t h e s ecu rit y o f In d i a or an y p a rt of t h e t erri t ory t h ereo f i s t h reat en ed b y
act i vi t i es i n or i n relat i on t o th e p art of t h e t errit ory o f In d i a i n wh i ch th e
Proclamat i on o f Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on .
3 5 4. Appl i ca ti on of provi s i ons rel a ti ng to di s tri buti on of revenues
w hi l e a P rocl am a ti on of Em erg ency is i n opera ti on.—(1 ) The Pres i d ent
may, wh i le a Proclamat i on of Emergen c y i s in op erat i on , b y ord er d i rect
t h at all or an y o f t h e p rovi s i on s of art i cles 2 68 t o 2 79 s h all for s u ch
p eri od , n ot ex t en di n g i n an y c as e b eyon d t h e ex pi rati on of t h e fi n an ci al
yea r i n wh i ch su ch Proclamat i on ceas es t o op erat e, as may b e sp eci fi ed in
t h e ord er, h ave effect s u bj ect t o s u ch ex cept i on s or mod i fi cati on s as h e
t h in ks fi t .
(2 ) Ever y ord er mad e u n d er clau s e (1 ) s h all, as s oon as ma y b e a ft er i t i s
mad e, b e lai d b efore each Hou s e of Par li amen t .
3 5 5. Duty of the Uni on to pro tect Sta tes a g ai ns t externa l a gg res si on
a nd i nternal dis turba nce.—It s h all b e t h e d ut y o f t h e Un i on t o p rot ect
ever y St at e a gai n s t ext ern al aggres s i on an d i nt ern al d is tu rb an ce an d t o
en s u re th at th e govern men t o f e ver y St at e i s carri ed on i n accord an ce wi t h
t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s ti tu t ion .
3 5 6. P rovi s i ons i n ca s e of fa i l ure of cons ti tuti ona l m a chi nery in
Sta tes .—(1 ) If t h e Pres i d ent , on recei p t of a rep ort fr om t h e G overn or o f a
St at e or ot h erwi s e, is s at i s fi ed t h at a s i tu ati on h as ari s en in wh i ch th e
G overn men t of t h e St at e cann ot b e carri ed on in accord an ce wi t h t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on, th e Pres id ent may b y Pr oclamat i o n —
(a ) as s u me t o h ims elf a ll or an y o f t h e fu n ct i on s of t h e G overn ment
o f t h e St at e and all or an y o f t h e p owers ves t ed i n or ex ercis ab le b y t h e
G overn or or an y b od y o r au t h ori t y i n th e St at e ot h er th an t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e;
(b ) d eclare t h at th e p owers of t h e Legi s lat u re of t h e St at e s h all b e
ex erci s ab le b y or u n d er t h e au thori t y o f Parli amen t ;
156 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(c) make s u ch i n cid en t al an d con s eq u en ti al p rovi s i on s as ap p ear t o


t h e Pres i d en t t o b e n ecess ary or d es i rab le for gi vi n g effec t t o th e
ob j ect s of t h e Proc lamat i on , i n clu di n g p rovi s i on s for s u s p en d in g i n
wh ole or i n p art t h e op erat i on o f an y p ro vi s i on s of t h i s Cons t it u ti on
relat i n g t o an y b od y or au t h ori t y i n t h e St at e:
Provi d ed t h at n ot hi n g i n t hi s clau s e s h all au t h ori s e t h e Presi d ent t o
as s u me t o hi ms elf an y o f t h e p owers ves t ed in or ex ercis ab le b y a Hi gh
Cou rt , or t o s u s p en d in wh ole o r i n p art th e op erat i on of an y p rovi s i on o f
t h is Con st i tu ti on relat i n g t o Hi gh Cou rt s.
(2 ) An y s u ch Proclamat i on may b e revo ked or va ri ed b y a s u b s equ ent
Proclamat i on .
(3 ) Ever y Proclamat i on u n d er t h is arti cle sh all b e lai d b efor e each
Hou s e o f Par li amen t an d s h all, ex cep t wh ere it i s a Proclamat i on revoki n g
a p revi ou s Proclamat i on , ceas e t o op erat e at t h e ex pi rat i on of t wo mon t h s
u n les s b efore t h e exp i rati on o f t h at p eri od it h as b een ap p roved b y
res olu t i on s of b ot h Hou s es of Parli amen t :
Provi d ed t h at i f an y s u ch Proclamat i on (n ot b ein g a Proclamat i on
revo ki n g a p revi ou s Proc lamat i on ) i s i s su ed at a t i me wh en t he Hou s e o f
t h e Peop le i s d i s s olved or t h e d i s s olu t i on of t h e H ou s e o f t h e P eop le t akes
p lace d u rin g t h e p eri od of t wo mon t h s referred t o i n th i s clau se, an d i f a
res olu t i on app rovi n g t h e Procla mat i on h as b een p as s ed b y t h e Cou n ci l of
St at es , b ut n o res olu t i on wi th res p ect t o s u ch Proclamat i on h as b een
p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e People b efore t h e ex pi rat i on of t h at p eri od , t he
Proclamat i on s h all ceas e t o op e rat e at t h e ex pi rat i on of t h i rt y d ays from
t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le fi rs t s i ts aft er i t s recon s t it u ti on
u n les s b efore t h e ex p i rati on of t h e s ai d p eri od of t h i rt y d a ys a res olu t i on
ap p rovi n g t h e Proclamat i on h as b een als o p ass ed b y t h e Ho u s e of t h e
Peop le.
(4 ) A Proclamat i on s o ap p roved s h all, u n les s revoked , ceas e t o op erat e
on t h e ex pi rat i on of a p eri od of s i x mon th s from t h e d at e of i s s u e of t h e
Proclamat i on :
Provi d ed t h at i f an d s o oft en as a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g t h e con t i nu an ce
i n force o f s u ch a Proclamat i on i s p ass ed b y b ot h Hou s es of Parli amen t ,
t h e Proclamat i on s h all, u n les s revo ked , con t i nu e i n force fo r a fu rt h er
p eri od of s i x mon t hs from t h e d at e on wh i ch u nd er t hi s claus e i t wou ld
ot h erwi s e h ave ceas ed t o op erat e, bu t n o su ch Proclamat i on s hall i n an y
cas e remain in force for m ore t h an t h ree years :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at i f t h e d i s solu t i on o f t h e H ou s e o f t h e Peo p le t akes
p lace d u rin g an y s u ch p eri od of s i x mon th s an d a res olu t i on app rovi n g t h e
con t i nu an ce in force o f s u ch Proclamat i on h as b een p as s ed b y th e Cou n ci l
o f St at es , bu t n o res olu t i on with res p ect t o t h e cont in u an ce in force o f
s u ch Proclamat i on has b een p ass ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le d u rin g t h e
s ai d p eri od , t h e Proclamat i on sh all ceas e t o op erat e at t h e exp i rati on of
t h i rt y d a ys from t h e d at e on wh ich t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le fi rs t s i ts aft er
i t s recons ti t ut i on u n less b efore t h e ex pi rat i on of t h e s aid p eri od of t h i rt y
157 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

d ays a res olu t i on app rovi n g t h e con t i nu an ce in force o f t h e Proclamat i on


h as b een als o p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le:
Provi d ed als o t h at i n t h e case o f t h e Proclamat i on i s s u ed un der clau s e
(1 ) on t h e 11 t h d ay o f Ma y, 1 9 8 7 wi t h resp ect t o th e St at e of P u n j ab , th e
referen ce i n t h e fi rs t p rovi s o t o t h i s clau s e t o “t h ree years ” s h all b e
con s t ru ed as a referen ce t o fi ve yea rs .
(5 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed in clau s e (4 ), a res olu t i on wi th
res p ect t o th e con ti nu an ce in force o f a Proclamat i on ap p roved u nd er
clau s e (3 ) for an y p eri od b e yon d t h e ex pi rat i on of on e year fro m t h e d at e
o f i s s u e of s u ch Proclamat i on s h all n ot b e p as s ed b y ei t h er Hou s e of
Parli amen t un les s —
(a ) a Proclamat i on of Emer gen cy i s i n op erati on , i n t h e wh ole o f
In d i a or, as t h e cas e may b e, i n th e wh ole or an y p art o f t h e St at e, at t h e
t i me of t h e p as s in g of s u ch res olu t i on , and
(b ) th e Elect i on Commi ss i on cert i fi es t h at th e con t in u an ce in force o f
t h e Proclamat i on ap p roved u n d er clau s e (3 ) d u ri n g t h e p eri od sp eci fi ed
i n su ch res olu t i on i s n eces s ary on accou n t of d i ffi cu lt i es i n h old i n g
gen eral elect i on s t o t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e con cern ed :
Provi d ed t h at n ot h in g in th is clau s e sh all ap p ly t o t h e Proclamat i on
i s su ed u nd er clau s e (1 ) on th e 1 1 th d ay o f Ma y, 1 9 8 7 wi t h resp ect t o t h e
St at e of Pu n j ab .
3 5 7. Exerci s e of l eg is l a ti ve po w ers under P rocla ma ti on i ss ued under
a rti cl e 3 56 .— (1 ) Wh ere b y a Proclamat i on i s su ed u nd er clau s e (1 ) of
art i cle 3 5 6 , it h as b een d eclared t h at th e p owers of t h e Legi s l at u re of t h e
St at e sh all b e ex erci s ab le b y or u n d er t h e au th ori t y o f Parli ame n t , it sh all
b e comp et en t —
(a ) for Par li amen t t o con fer on t h e Presi d en t t h e p ower o f t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e t o make laws , an d t o au th ori s e t h e Presi d ent t o
d elegat e, s u b j ect t o s u ch con d iti on s as h e may t h i n k fi t t o i mpos e, t h e
p ower s o con ferred t o an y ot h er au th ori t y t o b e sp eci fi ed b y h im i n th at
b eh alf;
(b ) for Parli amen t , or for t h e P res i d en t or ot h er au th ori t y i n wh om
s u ch p ower t o make laws i s vest ed u nd er s ub -clau s e (a ), t o make laws
con ferri n g p owers an d i mp os i n g d ut i es , or au th ori s in g t h e con ferri n g of
p owers an d th e i mp os it i on of d u ti es , u p on t h e Uni on or offi cers an d
au t h orit i es t h ereof;
(c) for t h e Pres id ent t o au t h oris e wh en t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le i s
n ot i n s ess i on exp end i tu re fro m t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of t h e St at e
p en di n g th e s an cti on of s u ch expen d it u re b y Parli amen t .
(2 ) An y la w mad e i n ex erci s e o f t h e p ower o f t h e Le gi s lat u re o f t h e
St at e b y Parli amen t or t h e Pres id en t or ot h er au t h orit y re ferred t o i n su b -
clau s e (a ) of clau s e (1 ) wh i ch Parli amen t or t he Pres id ent or s u ch ot h er
au t h orit y w ou ld n ot , b u t for t h e i s su e of a Proc lamat i on u n d er art i cle 3 56 ,
h ave b een comp et en t t o make sh all, aft er t h e Proclamat i on h as ceas ed t o
158 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

op erat e, con t in u e i n force u n ti l alt ered or rep ealed or amen d ed b y a


comp et en t Legi s lat u re or ot h er au t h orit y.
3 5 8. Sus pensi on of provi s i ons of a rti cl e 1 9 duri ng em erg encies .—(1 )
Wh i le a Proclamat i on o f Emerg en cy d eclari n g t h at t h e s ecu rit y o f In d i a or
an y p art o f t h e t erri t or y t h ereo f i s t h reat en ed b y war or b y ex t ern al
aggres s i on i s in op erati on , n oth in g i n art i cle 19 s h all res t ri ct the p ower of
t h e St at e as d efi n ed i n Part III t o make an y law or t o t ake an y ex ecut i ve
act i on whi ch t h e St at e wou ld bu t for t h e p rovi s i on s con t ain ed i n t h at Part
b e comp et ent t o make or t o t ak e, b u t an y law s o mad e s h all, t o t h e ex t ent
o f t h e in comp et en cy, ceas e t o h ave effect as s oon as t h e Proclamat i on
ceas es t o op erat e, ex cep t as res p ects th in gs d on e or omi tt ed t o b e d on e
b efore t h e law s o ceas es t o h ave effect :
Provi d ed t h at wh ere s u ch Proclamat i on o f Emergen c y i s i n o p erat i on
on l y i n an y p art o f t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a, an y s u ch law may b e mad e, or an y
s u ch ex ecu ti ve act i on may b e t a ken , u n d er th is art i cle i n relat ion t o or i n
an y St at e or Un i on t errit ory i n whi ch or in an y p art of wh i ch t h e
Proclamat i on o f Emer gen cy i s n ot i n op erat i on , i f an d in s o far as t h e
s ecu rit y o f In d i a or an y p art o f t h e t erri t or y t h ereo f i s t h reat en ed b y
act i vi t i es i n or i n relat i on t o t he p art of t h e t erri t or y o f In d i a in wh i ch th e
Proclamat i on o f Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on .
(2 ) Not h i n g in clau s e (1 ) sh all ap p ly—
(a ) t o an y law wh i ch d oes n ot con t ain a recit al t o t h e effect t h at
s u ch law i s i n relati on t o th e Proclamat i on o f Emer gen c y i n op erat i on
wh en it i s mad e; or
(b ) t o an y ex ecu t i ve act i on taken ot h erwi s e th an un d er a law
con t ai ni n g su ch a reci t al.
3 5 9. Sus pens i on of the enf orcem ent of the rig hts conf erred by P a rt
I I I duri ng em erg enci es .—(1 ) Wh ere a Proc lamat i on o f Emer gen cy i s i n
op erat i on , th e Pres id en t may b y ord er d eclare t h at t h e ri gh t to mo ve an y
cou rt for t h e en forcemen t o f s u ch of t h e ri gh t s con ferred b y Pa rt III
(ex cep t art i cles 20 an d 2 1 ) as ma y b e men t i on ed i n t h e order an d all
p roceed i n gs p en d in g in an y cou rt for t h e en forcemen t of t h e ri gh t s s o
men t i on ed sh all remai n s u sp en d ed for t h e p eri od du ri n g wh i ch th e
Proclamat i on i s i n force or for s u ch sh ort er p eri od as may b e sp eci fi ed in
t h e ord er.
(1 A) Wh i le an ord er mad e u n d er clau s e (1 ) men t i oni n g an y o f t h e ri gh t s
con ferred b y Part III (ex cep t art i cles 2 0 an d 2 1 ) i s i n op erat i on , n ot h in g in
t h at Part con ferri n g t h os e ri gh ts s h all res t ri ct t h e p ower o f t h e St at e as
d efi n ed in t h e s aid Part t o make an y law or t o t ake an y ex ecu t i ve act i on
wh i ch t h e St at e wou ld bu t for t h e p rovi s i ons cont ain ed i n th at Part b e
comp et en t t o make or t o t ake, bu t an y la w s o mad e sh all, t o t he ex t en t of
t h e in comp et en cy, ceas e t o h ave effect as s oon as t h e ord er afo res ai d
ceas es t o op erat e, ex cep t as res p ects th in gs d on e or omi tt ed t o b e d on e
b efore t h e law s o ceas es t o h ave effect :
159 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provi d ed th at wh ere a Proclamat i on of Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on on ly i n


an y p art o f t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a, an y s u ch law ma y b e mad e, o r an y s u ch
ex ecu ti ve act i on may b e t aken , u nd er th is arti cle i n relat i on to or i n an y
St at e or Un i on t erri t ory i n wh i ch or i n an y p art of wh i ch th e Proclamat i on
o f Emergen c y i s n ot i n op erati on, i f an d i n s o far as t h e s ecu ri t y o f In d i a or
an y p art o f t h e t erri t or y t h ereo f i s t h reat en ed b y act i vi t i es i n or i n relat i on
t o t h e p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a i n whi ch t h e Procla mat i on of
Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on .
(1 B) Not h i n g in clau s e (1 A) sh all ap p l y—
(a ) t o an y law wh i ch d oes n ot con t ain a recit al t o t h e effect t h at
s u ch law i s i n relati on t o th e Proclamat i on o f Emer gen c y i n op erat i on
wh en it i s mad e; or
(b ) t o an y ex ecu t i ve act i on taken ot h erwi s e th an un d er a law
con t ai ni n g su ch a reci t al.
(2 ) An ord er mad e as afores ai d may ex t en d t o th e wh ole or an y p art of
t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a:
Provi d ed th at wh ere a Proclamat i on of Emergen c y i s i n op erat i on on ly i n
a p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a, an y s u ch ord er sh all n ot ex t en d to an y ot h er
p art of t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a u nles s th e Presi d en t , b ei n g s at is fi ed th at th e
s ecu rit y o f In d i a or an y p art o f t h e t erri t or y t h ereo f i s t h reat en ed b y
act i vi t i es i n or i n relat i on t o t he p art of t h e t erri t or y o f In d i a in wh i ch th e
Proclamat i on o f Emer gen c y i s i n op erat i on , con s id ers su ch ex t en s i on t o b e
n eces s ary.
(3 ) Ever y ord er mad e u n d er clau s e (1 ) s h all, as s oon as ma y b e a ft er i t i s
mad e, b e lai d b efore each Hou s e of Par li amen t .
3 5 9 A. [Ap pl i ca t io n of t hi s Pa rt t o t h e St at e o f Pu nj ab .] Rep . b y t h e
Co n st it ut i on (Si xt y-t h ir d Amendmen t ) Act , 19 89 , s. 3 (w.e.f . 6 -1 -1 9 90 ).
3 6 0. P rovi s i ons a s to fi na ncia l em erg ency .—(1 ) If t h e Pres i d en t i s
s at is fi ed th at a s it u at i on h as ari sen wh ereb y t h e fi n an ci al st abi li ty or cred i t
o f In d i a or o f an y p art o f t h e t erri t ory t h ereo f i s t h reat en ed , he ma y b y a
Proclamat i on make a d eclarat i on t o t h at effect .
(2 ) A Proclamat i on i s su ed u nd er clau s e (1 )—
(a ) may b e revo ked or vari ed b y a s ub s equ ent Proclamat i on ;
(b ) s h all b e lai d b efore each Ho u s e of Parli amen t ;
(c) s h all ceas e t o op erat e at t he ex pi rat i on of t wo mon t h s , u nles s
b efore t h e ex p i rat i on of t h at p eri od i t h as b een ap p roved b y res olu t i on s
o f b ot h Hou s es of Parli amen t :
Provi d ed t h at i f an y s u ch Proc lamat i on i s i ss u ed at a t i me wh en th e
Hou s e o f t h e Peop le h as b een d is s olved or t h e d i s s olu t i on of t h e Hou s e o f
t h e Peop le t akes p lace d u ri n g the p eri od of t wo m on t h s referred t o i n su b -
clau s e (c), an d i f a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g t h e Proclamat i on h as been p ass ed
b y t h e Cou n ci l o f St at es , b u t n o res olu t i on wi th res p ect t o s u ch
Proclamat i on h as b een p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e Peop le b efore t h e
160 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ex p i rat i on of t h at p eri od , t h e Proclamat i on s h all ceas e t o op erat e at t h e


ex p i rat i on of t h i rt y d a ys from t h e d at e on wh i ch th e Hou s e o f t h e Peop le
fi rs t s i ts aft er i t s recon s ti tu t i on u n less b efore t h e ex p i rat i on o f t h e s ai d
p eri od of t h i rt y d a ys a res olu t i on ap p rovi n g th e Proclamat i on h as b een als o
p as s ed b y t h e Hou s e of t h e People.
(3 ) Du ri n g t h e p eri od an y s u ch Proclamat i on as i s ment i on ed in clau s e
(1 ) is in op erati on , t h e ex ecu t i ve au th ori t y o f t h e Un i on sh all ex t end t o t h e
gi vi n g o f d i rect i on s t o an y St at e t o ob s erve s u ch can on s of fi n an ci al
p rop ri et y as may b e s p eci fi ed in th e di rect i ons , an d t o t h e gi vi n g of s u ch
ot h er d i recti on s as t h e Pres i d en t may d eem n eces s ary an d ad eq uat e for t h e
p u rp os e.
(4 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g i n t h is Con st i tu ti on —
(a ) an y s u ch d i recti on may i n clu d e—
(i ) a p rovi s i on req ui ri n g t h e red u cti on of s alari es an d all owa n ces
o f al l or an y c las s o f p ers on s servi n g i n con n ecti on wi t h th e affai rs
o f a St at e;
(i i ) a p rovi s i on requ i rin g all Mon e y Bi l ls or ot h er Bi l ls t o w h i ch
t h e p rovi s i ons of art i cle 2 0 7 ap p ly t o b e res erved for t h e
con s i d erat i on of t h e Pres i d en t aft er t h ey are p as s ed b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e;
(b ) i t s h all b e comp et en t for t h e Pres id ent du rin g t h e p eri od an y
Proclamat i on i s s u ed u nd er t hi s art i cle i s i n op erati on t o i s s u e d irect i on s
for t h e redu ct i on of s alari es an d allowan ces of a ll or an y clas s of
p ers on s s ervin g i n con n ecti on wi t h t h e affai rs o f t h e Un i on i n clu d in g
t h e Ju d ges of t h e Su p reme Cou rt an d t h e Hi gh Cou rt s .
161 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XIX
MISCELLANEOUS
3 6 1. P rotecti on of P res i dent and Governors a nd Ra jpram ukhs .—(1 )
Th e Pres id ent , or t h e G overn or or Raj p ramu kh of a St at e, sh all n ot b e
an s werab le t o an y cou rt for t h e ex erci s e an d p erforman ce o f t h e p owers and
d u ti es of h i s o ffi ce or for an y a ct d on e or p u rp ort i n g t o b e d on e b y h i m i n
t h e ex erci s e an d p erforman ce of t h os e p owers an d d ut i es :
Provi d ed t h at th e cond u ct of t h e Pres i d en t may b e b rou gh t u nd er revi ew
b y an y c ou rt , t ri bu n al or b od y a p p oi nt ed or d esi gn at ed b y ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t for t h e i n vest i gat i on o f a ch arge u n d er art i cle 61 :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at n ot h in g i n t hi s clau s e sh all b e con s t ru ed as
res t ri cti n g t h e ri gh t of an y p ers on t o b ri n g ap p rop ri at e p roceed in gs agai n st
t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e G overn men t of a St at e.
(2 ) No cri mi n al p roceed i n gs what s oever s h all b e in st i tu t ed or con t i nu ed
agai n s t th e Pres i d en t , or t h e G overn or o f a St at e, i n an y c ou rt d u rin g h is
t erm of o ffi ce.
(3 ) No p roces s for t h e arres t o r i mp ri s on men t of t h e Pres i d ent , or t h e
G overn or o f a St at e, s h all i s su e fr om an y c ou rt d u ri n g h is t erm of o ffi ce.
(4 ) No ci vi l p roceed i n gs i n wh i ch reli ef i s clai med agai n st th e Pres i d en t,
or t h e G overn or of a St at e, s h all b e i ns t it ut ed d u ri n g hi s t erm of o ffi ce i n
an y cou rt i n res p ect of an y act d on e or p u rp ort in g t o b e d on e b y h i m i n h i s
p ers on al cap aci t y, wh et h er b efore or a ft er h e en t ered u p on hi s offi ce as
Pres i d en t , or as G overn or o f s u ch St at e, un ti l t h e ex pi rati on of t wo m on t h s
n ex t aft er n ot i ce in wri ti n g h as b een d eli vered t o t h e Pres iden t or th e
G overn or, as th e cas e may b e, or left at h i s offi ce s t at in g t h e n at u re of t h e
p roceed i n gs , t h e cau s e of act i on t h erefor, t h e n ame, d es cri pt i on and p lace
o f res i d en ce of t h e p art y b y w h om s u ch p roceed i n gs are t o be i ns t it ut ed
an d t h e reli ef wh i ch h e clai ms .
3 6 1 A. P rotecti on of publ i ca tion of proceedi ng s of Pa rli ament a nd
Sta te Leg i sl a tures .—(1 ) No p ers on s h all b e li ab le t o an y p roceed i n gs ,
ci vi l or cri mi n al, i n an y cou rt i n res p ect of t h e p u b li cat i on in a n ews p ap er
o f a s u b s t an t i ally t ru e rep ort o f an y p r oceed i n gs of ei t h er Hou s e o f
Parli amen t or t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly, o r, as t h e cas e may b e, ei th er
Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re, of a St at e, u n les s t h e pu b li cati on is p roved t o
h ave b een mad e wi th mali ce:
Provi d ed t h at n ot hi n g i n th i s clau s e s h all ap p ly t o t h e p u b li cat i on o f an y
rep ort of t h e p roceed i n gs of a s ecret s i tt in g o f ei t h er Hou s e of Parli amen t
or t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y, or , as th e cas e may b e, ei t h er Hou s e of t h e
Le gi s lat u re, of a St at e.

161
165
162 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 ) Clau s e (1 ) s h all ap p ly i n rel at i on t o rep ort s or mat t ers b road cas t b y


mean s of wi reles s t elegrap h y as p art of an y p rogramme or s ervi ce p rovi d ed
b y mean s of a b road cas ti n g st at i on as it ap p li es in relat i on t o rep ort s or
mat t ers p ub li sh ed i n a n ews p ap er.
Explanation.—In this article, “newspaper” includes a news agency report containing
material for publication in a newspaper.
3 61B . Dis qual if i ca ti on f or a ppoi ntm ent on rem unera ti ve pol i ti cal
pos t.—A memb er of a Hou s e b elon gi n g t o an y p oli t i cal p art y wh o i s
d i sq u ali fi ed for b ei n g a memb er o f t h e Hou s e u n d er p aragraph 2 of t h e
Ten t h Sch edu le s h all als o b e d is qu ali fi ed t o h old an y remu n erati ve
p oli t i cal p os t for d u rat i on of t he p eri od commen ci n g from t h e d at e of h i s
d i sq u ali fi cat i on t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e t erm of h i s offi ce as s u ch
memb er wou ld exp i re or t i ll t h e d at e on wh i ch h e con t es ts an elect i on t o a
Hou s e an d i s d eclared elect ed , wh i ch ever i s earli er.
Exp l an a ti on .- For t h e pu rp os es o f t h i s art i cle,—
(a ) th e ex p ress i on “Hou s e” h as t h e mean in g as si gn ed t o it i n
clau s e (a) of p aragrap h 1 of t h e Ten t h Sch edu le;
(b ) t h e ex p res si on “remu n erat i ve p oli t i cal p ost ” mean s an y
o ffi ce—
(i ) u n d er t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e G overn men t of a
St at e wh ere th e s alary or remu n erat i on for s u ch o ffi ce i s p aid ou t
o f t h e p u b li c reven u e of t h e G overn men t of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e, as t h e cas e may b e; or

(i i ) u nd er a b od y, wh et h er in corp orat ed or n ot , wh i ch is
wh ol l y or p art i all y own ed b y t h e G overn ment of In d i a or t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e, an d th e s alary or remu n erat i on for s u ch
o ffi ce i s p ai d b y s u ch b od y,
ex cep t wh ere su ch s alary or rem u n erati on p ai d i s comp en s at ory i n n at u re.
362. [Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States.] Rep. by the Constitution (Twenty-
sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2.
363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,
agreements, etc.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution but subject to the
provisions of article 143, neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have
jurisdiction in any dispute arising out of any provision of a treaty, agreement, covenant,
engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which was entered into or executed before the
commencement of this Constitution by any Ruler of an Indian State and to which the
Government of the Dominion of India or any of its predecessor Governments was a party and
which has or has been continued in operation after such commencement, or in any dispute in
respect of any right accruing under or any liability or obligation arising out of any of the
provisions of this Constitution relating to any such treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement,
sanad or other similar instrument.
163 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) In this article—


(a) “Indian State” means any territory recognised before the commencement of this
Constitution by His Majesty or the Government of the Dominion of India as being such a
State; and
(b) “Ruler” includes the Prince, Chief or other person recognised before such
commencement by His Majesty or the Government of the Dominion of India as the Ruler
of any Indian State.
363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be
abolished.—Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution or in any law for the time being in
force—
(a) the Prince, Chief or other person who, at any time before the commencement of
the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, was recognised by the President
as the Ruler of an Indian State or any person who, at any time before such
commencement, was recognised by the President as the successor of such ruler shall, on
and from such commencement, cease to be recognised as such Ruler or the successor of
such Ruler;
(b) on and from the commencement of the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment)
Act, 1971, privy purse is abolished and all rights, liabilities and obligations in respect of
privy purse are extinguished and accordingly the Ruler or, as the case may be, the
successor of such Ruler, referred to in clause (a) or any other person shall not be paid any
sum as privy purse.
3 6 4. Specia l provi s i ons a s to m a jor ports a nd a erodrom es .—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t h is Con s ti t ut i on , t h e Presi d en t may b y p u b li c
n ot i fi cat i on di rect th at as fro m s u ch d at e as may b e s p ecifi ed i n th e
n ot i fi cat i on —
(a ) an y law mad e b y Par li amen t or b y t h e Legi s lat u re o f a St at e
s h all n ot ap p l y t o an y maj or p ort or aer od rome or s h all ap p l y t h eret o
s u bj ect t o su ch ex cept i ons or mod i fi cat i on s as may b e sp eci fi ed in th e
n ot i fi cat i on , or
(b ) an y ex i s t in g law s h al l ceas e t o h ave e ffect i n an y maj or p or t or
aerod rome ex cep t as res p ects t hi n gs d on e or omi t t ed t o b e d one b efore
t h e s ai d d at e, or s h all i n i ts appli cat i on t o s u ch p ort or aerod ro me h ave
effect s u b j ect t o s u ch ex cep ti on s or mod i fi cat i on s as may b e s p eci fi ed i n
t h e n ot i fi cat i on .
(2 ) In t h is arti cle—
(a ) “maj or p ort ” means a p ort d eclared t o b e a maj or p ort by or
u n d er an y law mad e b y Par li amen t or an y ex i s t in g law an d i n clu d es all
areas for t h e t i me b ei n g in clu d ed wi t hi n t h e li mi ts of s u ch p ort ;
(b ) “aerod rome” mean s aerod rome as d efi n ed for t h e pu rp os es of t h e
en act men t s relati n g t o ai rways , ai rcraft an d ai r n avi gat i on .
3 6 5. Ef f ect of f a il ure to com ply w i th, or to g i ve eff ect to, directi ons
g i ven by the Uni on.—Wh ere an y St at e h as fai led t o comp l y wi t h , or t o
164 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

gi ve effect t o, an y d i rect i ons given i n t h e ex ercis e of t h e ex ecut i ve p ower


o f t h e Un i on u nd er an y o f t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con st i tu ti on , i t s h all b e
law fu l for t h e Pres i d ent t o h ol d t h at a s it u at i on h as aris en in wh i ch t h e
G overn men t of t h e St at e cannot b e carri ed on i n accord an ce wi t h t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on.
3 6 6. Defi ni ti ons .—In t hi s Cons t it u ti on , u n les s t h e con t ext ot h erwi se
req u i res , t h e fol lowi n g ex p res s ion s h ave t h e meani n gs h ereb y r es p ecti vel y
as s i gn ed t o th em, t h at i s t o s ay—
(1 ) “agri cu lt u ral i n come” mean s agri cu lt u ral i n come as d efi n ed for
t h e p u rp os es of t h e en actmen ts relat i n g t o In d i an i n come-t ax ;
(2 ) “an An glo -In d i an ” means a p ers on wh os e fat h er or an y of w h os e
ot h er male p rogen i t ors in th e male li n e i s or was of Eu rop ean d es cent
b u t wh o i s d omi ci led wi th in t he t erri t ory o f In d i a an d i s or was b orn
wi t h in su ch t erri t ory o f p aren t s h ab it u all y res i d en t t h erei n an d n ot
es t ab lis h ed th ere for t emp orar y p u rp os es on ly;
(3 ) “art i cle” mean s an art i cle of t h is Con st i tu ti on ;
(4 ) “b orr ow” i n clu d es t h e rai s in g o f mon e y b y t h e gran t o f
an n ui ti es , an d “loan ” s h all b e con s t ru ed accordi n gly;
* * * * *
(5 ) “clau s e” means a clau s e of t h e arti cle i n wh i ch t h e exp res s i on
occu rs ;
(6 ) “corp orat i on t ax ” mean s an y t ax on in come, s o far as th at t ax is
p ayab le b y comp an i es an d is a t ax i n th e cas e of wh i ch t h e foll owi n g
con d i ti on s are fu lfi l led :—
(a ) t h at it is n ot ch argeab le i n res p ect of agri cu lt u ral i n come;
(b ) t h at n o d edu ct i on i n resp ect o f t h e t ax p ai d b y comp an i es is ,
b y an y en act ment s whi ch may ap p ly t o t h e t ax , au t h oris ed t o b e
mad e from d i vi d end s p ayab le b y t h e comp an i es t o in d i vid u als ;
(c) t h at n o p rovi s i on ex i s ts fo r t aki n g t h e t ax s o p ai d i nt o
accou n t i n compu ti n g for t h e p u rp os es of In d i an i n come-t ax t h e
t ot al i n come o f i n d i vi du als recei vi n g s u ch di vi d end s , or i n
comp u t in g t h e In di an i n come-t ax p ayab le b y, or re fu n d ab le t o, su ch
i n di vi du als ;
(7 ) “corres p on d i n g Provi n ce”, “c orres p on d in g In d i an St at e” or
“co rres p on d in g St at e” means in cas es of d ou b t s u ch Provi n ce, In d i an
St at e or St at e as may b e d et ermi n ed b y t h e Pres i d en t t o b e th e
corres p on d in g Provi n ce, th e corres p on d in g In d i an St at e or t h e
corres p on d in g St at e, as th e case may b e, for t h e p arti cu lar purp os e in
q u est i on ;
(8 ) “d eb t ” in clu d es an y li ab i lit y i n resp ect of an y ob li gat i o n t o
rep ay cap i t al s u ms b y wa y o f an nu i ti es an d an y li ab i li t y u n d er an y
gu aran t ee, an d “d ebt ch arges ” s hall b e con s t ru ed accordi n gly;
(9 ) “es t at e d ut y” mean s a d u t y t o b e as s es s ed on or b y re feren c e t o
t h e p ri nci p al valu e, as cert ain ed i n accord an ce wi th s u ch ru les as may b e
165 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

p res crib ed b y or u n d er laws ma d e b y Par li amen t or t h e Le gi s lat u re of a


