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Kabankalan Catholic College

HIGH
HIGH SCHOOL
SCHOOL DEPARTMENT
DEPARTMENT
Guanzon
Guanzon St., Kabankalan City,
St., Kabankalan City, Negros
Negros Occidental
Occidental

INSTRUCTIONAL MODULE
TLE – CSS 9
AFRO-ASIAN LITERTURE

S.Y. 2020-2021

JOEN ANTHONY L. DEGILO


CSS - Instructor

JHS QUARTER 2
TLE – COMPUTER SYSTEM SERVICING 9

Second Quarter - Module 1

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work
of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency
or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for
profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of
royalties.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders.
Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from
their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim
ownership over them.

Some parts of this learning module are taken and patterned from the Alternative
Delivery Mode Modules of the Department of Education (DepEd) and Private Education
Assistance Committee (PEAC).

Computer System Servicing


To do well in this module, you need to remember and do the following:
1. Take note of unfamiliar concepts.
2. Read thoroughly the given reading materials and make summaries.
3. Comprehend well the guide questions and follow-up the questions and let them be
your guide for understanding.
4. Answer every question exhaustively.
5. Browse sites and read articles, watch videos and etc. for concept development and for
assessment.
6. Answer the activities including the evaluation on your activity notebook to measure
how much you have learned and submit the activity notebook on the deadline before the
next module will be given. Be ready for an assessment or oral recitation via phone call or
video call on a prearranged schedule.
7. Ask questions for clarifications in any case you have concerns regarding the lesson.
Feel free to send message thru’ messenger @Joen Anthony L. Degillo or my contact
number 09751450383.
8. Cover all the activities on their respective time of completion and prepare for the
examination as scheduled.
9. Provide 2 pieces 50 leaves big red covered activity notebook.
10. Keep safe and have fun learning!
I. MODULE TITLE:

TLE-CSS 9

II. LESSON COVERAGE


In this module you will examine the essential questions when you take
the following lessons:

Lesson 1: PERFORMING COMPUTER OPERATIONS


Lesson 2: OHS GUIDELINES FOR COMPUTER OPERATIONS
Lesson 3: ACCESS INFORMATION USING COMPUTER

Lesson MELC
The learners shall be able to perform computer
operations based on a given tasks with correct
PERFORMING
planning and preparation.
COMPUTER
The learners demonstrate and understanding of
OPERATIONS
concepts and underlying principles in performing
computer operations.
OHS
GUIDELINES
The learners shall be able to perform and
FOR
understand the basic OHS guidelines in operation of
COMPUTER
the computer.
OPERATIONS

INPUT DATA The learns shall be able to identify, enter and predict
INTO the appropriate data’s to be delivered using specific
COMPUTER programs and applications.

III. INTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTIONING: 1


C omputer is a device that transforms data into meaningful information. Data can
be anything like marks obtained by you in various subjects. It can also be name,
age, sex, weight, height, etc. of all the students in a class. Computer can also be
defined in terms of functions it can perform. This unit covers the knowledge, skills,
attitudes and values needed to perform computer operations which include
inputting, accessing, producing and transferring data using the appropriate
hardware and software. A computer manipulates binary coded data and responds to
events occurring in the external world (users, other devices, and network).

1. What is the importance of identifying the data that travels


though the computer?
2. Is planning and preparing for task to be undertaken is
necessary?
3. Will understanding your computers work flow enchance your
productivity?

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IV.

As part of your initial activity, try to assess your prior knowledge and experience
related to our upcoming lessons.

A. Multiple Choice

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on your
activity notebook.

1. It is the external environment with the computer system.


A. Input unit B. Output unit
C. Storage unit D. Control unit

2. This unit does not know when the result should be displayed.
A. Input unit B. Output unit
C. Storage unit D. Control unit

3. It accepts the result produced by the computer.


A. Input unit B. Output unit
C. Storage unit D. Control unit
4. It supplies the converted to the outside world.
A. Input unit B. Output unit
C. Storage unit D. Control unit

5. It is an expansion card for computers that allows it to have hardware emulation with
another device.
A. RAM B. Hard disk drive
C. Compatibility Card D. Video Card

6. Hard disk drive were introduced in what year?


A. 1955 B. 1956
C. 1957 D. 1958

7. The first hard disk drive was introduced by what company?


A. Linux B. IBM
C. Google D. Microsoft

8. It is the place where actual execution of the instructions takes places


A. ALU B. GPU
C. CPU D. I/O ports

9. This printer creates an image directly on paper by spraying ink through as many as 64
tiny nozzles.
A. Dot matrix printer B. Ink-jet printer
C. Laser printer D. Line printer

