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English
Quarter 1 – Module 2:
Conventions in Citing Sources
What I Need to Know

Great day to you dear learner! In this module you will learn the conventions in
citing sources.
May you find significant learning experiences and joy from this module. Let’s
start the fun and learning now.

After going through this module, you are expected to:

1. Look for sentences with the correct in-text citations.


2. Explain how the sample sentences are written in APA style.
3. Use APA format as convention in citing sources.

What I Know

DIRECTIONS: Match the words in column A with the words in column B. Connect the
dots. Have fun!

COLUMN A COLUMN B

Smith, John • • Book Title

2019, April • • Website

English Expressways • • Author

www.englishbest.com • • Date

1
Lesson
Conventions in Citing
1 Sources

As part of our daily learning activity, we use different learning resources such as books,
articles, journals and websites to get some information for our study and research. It is
important to cite these sources to give credits to the ideas of the different authors.

What’s In

Activity 1 What’s on your mind?


DIRECTIONS: Observe the picture below and tell me what’s on your mind.

I think that you have something in your mind. Can you describe what’s the picture all
about?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

You did great! Now, what do you think is the error in the picture?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Good observation, great job! Do you know what the boy did? Do you think it’s correct?
Why?

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

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You did well on this part! In the picture, you see that even if the boy copied
everything in the internet, he was given a failing mark because what he did is not a good
example. Copying other’s work is called cheating.

What’s New

Activity 2 Read Aloud

This time, we will read paragraphs about cheating and why we need to give credit to
someone’s idea.

Cheating is when a person misleads, deceives, or acts dishonestly on purpose.


For kids, cheating may happen at school, at home, or while playing a sport. If a
baseball team is for kids who are 8 or younger, it's cheating for a 9-year-old to play on
the team and hit home run after home run.

At school, in addition to cheating on a test, a kid might cheat by stealing someone


else's idea for a science project or by copying a book report off the Internet and turning
it in as if it's his or her original work. Copying someone else's words or work and saying
they're yours is a type of cheating called plagiarism (say: PLAY-juh- rih-zem).

Did you enjoy reading the paragraphs?


What are important ideas you get after reading?
Can you list them down here?

a. ____________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________

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What is It

Nowadays, access to information is easily done. It can be books in the library,


journals, articles, newspapers, and internet-the most convenient and fastest. Using
these resources made our study easy. However, we need to cite the sources we use to
avoid plagiarism. But how can we cite the sources correctly? Is there any format to
follow?
One of the formats in citing sources is the APA style. It is the style of
documentation of sources used by the American Psychological Association.
Now you might ask how APA style citation works.
Parenthetical citations are citations to original sources that appear in the text
of your paper. The name of the author, the title of the book, the website and the date it
is published should be indicated in your paper. So that the reader of your paper easily
find where your information comes from.
This time we are going to learn about how to format the different sources using
parenthetical (in-text) citations.
You have three options for placing citations in relation to your text. Are you ready
to learn them? Good! Let’s start.
OPTION #1
HOW TO DO IT:
Place the author(s) and
date(s) in parentheses at an
IDEA-FOCUSED appropriate place in or at the
end of a sentence

FOR EXAMPLE
Author’s name: Cruz
Date: 1999
Details: Researchers have
pointed out that the lack of
trained staff is a common
barrier to providing adequate
health education.

HOW TO WRITE IT: Researchers have pointed out that the lack of trained
staff is a common barrier to providing adequate health education (Cruz ,
1999).
In our example, we started by writing the idea, then, we enclosed the
author’s name and date in the parentheses and placed it at the end of the
sentence.

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OPTION #2

HOW TO DO IT:
RESEARCHER-FOCUSED
Place only the date in
parentheses

FOR EXAMPLE:
Author’s name: Gonzaga
Date: 1999
Details: Health education be
required for high school
graduation in California.

HOW TO WRITE IT: Gonzaga (1999) recommended th at health education be


required for high school graduation in California.

In our example, we started by writing the name of the author, then enclosed with
the parentheses the date, then used passive form words like recommended that, said
that and etc., then the idea of the author. Passive voice means that a subject is a
recipient of a verb’s action

OPTION #3

CHRONOLOGY-FOCUSED HOW TO DO IT: Integrate


both the author and date
into your sentence

FOR EXAMPLE:
Author’s name: Zamora
Date: 2001
Details: Child and Adolescent
Planning Schema to analyze and
develop community mental health
programs for young people.

HOW TO WRITE IT: In 2001, Zamora proposed using the Child and Adolescent
Planning Schema to analyze and develop community mental health programs for
young people.