St at e relat in g t o th e d ut y, o f al l p rop ert y p as s in g up on d eath or d eemed ,
u n d er t h e p rovi s i ons of t h e s aid laws , s o t o p as s ;
(1 0 ) “ex i st in g law” mean s an y l aw, Ord i n an ce, ord er, b ye-law, ru le
or regu lat i on p as s ed or mad e b efore t h e commen cemen t o f t h i s
Con s t it ut i on b y an y Legi s lat u re, au th ori t y or p ers on h avin g p ower t o
make s u ch a law, Ord in an ce, order, b ye -la w, ru le or re gu lat i on ;
(1 1 ) “Fed eral C ou rt ” mean s th e Fed eral C ou rt con s t it ut ed un d er t h e
G overn men t of In d i a Act , 1 93 5 ;
(1 2 ) “go od s ” i n clud es all mat erials , commod i t i es, and art i cles ;
(1 3 ) “gu aran t ee” in clu d es an y ob li gat i on u n d ert aken b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s t it ut i on t o make p a ymen t s i n t h e even t o f
t h e p rofi t s of an u n d ert akin g fal l i n g s h ort of a s p eci fi ed amoun t ;
(1 4 ) “Hi gh Cou rt ” mean s an y Cou rt wh i ch i s d eemed for t h e
p u rp os es of t h is Con st it u ti on to b e a Hi gh Cou rt for an y St at e and
i n clu d es —
(a ) an y Cou rt i n t h e t erri tor y o f In d i a con s t it ut ed or
recon s t it u t ed u nd er t hi s Cons ti tut i on as a Hi gh Cou rt , an d
(b ) an y ot h er Cou rt i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a wh i ch may b e
d eclared b y Parli amen t b y la w t o b e a Hi gh Cou rt for al l o r an y o f
t h e p u rp os es of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on;
(1 5 ) “In d i an St at e” means an y t erri t ory wh i ch t h e G overn ment of t h e
Domi n i on of In d i a recogn i s ed as s u ch a St at e;
(1 6 ) “Part ” means a Part of t h is Con s t it ut i on ;
(1 7 ) “p en si on ” means a p en si on , wh et h er con t ri bu t ory or n ot , o f an y
ki n d wh at s oever p ayab le t o or i n resp ect of an y p ers on , an d in clu d es
ret i red p ay s o p ayab le; a grat u i t y s o p ayab le an d an y s u m or s u ms s o
p ayab le b y wa y o f t h e ret u rn , wi t h or wi t h ou t i n t eres t th ereon or an y
ot h er ad di ti on th eret o, of s u b s cri p ti on s t o a p rovi d ent fu n d ;
(1 8 ) “Proc lamat i on o f Emer ge n cy” mean s a Proc lamat i on i s s u ed
u n d er clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 3 52 ;
(1 9 ) “p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on ” mean s a n ot i fi cat i on in th e G azet te o f
In d i a, or, as th e cas e may b e, t he Offi ci al G azet t e of a St at e;
(2 0 ) “rai lwa y” d oes n ot i n clu d e—
(a ) a t ramway wh o ll y wi t h i n a mu n i ci p al area, or
(b ) an y ot h er li n e o f commu n i cat i on wh oll y s i t u at e in on e St at e
an d d eclared b y Parli amen t b y la w n ot t o b e a rai lway;
* * * * *
(2 2 ) “Ru ler” mean s th e Prin ce, Ch i ef or ot h er p ers on wh o, at an y
t i me b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h e Cons t it ut i on (Twent y-s i x t h
Amen d ment ) Act , 19 71 , was recogn i s ed b y t h e Presi d en t as t h e Ru ler o f
an In d i an St at e or an y p ers on wh o, at an y t i me b efo re s u ch
commen cemen t , was recogn is ed b y t h e Presi d en t as t h e su cces s or of
s u ch Ru ler;
166 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2 3 ) “Sch ed u le” mean s a Sch edule t o t h i s Cons ti t ut i on ;


(2 4 ) “Sch edu led Cast es ” means s u ch cast es , races or t ri b es or part s
o f or grou p s wi t h in su ch cas t es , races or t ri b es as are d eemed u nd er
art i cle 3 41 t o b e Sch edu led Castes for t h e p u rp os es of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on ;
(2 5 ) “Sch edu led Tri b es ” mean s s u ch t rib es or t rib al commu ni t i es or
p art s of or gr ou p s wi th in su ch t ri b es or t rib al commu ni t i es as are
d eemed u nd er art i cle 3 42 t o b e Sch ed u led Trib es for t h e p u rp os es of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on ;
(2 6 ) “s ecu rit i es ” i n clud es s t ock;
* * * * *
(2 7 ) “s u b -clau s e” means a su b-c lau s e of t h e clau s e i n wh i ch t h e
ex p ress i on occu rs ;
(2 8 ) “t ax at i on ” in clu d es th e i mp os it i on of an y t ax or i m p os t ,
wh et h er gen eral or loca l or s p eci al, and “t ax ” s h all b e con s t ru ed
accord i n gl y;
(2 9 ) “t ax on i n come” i n clu d es a t ax i n t h e n atu re of an ex ces s
p rofi t s t ax ;
(2 9 A) “t ax on th e s ale or p u rch as e of g ood s ” i n clu d es—
(a ) a t ax on t h e t rans fer, ot h erwi s e t h an i n pu rsu an ce of a
con t ract , of p rop ert y i n an y go od s for cas h , d eferred p aymen t or
ot h er valu ab le con s i d erati on ;
(b ) a t ax on t h e t ran s fer o f p rop ert y i n go od s (wh et h er as good s
or i n s ome ot h er form) i n vol ved i n t h e ex ecu ti on of a w o rks
con t ract ;
(c) a t ax on t h e d eli ver y o f go od s on h i re-p u rch as e or an y
s ys t em o f p aymen t b y i n s t almen ts ;
(d ) a t ax on th e t ran s fer of t h e ri gh t t o us e an y good s for an y
p u rp os e (wh et h er or n ot for a s p eci fi ed p eri od ) for cas h , d eferred
p aymen t or ot h er valu ab le con s i d erat i on ;
(e) a t ax on t h e su pp ly o f go od s b y an y u n i n corp orat ed
as s oci ati on or b od y o f p ers on s t o a memb er th ereof for ca s h ,
d eferred p aymen t or ot h er valu a b le con s i d erat i on ;
(f ) a t ax on th e s up p ly, b y wa y o f or as p art of an y s ervi ce or i n
an y ot h er man n er wh ats oever, o f go od s , b ei n g food or an y ot h er
art i cle for h u man con s u mp ti on or an y d ri n k (wh et h er or n ot
i n t oxi cat in g), wh ere s u ch s up p ly or s er vi ce, i s for cas h , d efer red
p aymen t or ot h er valu ab le con s i d erat i on ;
an d s u ch t ran s fer, d eli very or s u p p ly o f an y go od s sh all b e d eemed t o
b e a s ale of t h os e good s b y t h e p ers on makin g th e t ran s fer, d eliver y or
s u pp ly an d a p u rch as e of t h os e good s b y t h e p ers on t o wh om su ch
t ran s fer, d eli very or s u p p ly i s mad e;
(30 ) "Un i on t erri t ory " me an s an y Un i on t erri t ory s p eci fi ed in th e
Fi rs t Sch ed u le an d in clu d es any ot h er t erri t or y c omp ri s ed wi th i n th e
t erri t ory o f In d i a b u t n ot s p eci fied in th at Sch edu le.
167 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

3 6 7. I nterpreta ti on.—(1 ) Un les s t h e cont ex t ot herwi s e requ ires , t h e


G en eral Clau s es Act , 18 97 , s h all, s u b j ect t o an y ad ap t at i ons an d
mod i fi cat i on s th at may b e made t h erein un d er arti cle 3 72 , app l y for t h e
i n t erp ret ati on of t h i s Con st i tu tion as i t ap p li es for t h e i n t erp retat i on of an
Act of t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e Domi n i on of In d i a.
(2 ) An y re feren ce i n t h is Cons ti t ut i on t o Act s or laws of, or mad e b y,
Parli amen t , or t o Act s or laws o f, or mad e b y, t h e Legi s lat u re of a St at e,
s h all b e con st ru ed as in clu di n g a referen ce t o an Ord in an ce mad e b y t h e
Pres i d en t or, t o an Ord i n an ce mad e b y a G overn or, as t h e cas e may b e.
(3 ) For t h e p u rp os es of t h i s Con s t it u ti on “forei gn St at e” mean s an y St at e
ot h er t h an In d i a:
Provi d ed t h at , su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i on s of an y law mad e b y Pa rli amen t ,
t h e Pres id ent may b y ord er d ecl are an y St at e n ot t o b e a forei g n St at e for
s u ch pu rp os es as may b e s p eci fi ed in th e ord er.
168 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XX
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
3 6 8. P ow er of Pa rli am ent to a m end the Cons ti tuti on a nd pr ocedure
theref or.— (1 ) Not wi th st and ing an yt h i n g in th is Cons t it ut i on , Parli amen t
may i n ex erci s e of i t s con s tit u ent p ower amen d b y wa y o f ad d i t i on ,
vari at i on or rep eal an y p rovi s i on of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on i n accord an ce wi th
t h e p roced u re lai d d own in th i s art i cle.
(2 ) An amen d ment of t h i s Cons t it u ti on may b e i n i t i at ed on l y b y t h e
i n t rodu ct i on of a Bi l l for t h e p u rp os e in eit h er Hou s e of Parli amen t , and
wh en th e Bi ll i s p as s ed in each Hou s e b y a maj ori t y o f t h e t ot al
memb ersh ip of t h at Hou s e an d by a maj ori t y o f n ot les s th an t wo -t h i rds of
t h e memb ers of t h at Hou s e p resen t an d vot i n g, i t sh all b e p res en t ed t o t h e
Pres i d en t wh o sh all gi ve h i s as s ent t o th e Bi ll an d th ereu p on th e
Con s t it ut i on sh all s t and amend ed in accord an ce wit h t h e t erms of t h e Bi ll:
Provi d ed t h at i f s u ch amend men t s eeks t o make an y ch an ge i n —
(a ) art i cle 54 , art i cle 5 5, art i cle 7 3 , art i cle 16 2 or art i cle 24 1, or
(b ) Ch ap t er IV o f Part V, Ch ap t er V of Part V I, or Ch ap t er I o f
Part XI, or
(c) an y o f t h e Li s t s i n t h e Seven t h Sch edu le, or
(d ) th e rep res en t at i on of St at es i n Parli ament , or
(e) t h e p rovi s i on s of t h is art icle,
t h e amen dmen t sh all als o req u i re t o b e rat i fi ed b y t h e Legi s lat u res of n ot
les s t h an on e-h al f o f t h e St at es b y res o lu t i on s t o th at effect p as s ed b y
t h os e Legi s lat u res b efore t h e Bi ll maki n g p rovi s i on for s u ch amen d men t is
p res ent ed t o t h e Pres id ent for as s en t .
(3 ) Not h i n g i n art i cle 1 3 s h all ap p ly t o an y amen d ment mad e u nd er t h is
art i cle.
1
[(4 ) No amen d ment of t h i s Con s t it u ti on (in clu di n g th e p rovi s i ons of
Part III) mad e or pu rp ort in g t o h ave b een mad e un d er t hi s art i cle wh et h er
b efore or a ft er t h e commen cemen t of s ect i on 55 of t h e Cons t it uti on (Fort y-
s econ d Amen dmen t ) Act , 1 97 6 s h all b e called i n q u es ti on i n an y c ou rt on
an y gr ou n d .
(5 ) For t h e removal o f d ou b t s , i t is h ereb y d eclared t h at th ere s h all b e
n o li mi t at i on wh at ever on t h e con s ti tu en t p ower o f Par li amen t t o amen d b y
wa y o f ad d i t i on , vari ati on or rep eal t h e p rovi si on s of t h i s Con s t it ut i on
u n d er t hi s art i cle.]

1. Cls. (4) and (5) were ins. “in article 368 by s. 55 of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. This section
has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and Others Vs. Union of India and Others
(1980 ) 2 S.C.C. 591.

168
169 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XXI
TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL
PROVISIONS
3 6 9. Tem pora ry pow er to Pa rl i am ent to ma ke l a w s w i th res pect to
certa i n ma tters i n the Sta te Li s t as if they w ere ma tters i n the
Concurrent Li s t.—Not wi t h s t an d in g an yt h i n g i n t hi s Con s t it u ti on ,
Parli amen t sh all, d u rin g a p eri od of fi ve years from t h e commen cement of
t h is Con s ti tu t i on , h ave p ower t o make laws wi t h res p ect t o t he fol l owi n g
mat t ers as i f t h ey were en u merated in th e Con cu rren t Li s t , n amely:—
(a ) t rad e and commerce wi th i n a St at e i n, an d t h e p rodu cti on , s up p ly
an d di s t ri bu ti on of, c ot t on an d woo l len t ex t i les , raw cot t on (i nclu d i n g
gi n n ed cot t on and u n gi nn ed cot t on or ka p as ), cot t on s eed, p ap er
(i n clu di n g n ews p ri nt ), food -s t u ffs (i n clu d i n g ed ib le oi ls eed s an d oi l),
cat t le fod d er (i n clu d in g oi l -cakes an d ot h er con cen t rat es), coal
(i n clu di n g coke an d d eri vat i ves o f coa l), i ron , s t eel and mi ca;
(b ) offen ces agai n s t laws wi t h resp ect t o an y o f t h e mat t ers
men t i on ed in clau s e (a ), j u ris di ct i on and p owers of a ll c ou rt s excep t th e
Su p reme Cou rt wi t h res p ect t o an y o f t h os e mat t ers , and fees i n res p ect
o f an y o f t h os e mat t ers bu t n ot in clu d in g fees t aken i n an y cou rt ;
b u t an y law mad e b y Par li amen t , wh i ch Parli ament wou ld n ot b u t for t h e
p rovi s i on s of t h i s art i cle h ave b een comp et ent t o make, s h all, t o t h e ex t en t
o f t h e in comp et en cy, ceas e t o h ave effect on t h e ex p i rat i on o f t h e s aid
p eri od , ex cept as resp ects th ings d on e or omi tt ed t o b e d on e b efore t h e
ex p i rat i on t h ereof.
1
3 7 0. Tem pora ry provi s i ons w ith res pect to the Sta te of J amm u a nd
Ka s hm i r.—(1 ) Not wi t hs t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t hi s Cons t it ut i on ,—
(a ) t h e p rovi s i on s of art i cle 2 3 8 s h all n ot ap p ly i n relat i on t o t h e
St at e of J ammu and Kash mi r;
(b ) t h e p ower o f Par li amen t t o make laws for t h e s ai d St at e s h all b e
li mi t ed t o—
(i ) t h os e mat t ers in t h e Uni on Li s t an d th e Con cu rren t Li s t
wh i ch , in con su lt at i on wi th the G overn men t of t h e St at e, are
d eclared b y t h e Pres id ent t o corres p on d t o mat t ers sp eci fi ed in t h e
In s t ru ment of Acces s i on govern i n g t h e acces s i on of t h e St at e t o th e
Domi n i on of In d i a as th e mat t ers wit h resp ect t o wh i ch t h e
Domi n i on Legi s lat u re ma y make laws for t h at St at e; and
(i i ) s u ch ot h er mat t ers i n th e s aid Li s t s as , wi th th e con cu rren ce
o f t h e G overn ment of t h e St at e, t h e Presi d en t may b y ord er s p eci fy.

________________________________________________________________________________________
1. In exercise of the powers conferred by this article the President, on the recommendation of the Constituent
Assembly of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, declared that, as from the 17th day of November, 1952, the
said art. 370 shall be operative with the modification that for the Explanation in cl. (1) thereof, the following
Explanation is substituted, namely:-
“Explanation – For the purposes of this article, the Government of the State means the person for the time
being recognised by the President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State as the
*Sadar-I Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir, acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers of the State for
the time being in office.”.
(Ministry of Law Order No. C.O. 44, dated the 15th November, 1952).
*Now “Governor”.
169
170 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Exp l a na ti on .— For t h e p u rp oses of t h is art i cle, th e G overn men t


o f t h e St at e means t h e p ers on for t h e t i me b ein g recogn i sed b y t h e
Pres i d en t as t h e Mah araj a of J a mmu an d Kash mi r acti n g on t he ad vi ce o f
t h e Cou n ci l o f Mi n i s t ers for t h e t i me b ein g i n offi ce u n d er t h e Mah araj a’s
Proclamat i on d at ed t h e fi ft h d ay of March , 1 9 48 ;
(c) t h e p rovi s i on s of art i cle 1 an d of t h i s art i cle s h all ap p ly i n
relat i on t o t h at St at e;
(d ) s u ch of t h e ot h er p rovi s i ons of t h i s Con s ti tu t i on s h all ap pl y i n
relat i on t o t h at St at e s ub j ect t o s u ch ex cep ti on s and mod i fi cat i on s as t h e
Pres i d en t may b y ord er s p eci fy:
Provi d ed th at n o su ch ord er wh ich relat es t o th e mat t ers sp eci fi ed in t he
In s t ru ment of Acces s i on of t h e St at e referred t o i n p aragrap h (i ) of s u b -
clau s e (b ) s h all b e i s s u ed ex cep t i n con su lt at i on wi th t h e G overn men t of
t h e St at e:
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at n o s uch ord er wh i ch relat es t o mat t ers oth er t h an
t h os e referred t o in th e las t p reced i n g p rovi s o s h all b e is su ed ex cep t wi th
t h e con cu rren ce of t h at G overn men t .
(2 ) If t h e con cu rren ce of t h e G overn men t of t h e St at e referr ed t o i n
p aragrap h (i i ) of s u b -clau s e (b ) o f c lau s e (1 ) or i n t h e s econ d p rovi s o t o
s u b -clau s e (d ) of t h at clau s e b e gi ven b efore t h e Cons t it u en t Ass emb ly for
t h e p u rp os e of frami n g t h e Cons t it u ti on of t h e St at e i s con vened , it s h all
b e p laced b efore s u ch As s emb ly for s u ch d eci si on as i t may t ake t h ereon .
(3 ) Not wi t h s t an d in g an yt h i n g i n t h e foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s o f t h i s art i cle,
t h e Pres id ent may, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , d eclare t h at t h is art i cle s h all
ceas e t o b e op erat i ve or s hall b e op erat i ve on ly wi t h su ch ex cep t i ons and
mod i fi cat i on s an d from s u ch d ate as h e may s p eci fy:
Provi d ed t h at t h e recommend ati on of t h e Con s t i tu en t Ass emb ly o f t h e
St at e referred t o i n clau s e (2 ) s h all b e n eces s ary b e fore t h e Pres i d ent
i s su es s u ch a n oti fi cat i on .
3 7 1. Speci al provi s i on w i th res pect to the Sta tes of M a ha ra shtra a nd
Guja ra t.— * * * * *
(2 ) Not wi t h st and in g an yt h i n g in t h is Con st it ut i on , t h e Pres i d en t may b y
ord er mad e wi t h res p ect t o th e St at e of Mah aras h t ra or Gu j arat, p rovi d e fo r
an y s p eci al res p on si bi li t y o f t h e G overn or for—
(a ) t h e est ab li sh men t of s ep arat e d evelop men t b oard s for Vi d ar b h a,
Marat h wad a, an d th e res t of Mah arash t ra or, as t h e cas e may b e,
Sau ras ht ra, Ku t ch and t h e rest o f G u j arat wi t h t h e p rovi si on t h at a
rep ort on th e worki n g of each o f t h es e b oard s wi ll b e p laced each year
b efore t h e St at e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly;
(b ) t h e eq ui t ab le al locat i on o f fu n ds for d evel op men t al ex p end it u re
over t h e s ai d areas , s ub j ect t o t h e req u i remen ts of t h e St at e as a wh ole ;
an d
171 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(c) an eq u it ab le arran gemen t p rovi d i n g ad equ at e faci li t i es for


t ech ni cal ed u cati on and vocat i on al t rai n in g, an d ad equ at e opp ort u ni t i es
for emp lo ymen t i n s ervi ces u nder t h e cont rol o f t h e St at e G overn men t,
i n res p ect of al l t h e s ai d areas , s u bj ect t o t h e requ i remen t s of t h e St at e
as a wh ole.
3 7 1 A. Speci a l provi si on w i th res pect to the Sta te of Na g al and.—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on ,—
(a ) n o Act of Parli amen t i n res pect of—
(i ) reli gi ou s or s oci al p ract i ces o f t h e Nagas ,
(i i ) Naga cu s t omary law an d p roced u re,
(i i i ) ad min is t rati on of ci vi l an d cri min al j us t ice in volvi n g
d eci si on s accordi n g t o Naga cu s tomar y la w,
(i v) own ers h ip and t ran s fer of la n d an d i t s res ou rces ,
s h all ap p ly t o t h e St at e of Naga lan d un les s th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
Nagalan d b y a res o lu t i on s o d ecid es ;
(b ) t h e G overn or o f Naga lan d s h all h ave s p eci al res p on s ib i li t y wi t h
res p ect t o law an d ord er i n t h e St at e of Naga lan d for s o l on g a s i n h is
op i n i on i n t ern al d i st u rb an ces occu rri n g in t h e Naga Hi lls -Tu en s an g Area
i mmedi at ely b e fore t h e format i on o f t h at St at e con t in u e th erein or i n
an y p art t h ereof an d i n th e d is ch arge o f h i s fu n ct i on s in relat i on t h eret o
t h e G overn or s h all, a ft er con s u lt i n g t h e Cou n ci l of Mi n i st ers , ex erci s e
h i s i nd i vid u al j ud gmen t as t o t he act i on t o b e t aken :
Provi d ed th at i f an y q u est i on ari s es wh eth er an y mat t er is or i s n ot a
mat t er as res p ect s whi ch th e G overn or i s u nd er th i s s ub -clau s e req u i red t o
act in th e exerci s e of h i s in di vi du al j ud gmen t , t h e d eci s i on of t h e G overn or
i n hi s d is creti on s h all b e fi n al, and th e vali di t y o f an yt h i n g don e b y t h e
G overn or s h all n ot b e called i n q u es t i on on th e grou n d t h at he ou gh t or
ou gh t n ot t o have act ed i n t h e exerci s e of h i s in di vi du al j u d gment :
Provi d ed fu rt h er t h at i f t h e Pres i d en t on recei pt o f a rep ort from t h e
G overn or or ot h erwi s e is s ati s fi ed th at i t is n o lon ger n eces sar y for t h e
G overn or t o h ave s p eci al res p ons i bi li t y wi t h res p ect t o law an d ord er i n th e
St at e of Naga lan d , h e ma y b y or d er d i rect th at th e G overn or s h all ceas e t o
h ave s u ch res p ons ib i li t y wi t h effect from s u ch d at e as may b e sp eci fi ed in
t h e ord er;
(c) i n maki n g h is recommend at ion wi t h resp ect t o an y d eman d for a
gran t , th e G overn or o f Naga lan d sh all en s u re t h at an y mon e y p rovi d ed
b y t h e G overn men t of In d i a ou t o f t h e Con s oli d at ed Fu n d of In d i a for
an y s p eci fi c s ervi ce or pu rp os e i s i n clud ed in th e d emand for a gran t
relat i n g t o t h at s ervi ce or pu rp ose an d n ot in an y ot h er d emand ;
(d ) as from s u ch d ate as th e Govern or o f Na galan d may b y p u b li c
n ot i fi cat i on i n t hi s b eh alf s p ecify, t h ere s h all b e est ab lis h ed a regi on al
cou n ci l for t h e Tu en s an g d is t ri ct con s i st in g o f t h i rt y-fi ve memb ers and
t h e G overn or s h all i n h is di s creti on make ru les p rovi d in g for—
172 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i ) th e comp osi t i on of t h e region al cou n ci l and t h e mann er in


wh i ch t h e memb ers of t h e regi onal cou n ci l s h all b e ch os en :
Provided that the Deputy Commissioner of the Tuensang district shall be the
Chairman ex officio of the regional council and the Vice-Chairman of the regional council
shall be elected by the members thereof from amongst themselves;
(ii) the qualifications for being chosen as, and for being, members of the
regional council;
(iii) the term of office of, and the salaries and allowances, if any, to be paid to
members of, the regional council;
(iv) the procedure and conduct of business of the regional council;
(v) the appointment of officers and staff of the regional council and their
conditions of services; and
(vi) any other matter in respect of which it is necessary to make rules for the
constitution and proper functioning of the regional council.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, for a period of ten years from the date
of the formation of the State of Nagaland or for such further period as the Governor may, on
the recommendation of the regional council, by public notification specify in this behalf,—
(a) the administration of the Tuensang district shall be carried on by the Governor;
(b) where any money is provided by the Government of India to the Government of
Nagaland to meet the requirements of the State of Nagaland as a whole, the Governor
shall in his discretion arrange for an equitable allocation of that money between the
Tuensang district and the rest of the State;
(c) no Act of the Legislature of Nagaland shall apply to Tuensang district unless the
Governor, on the recommendation of the regional council, by public notification so directs
and the Governor in giving such direction with respect to any such Act may direct that the
Act shall in its application to the Tuensang district or any part thereof have effect subject
to such exceptions or modifications as the Governor may specify on the recommendation
of the regional council:
Provided that any direction given under this sub-clause may be given so as to have
retrospective effect;
(d) the Governor may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government
of the Tuensang district and any regulations so made may repeal or amend with
retrospective effect, if necessary, any Act of Parliament or any other law which is for the
time being applicable to that district;
(e) (i) one of the members representing the Tuensang district in the Legislative
Assembly of Nagaland shall be appointed Minister for Tuensang affairs by the Governor
on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Chief Minister in tendering his advice shall act
on the recommendation of the majority of the members as aforesaid;
(i i ) t h e Min is t er for Tu en s an g affai rs s h all d eal wi t h , and h ave
d i rect acces s t o th e G overn or on , all mat t ers relat in g t o th e Tu en s an g
d i st ri ct bu t h e sh all keep t h e Chief Mi n i s t er i n formed ab ou t t h e same;
(f ) n ot wi t hs t and in g an yt h i n g i n t h e foreg oi n g p rovi s i on s o f t h is
clau s e, t h e fi n al d eci si on on all mat t ers relat in g t o t h e Tu en s an g d i s t ri ct
s h all b e mad e b y t h e G overn or i n hi s d i s cret i on ;
173 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(g ) i n art i cles 5 4 and 55 an d clau s e (4 ) of art i cle 8 0 , referen ce s t o


t h e elect ed memb ers of t h e Le g i s lat i ve As s emb ly o f a St at e or t o each
s u ch memb er sh all i n clu d e referen ces t o t h e memb ers or memb er of t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f Na ga lan d elect ed b y t h e regi on al cou n ci l
es t ab lis h ed un d er t h is arti cle;
(h ) i n art i cle 17 0 —
(i ) clau s e (1 ) s h all, i n relat i on t o t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
Nagalan d , h ave e ffect as i f for t h e word “s i x t y”, t h e word “fort y-
s i x ” h ad b een su bs t it ut ed ;
(i i ) i n th e s ai d claus e, t h e referen ce t o d i rect election fr om
t erri t ori al con s ti t uen ci es in th e St at e s h all i n clu d e elect i on by t h e
memb ers of t h e regi on al cou n ci l es t ab lis h ed un d er t hi s arti cle;
(i ii ) i n claus es (2 ) an d (3 ), referen ces t o t erri t ori al
con s t it u en ci es s h all mean refer en ces t o t erri t ori al con s t it u en cies i n
t h e Koh i ma an d Mokokch u n g d i st ri cts .
(3 ) If an y d i ffi cu lt y ari s es i n gi vi n g e ffect t o an y o f t h e foreg oi n g
p rovi s i on s of t h i s art i cle, the Pres i d en t may b y ord er d o an yt h i n g
(i n clu di n g an y ad ap t at i on or mod i fi cat i on of an y ot h er art icle) wh i ch
ap p ears t o h im t o b e n ecess ary for t h e pu rp os e of removi n g t h at d i ffi cu lt y:
Provi d ed t h at n o s u ch ord er s h all b e mad e aft er t h e ex p i rati on o f t h ree
yea rs fr om t h e d at e of t h e forma t i on of t h e St at e of Naga lan d .
Exp l an at i on ..—In t h is arti cle, t h e Koh i ma, Mokokch u n g an d Tu en s an g
d i st ri cts s h all h ave t h e s ame mean i n gs as i n th e St at e of Na g alan d Act ,
1 9 62 .
3 7 1B. Specia l provi s i on w i th res pect to the Sta te of As s am .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t his Con s ti t ut i on , t h e Presi d en t may, b y ord er
mad e wi t h resp ect t o t h e St at e o f As s am, p rovi d e for t h e con s t i t ut i on and
fu n ct i on s of a commi t t ee of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e
con s i st i n g of memb ers of t h at As s emb ly e lect ed from t h e t ri b al areas
s p eci fi ed in Part I o f t h e t ab le ap p end ed t o p aragrap h 20 of t h e Six t h
Sch ed u le and su ch nu mb er of o t h er memb ers of t h at As s emb ly as may b e
s p eci fi ed in t h e ord er an d for t h e mod i fi cat i on s t o b e mad e i n th e ru les o f
p roced u re of t h at As s emb ly for t h e con st i tu ti on and p rop er fu n ct i on in g o f
s u ch commi t t ee.
3 7 1 C. Speci al provi s i on w i th res pect to the Sta te of M a ni pur.—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n t his Con s ti t ut i on , t h e Presi d en t may, b y ord er
mad e wi th res p ect t o t h e St at e of Man i p u r, p rovi d e for t h e con sti t ut i on an d
fu n ct i on s of a commi t t ee of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e
con s i st i n g of memb ers of t h at As s emb ly elect ed from t h e Hi ll A reas of t h at
St at e, for t h e mod i fi cat i on s t o b e mad e i n t h e ru les of b u s in es s of t h e
G overn men t and i n th e ru les o f p roced u re o f t h e Legi s lat i ve A s s emb ly o f
t h e St at e an d for an y s p eci al res p on si bi li t y o f t h e G overn or i n ord er t o
s ecu re th e p rop er fu n ct i oni n g of s u ch commi tt ee.
174 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) The Governor shall annually, or whenever so required by the President, make a report
to the President regarding the administration of the Hill Areas in the State of Manipur and the
executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of directions to the State as to the
administration of the said areas.
Explanation.—In this article, the expression “Hill Areas” means such areas as the
President may, by order, declare to be Hill areas.
371D. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.—(1) The
President may by order made with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh provide, having
regard to the requirements of the State as a whole, for equitable opportunities and facilities for
the people belonging to different parts of the State, in the matter of public employment and in
the matter of education, and different provisions may be made for various parts of the State.
(2) An order made under clause (1) may, in particular,—
(a) require the State Government to organise any class or classes of posts in a civil
service of, or any class or classes of civil posts under, the State into different local cadres
for different parts of the State and allot in accordance with such principles and procedure
as may be specified in the order the persons holding such posts to the local cadres so
organised;
(b) specify any part or parts of the State which shall be regarded as the local area—
(i) for direct recruitment to posts in any local cadre (whether organised in
pursuance of an order under this article or constituted otherwise) under the State
Government;
(ii) for direct recruitment to posts in any cadre under any local authority within the
State; and
(iii) for the purposes of admission to any University within the State or to any other
educational institution which is subject to the control of the State Government;
(c) specify the extent to which, the manner in which and the conditions subject to
which, preference or reservation shall be given or made—
(i) in the matter of direct recruitment to posts in any such cadre referred to in
sub-clause (b) as may be specified in this behalf in the order;
(ii) in the matter of admission to any such University or other educational
institution referred to in sub-clause (b) as may be specified in this behalf in the
order,
t o or i n favou r o f can d i d at es wh o h ave res id ed or s tu d i ed for an y p eri od
s p eci fi ed in t h e ord er i n t h e local area i n res p ect of s u ch cad re, Un i vers i t y
or ot h er ed u cati on al i ns t it ut i on , as t h e cas e may b e.
(3 ) Th e Presi d en t may, b y or d er, p rovi d e for t h e cons t it ut ion of an
Ad mi ni s t rat i ve Tri b un al fo r t h e St at e of An d h ra Prad es h t o ex erci s e su ch
j u ris di ct i on , p owers an d au th ori t y [i n clu d in g an y j u ris d i ct i on , p ower and
au t h orit y wh i ch immedi at ely b efore t h e commen cement of t h e Con s t it u ti on
(Th i rt y-s econ d Amen d ment ) Act, 1 97 3 , was ex erci s ab le b y an y c ou rt (ot h er
t h an t h e Sup reme Cou rt ) or b y an y t ri b u n al or ot h er aut h orit y] as may b e
s p eci fi ed i n t h e ord er wit h res p ect t o t h e fo ll owi n g mat t ers , n amel y:—
175 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a ) ap p oin t men t , allot men t or promot i on t o s u ch clas s or clas ses of


p os t s i n an y ci vi l s er vi ce o f t h e St at e, or t o s u ch clas s or clas s es o f ci vi l
p os t s u nd er t h e St at e, or t o s uch clas s or clas s es of p os t s u nd er t he
con t rol o f an y loca l au t h ori t y wi t h in t h e St at e, as may b e s p eci fi ed i n
t h e ord er;
(b ) s en i ori t y of p ers on s app oin t ed, allot t ed or p romot ed t o s u ch
clas s or clas s es of p os t s i n any ci vi l s ervi ce of t h e St at e, or t o s u ch
clas s or clas s es of ci vi l p os t s u nd er t h e St at e, or t o s u ch clas s or clas s es
o f p os t s un d er t h e cont rol o f an y loca l au t h ori t y wi t h i n t h e St at e, as may
b e sp eci fi ed in th e ord er;
(c) s u ch ot h er con di t i ons of s ervi ce of p ers on s ap p oin t ed, allot t ed or
p romot ed t o su ch class or clas s es of p os t s i n an y ci vi l s ervi ce of t h e
St at e or t o su ch clas s or clas s es o f ci vi l p os t s u nd er th e St at e or t o s u ch
clas s or clas s es o f p os t s u nd er th e con t rol o f an y l ocal au t h ori t y wi t h i n
t h e St at e, as may b e s p eci fi ed i n t h e ord er.
(4 ) An ord er mad e u nd er clau s e (3 ) may—
(a ) aut h ori s e th e Ad mi n is t rati ve Tri b u n al to recei ve
rep res ent at i ons for t h e red res s o f gri evan ces relat i n g t o an y m at t er
wi t h in it s j u ris di ct i on as th e Pres i d en t may s p eci fy i n t h e ord er an d
t o make s u ch ord ers th ereon as t h e Ad min is t rati ve Tri b un al deems
fi t ;
(b ) con t ain su ch p rovi s i ons wi t h resp ect t o t h e p owers an d
au t h orit i es an d p roced u re of t h e Ad mi n is t rat i ve Tri b un al (i n clu d in g
p rovi s i on s wi th resp ect t o th e powers o f t h e Ad mi n is t rati ve Tri b u n al
t o p u ni sh for con t emp t of i t s elf) as t h e Pres i den t may d eem
n eces s ary;
(c) p rovi d e for t h e t ran s fer t o t h e Ad mi n is t rati ve Tri b u n al o f
s u ch clas s es of p roceed i n gs , b ein g p roceed in gs relat in g t o mat ters
wi t h in it s j u ri sd i cti on an d p end in g b efore an y c ou rt (ot h er th an t h e
Su p reme Cou rt ) or t rib un al or ot h er au th ori t y i mmed i at ely b e fore
t h e commen cemen t of s u ch ord er, as may b e s p eci fi ed i n t h e ord er;
(d ) con t ai n su ch s up p lemen t al, i n ci d en t al an d con sequ en t i al
p rovi s i on s (i nclu d in g p rovi s i ons as t o fees an d as t o li mi t at ion ,
evi d en ce or for t h e ap p li cat i on o f an y law for t h e t i me b ein g i n
force s u b j ect t o an y ex cep t i ons or mod i fi cat i on s ) as th e Presi den t
may d eem n eces s ary.
1
(5 ) Th e Ord er o f t h e Ad mi n i strat i ve Tri b u n al fi n all y d i s p os i ng o f an y
cas e s h all b ecome e ffect i ve u p on i t s con fi rmat i on b y t h e St at e G overn men t
or on t h e ex pi ry o f t h ree mon t h s fr om t h e d at e on wh i ch t h e order i s mad e,
wh i ch ever i s earli er:
Provi d ed t h at th e St at e G overn ment may, b y s p eci al ord er mad e i n
wri t i n g and for reas on s t o b e s peci fi ed t h erein , modi fy or an n u l an y ord er
o f t h e Ad mi n i st rati ve Tri b u n al b efore i t b ecomes effect i ve an d i n s u ch a
cas e, t h e ord er of t h e Ad mi n ist rat i ve Tri b un al s h all h ave e ffect on l y i n
s u ch mod i fi ed form or b e o f n o effect , as t h e cas e may b e.