10. It is a very versatile and inexpensive output device.


A. Dot matrix printer B. Ink-jet printer
C. Laser printer D. Line printer

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V. PROCEDURE

LESSON 1: PERFORMING COMPUTER OPERATIONS

A. INTRODUCTION:

The questions about the basic operations of a computer may confuse you at first
glimpse as it is a versatile machine doing numerous tasks such as playing awesome
games, useful calculations, huge storage, quick retrieval, processing spreadsheets,
creating and managing documents, playing songs and movies and what not? So, among
this huge list of tasks, a computer performs, how to identify which ones are basic
operations of a computer?

Rather than drifting away with the huge list of wonders that computers are doing
every day, you should think about the aspect for what the question is expecting. This is
a question from Computer Fundamentals chapter and specifically, it is about Computer
System.

B. INTERACTION

A. BASIC OPERATIONS OF COMPUTER

An operation, in mathematics and computer science, is an action that is carried out


to accomplish a given task. There are five basic types of computer operations: Inputting,
processing, outputting, storing, and controlling.

Computer Processing Cycle

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1. INPUT UNIT

Input unit links the external environment with the computer system. Data and
instruction must be entered to the computer before performing any competition. Data or
instructions can be entered through input devices, e.g. Key board, or any other input
devices.

Input unit transferred this data into binary coded in short input unit performs the
following function:

 It accepts data or instructions from external world.


 It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form.
 It supplies the converted instruction & data to the computer for further processing.

Examples:

Computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of


buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

Computer mouse is a handheld hardware input device that controls a cursor in a


GUI and can move and select text, icons, files, and folders. For desktop computers,
the mouse is placed on a flat surface such as a mouse pad or a desk and is placed in
front of your computer.

Webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or


through a computer to a computer network, such as the Internet. Webcams are
typically small cameras that sit on a desk, attach to a user's monitor, or are built into
the hardware.

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2. PROCESSING UNIT

The task of performing calculations and comparisons are known as processing.

The unit in Computer System that is responsible for processing is ALU (Arithmetic and
Logical Unit). ALU is the place where actual execution of the instructions takes place during
the processing operations. All calculations & comparisons are made in the ALU. The data
and instructions stored in the primary storage are transferred to it as when required. ALU
may produce Intermediate results and store it in the memory which is also transferred
back to the ALU for the final processing. After completion of processing the final results are
send to storage units from ALU.

Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)


o Is the place where actual execution of the instructions takes places during the
processing operations. All calculations & comparisons are made in the ALU.
The data and instructions stored in the primary storage are transferred as
where required. Intermodal results are also transferred back to the ALU for
the final processing. After completion of processing the final results are send
to storage units from ALU. Number of arithmetic & logical operation that a
computer can perform is determined by the design to perform the four basic
arithmetic operations. They are +,-,*, /. The logic operations like.

3. OUTPUT UNIT

The job of output unit it is just the viewers of that any input unit it provides information
reasons of computation to the output of the world. Output unit links the computer with the
external world. A computer prepares results in binary code. Output unit converts these
results into human acceptable forms. In short perform the following functions.

 It accepts the result produced by the computer.


 It converts these coded results to human acceptable form.
 It supplies the converted to the outside world.

Examples:

Computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form.


A monitor usually comprises the visual display, circuitry, casing, and power supply.

Cathode ray tube Liquid crystal display Light-emitting Diodes


(CRT) (LCD) (LED

Types of computer monitor

1) Cathode Ray Tube (CRT).

a. This type of monitor required more power and electronics to operate. A lot
of the analog circuitry was cumbersome and took up a lot of space.

b. In addition to that, the CRT itself requires a certain distance between the
screen area and the electron guns located at the end of the neck.

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c. So apart from being heavy, bulky and harsh on your eyes, they actually have
a decent viewing angle.

d. The other obvious downfall is the obvious fact that it couldn’t be used for a
laptop monitor.

2) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

a. LCD Monitors replaced the CRT. Initially, they had performance issues to do
with response times, but eventually, those problems were solved.

b. Liquid crystal molecules are placed between two electrodes. The amount of
light that can pass through the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the
amount of electrical charge applied to the electrodes.

c. LCD Monitors require backlighting in order to illuminate the image for us to


see. This backlighting technology has also undergone some revolutionary
changes.

3) Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)

a) It is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows


through it.
b) Compared with conventional light sources that first convert
electrical energy into heat, and then into light, LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes)
convert electrical energy directly into light, delivering efficient light
generation with little-wasted electricity.

Speakers are one of the most common output devices used with computer


systems. Speakers are transducers that convert electromagnetic waves into sound
waves.

Projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image onto a


surface, commonly a projection screen. Most projectors create an image by shining a
light through a small transparent lens, but some newer types of projectors can
project the image directly, by using lasers.

4. STORAGE UNIT

Before actual processing start, data & instructions entered to the computer must be
stored inside the computer. Similarly, results produced by the computer are required to
be stored before being passed to the output unit. The intermodal result produced by the
computer must also be stored for further processing. In short, the function of storage
unit:
 It stores all the data to be process.
 It stores intermodal results.
 It stores final result are realize an output device.
Examples of common data storage:

a) Hard Disk Hard disk drive (also known as a hard


Drive drive, HD, or HDD) can be found installed
in almost every desktop computer and
laptop. It stores files for the operating
system and software programs, as well as
user documents, such as photographs,
text files, videos, and audio. The hard
drive uses magnetic storage to record and
retrieve digital information to and from
one or more fast-spinning disks.
2. Flash Also known as a thumb drive, pen drive,
Drives flash-drive, memory stick, jump drive,
and USB stick, the USB flash drive is a
flash memory data storage device that
incorporates an integrated USB interface.
Flash memory is generally more efficient
and reliable than optical media, being
smaller, faster, and possessing much
greater storage capacity, as well as being
more durable due to a lack of moving
parts.
3. SD Card / A common type of memory card, SD cards
Secure Digital are used in multiple electronic devices,
Card including digital cameras and mobile
phones. Although there are different
sizes, classes, and capacities available,
they all use a rectangular design with one
side "chipped off" to prevent the card
from being inserted into the camera or
other device the wrong way.
4. Solid State A solid-state drive uses flash memory to
Drive (SSD) store data and is sometimes used in
devices such as netbooks, laptop, and
desktop computers instead of a
traditional hard disk drive. The
advantages of an SSD over an HDD
include a faster read/write speed,
noiseless operation, greater reliability,
and lower power consumption. The
biggest downside is cost, with an SSD
offering lower capacity than an
equivalently priced HDD.
5. DVD and The DVD (digital versatile disc) and Blu-
Blu-ray Disk ray disc (BD) are formats of digital optical
disc data storage which have superseded
compact discs, mainly because of their
much greater storage capacity. A Blu-ray
disc, for example, can store 25 GB
(gigabytes) of data on a single-layer disc
and 50 GB on a dual-layer disc. In
comparison, a standard CD is the same
physical size, but only holds 700 MB
(megabytes) of digital data.
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5. Control Unit

The control unit is a component of a computer's central


processing unit that directs the operation of the processor. It
tells the computer's memory, arithmetic and logic unit and
input and output devices how to respond to the instructions
that have been sent to the processor.

ALU does not know what should be done with the data
likewise; output unit does not know when the result should be
displayed. By selecting, interning and seeing to the execution of the program the CU is able
to maintain order and direct the operations of the entire system CU doesn’t perform any
actual processing on data yet it is known as a central nervous system for the comforts of
the computer.

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How does a computer work?

First a user will use a input device such as mouse, keyboards and touchpads to send
raw data to the computer, when the raw data is being transferred to the central processing
unit (CPU) it is being converted into binary also called as computer language this binary
consist of 0’s and 1’s those binary are then being read and processed by the central
processing unit (CPU), right after processing those raw data’s it will be transferred out to
the output devices which will convert those processed binaries into information such as
images, video, audio and text. After displaying the output needed by the user it is up again
to the user whether if the output information shall be saved inside the computer or not.

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B. PLAN AND PREPARE FOR TASK TO BE UNDERTAKEN

Discussion:

Computers are devices built on the very concept of logic.


A logical approach will go a long way toward keeping them
running properly. Having a well-organized, predefined set of
plans and procedures covering the different aspects of
computer care for every class of computer and operating
system you deal with is required to make sure that you offer
the same level of appropriate care to all of your clients.

Let’s define the terms plan and procedure. A plan is the


broader scope of care, and it can contain several procedures. For example, a periodic
maintenance plan can detail the activities and tasks that should take place at regular
intervals (daily, monthly, annually, and so on), or relative to some specific activity, like a
system upgrade. A procedure is a detailed list of steps that should be performed, often in
the form a checklist. This list can also include the necessary tools, parts, and remarks about
important issues regarding the procedure.