In our example, we combined the date and the author in the sentence and used
active form of the verb. Active voice means that a sentence has a subject that acts upon
its verb.

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Great Job! We are done with the options in placing citations in relation to the text!
Next thing you will learn is how citation works with several authors, no authors, and
electronic sources.

ONE OR TWO AUTHORS

HOW TO DO IT:
Cite both authors throughout the work. Citations
inside parentheses use the ampersand (&).
Citations outside parentheses, use "and.

FOR EXAMPLES:
1. Authors’ names: Smith, Brown
Date:2004
Details:25% of people prefer cats over dogs
2. Authors’ names: Smith, Brown
Date:2004
Details: Survey the phenomenon

HOW TO WRITE IT:


(1) According to the study, 25% of people prefer cats over dogs (Smith & Brown,
2004).

THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

HOW TO DO IT:
Cite all of them the first time you refer to the work, but
in subsequent references follow the last name of the
first author by et al. (with a period after "al").

FOR EXAMPLES:
(1) Authors’ names: Smith, Brown, Black
Date:2005
(first reference), (second reference) (third reference)

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HOW TO WRITE IT:
A recent survey (Smith, Brown, & Black, 2005) showed....
[first reference]
Smith et al. (2005) showed… [second reference]

Smith et.al proved… [third reference]

NO AUTHOR

HOW TO DO IT:
Instead of a last name use the first few words of the
entry for that work in the reference list. Put
quotation marks around the title of an article or
chapter, and italicize the title of a book, periodical,
brochure, or report.

FOR EXAMPLE:
Date: 2008
Book Name: Survey of Asian Men,

HOW TO WRITE IT:

“Survey of Asian Men” (2008)..


..
ELECTRONIC SOURCES

HOW TO DO IT: Cite an electronic source within your


paper in the same way as you would a print source, by
placing the author's last name (or short title of the
source, if there is no author) and year of publication in
parentheses.

REMEMBER! You do not put the URL in the text of the


paper. In fact, the only time you would put a URL in
the text would be to simply mention a website in
passing. Because you’re citing specific information,

you will need. to write a regular APA Style author–date


citation. Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website
or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year
of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference
list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).

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FOR EXAMPLE #1: PUTTING URL IN THE TEXT TO MENTION
WEBSITE IN PASSING

URL Address: (http://www.wisc.edu/writing/)


Details: The University of Wisconsin's Writing Center Web site is an
excellent source of information on writing

HOW TO WRITE IT :

The University of Wisconsin's Writing Center Web site is an excellent source of


information on writing (http://www.wisc.edu/writing/)

FOR EXAMPLE #2: AUTHOR'S LAST NAME (OR


SHORT TITLE OF THE SOURCE, IF THERE IS NO
AUTHOR) AND YEAR OF PUBLICATION IN
PARENTHESES
Author: American Nurses Association
Date: 2006
URL Address:
http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy -
Advocacy/Positions-and-
Resolutions/ANAPositionStatements/Archives/Mercury-
in-Vaccines.html

Details: Position statement insisting that pharmaceutical


companies immediately cease using thimerosal as a
vaccine preservative.

HOW TO WRITE IT:

The American Nurses Association (2006) issued a position statement insisting


that pharmaceutical companies immediately cease using thimerosal as a
vaccine preservative.

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In our example, since we are citing specific information, we need to write a regular
APA Style author–date citation. Writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is
easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the
corresponding reference list entry.

Here’s the example:

American Nurses Association. (2006). Mercury in vaccines [Position statement].


Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-

Advocacy/Positions-and-Resolutions/ANAPositionStatements/Archives/Mercury-

in-Vaccines.html

You may visit this link https://www.ru.nl/nsm/stip/specific-


studyinformation/geography-planning-environment/overview-useful-
links/apaconventions-
referencing/?fbclid=IwAR3jmb_xeT6ip0IPm5juTgg7Fj43p_HF1ZS1gcrDGz4wenMPjmoh
tRxLHo for more examples.

Now that you are done learning the formats, you may be asking is it necessary to
cite? The answer is a big YES! It is not only to help your reader to locate easily the
information but of course to avoid plagiarism. Remember that copying other’s work
without crediting them is CHEATING.

What’s More

Activity 3 Find ME!


Well done! Now you’re on Activity 3. In this part, we will try to assess your
understanding. Good luck and have fun!
DIRECTIONS: Look for sentence/s with the correct in-text citations by putting a √ mark
on the blank/s.