_______________________________________________
1. In P. Sambamurthy and others vs. State of Andhara Pradesh and other (1987) 1SCC, p. 362, the Supreme Court
declared clause (5) of art. 371D along with the proviso to be unconstitutional and void.
176 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(6 ) Ever y s p eci al ord er mad e b y t h e St at e G overn men t un d er t h e p rovi s o


t o clau s e (5 ) s h all b e lai d , as s oon as may b e a ft er i t i s mad e, before b ot h
Hou s es of t h e St at e Legi s lat u re.
(7 ) Th e Hi gh Cou rt for t h e St at e sh all n ot h ave an y p owers o f
s u p eri nt end en ce over t h e Ad mi ni s t rat i ve Tri b un al an d n o cou rt (ot h er t h an
t h e Sup reme Cou rt ) or t rib un al s h all ex erci s e an y j u ri sd i ct i on, p ower or
au t h orit y i n resp ect of an y mat t er s ub j ect t o t h e j u ri sd i cti on , p ower or
au t h orit y o f, or i n relat i on t o, the Ad mi ni s t rat i ve Tri bu n al.
(8 ) If t h e Pres i d en t i s s at is fi ed t h at th e con t in u ed ex is t en ce o f t h e
Ad mi ni s t rat i ve Tri b un al i s n ot n eces s ary, t h e Pres i d en t may b y ord er
ab oli s h th e Ad min i st rati ve Tri b u n al and make s u ch p rovi s i on s in su ch
ord er as h e ma y d eem fi t for t h e t ran s fer an d d is p os al of cas es p end i n g
b efore t h e Tri b u n al i mmed i at ely b efore s u ch ab oli t i on .
(9 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or ord er o f an y cou rt , t ri b un al
or ot h er au t h orit y,—
(a ) n o app oi n tmen t, p os ti n g, p romot i on or t ran s fer of an y p ers on —
(i ) mad e b efore t h e 1s t d ay o f Novemb er, 1 9 5 6 , t o an y p os t
u n d er t h e G overn ment of, or an y loca l au t h ori t y wi t h i n , t h e St at e o f
H yd erab ad as i t ex i st ed b efore t h at d at e; or
(i i ) mad e b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h e Cons t it ut i on (Thi rt y-
s econ d Amend ment ) Act , 1 97 3 , t o an y p os t u nd er th e G overnmen t
o f, or an y l oca l or ot h er au t hori t y wi t h in , th e St at e of An d h ra
Prad es h ; and
(b ) n o acti on t aken or t hi n g d one b y or b efore an y p ers on referr ed t o
i n su b -clau s e (a ),
s h all b e d eemed t o b e i llegal or voi d or ever t o h ave b ecome i llegal or v oi d
merel y on t h e grou n d t h at th e ap p oi nt ment , p os ti n g, p romot i on or t ran s fer
o f s u ch p ers on was n ot mad e in accord an ce wi t h an y law, t h en i n force,
p rovi d i n g for an y req u i rement as t o resi d en ce wi th in th e St at e of
H yd erab ad or, as t h e cas e may b e, wi t hi n an y p art of t h e St at e o f An d h ra
Prad es h , i n res p ect of s u ch ap p oi n t men t , p os ti n g, p romot i on or tran s fer.
(1 0 ) Th e p rovi s i on s of t h i s art i cle and of an y ord er mad e b y t h e
Pres i d en t t hereu nd er s h all h ave effect n ot wi th s t an di n g an yt h i n g in an y
ot h er p rovi s i on of t h i s Con st i tut i on or in an y ot h er law for t h e t i me b ei n g
i n force.
3 7 1E. Es ta bl i s hm ent of Centra l Uni vers i ty i n Andhra P ra des h.—
Parli amen t may b y law p ro vi d e for t h e es t ab li s hmen t of a Un i ve rs i t y i n th e
St at e of An d h ra Prad esh .
3 7 1F . Specia l provi s i ons w i th res pect to the Sta te of Si kki m .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g in th is Con s t it ut i on ,—
(a ) t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of Si kki m s h all con s i s t of
n ot les s th an t hi rt y memb ers ;
177 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) as fr om t h e d at e o f c ommen cemen t of t h e Con s t i t ut i on (Th irt y-


s i xt h Amen dmen t ) Act , 1 97 5 (hereaft er i n th is art i cle referred to as th e
ap p oi nt ed d ay)—
(i ) t h e Ass emb l y for Si k ki m fo r med as a res u lt of t h e elect i on s
h eld in Si kki m i n Ap ri l, 19 74 wi t h t h i rt y-t wo memb ers elect ed in
t h e s aid elect i ons (h erei n aft er referred t o as th e s it t in g memb ers )
s h all b e d eemed t o b e t h e Leg i s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e o f
Si kki m d u ly con s t i t u t ed u nd er thi s Con st it u ti on ;
(i i ) t h e si tt i n g memb ers s h all b e d eemed t o b e t h e memb ers of
t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of Si kki m d u ly elect ed u nd er
t h is Con st i tu ti on ; an d
(i i i ) t h e s aid Legi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e of Si kki m s h all
ex erci s e t h e p owers an d p erfor m t h e fu n cti on s of t h e Legi s lat i ve
As s emb ly o f a St at e u n d er t h is Con s t it u ti on ;
(c) i n th e cas e of t h e As s emb ly d eemed t o b e t h e Legi s lat i ve
As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of Si kki m un d er clau s e (b ), t h e referen ces t o t h e
p eri od of fi ve years , i n clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 1 7 2 s h all b e con st ru ed as
referen ces t o a p eri od of fou r yea rs an d th e s ai d p eri od of fo u r years
s h all b e d eemed t o commen ce from t h e app oi nt ed d ay;
(d ) u nt i l ot h er p rovi s i ons are mad e b y Parli amen t b y la w, t h ere
s h all b e all ot t ed t o t h e St at e of Si k ki m on e s eat i n t h e Hou se o f t h e
Peop le an d t h e St at e of Si kki m s h all form on e p arli amen t ary
con s t it u en cy t o b e called t h e p arli amen t ary con s t i t u en cy for Si k k i m;
(e) t h e rep res en t at i ve of t h e St at e of Si kki m i n t h e Hou s e of t h e
Peop le i n ex is t en ce on t h e ap p oi nt ed d ay s h all b e elect ed b y t h e
memb ers of t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of Si kki m;
(f ) Parli amen t may, for t h e p urp os e of p rot ect i n g th e ri gh ts an d
i n t eres t s of t h e d i fferen t s ect ion s of t h e p op u lat i on of Si kki m make
p rovi s i on for t h e n u mb er of s eat s i n t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e
St at e of Si kki m wh i ch may b e fi l led b y can d i d at es b elon gi n g t o s u ch
s ect i ons and for t h e d eli mit at ion of t h e as s emb ly con s t i t u en ci es from
wh i ch cand id at es b elon gi n g t o s u ch s ecti on s alon e may s t an d for
elect i on t o t h e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of Si kki m;
(g) the Governor of Sikkim shall have special responsibility for peace and for an
equitable arrangement for ensuring the social and economic advancement of different
sections of the population of Sikkim and in the discharge of his special responsibility
under this clause, the Governor of Sikkim shall, subject to such directions as the President
may, from time to time, deem fit to issue, act in his discretion;
(h) all property and assets (whether within or outside the territories comprised in the
State of Sikkim) which immediately before the appointed day were vested in the
Government of Sikkim or in any other authority or in any person for the purposes of the
Government of Sikkim shall, as from the appointed day, vest in the Government of the
State of Sikkim;
178 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i) the High Court functioning as such immediately before the appointed day in the
territories comprised in the State of Sikkim shall, on and from the appointed day, be
deemed to be the High Court for the State of Sikkim;
(j) all courts of civil, criminal and revenue jurisdiction, all authorities and all officers,
judicial, executive and ministerial, throughout the territory of the State of Sikkim shall
continue on and from the appointed day to exercise their respective functions subject to
the provisions of this Constitution;
(k) all laws in force immediately before the appointed day in the territories comprised
in the State of Sikkim or any part thereof shall continue to be in force therein until
amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority;
(l) for the purpose of facilitating the application of any such law as is referred to in
clause (k) in relation to the administration of the State of Sikkim and for the purpose of
bringing the provisions of any such law into accord with the provisions of this
Constitution, the President may, within two years from the appointed day, by order, make
such adaptations and modifications of the law, whether by way of repeal or amendment,
as may be necessary or expedient, and thereupon, every such law shall have effect subject
to the adaptations and modifications so made, and any such adaptation or modification
shall not be questioned in any court of law;
(m) neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have jurisdiction in respect
of any dispute or other matter arising out of any treaty, agreement, engagement or other
similar instrument relating to Sikkim which was entered into or executed before the
appointed day and to which the Government of India or any of its predecessor
Governments was a party, but nothing in this clause shall be construed to derogate from
the provisions of article 143;
(n) the President may, by public notification, extend with such restrictions or
modifications as he thinks fit to the State of Sikkim any enactment which is in force in a
State in India at the date of the notification;
(o) if any difficulty arises in giving effect to any of the foregoing provisions of this
article, the President may, by order, do anything (including any adaptation or modification
of any other article) which appears to him to be necessary for the purpose of removing
that difficulty:
Provi d ed th at n o su ch ord er shall b e mad e aft er th e exp i ry o f t wo
yea rs fr om t h e app oi n t ed d ay;
(p) all things done and all actions taken in or in relation to the State of Sikkim or the
territories comprised therein during the period commencing on the appointed day and
ending immediately before the date on which the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment)
Act, 1975, receives the assent of the President shall, in so far as they are in conformity
with the provisions of this Constitution as amended by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth
Amendment) Act, 1975, be deemed for all purposes to have been validly done or taken
under this Constitution as so amended.
371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.—Notwithstanding
anything in this Constitution,—
(a) no Act of Parliament in respect of—
(i) religious or social practices of the Mizos,
(ii) Mizo customary law and procedure,
179 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(iii) administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according


to Mizo customary law,
(iv) ownership and transfer of land,
shall apply to the State of Mizoram unless the Legislative Assembly of the State of
Mizoram by a resolution so decides :
Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any Central Act in force in the
Union territory of Mizoram immediately before the commencement of the Constitution
(Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986;
(b ) t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e of Mi zoram s h all co n s is t
o f n ot les s t h an fort y memb ers .
371H. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.—
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,—
(a) the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh shall have special responsibility with respect
to law and order in the State of Arunachal Pradesh and in the discharge of his functions in
relation thereto, the Governor shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers, exercise his
individual judgment as to the action to be taken:
Provided that if any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as
respects which the Governor is under this clause required to act in the exercise of his
individual judgment, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the
validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground
that he ought or ought not to have acted in the exercise of his individual judgment:
Provided further that if the President on receipt of a report from the Governor or
otherwise is satisfied that it is no longer necessary for the Governor to have special
responsibility with respect to law and order in the State of Arunachal Pradesh, he may by
order direct that the Governor shall cease to have such responsibility with effect from such
date as may be specified in the order;
(b ) th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e St at e of Aru n ach al Prad es h sh all
con s i st of n ot les s t h an th i rt y memb ers .
3 7 1 -I . Specia l provi s i on w i th res pect to the Sta te of Goa .—
Not wi t h s t an di n g an yt h in g i n t his Con s ti tu ti on , th e Legi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f
t h e St at e of G oa s h all con s i s t of n ot les s th an t hi rt y memb ers .
3 7 2. Conti nua nce i n f orce of exi s ti ng l aw s a nd thei r a da pta tion.—(1 )
Not wi t h s t an di n g t h e rep eal b y t h i s Con st it u ti on of t h e en act men t s referred
t o i n arti cle 3 95 bu t s ub j ect t o th e ot h er p rovi si on s of t h i s Const i tu t i on, all
t h e law i n force i n t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a i mmed i at ely b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Cons t it ut i on sh all con t i n u e in force t h erei n un t i l
alt ered or rep ealed or amen d ed b y a comp et en t Le gi s lat u re or ot h er
comp et en t au th ori t y.
(2 ) For t h e p u rp os e of b ri n i n g th e p rovi s i on s of an y la w i n fo r ce i n th e
t erri t ory o f In d i a i n t o accord wi t h th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Con sti t ut i on , th e
Pres i d en t may b y ord er make s u ch ad ap t ati on s and mod i fi cat i on s of s u ch
law, wh et h er b y wa y o f rep eal or amen d men t , as may b e neces s ary o r
ex p ed i ent , and p rovi d e th at th e law s h al l, as from s u ch d at e as may b e
s p eci fi ed in t h e ord er, h ave effect s u b j ect t o t h e ad ap tat i on s and
180 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

mod i fi cat i on s s o mad e, an d an y s u ch ad apt at i on or mod i fi cat i on sh all n ot


b e qu es ti on ed i n an y cou rt o f la w.
(3 ) Not h i n g in clau s e (2 ) sh all b e d eemed—
(a ) t o emp ower t h e Pres i d ent t o make an y ad ap t at i on or mod i fi cat i on
o f an y law a ft er t h e ex p i rat i on of t h ree years fr om t h e commen cemen t of
t h is Con st i tu ti on ; or
(b ) t o p reven t an y comp et en t Le gi s lat u re or ot h er comp et ent
au t h orit y from rep eali n g or am en d in g an y law ad ap t ed or modi fi ed b y
t h e Presi d en t u nd er th e s ai d claus e.
Exp l a na ti on I.—Th e exp ress i on “law i n force” i n th is article s h all
i n clu d e a law p as s ed or mad e b y a Legi s lat u re or ot h er comp et ent au th ori t y
i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a b efore th e commen cemen t of t h i s Con sti t ut i on and
n ot p revi ou s ly rep ealed , n ot wi t h s t an di n g t h at i t or p art s of i t may n ot b e
t h en i n op erat i on ei th er at all or i n p art i cu lar areas .
Exp l a na ti on II.—An y law p as sed or mad e b y a Legi s lat u re or ot h er
comp et en t au th ori t y i n t h e t erri tor y o f In d i a wh i ch i mmed i at ely b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti tut i on h ad ex t ra-t erri t ori al effect as well as
effect i n t h e t errit ory o f In d i a s h all, s u bj ect t o an y s u ch ad apt at i ons and
mod i fi cat i on s as afores ai d , con t iu e t o h ave su ch ex t ra-t erri t ori al effect .
Exp l a na ti on III.—Not hi n g i n t hi s art i cle s h all b e const ru ed as
con t i nu in g an y t emp orary la w i n force b e yon d t h e d at e fi x ed for i ts
ex p i rat i on or th e d at e on wh i ch i t wou ld h ave ex pi red i f t h i s Con s t it u ti on
h ad n ot come i nt o force.
Exp l a na ti on IV.—An Ord i n an ce p romu lgat ed b y t h e G overn or o f a
Provi n ce u n d er s ect i on 8 8 of t h e G overn men t of In d i a Act , 19 3 5, and i n
force i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h is Con st i tu t i on s h all,
u n les s wi th d rawn b y t h e G overn or o f t h e corres p on d i n g St at e earli er, ceas e
t o op erat e at t h e exp i rat i on of s i x weeks fr om t h e fi rs t meet in g aft er s u ch
commen cemen t of t h e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h at St at e fu n ct i on i n g u nd er
clau s e (1 ) o f art i cle 3 8 2 , an d not h i n g i n th is art i cle s h all b e c on s t ru ed as
con t i nu in g an y s u ch Ord in an ce in force b e yon d t h e s ai d p eri od .
3 7 2 A. P ow er of the P res i dent to a da pt l aw s .—(1 ) For t h e p u rp os es of
b ri n gin g t h e p rovi s i on s of an y l aw i n force i n In d i a or i n an y p art t h ereof,
i mmedi at ely b e fore t h e commen cement of t h e Con s ti tu t i on (Seven t h
Amen d ment ) Act , 19 56 , in t o accord wi t h th e p rovi s i ons of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on as amend ed b y t h at Act , t h e Pres id ent may b y ord er mad e
b efore t h e fi rs t d ay o f N ove mb er, 19 57 , make s u ch ad ap tat i on s an d
mod i fi cat i on s of t h e law, wh ether b y wa y o f rep eal or amen d men t , as may
b e n eces s ary or ex p ed i en t , and p rovi d e t h at t h e law s h all, as from s u ch
d at e as may b e sp eci fi ed in th e ord er, h ave effect s u bject t o t h e
ad ap t at i ons and mod i fi cati on s s o mad e, an d an y s u ch adap t ati on or
mod i fi cat i on sh all n ot b e qu es tion ed in an y cou rt of law.
(2 ) Not h i n g i n clau s e (1 ) s h all b e d eemed t o p reven t a co mp et en t
Le gi s lat u re or ot h er comp et en t au t h orit y fr om rep eali n g or am en d in g an y
law ad ap t ed or mod i fi ed b y t h e Pres i d en t u nd er th e s ai d claus e.
181 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

3 7 3. P ow er of P res i dent to ma ke order i n res pect of pers ons under


preventi ve detenti on i n certa i n ca s es .—Un ti l p rovi s i on i s mad e b y
Parli amen t un d er clau s e (7 ) of art i cle 2 2 , or u nt i l t h e exp i rat i on of on e
yea r from t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti t ut i on , whi ch ever i s earli er,
t h e s ai d art i cle s h all h ave effe ct as i f for an y re feren ce t o Pa rli amen t in
clau s es (4 ) an d (7 ) th ereof t h ere were s u b s ti tu t ed a refe re n ce t o t h e
Pres i d en t and for an y re feren ce t o an y la w mad e b y Par li amen t in t h os e
clau s es t h ere were s ub s ti tu t ed a re feren ce t o an o rd er mad e b y t h e
Pres i d en t .
3 7 4. P rovi si ons as to J udg es of the F edera l Court a nd proceedi ngs
pendi ng i n the F ederal Court or bef ore His M a jes ty i n Counci l .—(1 )
Th e J ud ges of t h e Fed eral Co u rt h old in g offi ce i mmed i at ely b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on s h all, u n less th ey h ave elect ed
ot h erwi s e, b ecome on s u ch commen cement t h e Ju d ges of t h e Su p reme
Cou rt and s h all t h ereu p on b e en t it led t o s u ch s alari es and allowan ces and
t o s u ch ri gh ts i n res p ect of lea ve o f ab s en ce an d p en s i on as are p rovi d ed
for u n d er arti cle 1 25 in resp ect o f t h e J ud ges of t h e Sup reme Cou rt .
(2 ) Al l s u i t s , app eals an d p roceed i n gs , ci vi l or cri mi n al, p en din g i n t h e
Fed eral Cou rt at t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s t it ut i on sh all s t an d
removed t o t h e Su p reme Cou rt , and t h e Su p reme Cou rt s h all h ave
j u ris di ct i on t o h ear and d et ermin e th e s ame, an d t h e ju d gment s an d ord ers
o f t h e Fed eral C ou rt d eli vered or mad e b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on s h all h ave t h e s ame force an d e ffect as i f t h ey h ad b een
d eli vered or mad e b y t h e Sup reme Cou rt .
(3 ) Not h i n g i n th is Con s ti t ut i on s h all op erat e t o i n vali d at e t h e ex erci se
o f j u ri s di cti on b y Hi s Maj es ty i n Cou n ci l t o d i sp os e of a p p eals and
p et it i on s from, or i n resp ect of, an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or ord er of an y cou rt
wi t h in t h e t erri t ory o f In d i a i n so far as t h e ex erci s e of s u ch j u ris d i ct i on i s
au t h oris ed b y law, an d an y ord er of Hi s Maj es t y i n Coun ci l mad e on an y
s u ch app eal or p et it i on aft er the commen cement of t h i s Cons tit u ti on sh all
for al l p u rp os es h ave effect as i f i t were an ord er or d ecree m ad e b y t h e
Su p reme Cou rt in t h e ex erci s e of t h e j u ri s d i ct i on con ferred on s u ch Cou rt
b y t h i s Con st it u ti on .
(4 ) On and from t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on t h e j uri s di ct i on
o f t h e au th ori t y fu n ct i on in g as t h e Pri vy C ou n ci l i n a St at e sp eci fi ed i n
Part B o f t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le t o en t ert ain and d is p os e of a p p eals and
p et it i on s from or i n res p ect of an y j u d gmen t , d ecree or ord er o f an y cou rt
wi t h in th at St at e sh all ceas e, an d all ap p eals an d ot h er p roceed in gs p end in g
b efore t h e s aid aut h orit y at s uch commen cemen t s h all b e t ran s ferred t o,
an d d i sp os ed of b y, t h e Su p reme Cou rt .
(5 ) Fu rt h er p rovi s i on may b e mad e b y Parli amen t b y la w t o gi ve effect
t o t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s art i cle.
3 7 5. Courts , a uthori ti es a nd off i cers to conti nue to f uncti on s ubject
to the pr ovi s i ons of the Cons t i tuti on.—All cou rt s o f ci vi l, cr i mi n al an d
reven u e ju ri sd i ct i on , all au th ori ti es an d all offi cers , j ud i ci al, ex ecu t i ve an d
182 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

mi n is t eri al, t h rou gh ou t th e t erri t ory o f In d i a, s h all con t in u e to ex erci s e


t h ei r res p ect i ve fu n ct i ons su bj ect t o t h e p rovi s i ons of t h i s Cons t it u ti on .
3 7 6. P rovi s i ons a s to J udg es of Hi g h Courts .—(1 ) Not wi t h s t an di n g
an yt h i n g i n clau s e (2 ) of art i cl e 2 1 7, t h e J ud ges of a Hi gh Cou rt i n an y
Provi n ce h old i n g offi ce i mmed i at ely b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h i s
Con s t it ut i on s h all, u n les s th ey h ave elect ed ot h erwi s e, b ecome on s u ch
commen cemen t t h e J ud ges of t h e Hi gh Cou rt i n t h e corres p ond i n g St at e,
an d sh all t h ereup on b e en t it led to s u ch s alari es and allo wan ces an d t o su ch
ri gh t s i n resp ect of leave o f ab s en ce and p en si on as are p rovi d ed for u n d er
art i cle 2 21 i n res p ect of t h e J ud ges of s u ch Hi gh Cou rt . An y s u ch J ud ge
s h all, n ot wi t h st and in g t h at h e i s n ot a ci t i zen of In d i a, b e eli gi b le for
ap p oi nt ment as Ch i ef J u st i ce of s u ch Hi gh Cou rt , or as Ch i ef J u s ti ce or
ot h er J ud ge of an y ot h er Hi gh Cou rt .
(2 ) Th e Ju d ges of a Hi gh Cou rt i n an y In d i an St at e corres p ond ing t o an y
St at e s p eci fi ed i n Part B of t h e Fi rs t Sch ed u le h old i n g o ffi ce i mmed i at el y
b efore t h e commen cemen t of t h is Con s ti t ut i on sh all, u n les s t h ey h ave
elect ed ot h erwi s e, b ecome on su ch commen cement th e J ud ges o f t h e Hi gh
Cou rt in t h e St at e s o s p eci fi ed and s h all, n ot wi th st and in g an yt h i n g in
clau s es (1 ) an d (2 ) of art i cle 2 1 7 bu t s ub j ect t o t h e p rovi s o t o clau s e (1 )
o f t h at arti cle, con t in u e t o h old o ffi ce u n ti l t h e ex pi rat i on of s u ch p eri od as
t h e Presi d en t may b y ord er d et ermi n e.
(3 ) In t h i s art i cle, t h e exp ressi on “J u d ge” d oes n ot i n clu d e an act i n g
J u d ge or an ad di t i on al Ju d ge.
3 7 7. P rovi s i ons a s to Com ptrol l er a nd Audi tor-Genera l of I ndi a .—
Th e Au d i t or-G en eral o f In d i a h old i n g o ffi ce i mmed i at el y b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con s ti tu ti on s h all, u n les s h e h as elect ed ot h erwi s e,
b ecome on s u ch commen cement t h e Comp t roller an d Au d i t or-G en eral o f
In d i a an d sh all t h ereu p on b e en ti t led t o su ch s alari es an d t o s u ch ri gh ts in
res p ect of leave o f ab s en ce an d p en s i on as are p rovi d ed for u n d er clau s e
(3 ) of art i cle 1 4 8 i n res p ect of t h e Comp t roller an d Au di t or-G en eral of
In d i a and b e ent i t led t o con t in ue t o h old offi ce u n t i l th e ex pi rat i on of h i s
t erm of o ffi ce as d et ermi n ed u nd er th e p rovi s i on s wh i ch were ap p li cab le t o
h i m i mmedi at ely b efore s u ch commen cement .
3 7 8. P rovi s i ons a s to P ubl i c Servi ce Com m i s si ons .—(1 ) Th e memb ers
o f t h e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ss i on for t h e Domi ni on of In d i a h old i n g offi ce
i mmedi at ely b efore t h e commen cement of t h i s Con st i tu ti on sh all, u n less
t h ey h ave e lect ed ot h erwi s e, b ecome on s u ch commen cemen t the memb ers
o f t h e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi ss ion for t h e Un i on and s h all, n otwi t h st and in g
an yt h i n g i n clau s es (1 ) an d (2 ) o f art i cle 3 1 6 b ut su b j ect t o t h e p rovi s o t o
clau s e (2 ) o f t h at art i cle, con t i n u e t o h old o ffi ce u n t i l t h e exp i rati on of
t h ei r t erm of o ffi ce as d et ermin ed un d er t h e ru les wh i ch were ap p li cab le
i mmedi at ely b e fore s u ch commen cement t o su ch memb ers .
(2 ) Th e Memb ers of a Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on of a Pr ovi n ce or o f a
Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s si on s ervi n g t h e n eeds of a grou p o f Provi n ces
h old i n g offi ce i mmed i at ely b e fo re t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Con s t it u ti on
183 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s h all, u n les s t h ey h ave elect ed ot h erwi s e, b ecome on su ch commen cement


t h e memb ers of t h e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s s i on for t h e corres p on d in g St at e
or t h e memb ers of t h e J oi n t St at e Pu b li c Servi ce Commi s si on s ervi n g t h e
n eed s of t h e corres p on d in g St at es , as t h e cas e may b e, an d sh all,
n ot wi t hs t an d in g an yt h i n g in clau s es (1 ) and (2 ) of art i cle 3 1 6 b u t s ub j ect
t o t h e p rovi s o t o clau s e (2 ) of t h at arti cle, con t in u e t o h old offi ce u nt i l th e
ex p i rat i on of t h ei r t erm of o ffi ce as d et ermi n ed un d er th e ru les wh i ch
were ap p li cab le i mmed i at ely b efore s u ch commen cemen t t o s u ch memb ers .
3 7 8 A. Specia l provi s i on as to dura ti on of Andhra P ra des h Leg i sl a ti ve
As s em bl y .—Not wi th st and i n g an yt h i n g con t ai n ed i n arti cle 1 7 2 , th e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb l y o f t h e St at e o f An d h ra Prad es h as con st itu t ed u nd er
t h e p rovi s i ons of s ect i on s 28 an d 29 of t h e St at es Reorgan is at i on Act ,
1 9 56 , sh all, u n les s s oon er d is sol ved , con t i nu e for a p eri od of fi ve years
fr om t h e d at e referred t o i n t he s ai d s ecti on 2 9 an d n o lon g er an d t he
ex p i rat i on of t h e s aid p eri od s h all op erat e as a di ss olu t ion of t h at
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly.
3 7 9.—39 1 . Rep. b y th e Con s ti tut i on (S even t h Amen d men t ) Act , 1 9 56 , s.
2 9 a nd S ch .
3 9 2. P ow er of the P res i dent to rem ove di ff i cul ti es.—(1 ) Th e Pres i d ent
may, for t h e p u rp os e of removi n g an y d i ffi cu lt i es , p arti cu larly i n relat i on
t o t h e t rans it i on from t h e p rovi s i on s of t h e G overn men t of In d i a Act , 1 9 35,
t o t h e p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con s t itu t i on , b y ord er d i rect t h at th is Con s t it u ti on
s h all, d u rin g su ch p eri od as may b e s p eci fi ed in th e ord er, h ave effect
s u bj ect t o s u ch ad ap t at i ons , whet h er b y wa y o f mod i fi cat i on , ad d it i on or
omi s s i on , as h e may d eem t o b e n eces s ary or ex p ed i en t :
Provi d ed t h at n o s u ch ord er sh all b e mad e aft er t h e fi rs t meet i n g of
Parli amen t du ly c on s t i tu t ed un der Ch apt er II o f Part V.
(2 ) Ever y ord er mad e u n d er claus e (1 ) sh all b e lai d b efore Parli amen t .
(3 ) Th e p owers con ferred on t h e Pres i d en t b y t h i s arti cle, b y art i cle 3 2 4 ,
b y c lau s e (3 ) of art i cle 3 6 7 an d b y art i cle 3 9 1 s h all, b efore t h e
commen cemen t of t h i s Con st i tu t i on , b e ex ercis ab le b y t h e G overn or -
G en eral of t h e Domi n i on of In d ia.
184 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART XXII
SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE
TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS
3 9 3. Short ti tl e.—Th i s Cons t itu t i on may b e cal led t h e Con s t it u ti on of
In d i a.
3 9 4. Com m encem ent.—Thi s art i cle an d art i cles 5 , 6, 7 , 8 , 9 , 6 0 , 3 24 ,
3 6 6, 36 7 , 37 9 , 3 80 , 3 88 , 39 1 , 39 2 an d 3 93 sh all come i n t o for ce at on ce,
an d t h e remain in g p rovi s i on s of t h i s Con st i tu ti on s h all come i n t o force on
t h e t wen t y-s i x t h d ay o f J an u ary, 1 9 5 0 , wh i ch d ay i s re ferred t o i n t h is
Con s t it ut i on as t h e commen cemen t of t h i s Cons ti t ut i on .
3 9 4 A. Authori ta ti ve text i n t he Hi ndi l a ng ua g e.—(1 ) Th e Pres i d en t
s h all cau s e t o b e pu b li sh ed u nd er h i s au th ori t y,—
(a ) th e t ran s lat i on of t h i s Cons tit u ti on in t h e Hin di lan gu age, si gn ed
b y t h e memb ers of t h e Con s t i tu en t As s emb ly, wi t h s u ch mod i fi cat i on s as
may b e n eces s ary t o b ri n g i t in con formi t y wi t h th e lan gu age, st yle an d
t ermi n olog y ad op t ed i n t h e au th ori t at i ve t ex ts of Cen t ral Act s i n th e
Hi n d i lan gu age, an d in corp orati n g t h erein all t h e amen d ment s o f t h i s
Con s t it ut i on mad e b efore s u ch pu b li cati on ; an d
(b ) th e t ran s lat i on i n th e Hi nd i lan gu age of eve r y amen d men t of t h is
Con s t it ut i on mad e in th e En gli s h lan gu age.
(2 ) Th e t ran s lat i on of t h i s Con st i tu t i on an d of e ver y amen d ment t h ereof
p u b lis h ed u nd er clau s e (1 ) sh all b e con s t ru ed t o h ave t h e s ame mean in g as
t h e ori gi n al t h ereof an d i f an y d i ffi cu lt y ari s es i n s o con s t rui n g an y p art o f
s u ch t rans lat i on , t h e Pres i d en t sh all cau s e t h e s ame t o b e revi s ed su i t ab ly.
(3 ) Th e t ran s lat i on of t h i s Con st i tu t i on an d of e ver y amen d ment t h ereof
p u b lis h ed un d er t hi s art i cle sh all b e d eemed t o b e, for al l p u rp os es , th e
au t h orit at i ve t ex t t h ereof i n th e Hi n d i lan gu age.
3 9 5. Repea l s .—Th e In d i an In d ep en den ce Act , 19 47 , an d t h e G overn men t
o f In d i a Act , 19 35 , t oget h er wi t h all en actmen ts amen d in g or
s u pp lemen ti n g t h e lat t er Act , b u t n ot in clu d in g th e Ab oli t i on of Pri v y
Cou n ci l J u ri sd i cti on Act , 1 94 9 , are h ereb y rep ealed .