One way to organize plans and procedures is to have a maintenance policy manual.
These policies can be ordered by time since the last regular maintenance, and there should
be an appropriate plan for each interval. The monthly plan might include regular disk
defragmentation, a performance inspection, a short conversation with a user to ascertain if
the system is performing as well as expected, and an update of the master recovery disks.
Some of these same procedures might also show up on the semiannual and annual plans.
The plan references the procedures, which are kept in a separate part of the folder or
another folder altogether. If a change in policy or a change in the operating environment
requires changes to a given procedure (perhaps due to new software), then simply
updating a machine with the procedure will automatically bring all the periodic plans into
compliance.

C. Selecting Appropriate Hardware

Discussion:

Hardware refers to the physical elements of a


computer. This is also sometime called the machinery or the
equipment of the computer. Examples of hardware in a
computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the
processing unit. However, most of a computer’s hardware
cannot be seen; in other words, it is not an external element
of the computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by
the computer’s casing (tower). A computer’s hardware is
comprised of many different parts, but perhaps the most

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important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is made up of even more parts
that power and control the computer.

In contrast to software, hardware is a physical entity. Hardware and software are


interconnected, without software; the hardware of a computer would have no function.
However, without the creation of hardware to perform tasks directed by software via the
central processing unit, software would be useless.

Hardware is limited to specifically designed tasks that are, taken independently,


very simple. Software implements algorithms (problem solutions) that allow the computer
to complete much more complex tasks. The hardware how to perform a task. These
instructions come from a software developer in the form that will be accepted by the
platform (operating system + CPU) that they are based on. For example, a program that is
designed for the Windows operating system will only work for that specific operating
system. Compatibility of software will vary as the design of the software and the operating
system differ. Software that is designed for Windows XP may experience a compatibility
issue when running under Windows 2000 or NT. Software is capable of performing many
tasks, as opposed to hardware which only perform mechanical tasks that they are designed
for. Software is the electronic instructions that tells the computer to perform a task.
Practical computer systems divide software systems into two major classes:

System software: Helps run computer hardware and computer system itself.
System software includes operating systems, device drivers, diagnostic tools and
more. System software is almost always pre-installed on your computer.

Application software: Allows users to accomplish one or more tasks. Includes


word processing, web browsing and almost any other task for which you might
install software. (Some application software is pre-installed on most computer
systems.)

Software is generally created (written) in a high-level


programming language, one that is (more or less) readable by
people. These high-level instructions are converted into
“machine language” instructions, represented in binary code,
before the hardware can “run the code”. When you install
software, it is generally already in this machine language,
binary, formed.

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Discussion

COMPUTER HARDWARE AND PERIPHERAL DEVICES

What is a computer?

Computer

A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions


(software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate
data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally,
the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a
system.

What is a hardware?

Hardware

Are the physical components of a computer – eg the input devices, output devices,
primary storage (memory) and secondary storage (backing store), Central
Processing Unit etc. Note that input and output devices are collectively known as
peripherals.
A computer's hardware consists of electronic devices; the parts you can see and
touch.

TWO CATEGORIES OF COMPUTER HARDWARE.

1. External Hardware
External describes a hardware device that is installed outside of the
computer.
This are the devices that are physically seen and touch without dismantling
the innards of your computer.

2. Internal Hardware
Internal describes a hardware device that is installed inside of your
computer case or what we also call system unit.
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EXTERNAL HARDWARES

Is an output device that displays


Monitor
information in pictorial form.

Is the enclosure that contains


most of the components of a
System Unit /
personal computer. Cases are
Computer Case
usually constructed from steel,
aluminum and plastic.

is a typewriter-style device
which uses an arrangement of
Keyboard buttons or keys to act as
mechanical levers or electronic
switches

It is a hand-held pointing device


Mouse that detects two-dimensional
motion relative to a surface.

It is used to regulate the voltage.


Automatic Voltage It takes the fluctuation voltage
Regulator ( AVR ) and changes them into a
constant voltage. 

It is a peripheral device which


makes a persistent
Printer
representation of graphics or
text, usually on paper.
Also known as multimedia
speakers, are speakers sold for
Computer
use with computers, although
Speaker
usually capable of other audio
uses, e.g. for an MP3 player.

INTERNAL HARDWARES
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It converts the main
alternating current into
low-voltage direct current
Power Supply
that is supplied to other
Unit
parts.
A power supply unit has
its own fan.