______1. According to Jones, "the APA Manual changes every few years, so it is important
to stay on top of changes in the current edition." (p. 87)

______2. The study found that students struggle most with the finer details of APA
formatting (Reynolds, 2011)

______3. Wiliams, J. "Locating Quality Sources Online." Journal of Learning, 4(3), 35-
40. https://www.journaloflearning.edu/locating-quality-source/volume-4

_______4. Leyse-Wallace (2013), notes that "levels and ratios of essential fatty acids
appear to be linked to anger, violence, hostility, and aggressive behavior", p. 31.

_______5. Two species of multituberculate mammals were present in Saskatchewan in


the Late Eocene, Storer, p. 1617

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Activity 4 Tell Me!
DIRECTIONS: Tell me how did I write the sample sentence. Write your answer on the
boxes provided.

FOR EXAMPLE

ONE OR TWO AUTHORS

HOW TO WRITE IT:

According to the study, 25% of people prefer cats over dogs (Smith & Brown,
2004).

HOW DID I DO IT?

In the example, the sentence started with the details then cite the authors names and
and the date and are enclosed with the parentheses and used the & symbol.

ONE OR TWO AUTHORS

HOW TO WRITE IT:

Sanchez and Miranda (1998) discussed on how environmental issues affect the

livelihood of the people.

HOW DID I DO IT?

_________________________________________________________________________________ _

THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

HOW TO WRITE IT:

First time: Cordero, Perezand Ferira (1998) explained the rising number of people
having mental health problem after the lockdown.
Second time: Cole et al. (1998) proved it after conducting a study.
Third time: Cole et al. demonstrated
HOW DID I DO IT?
_________________________________________________________________________________

NO AUTHOR

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HOW TO WRITE IT:

From the book Vitamin Discoveries (2013), the vaccine is on clinical trial.

HOW DID I DO IT?

_________________________________________________________________________________

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

HOW TO WRITE IT:

Ritz Ramos-Gomes has set up a discussion forum for new fanciers

(http://gfnnfg.livejournal.com/).

HOW DID I DO IT?

_________________________________________________________________________________

What I Have Learned

Activity 5: Remember me? Fill ME!


DIRECTIONS: Can you still remember how to do the following in-text citations? Let’s
test! Fill the following boxes.

ONE OR TWO AUTHORS

HOW TO DO IT:
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

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THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

HOW TO DO IT:
_________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ ____
_________________________________________________

NO AUTHOR

HOW TO DO IT:
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

ELECTRONIC SOURCE

HOW TO DO IT:
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

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What I Can Do

Activity 6
DIRECTIONS: Research about Covid-19 effects and use APA format in citing the source.
Cite at least 3 sources either from the internet, books, newspapers, journals or reports

Assessment

Test I.
DIRECTIONS: Read the following statements. Choose your answer correctly. Write the
letter of your answer on the space provided before each number.
____1. Which parenthetical citation is correct?
a. (Johnson, Smith, 2015) discovered the new vaccine.
b. (Johnson) & (Smith) 2015 discovered the new vaccine.
c. Johnson and Smith (2009) discovered the new vaccine.

____2. When should you use in-text citations within your paper?
a. At the end of each page
b. At the end of every paragraph
c. Whenever information has come from another source

____3. How should you place citation when it is researcher-focused?


a. Place the author(s) and date(s) in parentheses at an appropriate place in or at
the end of a sentence
b. Integrate both the author and date into your sentence
c. Place only the date in parentheses

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_____4. Which is true about in-text citation with no author?
a. Cite all of them the first time you refer to the work, but in subsequent
references follow the last name of the first author by et al. (with a period
after "al").
b. Citations inside parentheses use the ampersand (&). Citations outside
parentheses, use "and.
c. Instead of a last name use the first few words of the entry for that work in
the reference list. Put quotation marks around the title of an article or
chapter, and italicize the title of a book, periodical, brochure, or report.

_____5. Which is the correct in-text citation when you have 1or two authors?
a. A person who smokes has a high risk in developing TB disease (Walker &
Allen, 2004).
b. Walker & Allen (2004) said a person who smokes has a high risk in developing
TB disease.
c. Walker and Allen, 2004, said a person who smokes has a high risk in
developing TB disease.