184
185 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

FIRST SCHEDULE
[ Articles 1 and 4]
I. T HE ST AT ES

Name Territories
1. Andhra Pradesh The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Andhra State Act, 1953, sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the First Schedule to the
Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act,
1959, and the Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Mysore
(Transfer of Territory) Act, 1968, but excluding the
territories specified in the Second Schedule to the Andhra
Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959.
2. Assam The territories which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution were comprised in the Province of
Assam, the Khasi States and the Assam Tribal Areas, but
excluding the territories specified in the Schedule to the
Assam (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1951 and the
territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
State of Nagaland Act, 1962 and the territories specified in
sections 5, 6 and 7 of the North-Eastern Areas
(Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
3. Bihar The territories which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of
Bihar or were being administered as if they formed part of
that Province and the territories specified in clause (a) of
sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
(Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1968, but excluding the
territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956,
and the territories specified in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of
section 3 of the first mentioned Act and the territories
specified in section 3 of the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000.
4. Gujarat The territories referred to in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960.
5. Kerala The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 5 of the
States Reorganisation Act, 1956.
6. Madhya Pradesh The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 9 of the
States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the First Schedule to
the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (Transfer of Territories)
Act, 1959 but excluding the territories specified in section 3
of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000.

185
186 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

7. Tamil Nadu The territories which immediately before the commencement


of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of
Madras or were being administered as if they formed part of
that Province and the territories specified in section 4 of the
States Reorganisation Act, 1956, and the Second Schedule
to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of
Boundaries) Act, 1959, but excluding the territories specified
in sub-section (1) of section 3 and sub-section (1) of section
4 of the Andhra State Act, 1953 and the territories specified
in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 5, section 6 and
clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 7 of the States
Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the territories specified in the
First Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration
of Boundaries) Act, 1959.
8. Maharashtra The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 8 of the
States Reorganisation Act, 1956, but excluding the territories
referred to in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bombay
Reorganisation Act, 1960.
9. Karnataka The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 7 of the
States Reorganisation Act, 1956 but excluding the territory
specified in the Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Mysore
(Transfer of Territory) Act, 1968.
10. Orissa The territories which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of
Orissa or were being administered as if they formed part of
that Province.
11. Punjab The territories specified in section 11 of the States
Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the territories referred to in
Part II of the First Schedule to the Acquired Territories
(Merger) Act, 1960 but excluding the territories referred to
in Part II of the First Schedule to the Constitution (Ninth
Amendment) Act, 1960 and the territories specified in sub-
section (1) of section 3, section 4 and sub-section (1) section
5 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.
12. Rajasthan The territories specified in section 10 of the States
Reorganisation Act, 1956 but excluding the territories
specified in the First Schedule to the Rajasthan and Madhya
Pradesh (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1959.
13. Uttar Pradesh The territories which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province
known as the United Provinces or were being administered
as if they formed part of that Province, the territories
specified in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act,
1968, and the territories specified in clause (b) of sub-section
(1) of section 4 of the Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration
187 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

of Boundaries) Act, 1979, but excluding the territories


specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act,
1968, and the territories specified in section 3 of the Uttar
Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 and the territories
specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 4 of the
Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act,
1979.
14. West Bengal The territories which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of
West Bengal or were being administered as if they formed
part of that Province and the territory of Chandernagore as
defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Chandernagore
(Merger) Act, 1954 and also the territories specified in sub-
section (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and West Bengal
(Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956.
15. Jammu and Kashmir The territory which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution was comprised in the Indian State of
Jammu and Kashmir.
16. Nagaland The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
State of Nagaland Act, 1962.
17. Haryana The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 and the territories specified
in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Haryana
and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1979, but
excluding the territories specified in clause (v) of sub-
section (1) of section 4 of that Act.
18. Himachal Pradesh The territories which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution were being administered as if they were
Chief Commissioners’ Provinces under the names of
Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur and the territories specified
in sub-section (1) of section 5 of the Punjab Reorganisation
Act, 1966.
19. Manipur The territory which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution was being administered as if it were a
Chief Commissioner’s Province under the name of Manipur.
20.Tripura The territory which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution was being administered as if it were a
Chief Commissioner’s Province under the name of Tripura.
21. Meghalaya The territories specified in section 5 of the North-Eastern
Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
22. Sikkim The territories which immediately before the
commencement of the Constitution (Thirty-sixth
Amendment) Act, 1975, were comprised in Sikkim.
188 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

23. Mizoram The territories specified in section 6 of the North-Eastern


Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
24. Arunachal Pradesh The territories specified in section 7 of the North-Eastern
Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
25. Goa The territories specified in section 3 of the Goa, Daman and
Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987.
26. Chhattisgarh The territories specified in section 3 of the Madhya Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000.
27. Uttaranchal The territories specified in section 3 of the Uttar Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000.
28. Jharkhand The territories specified in section 3 of the Bihar
Reorganisation Act, 2000.

II. T HE U N IO N TERR ITOR IES


Name Extent
1. Delhi The territory which immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution was comprised in the Chief
Commissioner’s Province of Delhi.
* * * * *
* * * * *

2.The Andaman and The territory which immediately before the commencement of
Nicobar Islands this Constitution was comprised in the Chief
Commissioner’s Province of the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
3. Lakshadweep The territory specified in section 6 of the States
Reorganisation Act, 1956.
4. Dadra and The territory which immediately before the eleventh day of
Nagar Haveli August 1961 was comprised in Free Dadra and Nagar
Haveli.
5. Daman and Diu The territories specified in section 4 of the Goa, Daman and
Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987.
6. Pondicherry The territories which immediately before the sixteenth day
of August, 1962, were comprised in the French
Establishments in India known as Pondicherry, Karikal,
Mahe and Yanam.
7. Chandigarh The territories specified in section 4 of the Punjab
Reorganisation Act, 1966.

* * * * *
* * * * *
189 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

SECOND SCHEDULE
[Art i cles 5 9 (3 ), 65 (3 ), 7 5 (6 ), 9 7, 1 25 , 14 8 (3 ), 1 58 (3 ),
1 6 4 (5 ), 1 86 and 22 1 ]
PART A
P R O V I S I O N S AS T O T H E P R E S I D E N T AN D T H E G O V E R N O R S O F S T AT E S
1. There shall be paid to the President and to the Governors of the States the following
emoluments per mensem, that is to say:—
The President .. 10,000 rupees*.
The Governor of a State .. 5,500 rupees**.
2. There shall also be paid to the President and to the Governors of the States such
allowances as were payable respectively to the Governor-General of the Dominion of India
and to the Governors of the corresponding Provinces immediately before the commencement
of this Constitution.
3. The President and the Governors of the States throughout their respective terms of
office shall be entitled to the same privileges to which the Governor-General and the
Governors of the corresponding Provinces were respectively entitled immediately before the
commencement of this Constitution.
4. While the Vice-President or any other person is discharging the functions of, or is
acting as, President, or any person is discharging the functions of the Governor, he shall be
entitled to the same emoluments, allowances and privileges as the President or the Governor
whose functions he discharges or for whom he acts, as the case may be.
* * * * *
PART C
P R O V I S I O N S AS T O T H E S P E A KE R A N D T H E D E P U T Y S P E A KE R O F T H E H O U S E
O F T H E P E O P L E AN D T H E C H AI R M A N AN D T H E D E P U T Y C H AI R M A N
O F T H E C O U N C I L O F S T AT E S AN D T H E S P E A KE R AN D T H E
D E P U T Y S P E A KE R O F T H E L E G I S L AT I V E A S S E M B L Y
A N D T H E C H AI R M A N A N D T H E D E P U T Y
C H AI R M AN O F T H E L E G I S L AT I V E
C O U N C I L O F A S T AT E
7. There shall be paid to the Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman of the
Council of States such salaries and allowances as were payable to the Speaker of the
Constituent Assembly of the Dominion of India immediately before the commencement of
this Constitution, and there shall be paid to the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People
and to the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States such salaries and allowances as were
payable to the Deputy Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of the Dominion of India
immediately before such commencement.
8. There shall be paid to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
and to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State such
salaries and allowances as were payable respectively to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker
of the Legislative Assembly and the President and the Deputy President of the Legislative

________________________________________________________________________________________________
* Now 50,000 rupees, vide Act 25 of 1998, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1.1.1996).
** Now 36,000 rupees, vide Act 27 of 1998, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1.1.1996)

189
190 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Council of the corresponding Province immediately before the commencement of this


Constitution and, where the corresponding Province had no Legislative Council immediately
before such commencement, there shall be paid to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of
the Legislative Council of the State such salaries and allowances as the Governor of the State
may determine.
PART D
PROVISI ONS AS T O T H E JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT AN D O F T H E HIGH
COURTS
9. (1) There shall be paid to the Judges of the Supreme Court, in respect of time spent on
actual service, salary at the following rates per mensem, that is to say:—
Th e Ch i ef J us t i ce .. 1 0 ,0 00 rup ees *.
An y ot h er J ud ge .. 9 ,00 0 ru p ees **:
Provided that if a Judge of the Supreme Court at the time of his appointment is in receipt
of a pension (other than a disability or wound pension) in respect of any previous service
under the Government of India or any of its predecessor Governments or under the
Government of a State or any of its predecessor Governments, his salary in respect of service
in the Supreme Court shall be reduced—
(a ) b y t h e amou nt of t h at p en si on , and
(b ) i f h e h as , b efore s u ch ap p oin t men t , recei ved i n li eu of a p ort i on
o f t h e p ens i on du e t o h im i n res p ect of s u ch p revi ous s ervi ce t h e
commu t ed valu e t h ereof, b y t h e amou n t of t h at p ort i on of t h e p en si on ,
an d
(c) i f h e h as , b efore s u ch ap p oi nt ment , recei ved a ret i remen t
grat u i t y i n resp ect of s u ch p revi ou s s ervi ce, b y t h e p en s i on equ i valen t
o f t h at grat ui t y.
(2) Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use
of an official residence.
(3) Nothing in sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph shall apply to a Judge who,
immediately before the commencement of this Constitution,—
(a ) was h old i n g o ffi ce as t h e Ch i ef J u s t i ce of t h e Fed eral Cou rt an d
h as b ecome on s u ch commen cemen t t h e Ch i ef J u s ti ce of t h e Su p reme
Cou rt u nd er clau se (1 ) of art i cle 3 74 , or
(b ) was h old i n g o ffi ce as an y o t h er Ju d ge of t h e Fed eral C ou rt an d
h as on s u ch commen cement become a J u d ge (ot h er t h an t he Ch i ef
J u st i ce) of t h e Sup reme Cou rt un d er th e sai d clau s e,
during the period he holds office as such Chief Justice or other Judge, and every Judge who
so becomes the Chief Justice or other Judge of the Supreme Court shall, in respect of time
spent on actual service as such Chief Justice or other Judge, as the case may be, be entitled to
receive in addition to the salary specified in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph as special pay
an amount equivalent to the difference between the salary so specified and the salary which
he was drawing immediately before such commencement.

__________________________________________________________
*Now 33.000 rupees, vide Act 18 of 1998, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-1-1996)
** Now 30.000 rupees, vide s. 7, ibid (w.e.f. 1-1-1996).
191 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall receive such reasonable allowances to
reimburse him for expenses incurred in travelling on duty within the territory of India and
shall be afforded such reasonable facilities in connection with travelling as the President may
from time to time prescribe.
(5) The rights in respect of leave of absence (including leave allowances) and pension of
the Judges of the Supreme Court shall be governed by the provisions which, immediately
before the commencement of this Constitution, were applicable to the Judges of the Federal
Court.
10. (1) There shall be paid to the Judges of High Courts, in respect of time spent on actual
service, salary at the following rates per mensem, that is to say,—
Th e Ch i ef J us t i ce .. 9 ,00 0 ru p ees *.
An y ot h er J ud ge .. 8 ,00 0 ru p ees **:
Provided that if a Judge of a High Court at the time of his appointment is in receipt of a
pension (other than a disability or wound pension) in respect of any previous service under
the Government of India or any of its predecessor Governments or under the Government of
a State or any of its predecessor Governments, his salary in respect of service in the High
Court shall be reduced—
(a ) b y t h e amou n t of t h at pen s i on , and
(b ) i f h e h as , b efore s u ch ap p oi nt ment , recei ved in li eu of a p ort i on
o f t h e p en s i on d u e t o h i m in res p ect of s u ch p revi ou s s ervi ce t h e
commu t ed valu e t h ereof, b y t h e amou n t of t h at p orti on of t h e p en si on ,
an d
(c) i f h e h as, b efore s uch app oi nt ment , recei ved a ret i rement
grat u i t y i n res p ect of s u ch p reviou s s ervi ce, b y t h e p ens i on eq uivalen t o f
t h at gratu i t y.
(2) Every person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution—
(a ) was h old in g offi ce as t h e Ch i ef J u st i ce of a Hi gh Cou rt i n an y
Provi n ce an d h as on s u ch commen cement b ecome t h e Ch i ef J u s ti ce of
t h e Hi gh Cou rt in th e corres p on d in g St at e u nd er clau s e (1 ) of art i cle
3 7 6, or
(b ) was h old i n g o ffi ce as an y ot h er J u d ge of a Hi gh Cou rt i n an y
Provi n ce an d h as on su ch commen cement b ecome a Ju d ge (ot h er th an th e
Ch i ef J u s ti ce) of t h e Hi gh Cou rt i n th e corres p on di n g St at e un d er th e
s ai d claus e,
shall, if he was immediately before such commencement drawing a salary at a rate higher
than that specified in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph, be entitled to receive in respect of
time spent on actual service as such Chief Justice or other Judge, as the case may be, in
addition to the salary specified in the said sub-paragraph as special pay an amount equivalent
to the difference between the salary so specified and the salary which he was drawing
immediately before such commencement.

____________________________________________________________
* Now 30,000 rupees, vide Act 18 of 1988, s. 4 (w.e.f. 1.1.1996)
** Now 26,000 rupees, vide s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 1.1.1996)
192 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) Any person who, immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh
Amendment) Act, 1956, was holding office as the Chief Justice of the High Court of a State
specified in Part B of the First Schedule and has on such commencement become the Chief
Justice of the High Court of a State specified in the said Schedule as amended by the said Act,
shall, if he was immediately before such commencement drawing any amount as allowance in
addition to his salary, be entitled to receive in respect of time spent on actual service as such
Chief Justice, the same amount as allowance in addition to the salary specified in sub-
paragraph (1) of this paragraph.
11. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—
(a ) t h e exp ress i on “Ch i ef J u s ti ce” i n clu d es an act in g Ch i ef J u sti ce,
an d a “J ud ge” i n clud es an ad hoc J ud ge;
(b ) “act u al s ervi ce” i n clud es —
(i ) t i me s p en t b y a J u d ge o n d ut y as a J u d ge or i n th e
p erforman ce o f s u ch ot her fu n cti on s as h e may at t h e req u es t of t h e
Pres i d en t u nd ert ake t o di s ch arge;
(i i ) vacat i ons , ex clu d in g an y t i me d u rin g wh i ch th e Ju d ge i s
ab s ent on leave; an d
(i i i ) j oin in g t i me on t ran s fer fr om a Hi gh C ou rt t o t h e Su p reme
Cou rt or fr om on e Hi gh Cou rt t o an ot h er.

P ART E
PROVISIONS AS TO THE COMPTROLLER AND
A U D I T O R -G E N E R A L O F I N D I A
12. (1) There shall be paid to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India a salary at the
rate of *four thousand rupees per mensem.
(2) The person who was holding office immediately before the commencement of this
Constitution as Auditor-General of India and has become on such commencement the
Comptroller and Auditor-General of India under artcle 377 shall in addition to the salary
specified in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph be entitled to receive as special pay an
amount equivalent to the difference between the salary so specified and the salary which he
was drawing as Auditor-General of India immediately before such commencement.

(3) The rights in respect of leave of absence and pension and the other conditions of
service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India shall be governed or shall continue to
be governed, as the case may be, by the provisions which were applicable to the Auditor-
General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution and all
references in those provisions to the Governor-General shall be construed as references to the
President.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
* The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India shall be paid a salary equal to the salary of the Judges of the
Supreme Court vide s. 3 of Act 56 of 1971. The salary of Judges of the Supreme Court has been raised to
Rs. 30,000 per mensem by Act 18 of 1998, s. 7 (w.e.f.1.1.1996).
193 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THIRD SCHEDULE
[ Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219] *

F orm s of Oa ths or Aff i rma ti ons


I
Form of oath of office for a Minister for the Union:—
“I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and
solemnly affirm
allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty
and integrity of India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as a
Minister for the Union and that I will do right to all manner of people in accordance with the
Constitution and the law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will.”
II

Form of oath of secrecy for a Minister for the Union:—


“I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will not directly or indirectly
solemnly affirm
communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my
consideration or shall become known to me as a Minister for the Union except as may be
required for the due discharge of my duties as such Minister.”
III
A
Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a candidate for election to Parliament:—
“I, A.B., having been nominated as a candidate to fill a seat in the Council of States
(or the House of the People) do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith
solemnly affirm
and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and that I will uphold the
sovereignty and integrity of India.”
B
Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a member of Parliament:—
“I, A.B., having been elected (or nominated) a member of the Council of States (or the
House of the People) do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance
solemnly affirm
to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and
integrity of India and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter.”

______________________________________________________
*See also arts. 84(a) and 173(a).

193
194 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

IV
Form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the
Comptroller and Auditor-General of India:—
“I, A.B., having been appointed Chief Justice (or a Judge) of the Supreme Court of
India (or Comptroller and Auditor-General of India) do swear in the name of God that I
solemnly affirm
will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that
I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the
best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or
favour, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws.”
V
Form of oath of office for a Minister for a State:—
“I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the
solemnly affirm
Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of
India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as a Minister for the State
of ..........and that I will do right to all manner of people in accordance with the Constitution
and the law without fear or favour, affection or ill-will.”
VI
Form of oath of secrecy for a Minister for a State:—
“I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will not directly or indirectly
solemnly affirm
communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my
consideration or shall become known to me as a Minister for the State of ....................except
as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as such Minister.”
VI I
A
Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a candidate for election to the Legislature of a
State:—
“I, A.B., having been nominated as a candidate to fill a seat in the Legislative
Assembly (or Legislative Council), do swear in the name of God that I will bear true
solemnly affirm
faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and that I will uphold
the sovereignty and integrity of India.”
B
Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a member of the Legislature of a State:—
“I, A.B., having been elected (or nominated) a member of the Legislative Assembly (or
Legislative Council), do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and
solemnly affirm
195 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty
and integrity of India and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to
enter.”
VI I I
Form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of a High Court:—
“I, A.B., having been appointed Chief Justice (or a Judge) of the High Court at
(or of) ..........do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance to
solemnly affirm
the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity
of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment
perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and that I will
uphold the Constitution and the laws.”
196 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

FOURTH SCHEDULE
[Articles 4(1) and 80(2)]
Al locat i on o f s eat s in th e Cou n ci l o f St at es
To each State or Union territory specified in the first column of the following table, there
shall be allotted the number of seats specified in the second column thereof opposite to that
State or that Union territory, as the case may be.
T AB L E

1. Andhra Pradesh………………………………………………… 18
2. Assam ………………………………………………………….. 7
3. Bihar…………………………………………………………….. 16
4. Jharkhand……………………………………………………….. 6
5. Goa……………………………………………………………….. 1
6. Gujarat……………………………………………………………. 11
7. Haryana…………………………………………………………… 5
8. Kerala…………………………………………………………….. 9
9. Madhya Pradesh…………………………………………………. 11
10. Chhattisgarh……………………………………………………… 5
11. Tamil Nadu ……………………………………………………… 18
12. Maharashtra………………………………………………………… 19
13. Karnataka…………………………………………………………. 12
14. Orissa……………………………………………………………… 10
15. Punjab……………………………………………………………… 7
16. Rajasthan………………………………………………………….. 10
17. Uttar Pradesh………………………………………………………. 31
18. Uttaranchal………………………………………………………… 3
19. West Bengal……………………………………………………….. 16
20. Jammu and Kashmir………………………………………………. 4
21. Nagaland……………………………………………………………. 1
22. Himachal Pradesh…………………………………………………. 3
23. Manipur…………………………………………………………….. 1
24. Tripura………………………………………………………………. 1
25. Meghalaya…………………………………………………………. 1
26. Sikkim………………………………………………………………. 1
27. Mizoram…………………………………………………………….. 1
28. Arunachal Pradesh……………………………………………….. 1
29. Delhi………………………………………………………………… 3
30. Pondicherry………………………………………………………… 1
Total……………………………………………… 233

196
197 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

FIFTH SCHEDULE
[Article 244(1)]
Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas
and Scheduled Tribes
P ART A
GENERAL
1. Interpretation.—In this Schedule, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression
“State” does not include the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
2. Executive power of a State in Scheduled Areas.—Subject to the provisions of this
Schedule, the executive power of a State extends to the Scheduled Areas therein.
3. Report by the Governor to the President regarding the administration of
Scheduled Areas.—The Governor of each State having Scheduled Areas therein shall
annually, or whenever so required by the President, make a report to the President regarding
the administration of the Scheduled Areas in that State and the executive power of the Union
shall extend to the giving of directions to the State as to the administration of the said areas.
PART B
A D M I N I S T R AT I O N AN D CONT ROL OF SCHEDULE D ARE AS AN D SCHE DULED
TRI BES
4. Tribes Advisory Council.—(1) There shall be established in each State having
Scheduled Areas therein and, if the President so directs, also in any State having Scheduled
Tribes but not Scheduled Areas therein, a Tribes Advisory Council consisting of not more
than twenty members of whom, as nearly as may be, three-fourths shall be the representatives
of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of the State:
Provided that if the number of representatives of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative
Assembly of the State is less than the number of seats in the Tribes Advisory Council to be
filled by such representatives, the remaining seats shall be filled by other members of those
tribes.
(2) It shall be the duty of the Tribes Advisory Council to advise on such matters pertaining
to the welfare and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes in the State as may be referred to
them by the Governor.
(3) The Governor may make rules prescribing or regulating, as the case may be,—
(a) the number of members of the Council, the mode of their appointment and the
appointment of the Chairman of the Council and of the officers and servants thereof;
(b) the conduct of its meetings and its procedure in general; and
(c) all other incidental matters.
5. Law applicable to Scheduled Areas.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in this
Constitution, the Governor may by public notification direct that any particular Act of
Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall not apply to a Scheduled Area or
any part thereof in the State or shall apply to a Scheduled Area or any part thereof in the
State subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification and

197
198 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

any direction given under this sub-paragraph may be given so as to have retrospective effect.
(2) The Governor may make regulations for the peace and good government of any area in
a State which is for the time being a Scheduled Area.
In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such
regulations may—
(a) prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled
Tribes in such area;
(b) regulate the allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area;
(c) regulate the carrying on of business as money-lender by persons who lend money
to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area.
(3) In making any such regulation as is referred to in sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph,
the Governor may repeal or amend any Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State or
any existing law which is for the time being applicable to the area in question.
(4) All regulations made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the President
and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect.
(5) No regulation shall be made under this paragraph unless the Governor making the
regulation has, in the case where there is a Tribes Advisory Council for the State, consulted
such Council.

P ART C
SCHEDULED AREAS
6. Scheduled Areas.—(1) In this Constitution, the expression “Scheduled Areas” means
1
such areas as the President may by order declare to be Scheduled Areas.
2
(2) The President may at any time by order —
(a) direct that the whole or any specified part of a Scheduled Area shall cease to be a
Scheduled Area or a part of such an area;
(aa) increase the area of any Scheduled Area in a State after consultation with the
Governor of that State;
(b) alter, but only by way of rectification of boundaries, any Scheduled Area;
(c) on any alteration of the boundaries of a State or on the admission into the Union
or the establishment of a new State, declare any territory not previously included in any
State to be, or to form part of, a Scheduled Area;
(d) rescind, in relation to any State or States, any order or orders made under this
paragraph, and in consultation with the Governor of the State concerned, make fresh
orders redefining the areas which are to be Scheduled Areas;
and any such order may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as appear to the
President to be necessary and proper, but save as aforesaid, the order made under sub-
paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall not be varied by any subsequent order.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
1. See the Scheduled Areas (Part A States) Order, 1950 (C.O. 9), the Scheduled Areas (Part B States) Order,
1950 (C.O.26), the Scheduled Areas (Himachal Pradesh) Order, 1975 (C.O. 102) and the Scheduled Areas
(States of Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa) Order, 1977 (C.O. 109)

2. See the Madras Scheduled Areas (Cessor) Order, 1950 (C.O. 30) and the Andhra Scheduled Areas (Cessor)
Order, 1955 (C.O. 50).
199 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

P ART D
A M E N D M E N T O F T H E S C H E D U LE
7. Amendment of the Schedule.—(1) Parliament may from time to time by law amend by
way of addition, variation or repeal any of the provisions of this Schedule and, when the
Schedule is so amended, any reference to this Schedule in this Constitution shall be construed
as a reference to such Schedule as so amended.
(2) No such law as is mentioned in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be deemed to
be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.
200 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

SIXTH SCHEDULE
[Art i cles 2 44 (2 ) an d 2 75 (1 )]
P rovi s i ons as to the Adm i nis tra ti on of Tri ba l Area s i n the Sta tes of
As s am , M eg ha la ya , Tri pura a nd M i zoram

1
1. Autonomous districts and autonomous regions.—(1) Subject to the provisions of
this paragraph, the tribal areas in each item of Parts I, II and IIA and in Part III of the table
appended to paragraph 20 of this Schedule shall be an autonomous district.
(2) If there are different Scheduled Tribes in an autonomous district, the Governor may, by
public notification, divide the area or areas inhabited by them into autonomous regions.
(3) The Governor may, by public notification,—
(a) include any area in any of the Parts of the said table,
(b) exclude any area from any of the Parts of the said table,
(c) create a new autonomous district,
(d) increase the area of any autonomous district,
(e) diminish the area of any autonomous district,
(f) unite two or more autonomous districts or parts thereof so as to form one
autonomous district,
(ff) alter the name of any autonomous district,
(g) define the boundaries of any autonomous district:
Provided that no order shall be made by the Governor under clauses (c), (d), (e) and (f) of
this sub-paragraph except after consideration of the report of a Commission appointed under
sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 14 of this Schedule:
Provided further that any order made by the Governor under this sub-paragraph may
contain such incidental and consequential provisions (including any amendment of paragraph
20 and of any item in any of the Parts of the said table) as appear to the Governor to be
necessary for giving effect to the provisions of the order.
2
2. Constitution of District Councils and Regional Councils.—(1) There shall be a

1. Paragraph 1 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution
(Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003),s. 2 , so as to insert the following proviso after sub-paragraph (2), namely:
“Provided that nothing in this sub-paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Areas District.”\
*2. Paragraph 2 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by s. 2,ibid., so as to insert the following
proviso after sub-paragraph (1), namely: —
“Provided that the Bodoland Territorial Council shall consist of not more than forty-six members of whom
forty shall be elected on the basis of adult suffrage, of whom thirty shall be reserved for the Scheduled Tribes, five
for non-tribal communities, five open for all communities and the remaining six shall be nominated by the
Governor having same rights and privileges as other members, including voting rights, from amongst the un-
represented communities of the Bodoland Territorial Areas District, of which at least two shall be women.”
*Paragraph 2 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution
(Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s.2 so as to insert the following proviso after sub-paragraph (3), namely,-
“Provided that the District Council constituted for the North Cachar Hills District shall be called as the North
Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the District Council constituted for the Karbi Anglong District shall be
called as the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council.”
*Paragraph 2 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution
(Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003)s. 2 , so as to insert the following proviso after the proviso in sub-paragraph
(3), namely: —
“Provided further that the District Council constituted for the Bodoland Territorial Areas District shall be
called the Bodoland Territorial Council.”
200
201 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