It is the main storage


device of the computer. It
Hard Disk Drive
is where most of the files
of the computer are stored.

It reads or writes data into


Optical Disc Drive optical discs (CD, DVD,
Blu-ray Disc).

It is the temporary
storage device of the
Random Access
computer. It is used to
Memory
hold the data that the
computer is working on.

This is referred to as the


computer’s brain as it
Central does the processing job of the
Processing Unit computer. This means that it is
responsible for
manipulating the data.
These two components
work together in keeping
the CPU from overheating.
CPU Fan and Heat- The metal is called the
sink heat sink as it conducts heat
from the CPU while the CPU
fan blows the air to the
heat sink.

This is found at the left


side panel and the back
System Fan panel of the system unit.
It directs the flow of air in
the system unit.

It is the main circuit board


Motherboard of the computer that
connects all other parts.

INTERNAL HARDWARE – PARTS OF THE MOTHERBOARD

The CPU Central Processing Unit is the most important part of your


Computer. It also called the brain of the computer that responsible
CPU socket for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as
performing mathematical and logical calculations. And the CPU
socket is where your CPU (processor) is installed.
the memory slots are where we insert the RAM. Most motherboards
Memory Slot have two to four memory slots, which determine the type of RAM
used with the computer.
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor also known as CMOS
battery is what’s responsible for keeping all the information intact
when the entire system is shut down. And all motherboards include a
small separate block for CMOS which are kept alive by a battery
CMOS Battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off. This
prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on. Again, the
CMOS battery is removable that can be removed to reset the BIOS
after a failed update or if you overclock your RAM beyond its
capabilities.
CI stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect and expansion bus
is an input/output pathway from the CPU to peripheral devices.
These are the slots that allow inserting expansion cards such as
PCI slots – The graphics card, sound card, LAN card or several other functional
Expansion Buses computer parts. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and
other hardware platforms. Buses carry signals such as data, memory
addresses, power, and control signals from component to
component.

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On older motherboards, you found Integrated Drive Electronics
(IDE) sots. These are the standard interface for connecting a
motherboard to storage devices such as hard drives and CD-
ROM/DVD drives. But now the latest motherboards make use of
IDE or SATA
SATA technology. A serial advanced technology attachment (serial
ATA, SATA or S-ATA) is a computer bus interface used to connect
host bus adapters (disk drive controllers) with mass storage devices
like optical drives and hard drives.
(also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling
transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is why it is
NorthBridge
located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the
GMCH, for Graphic and Memory Controller Hub.
(also called the input/output controller or expansion controller)
handles communications between slower peripheral devices such as
USB, audio, serial, the system BIOS, the ISA bus, the interrupt
SouthBridge
controller and the IDE channels. It is also called the ICH (I/O
Controller Hub). The term “bridge” is generally used to designate a
component which connects two buses.
Microphone jack port - Pink 3.5mm
Speakers and Headphones / Headsets - Green 3.5mm jack port
VGA port - blue port with 15pins
HDMI port- almost same with USB port but has 1 curve on each
Computer back
edge.
panel or
DVI port - as standard it has 12pins
Input/output
Ethernet network cable- Colorless port
Ports
Keyboard and Mouse- PS/2 port (Keyboard- purple; Mouse-
green)
USB devices- USB 2.0 colorless port; USB 3.0/3.1 solid blue
port.

C. INTEGRATION

REFLECT
ON THIS!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AkFi90lZmXA

Instruction
1. Watch the given video on YouTube, use the link to search for it.
2. After watching on YouTube, write a reflection paper about this phrase.
“Just like how computer operates, as a student how important it
is to evaluate and know your specific worth and role in the
society?”
3. Write your answer on your activity notebook.
END OF LESSON 1
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LESSON 2: OHS GUIDELINES FOR COMPUTER OPERATIONS

A. INTRODUCTION:

With the rapid advancement of information technology, use of computers is already


part of many people's daily life. Those engaged in electronic information and computer-
related professionals have to use computer s for long periods. Their regular and repetitive
actions in operating their computers may cause repetitive strain injuries and visual fatigue
if they have not adopted a proper working posture.

To avoid any involved health risk, employer s and employees have to consider their
conditions and environmental factors such as lighting condition, computer workstation
design and working posture in the office.

Good communication and cooperation between employers and employees is


required in order to improve working conditions in relation to safety and health at work.
Any occupational health risks arising from the use of computers will hence be reduced and
work efficiency will be increased as a result. This guide offers advice, in question and
answer format, on some commonly encountered safety and health problems in relation to
computer work with a view to assisting employers and employees to improve their
workplace conditions.