____6. How should you place citation when it is idea-focused?


a. Place the author(s) and date(s) in parentheses at an appropriate place in or at
the end of a sentence
b. Integrate both the author and date into your sentence
c. Place only the date in parentheses

____7. How do we cite an electronic source in in-text citation?


a. copy all the URL and put it together in the text
b. write the URL, then the author’s last name, title (if no author) and the date of
the publication
c. place the author's last name, title (if no author) then the date of the
publication

_____8. Which is the correct in-text citation for 3 or more authors?


a. Dela Cruz, Santos and et al. (1996) emphasized that dust triggers allergic
reaction to people who have respiratory problem.
b. It needed a thorough study as the findings suggested (Dela Cruz, Santos,
&Zamora, 2009). In the same study (Dela Cruz et al., 2009) proved that
some of the experiments were unsuccessful.
c. Dela Cruz (2010), Santos (2010), and Zamora (2010) described that the
climate change affects the life of the people. In the same study, Dela Cruz,
Santos, and Zamora (2010) gathered data to prove it correct.

______9. Which is not the correct in-text citation for no author?


a. A new intellectual framework, 2009 discussed the effects of social medias.
b. This research highlights the debate around nuclear weapons ("Nuke Test
Inquiry," 2009).
c. "Will returning to its founder's vision" (2011) condemned the practice.

_____10. What does APA stand for?


a. American Psychological Association
b. Association of Psychological Americans
c. American Psychology Association

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Additional Activities

Directions: Write an essay (5 sentences) about the importance of citing the sources.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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Answer Key

What I Know ACTIVITY 1


COLUMN A COLUMN B
Expected answers:
Smith, John • • Book Title (1) The picture is about a boy
complaining to his teacher.
2019, April • •Website (2) The error in the picture is even the
boy copied everything in the internet
English Expressways • •Author he still failed.
(3) Copying other’s work is wrong
www.englishbest.com • •Date

ACTIVITY 2 ACTIVITY 4
Cheating is deceiving. ONE OR TWO AUTHORS- Cited the authors
Copying is cheating. using their last names and used
Plagiarism is copying other’s work parentheses with the date on it then the
without crediting them. details.
(Answers may vary) THREE OR MORE AUTHORS- In the first
reference I cited all by writing the last names
of the authors but in the second reference I
ACTIVITY 3 wrote the last name of the first author then
2 & 4- √ by et al. then the date in the parentheses,
and in the third reference I wrote only the
last name of the first author then et.al..
NO AUTHOR- I wrote the title of the book and
enclosed the date in the parentheses.
ELECTRONIC SOURCE-I put URL in the text
since I needed to mention the website in
passing to specify the details.

ACTIVITY 5
ONE OR TWO AUTHORS

HOW TO DO IT:
Cite both authors throughout the work. Citations
inside parentheses use the ampersand (&).
Citations outside parentheses, use "and.A

THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

\]

HOW TO DO IT:
Cite all of them the first time you refer to the work, but
in subsequent references follow the last name of the
first author by et al. (with a period after "al").

16
ACTIVITY 5
NO AUTHOR

HOW TO DO IT:
Instead of a last name use the first few words of the
entry for that work in the reference list. Put
quotation marks around the title of an article or
chapter, and italicize the title of a book, periodical,
brochure, or report.

ELECTRONIC SOURCE

HOW TO DO IT: Cite an electronic source within the


paper in the same way as a print source, by placing
the author's last name (or short title of the source, if
there is no author) and year of publication in
parentheses. The only time to put a URL in the text
would be to simply mention a website in passing.

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Name: ________________________________Grade/Section: __________________________
Date Released:_________________________ Date of Retrieval: _________________________

General Instructions: Read carefully each part of the module and accomplish assigned tasks as
scheduled. Kindly indicate remarks if there are difficulties encountered in the given task.

(Example: What I know: X “Naglibog ko sa rules” “Rules are confusing”)

Budget of Work

To be Specific Task Self-assessment. Check (/) if you have understood


accomplished on the task and mark (X) if there are difficulties
October 5-9, 2020
12-16, 2020 encountered
Day 1
What I know
What’s in

Parent’s Signature
Day 2
What’s new
What is it

Parent’s Signature
Day 3
What’s more
What I have
learned
Parent’s Signature
Day 4
What I can do
Assessment

Parent’s Signature

If you have any questions about the topic or on the module, do not hesitate to contact your
Grade 8 English teacher for assistance. Monday to Saturday (8:00 am to 5:00 pm)

Mrs. Ruth Bacquial 0912-935-9927


Mrs. Mary Grace Villamero 0921-428-2493
Mrs. Milagros
Carley Calamongay
Calamongay 0995-831-0336
Mrs. Pabeliza Nangcas 0995-830-7517
Mr. Dennis Dino 0930-714-5753
Mr. Karl Jay Blaquera 0927-671-1728