District Council for each autonomous district consisting of not more than thirty
members, of whom not more than four persons shall be nominated by the Governor and the
rest shall be elected on the basis of adult suffrage.
(2) There shall be a separate Regional Council for each area constituted an autonomous
region under sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 1 of this Schedule.
(3) Each District Council and each Regional Council shall be a body corporate by the
name respectively of “the District Council of (name of district)” and “the Regional Council of
(name of region)”, shall have perpetual succession and a common seal and shall by the said
name sue and be sued.
(4) Subject to the provisions of this Schedule, the administration of an autonomous district
shall, in so far as it is not vested under this Schedule in any Regional Council within such
district, be vested in the District Council for such district and the administration of an
autonomous region shall be vested in the Regional Council for such region.
(5) In an autonomous district with Regional Councils, the District Council shall have only
such powers with respect to the areas under the authority of the Regional Council as may be
delegated to it by the Regional Council in addition to the powers conferred on it by this
Schedule with respect to such areas.
(6) The Governor shall make rules for the first constitution of District Councils and
Regional Councils in consultation with the existing tribal Councils or other representative
tribal organisations within the autonomous districts or regions concerned, and such rules shall
provide for—
(a) the composition of the District Councils and Regional Councils and the allocation
of seats therein;
(b) the delimitation of territorial constituencies for the purpose of elections to those
Councils;
(c) the qualifications for voting at such elections and the preparation of electoral rolls
therefor;
(d) the qualifications for being elected at such elections as members of such
Councils;
(e) the term of office of members of Regional Councils;
(f) any other matter relating to or connected with elections or nominations to such
Councils;
(g) the procedure and the conduct of business (including the power to act
notwithstanding any vacancy) in the District and Regional Councils;
(h) the appointment of officers and staff of the District and Regional Councils.
(6A) The elected members of the District Council shall hold office for a term of five years
from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Council after the general elections to the
Council, unless the District Council is sooner dissolved under paragraph 16 and a nominated
member shall hold office at the pleasure of the Governor:
Provided that the said period of five years may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in
operation or if circumstances exist which, in the opinion of the Governor, render the holding
of elections impracticable, be extended by the Governor for a period not exceeding one year
at a time and in any case where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation not extending
beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate:
202 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provided further that a member elected to fill a casual vacancy shall hold office only for
the remainder of the term of office of the member whom he replaces.
(7) The District or the Regional Council may after its first constitution make rules with
the approval of the Governor with regard to the matters specified in sub-paragraph (6) of this
paragraph and may also make rules with like approval regulating—
(a ) t h e format i on o f s u b ord i nat e loca l Cou n ci ls or B oard s an d t h eir
p roced u re an d t h e cond u ct of t h ei r b us in ess ; an d
(b ) gen erall y al l mat t ers relat i n g t o th e t ran s act i on of b us i n es s
p ert ain in g t o t h e ad min is t rati on o f t h e di s t ri ct or regi on , as t h e cas e may
b e:
Provided that until rules are made by the District or the Regional Council under this sub-
paragraph the rules made by the Governor under sub-paragraph (6) of this paragraph shall
have effect in respect of elections to, the officers and staff of, and the procedure and the
conduct of business in, each such Council.
* * * * *
1
3. Powers of the District Councils and Regional Councils to make laws.—(1) The
Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of all areas within such region and
_________________________________________________________________
*1. Paragraph 3 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to substitute sub-paragraph (3) as under, -
“(3) Save as otherwise provided in sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 3A or sub-paragraph (2) of
paragraph 3B , all laws made under this paragraph or sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 3A or sub-
paragraph (1) of paragraph 3B shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and, until assented to by
him, shall have no effect.”
After paragraph 3, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the State of Assam by the
Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s.2 , namely:—
“3A. Additional powers of the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the Karbi Anglong
Autonomous Council to make laws.—(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 3, the North
Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council within their respective
districts, shall have power to make laws with respect to—
( a ) i n d u s t r i e s , s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o vi s i o n s o f e n t r i e s 7 a n d 5 2 o f L i s t I o f
t h e Se v e n t h Sc h e d u l e ;
( b ) c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t h a t i s t o s a y , r o a d s , b r i d ge s , f e r r i e s a n d o t h e r
m e a n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n n o t s p e c i f i e d i n Li s t I o f t h e Se v e n t h Sc h e d u l e ;
municipal tramways, ropeways, inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to
t h e p r o vi s i o n s o f L i s t I a n d L i s t I I I o f t h e S e v e n t h Sc h e d u l e w i t h r e g a r d t o
such waterways; vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles;
( c ) p r e s e r v a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n a n d i m p r o v e me n t o f s t o c k a n d p r e v e n t i o n o f
a n i m a l d i s e a s e s ; ve t e r i n a r y t r a i n i n g a n d p r a c t i c e ; c a t t l e p o u n d s ;
(d) primary and secondary education;
( e ) a gr i c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g a gr i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h , p r o t e c t i o n
a ga i n s t p e s t s a n d p r e v e n t i o n o f p l a n t d i s e a s e s ;
(f) fisheries;
( g ) w a t e r , t h a t i s t o s a y , w a t e r s u p p l i e s , i r r i ga t i o n a n d c a n a l s , d r a i n a ge
a n d e m b a n k m e n t s , w a t e r s t o r a ge a n d w a t e r p o w e r s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o vi s i o n s o f
e n t r y 5 6 o f L i s t I o f t h e Se v e n t h Sc h e d u l e ;
203 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( h ) s o c i a l s e c u r i t y a n d s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e ; e m p l o y m e n t a n d u n e mp l o y m e n t ;
( i ) f l o o d c o n t r o l s c h e m e s f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f vi l l a g e s , p a d d y f i e l d s ,
markets, towns, etc. (not of technical nature);
(j) theatre and dramatic performances, cinemas subject to the provisions
o f e n t r y 6 0 o f L i s t I o f t h e S e v e n t h Sc h e d u l e ; s p o r t s e n t e r t a i n m e n t s a n d
a mu s e me n t s ;
(k) public health and sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries;
(l) minor irrigation;
(m) trade and commerce in, and the production supply and distribution of, food stuffs, cattle
fodder, raw cotton and raw jute;
(n) libraries, museums and other similar Institutions controlled or financed by the State; ancient
and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under any law made by
Parliament to be of national importance; and
(o) alienation of land.
(2) All laws made by the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the Karbi Anglong Autonomous
Council under paragraph 3 or under this paragraph shall, in so far as they relate to matters specified in List
III of the Seventh Schedule, be submitted forthwith to the Governor who shall reserve the same for the
consideration of the President.
(3) When a law is reserved for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that
he assents to the said law or that he withholds assent therefrom:
Provided that the President may direct the Governor to return the law to the North Cachar Hills
Autonomous Council or the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, as the case may be, together with a
message requesting that the said Council will reconsider the law or any specified provisions thereof and, in
particular, will, consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his
message and, when the law is so returned, the said Council shall consider the law accordingly within a
period of six months from the date of receipt of such message and, if the law is again passed by the said
Council with or without amendment it shall be presented again to the President for his consideration.”.
*After paragraph 3A, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the State of Assam by the
Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003, (44 0f 2003), s. 2 , namely: —
“3B. Additional powers of the Bodoland Territorial Council to make laws.—(1) Without
prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 3, the Bodoland Territorial Council within its areas shall have
power to make laws with respect to :- (i) Agriculture, including agricultural education and research,
protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases; (ii) Animal husbandry and veterinary, that is to
say, preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases, veterinary
training and practice, cattle pounds; (iii) Co-operation; (iv) Cultural affairs; (v) Education, that is to say,
primary education, higher secondary including vocational training, adult education, college education
(general); (vi) Fisheries; (vii) Flood control for protection of village, paddy fields, markets and towns
(not of technical nature); (viii) Food and civil supply; (ix) Forests (other than reserved forests); (x)
Handloom and textile; (xi) Health and family welfare, (xii) Intoxicating liquors, opium and derivatives,
subject to the provisions of entry 84 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; (xiii) Irrigation; (xiv) Labour and
employment; (xv) Land and Revenue; (xvi) Library services (financed and controlled by the State
Government); (xvii) Lotteries (subject to the provisions of entry 40 of List I of the Seventh Schedule),
theatres, dramatic performances and cinemas (subject to the provisions of entry 60 of List I of the
Seventh Schedule); (xviii) Markets and fairs; (xix) Municipal corporation, improvement trust, district
boards and other local authorities; (xx) Museum and archaeology institutions controlled or financed by
the State, ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under any law
made by Parliament to be of national importance; (xxi) Panchayat and rural development; (xxii)
Planning and development; (xxiii) Printing and stationery; (xxiv) Pubic health engineering; (xxv) Public
works department; (xxvi) Publicity and public relations; (xxvii) Registration of births and deaths;
(xxviii) Relief and rehabilitation; (xxix) Sericulture; (xxx) Small, cottage and rural industry subject to
the provisions of entries 7 and 52 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; (xxxi) Social Welfare; (xxxii) Soil
conservation; (xxxiii) Sports and youth welfare; (xxxiv) Statistics; (xxxv) Tourism; (xxxvi) Transport
(roads, bridges, ferries and other means of communications not specified in List I of the Seventh
Schedule, municipal tramways, ropeways, inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to the provision
204 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

of List I and List III of the Seventh Schedule with regard to such waterways, vehicles other than
mechanically propelled vehicles); (xxxvii) Tribal research institute controlled and financed by the State
Government; (xxxviii) Urban development—town and country planning; (xxxix) Weights and
measures subject to the provisions of entry 50 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; and (xl) Welfare of
plain tribes and backward classes:
Provided that nothing in such laws shall--
(a) extinguish or modify the existing rights and privileges of any citizen in respect of his land at
the date of commencement of this Act; and
(b) disallow and citizen from acquiring land either by way of inheritance, allotment, settlement
or by any other way of transfer if such citizen is otherwise eligible for such acquisition of land within
the Bodoland Territorial Areas District.
(2) All laws made under paragraph 3 or under this paragraph shall in so far as they relate to matters
specified in List III of the Seventh Schedule, be submitted forthwith to the Governor who shall reserve the
same for the consideration of the President.
(3) When a law is reserved for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that
he assents to the said law or that he withholds assent therefrom:
Provided that the President may direct the Governor to return the law to the Bodoland Territorial
Council, together with the message requesting that the said Council will reconsider the law or any specified
provisions thereof and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he
may recommend in his message and, when the law is so returned, the said Council shall consider the law
accordingly within a period of six month from the date of receipt of such message and, if the law is again
passéd by the said Council with or without amendments it shall be presented again to the President for his
consideration.”
205 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of all areas within the district except
those which are under the authority of Regional Councils, if any, within the district shall have
power to make laws with respect to—
(a ) t h e allot men t , occu p ati on or u s e, or t h e s et ti n g ap art, of l an d ,
ot h er t h an an y lan d wh i ch is a res erved fores t for t h e p u rp os es of
agri cu lt u re or grazi n g or for res id ent i al or ot h er n on -agr i cu lt u ral
p u rp os es or for an y ot h er p u rp os e li kel y t o p romot e t h e i n t eres t s of
t h e in h ab it ant s of an y vi l lage o r t own :
Provi d ed t h at n oth in g i n s u ch laws s h all p reven t t h e comp u ls or y
acq u is it i on of an y lan d , wh et h er occu p i ed or u n occup i ed, fo r p u b li c
p u rp os es b y t h e G overn men t of t h e St at e con cern ed i n accord ance wi t h
t h e law for t h e t i me b ei n g in for ce au th ori s in g s u ch acqu is i ti on ;
(b ) t h e man agement of an y fores t n ot b ei n g a res erved fores t ;
(c) t h e u s e of an y can al o r wat er-c ou rs e for t h e p u rp ose of
agri cu lt u re;
(d ) t h e regu lat i on of t h e p ract i ce o f j h u m or ot h er forms o f s h i ft i n g
cu lt i vat i on ;
(e) t h e es t ab li sh men t of vi l lage or t o wn commi t t ees or cou n ci ls an d
t h ei r p owers ;
(f ) an y ot h er mat t er relat in g t o vi lla ge or t o wn ad min i st rati on ,
i n clu di n g vi llage o r t own p oli ce an d p ub li c h ealt h an d s ani t at i on ;
(g ) t h e app oi n t men t or su ccess i on of Ch i efs or Head men ;
(h ) t h e i nh erit an ce of p rop ert y;
(i ) marri age an d d i vorce;
(j ) s oci al cu st oms .
(2) In this paragraph, a “reserved forest” means any area which is a reserved forest under
the Assam Forest Regulation, 1891, or under any other law for the time being in force in the
area in question.
(3) All laws made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and,
until assented to by him, shall have no effect.
1
4. Administration of justice in autonomous districts and autonomous regions.—(1)
The Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of areas within such region and
the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of areas within the district other
than those which are under the authority of the Regional Councils, if any, within the district
may constitute village councils or courts for the trial of suits and cases between
the parties all of whom belong to Scheduled Tribes within such areas, other than suits and
cases to which the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 5 of this Schedule apply, to

________________________________________________________
1. Paragraph 4 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to insert the following sub-paragraph after
sub-paragraph (5), namely: —

“(6) Nothing in this paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Council constituted under the
proviso to sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 2 of this Schedule.”
206 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

the exclusion of any court in the State, and may appoint suitable persons to be members of
such village councils or presiding officers of such courts, and may also appoint such officers
as may be necessary for the administration of the laws made under paragraph 3 of this
Schedule.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the Regional Council for an
autonomous region or any court constituted in that behalf by the Regional Council or, if in
respect of any area within an autonomous district there is no Regional Council, the District
Council for such district, or any court constituted in that behalf by the District Council, shall
exercise the powers of a court of appeal in respect of all suits and cases triable by a village
council or court constituted under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph within such region or
area, as the case may be, other than those to which the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of
paragraph 5 of this Schedule apply, and no other court except the High Court and the
Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction over such suits or cases.
(3) The High Court shall have and exercise such jurisdiction over the suits and cases to
which the provisions of sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph apply as the Governor may from
time to time by order specify.
(4) A Regional Council or District Council, as the case may be, may with the previous
approval of the Governor make rules regulating —
(a ) th e con st i tu ti on of vi l lage c ou n ci ls and cou rt s an d t h e p owers t o
b e ex ercis ed b y t h em un d er t hi s p aragrap h ;
(b ) t h e p roced u re t o b e fol l owed b y vi l la ge cou n ci ls or c ou rt s i n t h e
t ri al of s u i t s an d cas es u nd er sub -p aragrap h (1 ) of t h i s p aragraph ;
(c) t h e p rocedu re t o b e fol lo wed b y t h e Regi on al o r Di s t ri ct Coun ci l
or an y c ou rt con s t i t ut ed b y s u ch Cou n ci l i n app eals an d ot h er
p roceed i n gs u nd er su b -p aragraph (2 ) of t h i s p aragrap h ;
(d ) t h e en forcemen t of d eci s i on s and ord ers of s u ch cou n ci ls an d
cou rt s ;
(e) al l ot h er an ci llar y mat t ers for t h e carr yi n g ou t o f t h e p rovi s i ons
o f s u b -p aragrap h s (1 ) and (2 ) of t h is p aragraph .
(5) On and from such date as the President may, after consulting the Government of the
State concerned, by notification appoint in this behalf, this paragraph shall have effect in
relation to such autonomous district or region as may be specified in the notification, as if—
(i ) i n su b -p aragrap h (1 ), for t he word s “b et ween th e part i es all o f
wh om b elon g t o Sch ed u led Trib es wit h in s u ch areas , ot h er than su i ts
an d cas es t o wh i ch t h e p rovi s i ons of s u b -p aragrap h (1 ) of p aragr ap h 5 of
t h is Sch ed u le ap p ly,”, t h e word s “n ot b ei n g s u it s and cas es of t he n atu re
referred t o i n s u b -p aragrap h (1 ) o f p aragrap h (5 ) o f t h i s Sch edu le,
wh i ch t h e G overn or ma y s p eci fy i n t h is b eh alf,” h ad b een su bs t itu t ed ;
(i i ) su b -p aragrap h s (2 ) an d (3 ) had b een omi tt ed ;
(i i i ) i n s ub -p aragrap h (4 )—
(a ) fo r t h e word s “A Re gi on al Cou n ci l or Di s t ri ct Cou n ci l, as
t h e cas e may b e, may wi t h t h e p revi ou s app roval o f t h e G over n or
make ru les regu lat i n g”, t h e word s “t h e G overn or ma y make r u les
regu lat i n g” h ad b een s ub st i tu t ed; an d
207 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) for c lau s e (a ), t h e foll owi n g clau s e h ad b een su bs t it ut ed ,


n amely:—
“(a ) t h e con s t it ut i on of vi lla ge c ou n ci ls an d cou rts , t h e
p owers t o b e ex erci s ed b y t h em u nd er t hi s p aragraph and t h e
cou rt s t o wh i ch app eals fr om t h e d eci s i ons of vi l lage cou n ci ls
an d cou rts sh all li e;” ;
(c) fo r clau s e (c), t h e fo ll owi n g clau s e h ad b een su bs t it ut ed ,
n amely:—
“(c) t h e t rans fer o f ap p eals an d ot h er p roceed in gs p end in g
b efore t h e Regi on a l o r Di s t ri ct Cou n ci l or an y c ou rt con s t i tu t ed
b y s u ch Coun ci l i mmed i at ely b efore t h e d at e ap p oin t ed b y t h e
Pres i d en t u nd er su b -p aragrap h (5 );”; an d
(d ) i n clau s e (e), for t h e word s , b racket s an d fi gu res “s ub -
p aragrap h s (1 ) an d (2 )”, th e word , b racket s an d fi gu re “s u b -
p aragrap h (1 )” h ad b een su bs t it ut ed .
5. Conferment of powers under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and the Code of
1
Criminal Procedure, 1898 , on the Regional and District Councils and on certain courts
and officers for the trial of certain suits, cases and offences.—(1) The Governor may, for
the trial of suits or cases arising out of any law in force in any autonomous district or region
being a law specified in that behalf by the Governor, or for the trial of offences punishable
with death, transportation for life, or imprisonment for a term of not less than five years under
the Indian Penal Code or under any other law for the time being applicable to such district or
region, confer on the District Council or the Regional Council having authority over such
district or region or on courts constituted by such District Council or on any officer appointed
in that behalf by the Governor, such powers under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, or, as
1
the case may be, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 , as he deems appropriate, and
thereupon the said Council, court or officer shall try the suits, cases or offences in exercise of
the powers so conferred.
(2) The Governor may withdraw or modify any of the powers conferred on a District
Council, Regional Council, court or officer under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph.
(3) Save as expressly provided in this paragraph, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and
1
the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 , shall not apply to the trial of any suits, cases or
offences in an autonomous district or in any autonomous region to which the provisions of
this paragraph apply.
(4) On and from the date appointed by the President under sub-paragraph (5) of paragraph
4 in relation to any autonomous district or autonomous region, nothing contained in this
paragraph shall, in its application to that district or region, be deemed to authorise the
Governor to confer on the District Council or Regional Council or on courts constituted by
the District Council any of the powers referred to in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph.
6. Powers of the District Council to establish primary schools, etc.— (1) The District
Council for an autonomous district may establish, construct, or manage primary schools,
dispensaries, markets, cattle pounds, ferries, fisheries, roads, road transport and waterways in
the district and may, with the previous approval of the Governor, make regulations for the
regulation and control thereof and, in particular, may prescribe the language and the manner
in which primary education shall be imparted in the primary schools in the district.

1. See now the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Act 2 of 1974).


208 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) The Governor may, with the consent of any District Council, entrust either
conditionally or unconditionally to that Council or to its officers functions in relation to
agriculture, animal husbandry, community projects, co-operative societies, social welfare,
village planning or any other matter to which the executive power of the State extends.
7. District and Regional Funds.—(1) There shall be constituted for each autonomous
district, a District Fund and for each autonomous region, a Regional Fund to which shall be
credited all moneys received respectively by the District Council for that district and the
Regional Council for that region in the course of the administration of such district or region,
as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(2) The Governor may make rules for the management of the District Fund, or, as the case
may be, the Regional Fund and for the procedure to be followed in respect of payment of
money into the said Fund, the withdrawal of moneys therefrom, the custody of moneys
therein and any other matter connected with or ancillary to the matters aforesaid.
(3) The accounts of the District Council or, as the case may be, the Regional Council shall
be kept in such form as the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India may, with the approval
of the President, prescribe.
(4) The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall cause the accounts of the District and
Regional Councils to be audited in such manner as he may think fit, and the reports of the
Comptroller and Auditor-General relating to such accounts shall be submitted to the Governor
who shall cause them to be laid before the Council.
8. Powers to assess and collect land revenue and to impose taxes.—(1) The Regional
Council for an autonomous region in respect of all lands within such region and the District
Council for an autonomous district in respect of all lands within the district except those
which are in the areas under the authority of Regional Councils, if any, within the district,
shall have the power to assess and collect revenue in respect of such lands in accordance with
the principles for the time being followed by the Government of the State in assessing lands
for the purpose of land revenue in the State generally.
(2) The Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of areas within such region
and the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of all areas in the district except
those which are under the authority of Regional Councils, if any, within the district, shall
have power to levy and collect taxes on lands and buildings, and tolls on persons resident
within such areas.
(3) The District Council for an autonomous district shall have the power to levy and
collect all or any of the following taxes within such district, that is to say —
(a ) t ax es on p rofes s i on s , t rad es , calli n gs an d emp loymen t s ;
(b ) t ax es on an i mals , vehi cles and b oat s ;
(c) t ax es on t h e en t ry o f g ood s i n t o a market for s ale t h erei n , an d
t olls on p as s en gers an d good s carri ed in ferri es ; an d
(d ) t ax es for t h e mai nt en an ce of s ch ools , d i sp ens ari es or road s .
(4) A Regional Council or District Council, as the case may be, may make regulations to
provide for the levy and collection of any of the taxes specified in sub-paragraphs (2) and (3)
of this paragraph and every such regulation shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and,
until assented to by him, shall have no effect.
209 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

1
9. Licences or leases for the purpose of prospecting for, or extraction of, minerals.—
(1) Such share of the royalties accruing each year from licences or leases for the purpose of
prospecting for, or the extraction of, minerals granted by the Government of the State in
respect of any area within an autonomous district as may be agreed upon between the
Government of the State and the District Council of such district shall be made over to that
District Council.
(2) If any dispute arises as to the share of such royalties to be made over to a District
Council, it shall be referred to the Governor for determination and the amount determined by
the Governor in his discretion shall be deemed to be the amount payable under sub-paragraph
(1) of this paragraph to the District Council and the decision of the Governor shall be final.
2
10. Power of District Council to make regulations for the control of money-lending
and trading by non-tribals.—(1) The District Council of an autonomous district may
make regulations for the regulation and control of money-lending or trading within the
district by persons other than Scheduled Tribes resident in the district.
(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such
regulations may—
(a) prescribe that no one except the holder of a licence issued in that behalf shall
carry on the business of money-lending;
(b) prescribe the maximum rate of interest which may be charged or be recovered by
a money-lender;
(c) provide for the maintenance of accounts by money-lenders and for the inspection
of such accounts by officers appointed in that behalf by the District Council;

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Paragraph 9 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by the Sixth Schedule
to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s.2, so as to insert the following sub-paragraph
after sub-paragraph (2), namely:-
“( 3 ) T h e G o v e r n o r ma y , b y o r d e r , d i r e c t t h a t t h e s h a r e o f r o y a l t i e s t o b e ma d e
o ve r t o a D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l u n d e r t h i s p a r a g r a p h s h a l l b e m a d e o v e r t o t h a t C o u n c i l
within a period of one year from the date of any agreement under sub-paragraph (1)
o r , a s t h e c a s e ma y b e , o f a n y d e t e r m i n a t i o n u n d e r s u b - p a r a g r a p h ( 2 ) . ” .

* 2 . P a r a g r a p h 1 0 h a s b e e n a m e n d e d i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e St a t e s o f T r i p u r a a n d
M i z o r a m b y t h e Si x t h S c h e d u l e t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ( A m e n d me n t ) A c t , 1 9 8 8 ( 6 7 o f
1988), s.2, as under-

(a) i n t h e h e a d i n g, t h e w o r d s “ b y n o n - t r i b a l s ” s h a l l b e o m i t t e d ;
(b) i n s u b - p a r a g r a p h ( 1 ) , t h e w o r d s “ o t h e r t h a n Sc h e d u l e d T r i b e s ” s h a l l b e
o mi t t e d ;
( c ) i n s u b - p a r a gr a p h ( 2 ) , f o r c l a u s e ( d ) , t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a u s e s h a l l b e
s u b s t i t u t e d , n a me l y : -
(d) prescribe that no person resident in the district shall carry on any trade,
whether wholesale or retail, except under a licence issued in that behalf by
the District Council.”.
*Paragraph 10 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to insert the following sub-paragraph after
sub-paragraph (3), namely:
“(4) Nothing in this paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Council constituted under the
proviso to sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 2 of this Schedule.”
210 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(d) prescribe that no person who is not a member of the Scheduled Tribes resident in the
district shall carry on wholesale or retail business in any commodity except under a licence
issued in that behalf by the District Council :
Provided that no regulations may be made under this paragraph unless they are passed by a
majority of not less than three-fourths of the total membership of the District Council:
Provided further that it shall not be competent under any such regulations to refuse the grant of a
licence to a money-lender or a trader who has been carrying on business within the district since
before the time of the making of such regulations.
(3) All regulations made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and,
until assented to by him, shall have no effect.
11. Publication of laws, rules and regulations made under the Schedule.—All laws, rules and
regulations made under this Schedule by a District Council or a Regional Council shall be published
forthwith in the Official Gazette of the State and shall on such publication have the force of law.
1
12. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Assam to
autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Assam. —(1) Notwithstanding
anything in this Constitution —
(a) no Act of the Legislature of the State of Assam in respect of any of the matters specified
in paragraph 3 of this Schedule as matters with respect to which a District Council or a Regional
Council may make laws, and no Act of the Legislature of the State of Assam prohibiting or
restricting the consumption of any non-distilled alcoholic liquor shall apply to any autonomous
district or autonomous region in that State unless in either case the District Council for such
district or having jurisdiction over such region by public notification so directs, and the District
Council in giving such direction with respect to any Act may direct that the Act shall in its
application to such district or region or any part thereof have effect subject to such exceptions or
modifications as it thinks fit;
(b) the Governor may, by public notification, direct that any Act of Parliament or of the
Legislature of the State of Assam to which the provisions of clause (a) of this sub-paragraph do
not apply shall not apply to an autonomous district or an autonomous region in that State, or
shall apply to such district or region or any part thereof subject to such exceptions or
modifications as he may specify in the notification.
(2) Any direction given under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph may be given so as to have
retrospective effect.
12A. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Meghalaya to
autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Meghalaya.—Notwithstanding
anything in this Constitution,—
(a ) i f a n y p ro v i s i o n o f a la w ma d e b y a D i s t r i c t o r R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l i n
t he St a t e o f M e g h a la y a w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n y ma t t e r s p e c i fi e d i n s u b -
p a ra g r a p h ( 1 ) o f p a ra g r a p h 3 o f t h is Sc h e d u l e o r i f a n y p r o v i s i o n o f a n y
re g u l a t i o n ma d e b y a D is t r i c t C o u n c i l o r a R e g i o na l C o u n c i l i n t h a t St a t e
u n d e r p a ra g ra p h 8 o r p a ra g ra p h 1 0 o f t h i s Sc h e d u l e , is re p u g n a n t t o a n y
p r o v is i o n o f a l a w ma d e b y t h e Le g is l a t u re o f t h e S t a t e o f M e g h a l a ya w i t h
re s p e c t t o t h a t ma t t e r, t h e n, t he la w o r re g u l a t i o n ma d e b y t h e D is t r i c t
C o u n c i l o r, a s t h e c a s e ma y b e , t h e R e g i o na l C o u n c i l wh et h er mad e b efore

__________________________________________________________
1. Paragraph 12 has been amended to its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s.2, as under,-
‘in paragraph 12, in sub-paragraph (1), for the words and figure “matters specified in paragraph 3 of this
Schedule”, the words, figures and letter “matters specified in paragraph 3 or paragraph 3A of this Schedule”
shall be substituted.’;
Paragraph 12 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2, as under, —
in paragraph 12, in sub-paragraph (1), in clause (a), for the words, figures and letter “matters specified in
paragraph 3 or paragraph 3A of this Schedule”, the words, figures and letter “matters specified in paragraph
3 or paragraph 3A or paragraph 3B of this Schedule” shall be substituted.
211 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

or aft er t h e law mad e b y t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e of Me gh ala ya,


s h all, t o t h e ex t en t of rep u gn an cy, b e v oi d an d t h e law mad e b y t h e
Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e of Megh ala ya s h all p revai l ;
(b ) t h e Pres id ent may, wi t h res p ect t o an y Act of Par li amen t , b y
n ot i fi cat i on , di rect th at i t sh all n ot ap p ly t o an au t on omou s d is t ri ct or
an au t on omou s regi on in t h e St at e of Me gh ala ya, or s h all ap p l y t o s u ch
d i st ri ct or regi on or an y p art t h ereof s u b j ect t o s u ch ex cep t i ons or
mod i fi cat i on s as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e n ot i fi cati on and an y s u ch
d i recti on may b e gi ven s o as t o h ave ret ros p ecti ve effect .
12AA. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of
Tripura to the autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Tripura.—
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,—
(a ) n o Act o f t h e Le gi s lat u re o f t h e St at e of Tri p u ra i n resp ect of
an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed in p aragrap h 3 of t h i s Sch edu le as mat t ers
wi t h res p ect t o wh i ch a Di s t rict Cou n ci l or a Re gi on al C ou n ci l ma y
make la ws , an d n o Act o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e o f Tri p u ra
p roh i bi t in g or res t ri cti n g th e con s ump ti on of an y n on -d i s t i lled alcoh o li c
li q u or s h all ap p ly t o t h e au t on omou s di s t ri ct or an au t on omou s regi on i n
t h at St at e u n less , in ei t h er cas e, t h e Dis t ri ct Coun ci l for t h at dis t ri ct or
h avi n g j u ri sd i cti on over s u ch regi on b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on s o d i rects ,
an d t h e Dis t ri ct Coun ci l in gi vi ng s u ch d i rect i on wit h res p ect t o an y Act
may d i rect t h at t h e Act sh all, i n i ts ap p li cati on t o th at d i st ri ct or s u ch
regi on or an y p art t h ereof, h ave effect s u b j ect t o su ch ex cep t i ons or
mod i fi cat i on s as i t t hi n ks fi t ;
(b ) th e G overn or ma y, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , d i rect th at an y Act o f
t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e of T ri p u ra t o wh i ch t he p rovi s i on s of c lau s e
(a) o f t h i s su b -p aragrap h d o n ot ap p ly, s h all n ot ap p ly t o t h e au ton omou s
d i st ri ct or an y au t on omou s region i n th at St at e, or s h all ap p ly t o t h at
d i st ri ct or s u ch regi on , or an y p art t h ereof, s u b j ect t o s u ch ex cep t i ons or
mod i fi cat i on s , as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e n ot i fi cat i on ;
(c) t h e Presi d en t may, wi t h res p ect t o an y Act o f Par li a men t , b y
n ot i fi cat i on , di rect t h at i t s h all n ot ap p ly t o t h e au t on omou s di s t ri ct or
an aut on omou s regi on in t h e St at e of Tri p u ra, or sh all ap p ly t o s u ch
d i st ri ct or regi on or an y p art t h ereof, s u b j ect t o s u ch ex cept i on s or
mod i fi cat i on s as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e n ot i fi cat i on and an y s u ch
d i recti on may b e gi ven s o as t o h ave ret ros p ecti ve effect .
12B. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Mizoram
to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Mizoram.—
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, —
(a ) n o Act of t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e of Mi zoram i n res p ect of
an y o f t h e mat t ers s p eci fi ed in p aragrap h 3 of t h i s Sch edu le as mat t ers
wi t h res p ect t o wh i ch a Di s t rict Cou n ci l or a Re gi on al C ou n ci l ma y
make laws , an d n o Act of t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e of Mi zoram
p roh i bi t in g or res t ri cti n g th e con s ump ti on of an y n on -d i s t i lled alcoh o li c
li q u or s h all ap p ly t o an y au t on omou s d i st ri ct or au t on omou s regi on i n
t h at St at e un les s , i n ei t h er cas e, t h e Di st ri ct Coun ci l for s u ch d is t ri ct or
212 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

h avi n g j u ri sd i cti on over s u ch regi on , b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , s o d i rects ,


an d t h e Di s t ri ct Coun ci l, in givi n g s u ch di recti on wi th resp ect t o an y
Act , may d i rect t h at t h e Act shall, i n i t s ap p li cati on t o su ch d is t ri ct or
regi on or an y p art t h ereof, h ave effect s u b j ect t o su ch ex cep t i ons or
mod i fi cat i on s as i t t hi n ks fi t ;
(b ) t h e G overn or may, b y p u b li c n ot i fi cat i on , d i rect t h at an y A ct of
t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e of Mi zoram t o wh i ch t h e p rovis i on s of
clau s e (a ) o f t h i s s ub -p aragrap h d o n ot ap p ly, s h al l n ot ap p l y t o an
au t on omou s d is t ri ct or an au t on omou s regi on i n t h at St at e, or s h all
ap p ly t o s u ch di s t ri ct or regi on , or an y p art t h ereof, s u bj ect t o s u ch
ex cep ti on s or mod i fi cat i ons , as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e n ot i fi cat i on ;
(c) t h e Pres id ent may, wi t h res p ect t o an y Act o f Par li amen t, b y
n ot i fi cat i on , di rect th at i t sh all n ot ap p ly t o an au t on omou s d is t ri ct or
an au t on omou s regi on i n t h e Stat e of Mi zoram, or s h al l ap p l y t o s u ch
d i st ri ct or regi on or an y p art t h ereof, s u b j ect t o su ch ex cep ti on s or
mod i fi cat i on s as h e may s p eci fy i n t h e n ot i fi cati on and an y s u ch
d i recti on may b e gi ven s o as t o h ave ret ros p ecti ve effect .
13. Estimated receipts and expenditure pertaining to autonomous districts to be
shown separately in the annual financial statement.—The estimated receipts and
expenditure pertaining to an autonomous district which are to be credited to, or is to be made
from, the Consolidated Fund of the State shall be first placed before the District Council for
discussion and then after such discussion be shown separately in the annual financial
statement of the State to be laid before the Legislature of the State under article 202.
1
14. Appointment of Commission to inquire into and report on the administration of
autonomous districts and autonomous regions.—(1) The Governor may at any time
appoint a Commission to examine and report on any matter specified by him relating to the
administration of the autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State, including
matters specified in clauses (c), (d), (e) and (f) of sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 1 of this
Schedule, or may appoint a Commission to inquire into and report from time to time on the
administration of autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State generally and in
particular on—
(a ) t h e p rovi s i on of ed u cat ion al an d medi cal faci li t i es an d
commu n i cat i on s i n s u ch d i st ri cts an d regi on s ;
(b ) t h e n eed for an y n ew or s p eci al legi s lat i on i n res p ect of s u ch
d i st ri cts and regi on s ; and
(c) t h e ad min i st rati on of t h e law s , ru les an d regu lat i on s mad e b y t h e
Di s t ri ct and Regi on al Cou n ci ls ;
and define the procedure to be followed by such Commission.
(2) The report of every such Commission with the recommendations of the Governor with
respect thereto shall be laid before the Legislature of the State by the Minister concerned
together with an explanatory memorandum regarding the action proposed to be taken thereon
by the Government of the State.