B. INTERACTION

Things to be considered to work efficiently with a desktop computer.

1. WORK STATION DESIGN

In selecting office furniture for a computer workstation, what factors should be


considered?

The main components of a computer workstation are the desk or display support,
support for keyboard and mouse or other input device and the chair. A workstation
should permit the user s to adopt a healthy, comfortable posture without
overloading the musculoskeletal system. To achieve this aim, the furniture should
be adjustable as far as practicable. Other requirements include sufficient space on
work surfaces for documents and sufficient leg room.

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Recommended computer workstation design and working posture

2. EQUIPMENT

Why selecting computer equipment supports is an important decision?


Selecting computer equipment supports is always a standard for safety, also using
those with precautionary measures will also help you develop your work ergonomics in
using computers.
a. Work surface height -The height of the work surface and/or the chair should be
such that the work surface is approximately at finger length below the height of the
elbow when seated.
b. Chair -The seat tilt should be adjusted so that the worker is comfortable when using
the keyboard. Usually this will be close to horizontal but tilted slightly forwards. If
this places an uncomfortable strain on the leg muscles or if the feet do not reach the
floor then a footrest should be used. The backrest should supports the lower back
when the worker is sitting upright.
c. Keyboards - Place the keyboard in a position that allows the forearms to be close to
the horizontal and the wrists to be straight. That is, with the hand in line with the
forearm. If this causes the elbows to be held far out from the side of the body then
re-check the work surface height.

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d. Monitors - Set the eye-to-screen distance at the distance that permits you to most
easily focus on the screen. Usually this will be within an arm's length. Set the height
of the monitor so that the top of the screen is below eye level and the bottom of the
screen can be read without a marked inclination of the head. Usually this means that
the center of the screen will need to be near shoulder height. Your eyes should be
level with the tool bar.
e. Anti-glare screens - improve screen visibility by reducing bright spots or washout
caused by ambient light on monitor screens. Thus, these screens may be used to
reduce screen reflections. Radiation emitted by a computer monitor is well below
the limits set by international bodies for limiting health risks. It is therefore not
necessary to add any filter to reduce the emission. In any case, the anti-glare screens
are not designed for effective screening of radiation.

3. ENVIRONMENT

There are three common design principles regarding the environmental ergonomics
in an office workplace – climate, lighting and noise – and we will help you recognize these
principles as they are implemented in your own office, offering a better understanding of
how and why to address them if you observe shortcomings.
Here are some frequent questions being ask regarding environment set-ups.

Q1: There are bright spots on my screen and it is difficult to see the characters clearly.
What should I do to reduce glare from the screen?

Answer: One of the main causes of eye complaint made by a computer operator is glare.
Glare can be reduced by:

a) Changing the position of any light sources causing the glare;


b) Fitting the light sources with appropriate diffusers or lampshade;
c) Providing curtains or blinds to windows;
d) Ensuring that the screen is perpendicular to the light sources or windows;
e) Using anti-glare screen only if the glare cannot be effectively eliminated by other
means.
Q2: My office lighting is too bright. What is the recommended lighting level for a computer
room?

Answer: Lighting levels ranging from 300 to 500 lux are appropriate for most computer
desk work. Generally, the maximum lighting level should not exceed 750 lux. Excessive
lighting levels have a "masking" effect and make it difficult for the operator to see the
display on the screen.
Overhead lights
(Low glare shapes or louvers)
Indirect
Light

Window
Task
Lamp
Screen
Direct
Light

Blinds

Line of sight parallel to


windows and between
light fittings
19
4. WORKING POSTURE

Good posture is essential to the proper alignment of bones,


joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves, which
is essential to ensuring their ability to work together
smoothly and efficiently.

Here are some tips and advice to be followed to prevent aches and irritations during work.

Step 1: Adjust Your Chair

Set Seat Base Tilt:


• Adjust the seat base so that it tilts slightly forward.
• It should be tilted enough to cause the person to sit in a more upright position and
promote a downward slope of the thighs.
• Tilting the seat base in combination with setting the backrest allows the person to sit
right back in the chair and gain the necessary support.
Set Backrest Height
• Move the backrest to locate the lumbar support to the curve in your lower back (not
the upper buttocks). This generally means that the “plumpest” section of the backrest
fits into the small of your back.
• Lock the backrest into place.
• Use your body weight to lean back against the backrest. Depress the control lever to
enable the backrest to change angle.
• Adjust the angle to allow normal upright alignment of the spine. Try to maintain the
three natural curves.
• Provide a full support to your back when doing computer work.
• Use the chair backrest to provide different postures e.g. angle back when chatting on
the phone, talking to visitors and reading.
Step 2: Position your Keyboard and Mouse
Both these items are used frequently and are to be located on the desk in the primary reach
envelope.