________________________________________________________
1. Paragraph 14 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995) , s. 2, as under,-
In paragraph 14 , in sub-paragraph (2), the words “with the recommendations of the Governor with
respect thereto” shall be omitted.
213 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) In allocating the business of the Government of the State among his Ministers the
Governor may place one of his Ministers specially in charge of the welfare of the autonomous
districts and autonomous regions in the State.
1
15. Annulment or suspension of acts and resolutions of District and Regional
Councils.— (1) If at any time the Governor is satisfied that an act or resolution of a District
or a Regional Council is likely to endanger the safety of India or is likely to be prejudicial to
public order, he may annul or suspend such act or resolution and take such steps as he may
consider necessary (including the suspension of the Council and the assumption to himself of
all or any of the powers vested in or exercisable by the Council) to prevent the commission or
continuance of such act, or the giving of effect to such resolution.
(2) Any order made by the Governor under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph together
with the reasons therefor shall be laid before the Legislature of the State as soon as possible
and the order shall, unless revoked by the Legislature of the State, continue in force for a
period of twelve months from the date on which it was so made:
Provided that if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of such
order is passed by the Legislature of the State, the order shall unless cancelled by the
Governor continue in force for a further period of twelve months from the date on which
under this paragraph it would otherwise have ceased to operate.
2
16. Dissolution of a District or a Regional Council.—(1) The Governor may on the
recommendation of a Commission appointed under paragraph 14 of this Schedule by public
notification order the dissolution of a District or a Regional Council, and—
(a ) d i rect t h at a fres h gen eral el ect i on sh all b e h eld i mmed i at el y for
t h e recon st it u ti on of t h e Cou n ci l, or
(b ) s ub j ect t o t h e p revi ous app rova l o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f t h e St at e
as s u me t h e ad mi n is t rat i on of t h e area un d er t h e au th ori t y o f s u ch
Cou n ci l h i ms elf or p lace t h e ad min i st rat i on of s u ch area un d er th e
Commi s s i on app oi n t ed u nd er th e s ai d p aragrap h or an y ot her b od y
con s i d ered su it ab le b y h i m for a p eri od n ot ex ceed i n g t welve mon t hs :
Provided that when an order under clause (a) of this paragraph has been made, the
Governor may take the action referred to in clause (b) of this paragraph with regard to the
administration of the area in question pending the reconstitution of the Council on fresh
general election:
Provided further that no action shall be taken under clause (b) of this paragraph without
giving the District or the Regional Council, as the case may be, an opportunity of placing its
views before the Legislature of the State.

________________________________________________________
1. Paragraph 15 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by the Sixth
Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s. 2, as under,-
(a) in the opening paragraph, for the words “by the Legislature of the State”, the words “by him” shall
be substituted;
(b) the proviso shall be omitted.
2. Paragraph 16 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by s. 2, ibid., as
under,-
(a) in sub-paragraph (1), the words “subject to the previous approval of the Legislature of the State”
occurring in clause (b), and the second proviso shall be omitted;
(b) for sub-paragraph (3), the following sub-graph shall be substituted, namely:-
“(3) Every order made under sub-paragraph (1) or sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph, along with
the reasons therefor shall be laid before the Legislature of the State.”’.
214 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) If at any time the Governor is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the
administration of an autonomous district or region cannot be carried on in accordance with
the provisions of this Schedule, he may, by public notification, assume to himself all or any of
the functions or powers vested in or exercisable by the District Council or, as the case may
be, the Regional Council and declare that such functions or powers shall be exercisable by
such person or authority as he may specify in this behalf, for a period not exceeding six
months:
Provided that the Governor may by a further order or orders extend the operation of the
initial order by a period not exceeding six months on each occasion.
(3) Every order made under sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph with the reasons therefor
shall be laid before the Legislature of the State and shall cease to operate at the expiration of
thirty days from the date on which the State Legislature first sits after the issue of the order,
unless, before the expiry of that period it has been approved by that State Legislature.
1
17. Exclusion of areas from autonomous districts in forming constituencies in such
districts.—For the purposes of elections to the Legislative Assembly of Assam or Meghalaya
or Tripura or Mizoram, the Governor may by order declare that any area within an
autonomous district in the State of Assam or Meghalaya or Tripura or Mizoram, as the case
may be, shall not form part of any constituency to fill a seat or seats in the Assembly reserved
for any such district but shall form part of a constituency to fill a seat or seats in the Assembly
not so reserved to be specified in the order.
* * * * *
2
19. Transitional provisions.—(1) As soon as possible after the commencement of this
Constitution the Governor shall take steps for the constitution of a District Council for each
autonomous district in the State under this Schedule and, until a District Council is so
constituted for an autonomous district, the administration of such district shall be vested in
the Governor and the following provisions shall apply to the administration of the areas
within such district instead of the foregoing provisions of this Schedule, namely:—

(a) no Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall apply to any such area
unless the Governor by public notification so directs; and the Governor in giving such a
direction with respect to any Act may direct that the Act shall, in its application to the
area or to any specified part thereof, have effect subject to such exceptions or
modifications as he thinks fit;

____________________________________________
1. Paragraph 17 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to insert the following proviso, namely: —
“Provided that nothing in this paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Areas District.”
2. Paragraph 19 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by s. 2 , ibid., so as to insert the
following sub-paragraph after sub-paragraph (3), namely: —
“(4) As soon as possible after the commencement of this Act, and Interim Executive Council for
Bodoland Territorial Areas District in Assam shall be formed by the Governor from amongst leaders of the
Bodo movement, including the signatories to the Memorandum of Settlement, and shall provide adequate
representation to the non-tribal communities in that area:
Provided that Interim Council shall be for a period of six months during which endeavour to hold the
election to the Council shall be made.
Explanation.---For the purposes of this sub-paragraph, the expression “Memorandum of Settlement”
means the Memorandum signed on the 10th day of February, 2003 between Government of India,
Government of Assam and Bodo Liberation Tigres.”
215 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) th e G overn or ma y ma ke regu lat i on s for t h e p eace an d good


go vern men t of an y s u ch area an d an y re gu lat i on s s o mad e may rep eal or
amen d an y Act o f Par li amen t or o f t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St ate or an y
ex i st in g law wh i ch i s for t h e ti me b ein g ap p li cab le t o su ch area.
(2) Any direction given by the Governor under clause (a) of sub-paragraph (1) of this
paragraph may be given so as to have retrospective effect.
(3) All regulations made under clause (b) of sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be
submitted forthwith to the President and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect.
20. Tribal areas.—(1) The areas specified in Parts I, II, IIA and III of the table below
shall respectively be the tribal areas within the State of Assam, the State of Meghalaya, the
State of Tripura and the State of Mizoram.
(2) Any reference in Part I, Part II or Part III of the table below to any district shall be
construed as a reference to the territories comprised within the autonomous district of that
name existing immediately before the day appointed under clause (b) of section 2 of the
North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971:
Provided that for the purposes of clauses (e) and (f) of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 3,
paragraph 4, paragraph 5, paragraph 6, sub-paragraph (2), clauses (a), (b) and (d) of sub-
paragraph (3) and sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 8 and clause (d) of sub-paragraph (2) of
paragraph 10 of this Schedule, no part of the area comprised within the municipality of
Shillong shall be deemed to be within the Khasi Hills District.
(3) The reference in Part IIA in the table below to the "Tripura Tribal Areas District" shall
be construed as a reference to the territory comprising the tribal areas specified in the First
Schedule to the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Act, 1979.

TAB LE
PART I
1. The North Cachar Hills District.
2. The Karbi Anglong District.
3. Th e Bod olan d Terri t ori al Areas Di s t ri ct .
P A R T II

1. Khasi Hills District.


2. Jaintia Hills District.
3. The Garo Hills District.
P A R T IIA
Tripura Tribal Areas District

P A R T III
* **
1. The Chakma District.
2. The Mara District.
3. The Lai District.
216 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

20A. Dissolution of the Mizo District Council.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in this


Schedule, the District Council of the Mizo District existing immediately before the prescribed
date (hereinafter referred to as the Mizo District Council) shall stand dissolved and cease to
exist.
(2) The Administrator of the Union territory of Mizoram may, by one or more orders,
provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—
(a ) th e t ran s fer, i n wh ole or i n p art , of t h e as s ets , righ t s and
li ab i li t i es of t h e Mi zo Di s t rict Cou n ci l (i n clu di n g t h e ri gh t s an d
li ab i li t i es u nd er an y con t ract mad e b y i t ) t o th e Uni on or t o an y ot h er
au t h orit y;
(b ) th e s ub s ti tu t i on of t h e Un i on or an y ot h er au th ori t y for t h e Mi zo
Di s t ri ct Cou n ci l, or t h e ad d it i on o f t h e Un i on or an y ot h er au t hori t y, as
a p art y t o an y le ga l p roceed i n gs t o wh i ch t h e Mi zo Di s t ri ct Coun ci l i s a
p art y;
(c) th e t ran s fer or re-emp l o ymen t o f an y emp l o yees o f t h e Mi zo
Di s t ri ct Cou n ci l t o or b y t h e Uni on or an y ot h er aut h ori t y, t h e terms and
con d i ti on s of s ervi ce ap p li cab le t o s u ch emp loyees a ft er s u ch t ran s fer or
re-emp l o ymen t ;
(d ) t h e con ti nu an ce of an y la ws , mad e b y t h e Mi zo Di s t ri ct Cou n ci l
an d i n force i mmed i at ely b efore i t s d i s s olu ti on , s ub j ect t o s u ch
ad ap t at i ons an d mod i fi cat i ons , wh et h er b y wa y o f rep eal or amen d men t ,
as th e Admi ni st rat or may make i n th is b eh alf, u n ti l s u ch laws are
alt ered , rep ealed or amend ed b y a comp et en t Legi s lat u re or ot h er
comp et en t au th ori t y;
(e) s u ch i n ci d en t al, con s eq u en t i al and s up p lement ary mat t ers as t h e
Ad mi ni s t rat or con s i ders n eces s ar y.
Explanation.—In this paragraph and in paragraph 20B of this Schedule, the expression
"prescribed date" means the date on which the Legislative Assembly of the Union territory of
Mizoram is duly constituted under and in accordance with the provisions of the Government
of Union Territories Act, 1963.
1
20B. Autonomous regions in the Union territory of Mizoram to be autonomous
districts and transitory provisions consequent thereto.— (1) Notwithstanding anything in
this Schedule,—

________________________________________________________
1. After paragraph 20B, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the State of Assam by the
Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s. 2, namely:-
“20BA. Exercise of discretionary powers by the Governor in the discharge of his functions.-The
Governor in the discharge of his functions under sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) of paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs (1),
(6), sub-paragraph (6A) excluding the first proviso and sub-paragraph (7) of paragraph 2, sub-paragraph (3) of
paragraph 3, sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 4, paragraph 5, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 6, sub-paragraph (2)
of paragraph 7, sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 8, sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 9, sub-paragraph (3) of
paragraph 10, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 14, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 15 and sub-paragraphs (1) and
(2) of paragraph 16 of this Schedule, shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers and the North Cachar Hills
Autonomous Council or the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, as the case may be, take such action as he
considers necessary in his discretion.”
2. After paragraph 20B, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the States of Tripura and
Mizoram, by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s. 2, namely:-
“20BB. Exercise of discretionary powers by the Governor in the discharge of his functions.-The
Governor, in the discharge of his functions under sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) of paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs (1)
and (7) of paragraph 2, sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 3, sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 4, paragraph 5, sub-
paragraph (1) of paragraph 6, sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 7, sub- paragraph (3) of paragraph 9, sub-
paragraph (1) of paragraph 14, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 15 and sub-paragraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph
16 of this Schedule, shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers, and if he thinks it necessary, the District
Council or the Regional Council concerned, take such action as he considers necessary in his discretion.”
217 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a ) every au t on omou s regi on ex i st i n g immedi at ely b e fore t h e


p res crib ed d at e in t h e Uni on t erri t ory o f Mi zoram s h all, on an d from t h at
d at e, b e an au t on omou s d i st ri ct i n t h at Un i on t errit ory ( h ereaft er
referred t o as t h e corres p on d in g n ew d i s t ri ct ) an d th e Ad min i st rat or
t h ereof ma y, b y on e or more ord ers , d i rect t h at su ch con seq u en t i al
amen d men ts as are n eces s ary t o gi ve e ffect t o t h e p rovi s i on s o f t h i s
clau s e s h all b e mad e i n p aragraph 2 0 of t h i s Sch edu le (i n clu d in g Part III
o f t h e t ab le app end ed t o t h at p aragrap h ) an d t h ereu p on th e s aid
p aragrap h an d t h e s ai d Part III s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een amen d ed
accord i n gl y;
(b ) every Regi on a l Cou n ci l o f an au t on omou s regi on i n t he Un i on
t erri t ory o f Mi zoram ex i st i n g i mmedi at ely b efore t h e p res crib ed d ate
(h ereaft er referred t o as t h e ex i st in g Regi on al Cou n ci l) s h all, on an d
fr om t h at d at e an d u n ti l a Di s tri ct Cou n ci l i s d u ly con s t i t ut ed for t h e
corres p on d in g n ew d i s t ri ct , b e deemed t o b e t h e Di s t ri ct Cou n cil o f t h at
d i st ri ct (h ereaft er referred t o as t h e corres p on d in g n ew Di s t ri ct
Cou n ci l).
(2) Every member whether elected or nominated of an existing Regional Council shall be
deemed to have been elected or, as the case may be, nominated to the corresponding new
District Council and shall hold office until a District Council is duly constituted for the
corresponding new district under this Schedule.
(3) Until rules are made under sub-paragraph (7) of paragraph 2 and sub-paragraph (4) of
paragraph 4 of this Schedule by the corresponding new District Council, the rules made under
the said provisions by the existing Regional Council and in force immediately before the
prescribed date shall have effect in relation to the corresponding new District Council subject
to such adaptations and modifications as may be made therein by the Administrator of the
Union territory of Mizoram.
(4) The Administrator of the Union territory of Mizoram may, by one or more orders,
provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—
(a ) t h e t ran s fer i n wh ole or i n p art of t h e as s ets , righ t s and
li ab i li t i es of t h e ex i st in g Regi on al Cou n ci l (i n clu d in g t h e righ t s and
li ab i li t i es un d er an y con t ract mad e b y i t ) t o t h e corresp on di n g n ew
Di s t ri ct Cou n ci l;
(b ) th e su bs t it ut i on of t h e corres p on di n g n ew Di st ri ct Coun cil for t h e
ex i st in g Regi on al Cou n ci l as a p art y t o t h e le gal p roceed i n gs t o wh i ch
t h e ex i st in g Regi on al Cou n ci l i s a p art y;
(c) t h e t rans fer or re -emp lo ymen t o f an y emp l o yees o f t h e ex i s ti n g
Regi on al Cou n ci l t o or b y t h e corres p on d in g n ew Di s t ri ct Coun ci l, t he
t erms an d cond i ti on s of s ervi ce ap p li cab le t o s u ch emp loyees a ft er s u ch
t ran s fer or re-emp l o ymen t ;
(d ) th e cont i nu an ce of an y laws mad e b y t h e exi st in g Regi on al
Cou n ci l an d i n force i mmed i at el y b e fore t h e p res cri b ed d at e, su b j ect t o
s u ch ad apt at i ons and mod i fi cat i on s , wh et h er b y wa y o f r ep eal or
amen d men t , as t h e Ad min is t rator ma y make i n th is b eh alf u nt i l s u ch
218 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

laws are a lt ered , rep ealed or a men d ed b y a comp et en t Le gi s lat u re or


ot h er comp et ent aut h orit y;
(e) s u ch in cid ent al, con s equen t i al and su pp lemen t ary mat t ers as th e
Ad mi ni s t rat or con s i ders n eces s ar y.
20C. Interpretation.—Subject to any provision made in this behalf, the provisions of this
Schedule shall, in their application to the Union territory of Mizoram, have effect—
(1 ) as i f referen ces t o t h e G overn or an d G overn men t of t h e St at e
were re feren ces t o t h e Ad mi n ist rat or of t h e Un i on t errit ory a p p oi nt ed
u n d er art i cle 23 9 , referen ces t o St at e (ex cep t in th e exp res si on
"G overn men t o f t h e St at e ") we re re feren ces t o t h e Un i on t erri t ory o f
Mi zoram an d referen ces t o t h e St at e Le gi s lat u re were re feren c es t o t h e
Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e Un ion t erri t ory o f Mi zoram ;
(2 ) as i f—
(a ) i n s ub -p aragrap h (5 ) of p aragrap h 4 , t h e p rovi s i on for
con s u lt at i on wi th t h e G overn men t of t h e St at e con cern ed h ad been
omi t t ed ;
(b ) in su b -p aragrap h (2 ) of p aragrap h 6 , for t h e word s "t o
wh i ch th e ex ecu ti ve p ower o f t h e St at e ex t en d s ", t h e word s "wi t h
res p ect t o wh i ch th e Le gi s lat i ve As s emb ly o f t h e Un i on t erri t ory o f
Mi zoram h as p ower t o make law s " h ad b een su bs ti tu t ed ;
(c) in p aragrap h 1 3 , th e word s an d fi gu res "u n d er arti cle 2 02 "
h ad b een omit t ed .
21. Amendment of the Schedule.—(1) Parliament may from time to time by law amend
by way of addition, variation or repeal any of the provisions of this Schedule and, when the
Schedule is so amended, any reference to this Schedule in this Constitution shall be construed
as a reference to such Schedule as so amended.
(2) No such law as is mentioned in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be deemed to
be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.
219 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

SEVENTH SCHEDULE
(Art i cle 2 4 6 )
Li s t I—Un i on Li s t
1. Defence of India and every part thereof including preparation for defence and all such
acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to
effective demobilisation.
2. Naval, military and air forces; any other armed forces of the Union.
2A. Deployment of any armed force of the Union or any other force subject to the control of
the Union or any contingent or unit thereof in any State in aid of the civil power; powers,
jurisdiction, privileges and liabilities of the members of such forces while on such
deployment.
3. Delimitation of cantonment areas, local self-government in such areas, the constitution
and powers within such areas of cantonment authorities and the regulation of house
accommodation (including the control of rents) in such areas.
4. Naval, military and air force works.
5. Arms, firearms, ammunition and explosives.
6. Atomic energy and mineral resources necessary for its production.
7. Industries declared by Parliament by law to be necessary for the purpose of defence or
for the prosecution of war.
8. Central Bureau of Intelligence and Investigation.
9. Preventive detention for reasons connected with Defence, Foreign Affairs, or the
security of India; persons subjected to such detention.
10. Foreign affairs; all matters which bring the Union into relation with any foreign
country.
11. Diplomatic, consular and trade representation.
12. United Nations Organisation.
13. Participation in international conferences, associations and other bodies and
implementing of decisions made thereat.
14. Entering into treaties and agreements with foreign countries and implementing of
treaties, agreements and conventions with foreign countries.
15. War and peace.
16. Foreign jurisdiction.
17. Citizenship, naturalisation and aliens.
18. Extradition.
19. Admission into, and emigration and expulsion from, India; passports and visas.
20. Pilgrimages to places outside India.
21. Piracies and crimes committed on the high seas or in the air; offences against the law
of nations committed on land or the high seas or in the air.
22. Railways.
23. Highways declared by or under law made by Parliament to be national highways.

219
220 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

24. Shipping and navigation on inland waterways, declared by Parliament by law to be


national waterways, as regards mechanically propelled vessels; the rule of the road on such
waterways.
25. Maritime shipping and navigation, including shipping and navigation on tidal waters;
provision of education and training for the mercantile marine and regulation of such
education and training provided by States and other agencies.
26. Lighthouses, including lightships, beacons and other provision for the safety of
shipping and aircraft.
27. Ports declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports,
including their delimitation, and the constitution and powers of port authorities therein.
28. Port quarantine, including hospitals connected therewith; seamen's and marine
hospitals.
29. Airways; aircraft and air navigation; provision of aerodromes; regulation and
organisation of air traffic and of aerodromes; provision for aeronautical education and
training and regulation of such education and training provided by States and other agencies.
30. Carriage of passengers and goods by railway, sea or air, or by national waterways in
mechanically propelled vessels.
31. Posts and telegraphs; telephones, wireless, broadcasting and other like forms of
communication.
32. Property of the Union and the revenue therefrom, but as regards property situated in a
State subject to legislation by the State, save in so far as Parliament by law otherwise
provides.
* * * * *
34. Courts of wards for the estates of Rulers of Indian States.
35. Public debt of the Union.
36. Currency, coinage and legal tender; foreign exchange.
37. Foreign loans.
38. Reserve Bank of India.
39. Post Office Savings Bank.
40. Lotteries organised by the Government of India or the Government of a State.
41. Trade and commerce with foreign countries; import and export across customs
frontiers; definition of customs frontiers.
42. Inter-State trade and commerce.
43. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of trading corporations, including banking,
insurance and financial corporations, but not including co-operative societies.
44. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, whether trading or not, with
objects not confined to one State, but not including universities.
45. Banking.
46. Bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes and other like instruments.
47. Insurance.
48. Stock exchanges and futures markets.
49. Patents, inventions and designs; copyright; trade-marks and merchandise marks.
221 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

50. Establishment of standards of weight and measure.


51. Establishment of standards of quality for goods to be exported out of India or
transported from one State to another.
52. Industries, the control of which by the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be
expedient in the public interest.
53. Regulation and development of oilfields and mineral oil resources; petroleum and
petroleum products; other liquids and substances declared by Parliament by law to be
dangerously inflammable.
54. Regulation of mines and mineral development to the extent to which such regulation
and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be
expedient in the public interest.
55. Regulation of labour and safety in mines and oilfields.
56. Regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river valleys to the extent to
which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by
Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest.
57. Fishing and fisheries beyond territorial waters.
58. Manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by Union agencies; regulation and control
of manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by other agencies.
59. Cultivation, manufacture, and sale for export, of opium.
60. Sanctioning of cinematograph films for exhibition.
61. Industrial disputes concerning Union employees.
62. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution as the National
Library, the Indian Museum, the Imperial War Museum, the Victoria Memorial and the
Indian War Memorial, and any other like institution financed by the Government of India
wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national
importance.
63. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution as the Benares
Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University and the Delhi University; the University
established in pursuance of article 371E; any other institution declared by Parliament by law
to be an institution of national importance.
64. Institutions for scientific or technical education financed by the Government of India
wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be institutions of national importance.
65. Union agencies and institutions for—
(a) p rofes s i on al, vocat i on al or t ech n i cal t rai n in g, i n clud i n g th e
t rai ni n g of p oli ce o ffi cers ; or
(b ) th e p romot i on of s p eci al s t ud i es or res earch ; or
(c) s ci en t i fi c or t ech ni cal as si s t an ce i n t h e i n ves ti gat i on or det ect i on
o f cri me.
66. Co-ordination and determination of standards in institutions for higher education or
research and scientific and technical institutions.
67. Ancient and historical monuments and records, and archaeological sites and remains,
declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.
222 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

68. The Survey of India, the Geological, Botanical, Zoological and Anthropological
Surveys of India; Meteorological organisations.
69. Census.
70. Union Public Service; All-India Services; Union Public Service Commission.
71. Union pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the Government of India or out of
the Consolidated Fund of India.
72. Elections to Parliament, to the Legislatures of States and to the offices of President and
Vice-President; the Election Commission.
73. Salaries and allowances of members of Parliament, the Chairman and Deputy
Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the
People.
74. Powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament and of the members
and the Committees of each House; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence
or producing documents before committees of Parliament or commissions appointed by
Parliament.
75. Emoluments, allowances, privileges, and rights in respect of leave of absence, of the
President and Governors; salaries and allowances of the Ministers for the Union; the salaries,
allowances, and rights in respect of leave of absence and other conditions of service of the
Comptroller and Auditor-General.
76. Audit of the accounts of the Union and of the States.
77. Constitution, organisation, jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court (including
contempt of such Court), and the fees taken therein; persons entitled to practise before the
Supreme Court.
78. Constitution and organisation (including vacations) of the High Courts except
provisions as to officers and servants of High Courts; persons entitled to practise before the
High Courts.
79. Extension of the jurisdiction of a High Court to, and exclusion of the jurisdiction of a
High Court from, any Union territory.
80. Extension of the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police force belonging to any
State to any area outside that State, but not so as to enable the police of one State to exercise
powers and jurisdiction in any area outside that State without the consent of the Government
of the State in which such area is situated; extension of the powers and jurisdiction of
members of a police force belonging to any State to railway areas outside that State.
81. Inter-State migration; inter-State quarantine.
82. Taxes on income other than agricultural income.
83. Duties of customs including export duties.
84. Duties of excise on tobacco and other goods manufactured or produced in India
except—
(a ) alcoh oli c li q u ors for h u man con su mpt i on ;
(b ) op iu m, In di an h emp an d ot h er n arcoti c d ru gs and n arcoti cs,
but including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included
in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
85. Corporation tax.
223 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

86. Taxes on the capital value of the assets, exclusive of agricultural land, of individuals
and companies; taxes on the capital of companies.
87. Estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land.
88. Duties in respect of succession to property other than agricultural land.
89. Terminal taxes on goods or passengers, carried by railway, sea or air; taxes on railway
fares and freights.
90. Taxes other than stamp duties on transactions in stock exchanges and futures markets.
91. Rates of stamp duty in respect of bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes, bills of
lading, letters of credit, policies of insurance, transfer of shares, debentures, proxies and
receipts.
92. Taxes on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on advertisements published therein.
92A. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers, where such sale or
purchase takes place in the course of inter-State trade or commerce.
92B. Taxes on the consignments of goods (whether the consignment is to the person
making it or to any other person), where such consignment takes place in the course of inter-
State trade or commerce.
93. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this List.
94. Inquires, surveys and statistics for the purpose of any of the matters in this List.
95. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of
the matters in this List; admiralty jurisdiction.
96. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any
court.
97. Any other matter not enumerated in List II or List III including any tax not mentioned
in either of those Lists.
Li s t II—St at e Li s t
1. Public order (but not including the use of any naval, military or air force or any other
armed force of the Union or of any other force subject to the control of the Union or of any
contingent or unit thereof in aid of the civil power).
2. Police (including railway and village police) subject to the provisions of entry 2A of
List I.
3. Officers and servants of the High Court; procedure in rent and revenue courts; fees
taken in all courts except the Supreme Court.
4. Prisons, reformatories, Borstal institutions and other institutions of a like nature, and
persons detained therein; arrangements with other States for the use of prisons and other
institutions.
5. Local government, that is to say, the constitution and powers of municipal corporations,
improvement trusts, districts boards, mining settlement authorities and other local authorities
for the purpose of local self-government or village administration.
6. Public health and sanitation; hospitals and dispensaries.
7. Pilgrimages, other than pilgrimages to places outside India.
8. Intoxicating liquors, that is to say, the production, manufacture, possession, transport,
purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.
224 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

9. Relief of the disabled and unemployable.


10. Burials and burial grounds; cremations and cremation grounds.
* * * * *
12. Libraries, museums and other similar institutions controlled or financed by the State;
ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made
by Parliament to be of national importance.
13. Communications, that is to say, roads, bridges, ferries, and other means of
communication not specified in List I; municipal tramways; ropeways; inland waterways and
traffic thereon subject to the provisions of List I and List III with regard to such waterways;
vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles.
14. Agriculture, including agricultural education and research, protection against pests and
prevention of plant diseases.
15. Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases;
veterinary training and practice.
16. Pounds and the prevention of cattle trespass.
17. Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments,
water storage and water power subject to the provisions of entry 56 of List I.
18. Land, that is to say, rights in or over land, land tenures including the relation of
landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land;
land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization.
* * * * *
21. Fisheries.
22. Courts of wards subject to the provisions of entry 34 of List I; encumbered and
attached estates.
23. Regulation of mines and mineral development subject to the provisions of
List I with respect to regulation and development under the control of the Union.
24. Industries subject to the provisions of entries 7 and 52 of List I.
25. Gas and gas-works.
26. Trade and commerce within the State subject to the provisions of entry 33 of List III.
27. Production, supply and distribution of goods subject to the provisions of entry 33 of List III.
28. Markets and fairs.
* * * * *
30. Money-lending and money-lenders; relief of agricultural indebtedness.
31. Inns and inn-keepers.
32. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, other than those specified in
List I, and universities; unincorporated trading, literary, scientific, religious and other
societies and associations; co-operative societies.
33. Theatres and dramatic performances; cinemas subject to the provisions of entry 60 of List I;
sports, entertainments and amusements.
34. Betting and gambling.
35. Works, lands and buildings vested in or in the possession of the State.
* * * * *
225 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

37. Elections to the Legislature of the State subject to the provisions of any law made by
Parliament.
38. Salaries and allowances of members of the Legislature of the State, of the Speaker and
Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and, if there is a Legislative Council, of the
Chairman and Deputy Chairman thereof.
39. Powers, privileges and immunities of the Legislative Assembly and of the members
and the committees thereof, and, if there is a Legislative Council, of that Council and of the
members and the committees thereof; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving
evidence or producing documents before committees of the Legislature of the State.
40. Salaries and allowances of Ministers for the State.
41. State public services; State Public Service Commission.
42. State pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the State or out of the Consolidated
Fund of the State.
43. Public debt of the State.
44. Treasure trove.
45. Land revenue, including the assessment and collection of revenue, the maintenance of
land records, survey for revenue purposes and records of rights, and alienation of revenues.
46. Taxes on agricultural income.
47. Duties in respect of succession to agricultural land.
48. Estate duty in respect of agricultural land.
49. Taxes on lands and buildings.
50. Taxes on mineral rights subject to any limitations imposed by Parliament by law
relating to mineral development.
51. Duties of excise on the following goods manufactured or produced in the State and
countervailing duties at the same or lower rates on similar goods manufactured or produced
elsewhere in India:—
(a) alcoh oli c li q u ors for h u man con su mpt i on ;
(b ) opi u m, In di an h emp and ot h er n arcot i c d ru gs an d n arcot ics ,
but not including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance
included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
52. Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use or sale therein.
53. Taxes on the consumption or sale of electricity.
54. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers, subject to the provisions
of entry 92A of List I.
55. Taxes on advertisements other than advertisements published in the newspapers and
advertisements broadcast by radio or television.
56. Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways.
57. Taxes on vehicles, whether mechanically propelled or not, suitable for use on roads,
including tramcars subject to the provisions of entry 35 of List III.
58. Taxes on animals and boats.
59. Tolls.
60. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
226 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

61. Capitation taxes.


62. Taxes on luxuries, including taxes on entertainments, amusements, betting and
gambling.
63. Rates of stamp duty in respect of documents other than those specified in the
provisions of List I with regard to rates of stamp duty.
64. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this List.
65. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of
the matters in this List.
66. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any
court.
List III— Concurrent List
1. Criminal law, including all matters included in the Indian Penal Code at the
commencement of this Constitution but excluding offences against laws with respect to any
of the matters specified in List I or List II and excluding the use of naval, military or air
forces or any other armed forces of the Union in aid of the civil power.
2. Criminal procedure, including all matters included in the Code of Criminal Procedure
at the commencement of this Constitution.
3. Preventive detention for reasons connected with the security of a State, the maintenance
of public order, or the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community;
persons subjected to such detention.
4. Removal from one State to another State of prisoners, accused persons and persons
subjected to preventive detention for reasons specified in entry 3 of this List.
5. Marriage and divorce; infants and minors; adoption; wills, intestacy and succession;
joint family and partition; all matters in respect of which parties in judicial proceedings were
immediately before the commencement of this Constitution subject to their personal law.
6. Transfer of property other than agricultural land; registration of deeds and documents.
7. Contracts, including partnership, agency, contracts of carriage, and other special forms
of contracts, but not including contracts relating to agricultural land.
8. Actionable wrongs.
9. Bankruptcy and insolvency.
10. Trust and Trustees.
11. Administrators-general and official trustees.
11A. Administration of Justice; constitution and organisation of all courts, except the
Supreme Court and the High Courts.
12. Evidence and oaths; recognition of laws, public acts and records, and judicial
proceedings.
13. Civil procedure, including all matters included in the Code of Civil Procedure at the
commencement of this Constitution, limitation and arbitration.
14. Contempt of court, but not including contempt of the Supreme Court.
15. Vagrancy; nomadic and migratory tribes.
227 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

16. Lunacy and mental deficiency, including places for the reception or treatment of
lunatics and mental deficients.
17. Prevention of cruelty to animals.
17A. Forests.
17B. Protection of wild animals and birds.
18. Adulteration of foodstuffs and other goods.
19. Drugs and poisons, subject to the provisions of entry 59 of List I with respect to
opium.
20. Economic and social planning.
20A. Population control and family planning.
21. Commercial and industrial monopolies, combines and trusts.
22. Trade unions; industrial and labour disputes.
23. Social security and social insurance; employment and unemployment.
24. Welfare of labour including conditions of work, provident funds, employers' liability,
workmen's compensation, invalidity and old age pensions and maternity benefits.
25. Education, including technical education, medical education and universities, subject
to the provisions of entries 63, 64, 65 and 66 of List I; vocational and technical training of
labour.
26. Legal, medical and other professions.
27. Relief and rehabilitation of persons displaced from their original place of residence by
reason of the setting up of the Dominions of India and Pakistan.
28. Charities and charitable institutions, charitable and religious endowments and religious
institutions.
29. Prevention of the extension from one State to another of infectious or contagious
diseases or pests affecting men, animals or plants.
30. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths.
31. Ports other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to
be major ports.
32. Shipping and navigation on inland waterways as regards mechanically propelled
vessels, and the rule of the road on such waterways, and the carriage of passengers and goods
on inland waterways subject to the provisions of List I with respect to national waterways.
33. Trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of,—
(a ) th e p rodu ct s of an y i n d us t ry wh ere t h e con t rol of s u ch i ndu s t ry
b y t h e Un i on i s d eclared b y Parli amen t b y la w t o b e ex p ed i ent i n th e
p u b li c i nt eres t, and i mp ort ed good s of t h e s ame ki nd as s u ch p rod u cts ;
(b ) food s t u ffs , i n clu d in g edi b le oi ls eed s an d oi ls ;
(c) catt le fod d er, i n clu d in g oi lcakes an d ot h er con cent rat es ;
(d ) raw cot t on, wh eth er gin n ed or u n gin n ed , and cot t on s eed ; an d
(e) raw ju t e.
33A. Weights and measures except establishment of standards.
34. Price control.
228 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

35. Mechanically propelled vehicles including the principles on which taxes on such
vehicles are to be levied.
36. Factories
37. Boilers.
38. Electricity.
39. Newspapers, books and printing presses.
40. Archaeological sites and remains other than those declared by or under law made by
Parliament to be of national importance.
41. Custody, management and disposal of property (including agricultural land) declared
by law to be evacuee property.
42. Acquisition and requisitioning of property.
43. Recovery in a State of claims in respect of taxes and other public demands, including
arrears of land-revenue and sums recoverable as such arrears, arising outside that State.
44. Stamp duties other than duties or fees collected by means of judicial stamps, but not
including rates of stamp duty.
45. Inquiries and statistics for the purposes of any of the matters specified in
List II or List III.
46. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of
the matters in this List.
47. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any
court.
229 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

EIGHTH SCHEDULE
[ Articles 344 (1) and 351]
Languages
1. Assamese.
2. Bengali.
3. Bodo.
4. Dogri.
5. Gujarati.
6. Hindi.
7. Kannada.
8. Kashmiri.
9. Konkani.
10. Maithili.
11. Malayalam.
12. Manipuri.
13. Marathi.
14. Nepali.
15. Oriya.
16. Punjabi.
17. Sanskrit.
18. Santhali.
19. Sindhi.
20. Tamil.
21. Telugu.
22. Urdu.