KEYBOARD

• Touch typists should locate the keyboard close to the desk edge.

• Non touch typists should locate the keyboard around 10cm in from the desk edge.

20
This position enables and gives you.

• Desk space to rest the hands when not typing


• Reduced neck angle when looking between the keyboard and monitor
• A further option locates the keyboard nearly a forearm length from the desk edge.
This enables the forearms to rest on the desk when not typing and they glide over
the desk when typing.
• The mouse can go on the left or right side, whichever is preferred.

Note: Check that your typing technique does not involve:

• Subtle elevation of your shoulders


• Holding your hands up with bent wrists - resting your wrists on the desk and
angling your wrists
• “Wrist rests” are generally not required with the modern slim line keyboards and
generally not recommended for a standard workstation setup. However, some users
find that “wrist rests” do eliminate the typing technique (bent wrists). In these
cases, they are a benefit.

MOUSE
• The elbow should remain bent when reaching for the mouse. The mouse should be
located in the primary reach envelope (inner reach).
• Your forearm should rest on the desk when your hand is on the mouse. It should glide
over the desk when using the mouse.
Note:
Your wrist should not be the contact point between your arm and desk when using the
mouse.
• Try to train yourself to use the mouse with either hand.
• Learn keyboard shortcuts for frequent mouse activities and reduce your use of the mouse.
• When mainly using the mouse, locate it directly in front of you and use your other hand
for minor keyboard corrections.
• Do not continue to grip the mouse when it is not in use. Do not “hover” your hand over the
mouse, rest your hand on the mouse or desk.

21
Step 3: Monitor positioning

A. CRT monitors

 Adjust the monitor height so that the top of the screen is at—or slightly below—
eye level.
 Your eyes should look slightly downward when viewing the middle of the screen.
 Position the monitor at least 20 inches (51 cm) from your eyes—about an arm’s
length distance. If your screen is larger, add more viewing distance.
 Keep glare down by adjusting the screen position.
 Maintain the distance between your screen-scanning eyes and your screen by
tilting the monitor back 10° to 20°.
 If you wear bifocals (we’ll never tell!), lower the monitor below eye level and
turn your screen upward, tilting it back 30° to 45°.

B. Laptop

If you use a laptop for more than 2 hours per day, you should:

 Either, locate the laptop on a stand to elevate the screen to eye height. Use a
separate keyboard and mouse.
 Or, use the laptop keyboard, separate mouse, and a separate, elevated
conventional monitor.
 Or, use a full docking station to create Option One arrangements

C. LCD Flat Screen

 You can locate the screen on any of the L shaped desk surfaces that are over
750mm deep.
 Ensure a symmetrical position is created with the keyboard and LCD screen.
 If required, elevate the LCD screen as per Option One.

22
5. EXERCISES

During a break, you may follow the following recommended exercises to relax
yourself. This can prevent early fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders. You may repeat
each exercise for several times. However, should you really have a health complaint, you
should consult a physician.

a. Eye Exercise

(1) Keep the body (2) Turn the eyes left (3) Turn the eyes to
and the head and right slowly to look at objects at the
upright. Turn the look at objects on the right upper
eyes up to look at two sides. direction and then
the ceiling, then turn the right lower
down to look at the direction. Repeat for
floor. the left upper and
left lower directions

b. Neck Exercise

• Keep the arms • Keep the arms • Keep the arms


relaxed at your side. relaxed at your side. relaxed at your side.
• Bend your head • Turn the head to one • Swing the head to
forward slightly to side and hold for 5 the left and hold for
stretch the neck. seconds. 5 seconds.
• Hold for 5 seconds. • Repeat for the other • Repeat for the
side. other side.

23
c. Shoulder d. Upper limbs e. Shoulder and
exercise exercise upper back
exercise

• Raise the • Cross the fingers • Sit upright, hold


shoulders and and lift both arms up, your hands behind
rotate backward flip the palms your head and
slowly. Repeat 10 upwards and stretch stretch your elbows
times. the upper limbs. outwards.
• Hold for 10 - 15 • Force the scapulas
seconds. inwards and feel the
• Then relax the pressure at the
shoulders. upper back and the
• Breathe deeply scapulas.
during the exercise. • Hold for 5 seconds
and relax.