229
230 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

NINTH SCHEDULE
(Article 31B)
1. The Bihar Land Reforms Act, 1950 (Bihar Act XXX of 1950).
2. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1948 (Bombay Act LXVII of 1948).
3. The Bombay Maleki Tenure Abolition Act, 1949 (Bombay Act LXI of 1949).
4. The Bombay Taluqdari Tenure Abolition Act, 1949 (Bombay Act LXII of 1949).
5. The Panch Mahals Mehwassi Tenure Abolition Act, 1949 (Bombay Act LXIII of 1949).
6. The Bombay Khoti Abolition Act, 1950 (Bombay Act VI of 1950).
7. The Bombay Paragana and Kulkarni Watan Abolition Act, 1950 (Bombay Act LX of
1950).
8. The Madhya Pradesh Abolition of Proprietary Rights (Estates, Mahals, Alienated
Lands) Act, 1950 (Madhya Pradesh Act I of 1951).
9. The Madras Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1948 (Madras Act
XXVI of 1948).
10. The Madras Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Amendment Act, 1950
(Madras Act I of 1950).
11. The Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act, 1950 (Uttar Pradesh
Act I of 1951).
12. The Hyderabad (Abolition of Jagirs) Regulation, 1358F (No. LXIX of 1358, Fasli).
13. The Hyderabad Jagirs (Commutation) Regulation, 1359F (No. XXV of 1359, Fasli).
14. The Bihar Displaced Persons Rehabilitation (Acquisition of Land) Act, 1950 (Bihar
Act XXXVIII of 1950).
15. The United Provinces Land Acquisition (Rehabilitation of Refugees) Act, 1948 (U.P.
Act XXVI of 1948).
16. The Resettlement of Displaced Persons (Land Acquisition) Act, 1948 (Act LX of
1948).
17. Sections 52A to 52G of the Insurance Act, 1938 (Act IV of 1938), as inserted by
section 42 of the Insurance (Amendment) Act, 1950 (Act XLVII of 1950).
18. The Railway Companies (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1951 (Act LI of 1951).
19. Chapter III-A of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (Act LXV of
1951), as inserted by section 13 of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Amendment
Act, 1953 (Act XXVI of 1953).
20. The West Bengal Land Development and Planning Act, 1948 (West Bengal Act XXI
of 1948), as amended by West Bengal Act XXIX of 1951.
21. The Andhra Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1961 (Andhra Pradesh Act
X of 1961).
22. The Andhra Pradesh (Telangana Area) Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Validation)
Act, 1961 (Andhra Pradesh Act XXI of 1961).
23. The Andhra Pradesh (Telangana Area) Ijara and Kowli Land Cancellation of Irregular
Pattas and Abolition of Concessional Assessment Act, 1961 (Andhra Pradesh Act XXXVI of
1961).

230
231 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

24. The Assam State Acquisition of Lands belonging to Religious or Charitable Institution
of Public Nature Act, 1959 (Assam Act IX of 1961).
25. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1953 (Bihar Act XX of 1954).
26. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
Act, 1961 (Bihar Act XII of 1962), except section 28 of this Act.
27. The Bombay Taluqdari Tenure Abolition (Amendment) Act, 1954 (Bombay Act I of
1955).
28. The Bombay Taluqdari Tenure Abolition (Amendment) Act, 1957 (Bombay Act XVIII
of 1958).
29. The Bombay Inams (Kutch Area) Abolition Act, 1958 (Bombay Act XCVIII of 1958).
30. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Gujarat Amendment) Act, 1960
(Gujarat Act XVI of 1960).
31. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling Act, 1960 (Gujarat Act XXVI of 1961).
32. The Sagbara and Mehwassi Estates (Proprietary Rights Abolition, etc.) Regulation,
1962 (Gujarat Regulation I of 1962).
33. The Gujarat Surviving Alienations Abolition Act, 1963 (Gujarat Act XXXIII of 1963),
except in so far as this Act relates to an alienation referred to in sub-clause (d) of clause (3) of
section 2 thereof.
34. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) Act, 1961 (Maharashtra
Act XXVII of 1961).
35. The Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Re-enactment, Validation and
Further Amendment) Act, 1961 (Maharashtra Act XLV of 1961).
36. The Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1950 (Hyderabad Act XXI of
1950).
37. The Jenmikaram Payment (Abolition) Act, 1960 (Kerala Act III of 1961).
38. The Kerala Land Tax Act, 1961 (Kerala Act XIII of 1961).
39. The Kerala Land Reforms Act, 1963 (Kerala Act I of 1964).
40. The Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code, 1959 (Madhya Pradesh Act XX of 1959).
41. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1960 (Madhya Pradesh
Act XX of 1960).
42. The Madras Cultivating Tenants Protection Act, 1955 (Madras Act XXV of 1955).
43. The Madras Cultivating Tenants (Payment of Fair Rent) Act, 1956 (Madras Act XXIV
of 1956).
44. The Madras Occupants of Kudiyiruppu (Protection from Eviction) Act, 1961 (Madras
Act XXXVIII of 1961).
45. The Madras Public Trusts (Regulation of Administration of Agricultural Lands) Act,
1961 (Madras Act LVII of 1961).
46. The Madras Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1961 (Madras Act LVIII
of 1961).
47. The Mysore Tenancy Act, 1952 (Mysore Act XIII of 1952).
48. The Coorg Tenants Act, 1957 (Mysore Act XIV of 1957).
49. The Mysore Village Offices Abolition Act, 1961 (Mysore Act XIV of 1961).
232 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

50. The Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Validation) Act, 1961 (Mysore Act
XXXVI of 1961).
51. The Mysore Land Reforms Act, 1961 (Mysore Act X of 1962).
52. The Orissa Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Orissa Act XVI of 1960).
53. The Orissa Merged Territories (Village Offices Abolition) Act, 1963 (Orissa Act X of
1963).
54. The Punjab Security of Land Tenures Act, 1953 (Punjab Act X of 1953).
55. The Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 (Rajasthan Act III of 1955).
56. The Rajasthan Zamindari and Biswedari Abolition Act, 1959 (Rajasthan Act VIII of
1959).
57. The Kumaun and Uttarakhand Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act, 1960
(Uttar Pradesh Act XVII of 1960).
58. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1960 (Uttar Pradesh
Act I of 1961).
59. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act, 1953 (West Bengal Act I of 1954).
60. The West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1955 (West Bengal Act X of 1956).
61. The Delhi Land Reforms Act, 1954 (Delhi Act VIII of 1954).
62. The Delhi Land Holdings (Ceiling) Act, 1960 (Central Act 24 of 1960).
63. The Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Central Act 33 of 1960).
64. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Central Act 43 of 1960).
65. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1969 (Kerala Act 35 of 1969).
66. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1971 (Kerala Act 25 of 1971).
67. The Andhra Pradesh Land Reforms (Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings) Act, 1973
(Andhra Pradesh Act 1 of 1973).
68. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Act, 1972 (Bihar Act 1 of 1973).
69. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Act, 1973 (Bihar Act IX of 1973).
70. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Bihar Act V of 1972).
71. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 2 of
1974).
72. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1972 (Haryana Act 26 of 1972).
73. The Himachal Pradesh Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1972 (Himachal Pradesh Act 19
of 1973).
74. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Kerala Act 17 of 1972).
75. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1972
(Madhya Pradesh Act 12 of 1974).
76. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Second Amendment) Act,
1972 (Madhya Pradesh Act 13 of 1974).
77. The Mysore Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Karnataka Act 1 of 1974).
78. The Punjab Land Reforms Act, 1972 (Punjab Act 10 of 1973).
233 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

79. The Rajasthan Imposition of Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1973 (Rajasthan
Act 11 of 1973).
80. The Gudalur Janmam Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1969
(Tamil Nadu Act 24 of 1969).
81. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (West Bengal Act XII of
1972).
82. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1964 (West Bengal Act XXII
of 1964).
83. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition (Second Amendment) Act, 1973 (West Bengal
Act XXXIII of 1973).
84. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Gujarat Amendment) Act, 1972
(Gujarat Act 5 of 1973).
85. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Orissa Act 9 of 1974).
86. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act,1974
(Tripura Act 7 of 1974).
* * * * *
88. The Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (Central Act 65 of 1951).
89. The Requisitioning and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, 1952 (Central Act 30
of 1952).
90. The Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 (Central Act 67 of
1957).
91. The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 (Central Act 54 of 1969).
* * * * *
93. The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1971 (Central Act 64 of 1971).
94. The Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (Central Act 36 of 1972).
95. The General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (Central Act 57 of 1972).
96. The Indian Copper Corporation (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act, 1972 (Central Act
58 of 1972).
97. The Sick Textile Undertakings (Taking Over of Management) Act, 1972 (Central Act
72 of 1972).
98. The Coal Mines (Taking Over of Management) Act, 1973 (Central Act 15 of 1973).
99. The Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 (Central Act 26 of 1973).
100. The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (Central Act 46 of 1973).
101. The Alcock Ashdown Company Limited (Acquisition of Undertakings) Act, 1973
(Central Act 56 of 1973).
102. The Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act, 1974 (Central Act 28 of
1974).
103. The Additional Emoluments (Compulsory Deposit) Act, 1974 (Central Act 37 of
1974).
104. The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act,
1974 (Central Act 52 of 1974).
105. The Sick Textile Undertakings (Nationalisation) Act, 1974 (Central Act 57 of 1974).
234 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

106. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1964
(Maharashtra Act XVI of 1965).
107. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1965
(Maharashtra Act XXXII of 1965).
108. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1968
(Maharashtra Act XVI of 1968).
109. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Second Amendment)
Act, 1968 (Maharashtra Act XXXIII of 1968).
110. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1969
(Maharashtra Act XXXVII of 1969).
111. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Second Amendment)
Act, 1969 (Maharashtra Act XXXVIII of 1969).
112. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1970
(Maharashtra Act XXVII of 1970).
113. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1972
(Maharashtra Act XIII of 1972).
114. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1973
(Maharashtra Act L of 1973).
115. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1965 (Orissa Act 13 of 1965).
116. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1966 (Orissa Act 8 of 1967).
117. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1967 (Orissa Act 13 of 1967).
118. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1969 (Orissa Act 13 of 1969).
119. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Orissa Act 18 of 1970).
120. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1972
(Uttar Pradesh Act 18 of 1973).
121. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1974
(Uttar Pradesh Act 2 of 1975).
122. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Third Amendment) Act, 1975
(Tripura Act 3 of 1975).
123.The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Land Reforms Regulation, 1971 (3 of 1971).
124. The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Land Reforms (Amendment) Regulation, 1973 (5 of
1973).
125. Section 66A and Chapter IVA of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939* (Central Act 4 of
1939).
126. The Essential Commodities Act, 1955 (Central Act 10 of 1955).
127. The Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act,
1976 (Central Act 13 of 1976).
128. The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 (Central Act 19 of 1976).
129. The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities
(Amendment) Act, 1976 (Central Act 20 of 1976).
* * * * *
131. The Levy Sugar Price Equalisation Fund Act, 1976 (Central Act 31 of 1976).

__________________________________________________________________________________________
* See now the relevant provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988).
235 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

132. The Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976 (Central Act 33 of 1976).
133. The Departmentalisation of Union Accounts (Transfer of Personnel) Act, 1976
(Central Act 59 of 1976).
134. The Assam Fixation of Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1956 (Assam Act 1 of 1957).
135. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Vidarbha Region) Act, 1958 (Bombay
Act XCIX of 1958).
136. The Gujarat Private Forests (Acquisition) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 14 of 1973).
137. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Haryana Act 17 of
1976).
138. The Himachal Pradesh Tenancy and Land Reforms Act, 1972 (Himachal Pradesh Act
8 of 1974).
139. The Himachal Pradesh Village Common Lands Vesting and Utilization Act, 1974
(Himachal Pradesh Act 18 of 1974).
140. The Karnataka Land Reforms (Second Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions)
Act, 1974 (Karnataka Act 31 of 1974).
141. The Karnataka Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Karnataka Act 27 of
1976).
142. The Kerala Prevention of Eviction Act, 1966 (Kerala Act 12 of 1966).
143. The Thiruppuvaram Payment (Abolition) Act, 1969 (Kerala Act 19 of 1969).
144. The Sreepadam Lands Enfranchisement Act, 1969 (Kerala Act 20 of 1969).
145. The Sree Pandaravaka Lands (Vesting and Enfranchisement) Act, 1971 (Kerala Act
20 of 1971).
146. The Kerala Private Forests (Vesting and Assignment) Act, 1971 (Kerala Act 26 of
1971).
147. The Kerala Agricultural Workers Act, 1974 (Kerala Act 18 of 1974).
148. The Kerala Cashew Factories (Acquisition) Act, 1974 (Kerala Act 29 of 1974).
149. The Kerala Chitties Act, 1975 (Kerala Act 23 of 1975).
150. The Kerala Scheduled Tribes (Restriction on Transfer of Lands and Restoration of
Alienated Lands) Act, 1975 (Kerala Act 31 of 1975).
151. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Kerala Act 15 of 1976).
152. The Kanam Tenancy Abolition Act, 1976 (Kerala Act 16 of 1976).
153. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1974
(Madhya Pradesh Act 20 of 1974).
154. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1975
(Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 1976).
155. The West Khandesh Mehwassi Estates (Proprietary Rights Abolition, etc.)
Regulation, 1961 (Maharashtra Regulation 1 of 1962).
156. The Maharashtra Restoration of Lands to Scheduled Tribes Act, 1974 (Maharashtra
Act XIV of 1975).
157. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Lowering of Ceiling on Holdings) and
(Amendment) Act, 1972 (Maharashtra Act XXI of 1975).
236 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

158. The Maharashtra Private Forest (Acquisition) Act, 1975 (Maharashtra Act XXIX of
1975).
159. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Lowering of Ceiling on Holdings) and
(Amendment) Amendment Act, 1975 (Maharashtra Act XLVII of 1975).
160. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1975
(Maharashtra Act II of 1976).
161. The Orissa Estates Abolition Act, 1951 (Orissa Act I of 1952).
162. The Rajasthan Colonisation Act, 1954 (Rajasthan Act XXVII of 1954).
163. The Rajasthan Land Reforms and Acquisition of Landowners’ Estates Act, 1963
(Rajasthan Act 11 of 1964).
164. The Rajasthan Imposition of Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act,
1976 (Rajasthan Act 8 of 1976).
165. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Rajasthan Act 12 of 1976).
166. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Reduction of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1970 (Tamil
Nadu Act 17 of 1970).
167. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1971
(Tamil Nadu Act 41 of 1971).
168. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1972
(Tamil Nadu Act 10 of 1972).
169. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment
Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 20 of 1972).
170. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Third Amendment Act,
1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 37 of 1972).
171. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Fourth Amendment
Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 39 of 1972).
172. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Sixth Amendment Act,
1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 7 of 1974).
173. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Fifth Amendment Act,
1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 10 of 1974).
174. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1974
(Tamil Nadu Act 15 of 1974).
175. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Third Amendment Act,
1974 (Tamil Nadu Act 30 of 1974).
176. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment
Act, 1974 (Tamil Nadu Act 32 of 1974).
177. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1975
(Tamil Nadu Act 11 of 1975).
178. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment
Act, 1975 (Tamil Nadu Act 21 of 1975).
179. Amendments made to the Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act,
1950 (Uttar Pradesh Act I of 1951) by the Uttar Pradesh Land Laws (Amendment) Act, 1971
(Uttar Pradesh Act 21 of 1971) and the Uttar Pradesh Land Laws (Amendment) Act, 1974
(Uttar Pradesh Act 34 of 1974).
237 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

180. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1976
(Uttar Pradesh Act 20 of 1976).
181. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1972 (West Bengal Act
XXVIII of 1972).
182. The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land Act, 1973 (West Bengal Act XXIII
of 1973).
183. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1974 (West Bengal Act XXXIII
of 1974).
184. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1975 (West Bengal Act XXIII of
1975).
185. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1976 (West Bengal Act XII of
1976).
186. The Delhi Land Holdings (Ceiling) Amendment Act, 1976 (Central Act 15 of 1976).
187. The Goa, Daman and Diu Mundkars (Protection from Eviction) Act, 1975 (Goa,
Daman and Diu Act 1 of 1976).
188. The Pondicherry Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1973 (Pondicherry
Act 9 of 1974).
189. The Assam (Temporarily Settled Areas) Tenancy Act, 1971 (Assam Act XXIII of
1971).
190. The Assam (Temporarily Settled Areas) Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Assam
Act XVIII of 1974).
191. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Amending Act, 1974 (Bihar Act 13 of 1975).
192. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Act, 1976 (Bihar Act 22 of 1976).
193. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Act, 1978 (Bihar Act VII of 1978).
238 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

194. The Land Acquisition (Bihar Amendment) Act, 1979 (Bihar Act 2 of 1980).
195. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Haryana Act 14 of
1977).
196. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1978
(Tamil Nadu Act 25 of 1978).
197. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1979
(Tamil Nadu Act 11 of 1979).
198. The Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition Laws (Amendment) Act, 1978
(Uttar Pradesh Act 15 of 1978).
199. The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land (Amendment) Act, 1978 (West
Bengal Act XXIV of 1978).
200. The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land (Amendment) Act, 1980 (West
Bengal Act LVI of 1980).
201. The Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy Act, 1964 (Goa, Daman and Diu Act
7 of 1964).
202. The Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1976 (Goa,
Daman and Diu Act 17 of 1976).
203. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation, 1959
(Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1959).
204. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Laws (Extension and Amendment) Regulation,
1963 (Andhra Pradesh Regulation 2 of 1963).
205. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer (Amendment) Regulation, 1970
(Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1970).
206. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer (Amendment) Regulation, 1971
(Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1971).
207. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer (Amendment) Regulation, 1978
(Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1978).
208. The Bihar Tenancy Act, 1885 (Bihar Act 8 of 1885).
209. The Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 (Bengal Act 6 of 1908) (Chapter VIII—
sections 46, 47, 48, 48A and 49; Chapter X—sections 71, 71A and 71B; and Chapter XVIII—
sections 240, 241 and 242).
210. The Santhal Parganas Tenancy (Supplementary Provisions) Act, 1949 (Bihar Act 14
of 1949) except section 53.
211. The Bihar Scheduled Areas Regulation, 1969 (Bihar Regulation 1 of 1969).
212. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Act, 1982 (Bihar Act 55 of 1982).
213. The Gujarat Devasthan Inams Abolition Act, 1969 (Gujarat Act 16 of 1969).
239 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

214. The Gujarat Tenancy Laws (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Gujarat Act 37 of 1976).
215. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling (Amendment) Act, 1976 (President's Act 43
of 1976).
216. The Gujarat Devasthan Inams Abolition (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Gujarat Act 27 of
1977).
217. The Gujarat Tenancy Laws (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Gujarat Act 30 of 1977).
218. The Bombay Land Revenue (Gujarat Second Amendment) Act, 1980 (Gujarat Act 37
of 1980).
219. The Bombay Land Revenue Code and Land Tenure Abolition Laws (Gujarat
Amendment) Act, 1982 (Gujarat Act 8 of 1982).
220. The Himachal Pradesh Transfer of Land (Regulation) Act, 1968
(Himachal Pradesh Act 15 of 1969).
221. The Himchal Pradesh Transfer of Land (Regulation) (Amendment) Act, 1986
(Himachal Pradesh Act 16 of 1986).
222. The Karnataka Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prohibition of Transfer of
Certain Lands) Act, 1978 (Karnataka Act 2 of 1979).
223. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1978 (Kerala Act 13 of 1978).
224. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1981 (Kerala Act 19 of 1981).
225. The Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code (Third Amendment) Act, 1976 (Madhya
Pradesh Act 61 of 1976).
226. The Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code (Amendment) Act, 1980
(Madhya Pradesh Act 15 of 1980).
227. The Madhya Pradesh Akrishik Jot Uchchatam Seema Adhiniyam, 1981
(Madhya Pradesh Act 11 of 1981).
228. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Second Amendment) Act,
1976 (Madhya Pradesh Act 1 of 1984).
229. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1984
(Madhya Pradesh Act 14 of 1984).
230. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1989
(Madhya Pradesh Act 8 of 1989).
231. The Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966 (Maharashtra Act 41 of 1966), sections
36, 36A and 36B.
232. The Maharashtra Land Revenue Code and the Maharashtra Restoration of Lands to
Scheduled Tribes (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Maharashtra Act 30 of 1977).
233. The Maharashtra Abolition of Subsisting Proprietary Rights to Mines and Minerals in
certain Lands Act, 1985 (Maharashtra Act 16 of 1985).
234. The Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable Property (by Scheduled Tribes)
Regulation, 1956 (Orissa Regulation 2 of 1956).
235. The Orissa Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1975 (Orissa Act 29 of 1976).
236. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Orissa Act 30 of 1976).
237. The Orissa Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Orissa Act 44 of 1976).
240 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

238. The Rajasthan Colonisation (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Rajasthan Act 12 of 1984).
239. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Rajasthan Act 13 of 1984).
240. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Rajasthan Act 21 of 1987).
241. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment
Act, 1979 (Tamil Nadu Act 8 of 1980).
242. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1980
(Tamil Nadu Act 21 of 1980).
243. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1981
(Tamil Nadu Act 59 of 1981).
244. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment
Act, 1983 (Tamil Nadu Act 2 of 1984).
245. The Uttar Pradesh Land Laws (Amendment) Act, 1982 (Uttar Pradesh Act 20 of
1982).
246. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1965 (West Bengal Act 18 of
1965).
247. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1966 (West Bengal Act 11 of
1966).
248. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1969 (West Bengal Act
23 of 1969).
249. The West Bengal Estate Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1977 (West Bengal Act 36 of
1977).
250. The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue Act, 1979 (West Bengal Act 44 of 1979).
251. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1980 (West Bengal Act 41 of
1980).
252. The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue (Amendment) Act, 1981 (West Bengal Act
33 of 1981).
253. The Calcutta Thikka Tenancy (Acquisition and Regulation) Act, 1981
(West Bengal Act 37 of 1981).
254. The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue (Amendment) Act, 1982
(West Bengal Act 23 of 1982).
255. The Calcutta Thikka Tenancy (Acquisition and Regulation) (Amendment) Act, 1984
(West Bengal Act 41 of 1984).
256. The Mahe Land Reforms Act, 1968 (Pondicherry Act 1 of 1968).
257. The Mahe Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1980 (Pondicherry Act 1 of 1981).
257A. The Tamil Nadu Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
(Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutions and of appointments or posts in the Services
under the State) Act, 1993 (Tamil Nadu Act 45 of 1994).
258. The Bihar Privileged Persons Homestead Tenancy Act, 1947 (Bihar Act 4
of 1948).
259. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation Act, 1956
(Bihar Act 22 of 1956).
241 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

260. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation (Amendment)


Act, 1970 (Bihar Act 7 of 1970).
261. The Bihar Privileged Persons Homestead Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Bihar
Act 9 of 1970).
262. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation (Amendment)
Act, 1973 (Bihar Act 27 of 1975).
263. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation (Amendment)
Act, 1981 (Bihar Act 35 of 1982).
264. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land)
(Amendment) Act, 1987 (Bihar Act 21 of 1987).
265. The Bihar Privileged Persons Homestead Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Bihar
Act 11 of 1989).
266. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Bihar Act 11 of 1990).
267. The Karnataka Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prohibition of Transfer of
Certain Lands) (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Karnataka Act 3 of 1984).
268. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Kerala Act 16 of 1989).
269. The Kerala Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1989 (Kerala Act 2 of 1990).
270. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Orissa Act 9 of 1990).
271. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1979 (Rajasthan Act 16 of 1979).
272. The Rajasthan Colonisation (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Rajasthan Act 2 of 1987).
273. The Rajasthan Colonisation (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Rajasthan Act 12 of 1989).
274. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1983
(Tamil Nadu Act 3 of 1984).
275. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1986
(Tamil Nadu Act 57 of 1986).
276. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment
Act, 1987 (Tamil Nadu Act 4 of 1988).
277. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment
(Amendment) Act, 1989 (Tamil Nadu Act 30 of 1989).
278. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1981 (West Bengal Act 50 of
1981).
279. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1986 (West Bengal Act 5 of
1986).
280. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1986 (West Bengal Act
19 of 1986).
281. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Third Amendment) Act, 1986 (West Bengal Act 35
of 1986).
282. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (West Bengal Act 23 of
1989).
283. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1990 (West Bengal Act 24 of
1990).
242 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

284. The West Bengal Land Reforms Tribunal Act, 1991 (West Bengal Act 12 of 1991).
Explanation.—Any acquisition made under the Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 (Rajasthan
Act III of 1955), in contravention of the second proviso to clause (1) of article 31A shall, to
the extent of the contravention, be void.
243 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

TENTH SCHEDULE
[ Articles 102(2) and 191(2)]
Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection
1. Interpretation.—In this Schedule, unless the context otherwise requires,—
(a) "H ou s e " mean s ei t h er Hou se of Par li amen t or t h e Legi s la t i ve
As s emb ly or, as t h e cas e may b e, ei t h er Hou s e of t h e Le gi s lat u re of a
St at e;
(b ) "le gi s lat u re p art y ", i n relat i o n t o a memb er o f a Hou s e b elon gi n g
t o an y p oli t i cal p art y i n accord an ce wi t h th e p rovi s i ons of p ar agrap h 2
or p aragrap h 4 , means t h e group con s is t in g of al l t h e memb ers o f t h at
Hou s e for t h e t i me b ei n g b elon gi n g t o th at p oli t i cal p art y i n accord an ce
wi t h th e s ai d p rovi s i on s ;
(c) "ori gi n al p oli t i cal p art y ", i n relat i on t o a memb er of a Hou s e,
mean s th e p oli t i cal p art y t o wh i ch h e b elon gs for t h e p u rp os es o f s u b -
p aragrap h (1 ) of p aragrap h 2 ;
(d ) "p aragrap h " mean s a p aragrap h of t h i s Sch edu le.
2. Disqualification on ground of defection.—(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs
4 and 5, a member of a House belonging to any political party shall be disqualified for being a
member of the House—
(a) i f h e h as volu n t ari ly gi ven u p hi s memb ersh ip of s u ch p oli t i cal
p art y; or
(b ) i f h e vot es or ab s t ain s from vot i n g i n s u ch Hou s e con t rary t o an y
d i recti on i s su ed b y t h e p oli t i cal p art y t o wh i ch h e b elon gs o r b y an y
p ers on or au th ori t y au t h ori s ed by i t i n t hi s b eh alf, wi t h ou t ob t ain i n g, i n
ei t h er cas e, th e p ri or p ermis sion o f s u ch p oli t i cal p art y, p ers on or
au t h orit y an d su ch vot in g or abs t ent i on h as n ot b een cond on ed b y s u ch
p oli t i cal p art y, p ers on or au t h ori t y wi t h i n fi ft een d ays fr om t h e d at e of
s u ch vot i n g or ab s t en ti on .
Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-paragraph,—
(a) an elect ed memb er of a Hou s e sh all b e d eemed t o b elon g t o t h e
p oli t i cal p art y, i f an y, b y wh i ch h e was s et u p as a can d idat e for
elect i on as su ch memb er;
(b ) a n omin at ed memb er of a Ho u s e sh all,—
(i) where he is a member of any political party on the date of his nomination as
such member, be deemed to belong to such political party;
(ii) in any other case, be deemed to belong to the political party of which he
becomes, or, as the case may be, first becomes, a member before the expiry of six
months from the date on which he takes his seat after complying with the
requirements of article 99 or, as the case may be, article 188.
(2) An elected member of a House who has been elected as such otherwise than as a
candidate set up by any political party shall be disqualified for being a member of the House
if he joins any political party after such election.

243
244 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) A nominated member of a House shall be disqualified for being a member of the
House if he joins any political party after the expiry of six months from the date on which he
takes his seat after complying with the requirements of article 99 or, as the case may be,
article 188.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, a
person who, on the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985,
is a member of a House (whether elected or nominated as such) shall,—
(i ) wh ere h e was a memb er of p oli t i cal p art y i mmed i at ely b efore
s u ch commen cemen t , b e d eemed, for t h e pu rp os es of s u b -p aragrap h (1 )
o f t h is p aragraph , t o h ave b een elect ed as a memb er of s u ch Hou s e as a
can d id at e s et u p b y s u ch p oli t i cal p art y;
(i i ) i n an y ot h er cas e, b e d eemed t o b e an elect ed memb er of t h e
Hou s e wh o h as b een elect ed as s u ch ot h erwi s e th an as a can di d ate s et u p
b y an y p o li t i cal p art y for t h e p u rp os es of s u b -p aragrap h (2 ) o f t h i s
p aragrap h or, as t h e cas e ma y b e, b e d eemed t o b e a n omi n at ed memb er
o f t h e Hou s e for t h e p u rp os es of s ub -p aragrap h (3 ) of t h i s p aragrap h .
* * * * *
4. Disqualification on ground of defection not to apply in case of merger.—(1) A
member of a House shall not be disqualified under sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 2 where
his original political party merges with another political party and he claims that he and any
other members of his original political party—
(a) h ave b ecome memb ers of su ch oth er p oli t i cal p art y or, as t h e
cas e may b e, of a n ew p o li t i cal p art y formed b y s u ch merger; or
(b ) h ave n ot accep t ed t h e merger an d opt ed t o fu n ct i on as a s eparat e
grou p ,
an d from t h e t i me of s u ch merger, s u ch ot h er p oli t i cal p art y or n ew
p oli t i cal p art y o r gr ou p , as th e cas e may b e, s h all b e d eemed t o b e t h e
p oli t i cal p art y t o wh i ch h e b elon gs for t h e p u rp os es of s u b -p aragrap h (1 ) of
p aragrap h 2 an d t o b e hi s ori gin al p oli t i cal p art y fo r t h e p u rpos es of t h i s
s u b -p aragrap h .
(2 ) For t h e p u rp os es of s u b -p aragrap h (1 ) of t h i s p aragraph , t he merger
o f t h e ori gi n al p oli t i cal p art y o f a memb er o f a H ou s e s h all b e d eemed t o
h ave t aken p lace i f, an d on l y i f, n ot les s t h an t wo-t h i rd s of t h e memb ers of
t h e legi s lat u re p art y con cern ed have agreed t o s u ch merger.
5 . Exem pti on,—Not wi t h s t an di ng an yt h i n g con t ain ed i n t h is Sched u le, a
p ers on wh o h as b een elect ed to t h e offi ce o f t h e Sp eaker or t h e Depu t y
Sp eaker o f t h e H ou s e o f t h e Peo p le or t h e Dep u t y Ch ai rman of t h e Cou n ci l
o f St at es or t h e Ch ai rman or t h e Dep u t y Ch ai rman of t h e Legi s lat i ve
Cou n ci l of a St at e or t h e Sp eaker or t h e Dep u t y Sp eaker o f t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly o f a St at e, s h all n ot be d i sq u ali fi ed u nd er th i s Sch ed ule,—
(a) i f h e, b y reas on o f h i s elect i on t o s u ch offi ce, vo lu n t ari l y g i ves
u p th e memb ers hi p of t h e poli t i cal p art y t o wh i ch h e belon ged
i mmedi at ely b e fore s u ch elect i on an d d oes n ot , s o lon g as h e con t i nu es
245 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

t o h old s u ch offi ce t h ereaft er, rej oi n th at p oli t i cal p art y or b ecome a


memb er of an ot h er p oli t i cal p art y; or
(b ) i f h e, h avi n g gi ven u p b y reas on of h i s elect i on t o s u ch offi ce
h i s memb ers hi p of t h e p oli t i cal p art y t o wh i ch h e b elon ged i mmed i at ely
b efore s u ch elect i on , rej oi n s s u ch p oli t i cal p art y a ft er h e ce as es t o
h old s u ch offi ce.
6 . Deci si on on ques ti ons a s to di s qua lif i ca ti on on g round of
def ecti on.—(1 ) If an y q u es t i on ari s es as t o wh et h er a memb er of a Hou s e
h as b ecome su bj ect t o d is qu ali fi cat i on un d er t hi s Sch ed u le, the q u es ti on
s h all b e referred for t h e d ecis i on of t h e Ch ai rman or, as t h e cas e may b e,
t h e Speaker of s u ch Hou s e an d hi s d eci si on sh all b e fi n al:
Provided that where the question which has arisen is as to whether the Chairman or the
Speaker of a House has become subject to such disqualification, the question shall be referred
for the decision of such member of the House as the House may elect in this behalf and his
decision shall be final.
(2) All proceedings under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph in relation to any question
as to disqualification of a member of a House under this Schedule shall be deemed to be
proceedings in Parliament within the meaning of article 122 or, as the case may be,
proceedings in the Legislature of a State within the meaning of article 212.
*7. Bar of jurisdiction of courts.—Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, no
court shall have any jurisdiction in respect of any matter connected with the disqualification
of a member of a House under this Schedule.
8. Rules.—(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph, the
Chairman or the Speaker of a House may make rules for giving effect to the provisions of this
Schedule, and in particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, such
rules may provide for—
(a) t h e main t en an ce of regi s t ers or ot h er record s as t o t h e p oli ti cal
p art i es , i f an y, t o wh i ch di fferen t memb ers of t h e Hou s e b elon g;
(b ) th e rep ort wh i ch th e lead er o f a legi s lat u re p art y i n relat i on t o a
memb er of a Hou s e s h all fu rn i sh wi t h regard t o an y con d on at i on of t h e
n at u re referred t o in clau s e (b ) of s u b -p aragrap h (1 ) of p aragr ap h 2 in
res p ect of s u ch memb er, t h e t ime wi t h in wh i ch an d t h e au thori t y t o
wh om s u ch rep ort sh all b e fu rn i sh ed ;
(c) t h e rep ort s wh i ch a p oli t i cal p art y s h all fu rn i s h wi t h regard t o
ad mi ss i on t o s u ch p oli t i cal p arty o f an y memb ers of t h e Hou s e an d th e
o ffi cer o f t h e Hou s e t o wh om s uch rep ort s s h all b e fu rn is h ed ; and
(d ) t h e p roced u re for d eci d i n g an y q u es t i on referred t o i n s u b -
p aragrap h (1 ) of p arag rap h 6 in clu d in g t h e p roced u re for an y i n qu i ry
wh i ch may b e mad e for t h e pu rpos e o f d eci d in g s u ch q u est i on .
(2) The rules made by the Chairman or the Speaker of a House under sub-paragraph (1) of
this paragraph shall be laid as soon as may be after they are made before the House for a total
period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive
sessions and shall take effect upon the expiry of the said period of thirty days unless they are
sooner approved with or without modifications or disapproved by the House and where they

_________________________________________________________________
* Paragraph 7 declared invalid for want of ratification in accordance with the proviso to clause (2) of article
368 as per majority opinion in Kihoto Hollohon Vs. Zachilhu and others (1992) 1 S.C.C . 309.
246 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

are so approved, they shall take effect on such approval in the form in which they were laid or
in such modified form, as the case may be, and where they are so disapproved, they shall be
of no effect.
(3) The Chairman or the Speaker of a House may, without prejudice to the provisions of
article 105 or, as the case may be, article 194, and to any other power which he may have
under this Constitution direct that any wilful contravention by any person of the rules made
under this paragraph may be dealt with in the same manner as a breach of privilege of the
House.
247 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ELEVENTH SCHEDULE
(Article 243G)
1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension.
2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and
soil conservation.
3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development.
4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry.
5. Fisheries.
6. Social forestry and farm forestry.
7. Minor forest produce.
8. Small scale industries, including food processing industries.
9. Khadi, village and cottage industries.
10. Rural housing.
11. Drinking water.
12. Fuel and fodder.
13. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means of
communication.
14. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity.
15. Non-conventional energy sources.
16. Poverty alleviation programme.
17. Education, including primary and secondary schools.
18. Technical training and vocational education.
19. Adult and non-formal education.
20. Libraries.
21. Cultural activities.
22. Markets and fairs.
23. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary health centres and
dispensaries.
24. Family welfare.
25. Women and child development.
26. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentally retarded.
27. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and
the Scheduled Tribes.
28. Public distribution system.
29. Maintenance of community assets.

247
248 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

TWELFTH SCHEDULE
(Article 243W)
1. Urban planning including town planning.
2. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings.
3. Planning for economic and social development.
4. Roads and bridges.
5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes.
6. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management.
7. Fire services.
8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological
aspects.
9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the
handicapped and mentally retarded.
10. Slum improvement and upgradation.
11. Urban poverty alleviation.
12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens,
playgrounds.
13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.
14. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds; and electric
crematoriums.
15. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals.
16. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths.
17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public
conveniences.
18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.

248
249 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

APPENDIX I
THE CONSTITUTION (APPLICATION TO JAMMU AND
KASHMIR) ORDER, 1954
C.O. 48
In exercise of the powers conferred by clause (1) of article 370 of the Constitution, the
President, with the concurrence of the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, is
pleased to make the following Order:—
1. (1) This Order may be called the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)
Order, 1954.
(2) It shall come into force on the fourteenth day of May, 1954, and shall thereupon
supersede the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1950.
2. The provisions of the Constitution as in force on the 20th day of June, 1964 and as
amended by the Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966, the Constitution (Twenty-
first Amendment) Act, 1967, section 5 of the Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act,
1969, the Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971, section 2 of the Constitution
(Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971, the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act,
1971, the Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972, section 2 of the Constitution
(Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973, section 2 of the Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment)
Act, 1974, sections 2, 5, 6 and 7 of the Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975,
the Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975, the Constitution (Fortieth
Amendment) Act, 1976, sections 2, 3 and 6 of the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment)
Act, 1985 and the Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988 which, in addition to
article 1 and article 370, shall apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the
exceptions and modifications subject to which they shall so apply shall be as follows:—
(1) THE PREAMBLE.
(2) PART I.
To article 3, there shall be added the following further proviso, namely:—
"P ro vi d ed fu rt h er t h at n o Bill p r ovi d i n g for i n creas i n g or
d i min is hi n g t h e area of t h e St at e o f J ammu an d Kas h mi r or al t eri n g
t h e n ame or b ou nd ary o f t h at St at e s h all b e i n t rodu ced in Parli amen t
wi t h ou t t h e cons ent of t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h at St at e. ".
(3) PART II.
(a) Th i s Part s h all b e d eemed t o h ave b een ap p li cab le i n relat i on t o
t h e St at e of J ammu and Kas hmi r as from t h e 2 6t h d ay o f J an u ary, 1 95 0 .
(b) To article 7, there shall be added the following further proviso, namely:—
"Provided further that nothing in this article shall apply to a permanent resident
of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, who, after having so migrated to the territory
now included in Pakistan, returns to the territory of that State under a permit for
resettlement in that State or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any
law made by the Legislature of that State, and every such person shall be deemed to
be a citizen of India.".

249
250 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) PART III.


(a) In art i cle 1 3 , referen ces t o t h e commen cemen t of t he
Con s t it ut i on sh all b e con s t ru ed as referen ces t o t h e commen cemen t of
t h is Ord er.
* * * * *
(c) In c lau s e (3 ) of art i cle 1 6 , t h e referen ce t o t h e St at e s h all b e
con s t ru ed as n ot i n clu di n g a referen ce t o t h e St at e of J ammu and
Kas h mi r.
(d ) In art i cle 19 , for a p eriod of t wen t y-fi ve years fr om t he
commen cemen t of t h is Ord er:—
(i) in clauses (3) and (4), after the words "in the interests of", the words "the
security of the State or" shall be inserted;
(ii) in clause (5), for the words "or for the protection of the interests of any
Scheduled Tribes", the words "or in the interests of the security of the State" shall be
substituted; and
(iii) the following new clause shall be added, namely:—
'(7) The words "reasonable restrictions" occurring in clauses (2), (3), (4)
and (5) shall be construed as meaning such restrictions as the appropriate
Legislature deems reasonable.'.
(e) In clau s es (4 ) and (7 ) of art i cle 2 2 , for t h e word "Par li amen t ",
t h e word s "t h e Le gi s lat u re of t h e St at e " s h all b e s u bs t it ut ed .
(f) In art i cle 3 1 , clau s es (3 ), (4 ) an d (6 ) s h all b e omi t t ed ; and for
clau s e (5 ), th ere sh all b e s ub st i tu t ed t h e fo ll owi n g clau s e, n amely:—
"(5) Nothing in clause (2) shall affect—
( a) the provisions of any existing law; or
(b) the provisions of any law which the State may hereafter make—
(i) for the purpose of imposing or levying any tax or penalty; or
(ii) for the promotion of public health or the prevention of danger to life
or property; or
(iii) with respect to property declared by law to be evacuee property.".
(g) In art i cle 3 1 A, t h e p rovi s o t o c lau s e (1 ) s h all b e omi t t ed ; an d fo r
s u b -clau s e (a) of c lau s e (2 ), t h e fol lo wi n g s u b -clau s e sh all b e
s u bs ti t ut ed, n amely:—
'(a) "estate" shall mean land which is occupied or has been let for agricultural
purposes or for purposes subservient to agriculture, or for pasture, and includes—
(i) sites of buildings and other structures on such land;
(ii) trees standing on such land;
(iii) forest land and wooded waste;
(iv) area covered by or fields floating over water;
(v) sites of jandars and gharats;
251 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(vi) any jagir, inam, muafi or mukarrari or other similar grant, but does
not include—
(i) the site of any building in any town, or town area or village
abadi or any land appurtenant to any such building or site;
(ii) any land which is occupied as the site of a town or village; or
(iii) any land reserved for building purposes in a municipality or
notified area or cantonment or town area or any area for which a town
planning scheme is sanctioned.'.
(h ) In art i cle 3 2 , clau s e (3 ) s h all b e omi tt ed .
(i ) In art i cle 3 5 —
(i) references to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed as
references to the commencement of this Order;
(ii) in clause (a) (i), the words, brackets and figures "clause (3) of article 16,
clause (3) of article 32" shall be omitted; and
(iii) after clause (b), the following clause shall be added, namely:—
"(c) no law with respect to preventive detention made by the Legislature
of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, whether before or after the
commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)
Order, 1954, shall be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with any of the
provisions of this part, but any such law shall, to the extent of such
inconsistency, cease to have effect on the expiration of twenty-five years from
the commencement of the said Order, except as respects things done or
omitted to be done before the expiration thereof.".
(j ) Aft er art i cle 3 5 , t h e fol lo wi n g n ew art i cle s h all b e add ed ,
n amely:—
"35A. Saving of laws with respect to permanent residents and their rights.—
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Constitution, no existing law in force in
the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and no law hereafter enacted by the Legislature of
the State,—
(a) defining the classes of persons who are, or shall be, permanent
residents of the State of Jammu and Kashmir; or
(b) conferring on such permanent residents any special rights and
privileges or imposing upon other persons any restrictions as respects—
(i) employment under the State Government;
(ii) acquisition of immovable property in the State;
(iii) settlement in the State; or
(iv) right to scholarships and such other forms of aid as the State
Government may provide,
s h all b e voi d on t h e grou n d th at it i s i n cons i st ent wi t h or t akes
awa y or ab ri d ges an y ri gh t s con ferred on t h e oth er cit i zen s
o f In d i a b y an y p rovi s i on o f t h i s Part . ".
252 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5) PART V.
(a) For t h e p u rp os es of art i cl e 5 5 , th e p opu lat i on of t h e St at e of
J ammu an d Kash mi r s h all b e deemed t o b e s ix t y-t h ree la kh s .
(b ) In art i cle 8 1 , for clau s es (2 ) an d (3 ), th e fo ll owi n g clau s es sh all b e
s u bs ti t ut ed, n amely:—
"(2 ) For t h e p u rp os es of s u b -c lau s e (a) of c lau s e (1 ),—
(a) there shall be allotted to the State six seats in the House of the People;
(b) the State shall be divided into single member territorial constituencies by
the Delimitation Commission constituted under the Delimitation Act, 1972, in
accordance with such procedure as the Commission may deem fit;
(c) the constituencies shall, as far as practicable, be geographically compact
areas, and in delimiting them regard shall be had to physical features, existing
boundaries of administrative units, facilities of communication and public
convenience; and
(d) the constituencies into which the State is divided shall not comprise the
area under the occupation of Pakistan.
(3) Nothing in clause (2) shall affect the representation of the State in the House
of the People until the dissolution of the House existing on the date of publication in
the Gazette of India of the final order or orders of the Delimitation Commission
relating to the delimitation of parliamentary constituencies under the Delimitation
Act, 1972.
(4) (a) The Delimitation Commission shall associate with itself for the purpose of
assisting it in its duties in respect of the State, five persons who shall be members of
the House of the People representing the State.
(b) The persons to be so associated from the State shall be nominated by the
Speaker of the House of the People having due regard to the composition of the
House.
(c) The first nominations to be made under sub-clause (b) shall be made by the
Speaker of the House of the People within two months from the commencement of
the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Second Amendment Order,
1974.
(d) None of the associate members shall have a right to vote or to sign any
decision of the Delimitation Commission.
(e) If owing to death or resignation, the office of an associate member falls
vacant, it shall be filled as soon as may be practicable by the Speaker of the House of
the People and in accordance with the provisions of sub-clauses (a) and (b).".
(c) In art i cle 1 3 3 , aft er c la u s e (1 ), th e fo ll owi n g c lau s e s h all b e
i n s ert ed , n amely:—
‘(1A) The provisions of section 3 of the Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act,
1972, shall apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir subject to the
modification that references therein to "this Act", "the commencement of this Act",
"this Act had not been passed" and "as amended by this Act" shall be construed
respectively as references to "the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)
253 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Second Amendment Order, 1974", "the commencement of the said Order", "the said
Order had not been made" and "as it stands after the commencement of the said
Order’’.’.
(d ) In art i cle 1 34 , clau s e (2 ), aft er t h e word s "Parli amen t may ", t h e
word s "on t h e req u es t of t h e Leg i s lat u re of t h e St at e" s h all b e i n s ert ed .
(e) Art i cles 13 5 an d 1 39 sh all b e omi t t ed .
* * * * *
(5 A) PART V I.
(a) Art i cles 15 3 t o 2 17 , arti cle 2 19 , art i cle 2 2 1, arti cles 2 23 , 2 2 4,
2 2 4 A an d 2 25 and arti cles 22 7 to 2 3 7 s h all b e omi t t ed .
(b ) In art i cle 2 2 0 , referen ces t o t h e commen cement of t h e
Con s t it ut i on sh all b e con s t ru ed as referen ces t o t h e commen cemen t of
t h e Con st i tu ti on (Ap p li cati on t o J ammu and Kas h mi r) Amen d men t
Ord er, 1 96 0 .
(c) In art i cle 2 2 2 , aft er clau s e (1 ), t h e foll owi n g n ew c lau s e s h all b e
i n s ert ed , n amely:—
"(1A) Every such transfer from the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir or to
that High Court shall be made after consultation with the Governor.".
(6) PART XI.
(a) In art i cle 2 46 , for t h e word s , b racket s and fi gu res "cl au s es (2 )
an d (3 ) " occu rri n g i n clau s e (1), t h e word , b racket s an d fi gu re "c lau s e
(2 ) " s h al l b e s ub st i tu t ed , an d t h e word s , b racket s an d fi gu re
"N ot wi t h s t an di n g an yt h i n g i n clau s e (3 ), " occu rri n g i n clau s e (2 ) an d t he
wh ole o f c lau s es (3 ) an d (4 ) sh all b e omi t t ed.
(b ) For art i cle 2 4 8 , t h e fol lo wi n g art i cle s h all b e s u bs t it u t ed ,
n amely:—
"248. Residuary powers of legislation. —Parliament has exclusive power to
make any law with respect to—
(a) prevention of activities involving terrorist acts directed towards
overawing the Government as by law established or striking terror in the people
or any section of the people or alienating any section of the people or adversely
affecting the harmony amongst different sections of the people;
(aa) prevention of other activities directed towards disclaiming,
questioning or disrupting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India or
bringing about cession of a part of the territory of India or secession of a part of
the territory of India from the Union or causing insult to the Indian National
Flag, the Indian National Anthem and this Constitution; and
(b) taxes on—
(i) foreign travel by sea or air;
(ii) inland air travel;
(iii) postal articles, including money orders, phonograms and
telegrams.".
254 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Explanation.—In this article, "terrorist act" means any act or thing by using
bombs, dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or
firearms or other lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or
any other substances (whether biological or otherwise) of a hazardous nature.
(bb ) In art i cle 2 4 9 , i n clau s e (1 ), for t h e word s "an y m at t er
en u merat ed in t h e St at e Li s t s p eci fi ed i n th e res olu t i on ", t h e wo rd s
"an y mat t er s p eci fi ed in th e resolu t i on , b ein g a mat t er wh i ch is n ot
en u merat ed in t h e Uni on Li s t or i n t h e Con cu rrent Li s t " s h all b e
s u bs ti t ut ed.
(c) In art i cle 25 0 , for t h e word s "t o an y o f t h e mat t ers
en u merat ed in t h e St at e Li st ", t h e w ord s "als o t o mat t ers n ot
en u merat ed in th e Uni on Li s t " s h all b e s u bs ti tu t ed.
* * * * *
(e) To art i cle 2 5 3 , t h e foll owi n g p rovi s o s h all b e ad d ed, n amely:—
"Provided that after the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and
Kashmir) Order, 1954, no decision affecting the disposition of the State of Jammu and
Kashmir shall be made by the Government of India without the consent of the Government
of that State.".
* * * * *
(f) Art i cle 2 5 5 sh all b e omi t t ed.
(g) Art i cle 2 5 6 sh all b e re-n u mb ered as clau s e (1 ) of t h at article, an d t h e
fol lo wi n g n ew clau s e s h all b e add ed t h eret o, n amely:—
"(2) The State of Jammu and Kashmir shall so execise its executive power as to
facilitate the discharge by the Union of its duties and responsibilities under the
Constitution in relation to that State; and in particular, the said State shall, if so
required by the Union, acquire or requisition property on behalf and at the expense
of the Union, or if the property belongs to the State, transfer it to the Union on such
terms as may be agreed, or in default of agreement, as may be determined by an
arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of India.".
* * * * *
(h ) In clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 2 6 1 , t h e word s "mad e b y Par li amen t "
s h all b e omi t t ed .
(7) PART XII.
* * * * *
(a) Clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 2 67 , arti cle 27 3 , clau s e (2 ) of art i cle
2 8 3 and art i cle 29 0 sh all b e omi t t ed .
(b ) In art i cles 2 6 6 , 2 82 , 28 4 , 29 8 , 29 9 an d 30 0 , referen ces t o
t h e St at e or St at es sh all b e con s t ru ed as n ot in clu d in g referen ces t o
t h e St at e of J ammu and Kas hmi r.
(c) In art i cles 2 77 an d 29 5 , referen ces t o t h e commen cemen t of
t h e Con st i tu ti on sh all b e con s t ru ed as referen ces t o t h e
commen cemen t of t h is ord er.
255 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(8) PART XIII.


In clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 3 0 3, t h e word s "b y vi rt u e of a n y en t r y
relat i n g t o t rad e and commerce i n an y o f t h e Li s t s in t h e Seven t h
Sch ed u le " s h all b e omi t t ed .
* * * * *
(9) PART XIV.
In article 312, after the words "the States", the brackets and words "(including the
State of Jammu and Kashmir)" shall be inserted.
(10) PART XV.
(a) In clau s e (1 ) o f art i cle 3 2 4 , t h e referen ce t o t h e Con s ti tut i on
s h all, i n relat i on t o elect i on s to ei t h er Hou s e of t h e Legi s lat u re of
J ammu and Kas h mi r, b e con st rued as a referen ce t o t h e Con s t i tu t i on
o f J ammu and Kash mi r.
(b ) In art i cles 3 2 5 , 3 26 , 32 7 and 3 29 , t h e referen ce t o a St at e s h all
b e con s t ru ed as n ot in clu d in g a referen ce t o t h e St at e of J a mmu and
Kas h mi r.
(c) Art i cle 3 2 8 s h all b e omi tt ed .
(d ) In art i cle 3 29 , t h e word s an d fi gu res "or art i cle 3 28 " s h all b e
omi t t ed .
(e) In art i cle 3 2 9 A, clau s es (4 ) an d (5 ) sh all b e omi t t ed .
(11) PART XVI.
* * * * *
(a) Art i cles 3 31 , 33 2, 33 3 , 3 36 an d 3 37 sh all b e omi t t ed.
(b ) In art i cles 3 34 an d 33 5 , referen ces t o t h e St at e or th e Stat es
s h all b e con s t ru ed as n ot in clu din g referen ces t o t h e St at e of J a mmu and
Kas h mi r.
(c) In clau s e (1 ) of art i cle 3 39 , t h e word s "t h e ad mi ni s t rat i on of t h e
Sch ed u led Areas and " s h all b e o mi t t ed .
(12) PART XVII.
Th e p rovi s i ons of t h e Part s hall ap p l y on l y i n s o far as t h e y r elat e
t o—
(i) the official language of the Union;
(ii) the official language for communication between one State and another, or
between a State and the Union; and
(iii) the language of the proceedings in the Supreme Court.
(13) PART XVIII.
(a) To art i cle 3 5 2 , th e fol lo wi n g n ew clau s e s h all b e add ed ,
n amely:—
"(6) No Proclamation of Emergency made on grounds only of internal
disturbance or imminent danger thereof shall have effect in relation to the State of
Jammu and Kashmir (except as respects article 354) unless—
256 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a) it is made at the request or with the concurrence of the


Government of that State, or
(b) where it has not been so made, it is applied subsequently by the
President to that State at the request or with the concurrence of the
Government of that State.";
(b ) In c lau s e (1 ) o f art i cle 3 5 6 , referen ces t o p ro vi s i on s or p rovi s i on
o f t h i s Con s t it ut i on sh all, i n relat i on t o t h e St at e o f J ammu an d
Kas h mi r, b e cons t ru ed as i n clud in g referen ces t o p rovi s i on s or p rovi s i on
o f t h e Con s ti tu t i on of J ammu and Kas h mi r.
(b b ) In clau s e (4 ) o f t h e art i cle 3 5 6 , aft er t h e s econd p rovi s o, t h e
fol lo wi n g p rovi s o s h all b e i n s erted , n amely:—
"Provided also that in the case of the Proclamation issued under clause (1) on
the 18th day of July, 1990 with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the
reference in the first proviso to this clause to "three years" shall be construed as a
reference to “seven years".
(c) Art i cle 36 0 s h all b e omi tt ed .
(14) PART XIX.
* * * * *
(a) Art i cle 3 6 5 s h all b e omi tt ed .
* * * * *
(b ) To art i cle 3 6 7 , t h ere sh all b e ad d ed th e fo ll owi n g c la u s e,
n amely:—
"(4) For the purposes of this Constitution as it applies in relation to the State of
Jammu and Kashmir—
(a) references to this Constitution or to the provisions thereof shall be
construed as references to the Constitution or the provisions thereof as
applied in relation to the said State;
(aa) references to the person for the time being recognised by the
President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State
as the Sadar-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir, acting on the advice of the
Council of Ministers of the State for the time being in office, shall be
construed as references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir;
(b) references to the Government of the said State shall be construed as
including references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir acting on the
advice of his Council of Ministers:
Provided that in respect of any period prior to the 10th day of April,
1965, such references shall be construed as including references to the
Sadar-i-Riyasat acting on the advice of his Council of Ministers;
(c) references to a High Court shall include references to the High
Court of Jammu and Kashmir;
* * * * *
257 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(d) references to the permanent residents of the said State shall be


construed as meaning persons who, before the commencement of the
Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 were
recognised as State subjects under the laws in force in the State or who
are recognised by any law made by the Legislature of the State as
permanent residents of the State; and
(e) references to a Governor shall include references to the Governor
of Jammu and Kashmir:
Provided that in respect of any period prior to the 10th day of April,
1965, such references shall be construed as references to the person
recognised by the President as the Sadar-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir
and as including references to any person recognised by the President as
being competent to exercise the powers of the Sadar-i-Riyasat.".
(15) PART XX.
(a) To clau s e (2 ) of art i cle 36 8 , t h e fo ll owi n g p rovi s o s h all b e
ad d ed , n amely:—
"Provided further that no such amendment shall have effect in relation to the
State of Jammu and Kashmir unless applied by order of the President under clause
(1) of article 370.".
(b ) Aft er clau s e (3 ) o f art i cle 3 6 8, t h e fol l owi n g c lau s e s h all b e
ad d ed , n amely:—
"(4) No law made by the Legislature of the State of Jammu and Kashmir
seeking to make any change in or in the effect of any provision of the Constitution
of Jammu and Kashmir relating to—
(a) appointment, powers, functions, duties, emoluments, allowances,
privileges or immunities of the Governor; or
(b) superintendence, direction and control of elections by the Election
Commission of India, eligibility for inclusion in the electoral rolls without
discrimination, adult suffrage and composition of the Legislative Council,
being matters specified in sections 138, 139, 140 and 50 of the Constitution
of Jammu and Kashmir,
shall have any effect unless such law has, after having been reserved for the
consideration of the President, received his assent.".
(16) PART XXI.
(a) Art i cles 3 6 9 , 3 71 , 3 71 A, 3 72 A, 3 7 3 , clau s es (1 ), (2 ), (3 ) and (5 )
o f art i cle 3 7 4 an d art i cles 3 76 t o 3 78 A an d 3 92 s h all b e omi t t ed .
(b ) In art i cle 3 72 —
(i) clauses (2) and (3) shall be omitted;
(ii) references to the laws in force in the territory of India shall include
references to hidayats, ailans, ishtihars, circulars, robkars, irshads, yadashts,
State Council Resolutions, Resolutions of the Constituent Assembly, and other
instruments having the force of law in the territory of the State of Jammu and
Kashmir; and
258 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(iii) references to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed


as references to the commencement of this Order.
(c) In clau s e (4 ) o f art i cle 3 7 4 , th e referen ce t o t h e au t hori t y
fu n ct i on in g as t h e Pri vy Cou n ci l o f a St at e s h all b e con s t rued as a
referen ce t o t h e Ad vi s or y Bo ard con s ti t ut ed u nd er t h e J ammu and
Kas h mi r Cons t it ut i on Act , 1 99 6 an d referen ces t o th e commen cemen t of
t h e Cons t it ut i on s h all b e cons t ru ed as referen ces t o t h e commen cement
o f t h i s Ord er.
(17) PART XXII.
Art i cles 3 94 an d 3 95 sh all b e omi t t ed .
(18) FIRST SCHEDULE.
(19) SECOND SCHEDULE.
* * * * *
(20) THIRD SCHEDULE.
Forms V, V I, V II an d VIII s h all b e omi tt ed .
(21) FOURTH SCHEDULE.
(22) SEVENTH SCHEDULE.
(a) In t h e Un i on Li s t —
(i) for entry 3, the entry "3. Administration of cantonments." shall be
substituted;
(ii) entries 8, 9 and 34, entry 79, and the words "Inter-State migration" in entry
81 shall be omitted;
* * * * *
(iii) in entry 72, the reference to the States shall be construed,—
(a) in relation to appeals to the Supreme Court from any decision or
order of the High Court of the State of Jammu and Kashmir made in an
election petition whereby an election to either House of the Legislature of that
State has been called in question, as including a reference to the State of
Jammu and Kashmir;
(b) in relation to other matters, as not including a reference to that
State; and
(iv) for entry 97, the following entry shall be substituted, namely:—
"97. Prevention of activities—
(a) involving terrorist acts directed towards overawing the
Government as by law established or striking terror in the people
or any section of the people or alienating any section of the
people or adversely affecting the harmony amongst different
sections of the people;
(b) directed towards disclaiming, questioning or disrupting
the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India or bringing about
cession of a part of the territory of India or secession of a part of
the territory of India from the Union or causing insult to the
259 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Indian National Flag, the Indian National Anthem and this


Constitution;
taxes on foreign travel by sea or air, on inland air travel and on postal
articles, including money orders, phonograms and telegrams.
Explanation.—In this entry, "terrorist act" has the same meaning as in
the Explanation to article 248.".
(b ) Th e St at e Li s t s h all b e omi tted .
(c) In t h e Con cu rrent Li s t —
(i) for entry 1, the following entry shall be substituted, namely:—
"1. Criminal law (excluding offences against laws with respect to any of
the matters specified in List I and excluding the use of naval, military or air
forces or any other armed forces of the Union in aid of the civil power) in so far
as such criminal law relates to offences against laws with respect to any of the
matters specified in this List.";
(ia) for entry 2, the following entry shall be substituted, namely:—
"2. Criminal procedure (including prevention of offences and
constitution and organisation of criminal courts, except the Supreme
Court and the High Court) in so far as it relates to,—
(i) offences against laws with respect to any matters being
matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws;
and
(ii) administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by
diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country.";
(ib) for entry 12, the following entry shall be substituted, namely:—
"12. Evidence and oaths in so far as they relate to,—
(i) administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by
diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country; and
(ii) any other matters being matters with respect to which
Parliament has power to make laws.";
(ic) for entry 13, the entry "13. Civil procedure in so far as it relates to
administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular
officers in any foreign country." shall be substituted;
* * * * *
(ii) for entry 30, the entry “30. Vital statistics in so far as they relate to births
and deaths including registration of births and deaths." shall be substituted;
* * * * *
(iii) entry 3, entries 5 to 10 (both inclusive), entries 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 27, 28,
29, 31, 32, 37, 38, 41 and 44 shall be omitted;
(iiia) for entry 42, the entry "42. Acquisition and requisitioning of property, so
far as regards acquisition of any property covered by entry 67 of List I or entry
40 of List III or of any human work of art which has artistic or aesthetic value."
shall be substituted; and
260 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(iv) in entry 45, for the words and figures "List II or List III", the words "this
List" shall be substituted.
(23) EIGHTH SCHEDULE.
(24) NINTH SCHEDULE.
(a) Aft er en t r y 6 4 , th e fol l owi n g en t ri es sh all b e ad d ed , n amely: —
64A. The Jammu and Kashmir State Kuth Act (No. I of Svt. 1978).
64B. The Jammu and Kashmir Tenancy Act (No. II of Svt. 1980).
64C. The Jammu and Kashmir Alienation of Land Act (No. V of Svt. 1995).
* * * * *
64D. The Jammu and Kashmir Big Landed Estates Abolition Act (No. XVII
of Svt. 2007).
64E. Order No. 6-H of 1951, dated the 10th March, 1951, regarding
Resumption of Jagirs and other assignments of land revenue, etc.
64F. The Jammu and Kashmir Restitution of Mortgaged Properties Act, 1976
(Act XIV of 1976).
64G. The Jammu and Kashmir Debtors' Relief Act, 1976 (Act XV of 1976).
(b ) En t ri es 8 7 t o 1 24 , in s ert ed b y t h e Con s t i tu ti on (Th i rt y-n i n t h
Amen d ment ) Act , 1 97 5 , sh all b e renu mb ered as ent ri es 65 to 1 0 2
res p ecti vel y.
(c) En t ri es 1 25 t o 1 88 sh all b e ren u mb ered as ent ri es 10 3 t o 1 6 6
res p ecti vel y.
(25) TENTH SCHEDULE.
(a) for t h e b racket s , word s an d fi gu res "A rt i cles 1 02 (2 ) an d
1 9 1 (2 ) ", t h e b racket s , word an d fi gu res "[ Art i cle 1 0 2 (2 )] " s h all b e
s u bs ti t ut ed ;
(b ) i n clau s e (a) of p aragrap h 1 , t h e word s "or t h e Le gi s lat i ve
As s emb ly or, as t h e cas e ma y b e, ei t h er Hou s e o f t h e Legi s lat u re o f a
St at e " s h all b e omi t t ed ;
(c) i n p aragrap h 2 ,—
(i) in sub-paragraph (1), in sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of the Explanation, the
words and figures "or, as the case may be,