Together, these elements contribute to a holistic view of


wellness that supports happy, healthy employees. That
means less pain at the end of the day, fewer nagging injuries
and razor-sharp focus to own every task.

C. INTEGRATION

SCHOOL
WORKS As a student of KCC, what
Answer guidelines will you make to
this. 😊 balance these things that you
SOCIAL LIFEencounter during this new
HOUSEHOLD
CHORES
normal?

Note: write your answer on your activity notebook.

ENDDATA
LESSON 3: INPUT OF INTO
LESSON 2
COMPUTER

24
A. INTRODUCTION

The role of an input in a computer system is to provide data for further processing.
An input consists of data or commands that are entered into the computer system usually
via an input device such as a keyboard, mouse, OMR, barcode reader, scanner etc. The input
data is converted into digital data that can be dealt with by the computer.

Sometimes the input is already in digital format, for example when it has been
transmitted from another computer but most of the time it needs to be converted into a
digital format before processing can take place.

B. INTERACTION

1. Input devices on creating digital data.

Examples of inputs and the way they create

Input device How it works


User presses a physical key. An electronic chip senses the
Keyboard key press and produces a digital code to represent the
meaning of the key
User slides the mouse around. This movement is picked
Mouse up by a sensor inside the mouse and digital data is sent as
a result
User makes gestures on the surface of the screen or slides
Touch screen their finger along it. Sensors behind the screen picks up
the action and converts it into digital data
The microphone system picks up sound and converts it
Microphone
into digital data (via the sound card)

The data are input in computer in a particular way, but in the other side these are
work different, such as:

 Data are entered into the computer using appropriate program/application


in accordance with company procedures.
 Accuracy of information is checked and information is saved in accordance
with standard operating procedures

2. Checked information accuracy in order to operating procedure


25
Accuracy of information can also provide clues to possible bias in the resource under
investigation. If the data that you have collected is inaccurate then the information it will
produce will inevitably also be inaccurate.

Examples of how inaccurate data occurs:

Questionnaires and surveys


 Questions might be poorly worded so that users misunderstand them.
 Questions could be considered to be ‘leading’ which would result in biased answers.
 Open questions might be used where closed questions would have been better.
 Options provided are not sufficient to cover the range of answers possible
 A poor or unrepresentative population sample might be selected.

3. Human Error

If humans are collecting the data manually e.g. recording answers


to questionnaires, writing down instrument measurements, they
might make a mistake. They might also make a ‘transcription error’
when entering correctly collected data into the system.

4. Calibration of Instruments

If data is being collected automatically by sensors or other


instrument s then the results could be inaccurate if the instruments
were not correctly calibrated at the start of the data collection
period.

Discussion.

Question: Where are the inputted data being stored?

Inputted Data is Stored in Storage Media

Storage keeps data, information and instructions for use in the future. All computers
use storage to keep the software that makes the hardware work.

As a user you store a variety of data and


information on your computer or on storage media.
Storage media are the physical materials on which
data, information and instructions are kept. When a
user saves information or data to a storage medium,
he or she is storing a file, and this process is called
writing.

26
Storage media include the following but not limited to:
Hard Disk Drives
 A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as hard drive, HD, or
HDD) is a device used to permanently store and also retrieve
information. There are many variations, but their sizes are
generally 3.5” and 2.5” for desktop and laptop computers
respectively. A hard drive consists of one or more platters to
which data is written using a magnetic head, all inside of an air
sealed casing. Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay, connect
to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable, and are
powered by a connection to the PSU (power supply unit).
Solid-state drive
 A solid-state drive is a solid-state storage device that uses
integrated circuit assemblies to store data persistently,
typically using flash memory, and functioning as secondary
storage in the hierarchy of computer storage.
Cloud storage

 Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which


the digital data is stored in logical pools, said to be on "the
cloud". The physical storage spans multiple servers, and
the physical environment is typically owned and managed
by a hosting company.

Flash Drive

 A flash drive is a data storage device that includes flash


memory with an integrated USB interface. It is typically
removable, rewritable and much smaller than an optical
disc.

Discussion:

ERGONOMIC GUIDELINES

Ergonomics is a scientific discipline, which is


concerned with improving the productivity, health,
safety and comfort of people, as well as promoting
effective interaction among people, technology and the
environment in which both must operate.

1. Responsibility - Departments are encouraged to purchase


adjustable equipment for the reasonable accommodation
of users. Some users may have special needs, such as left-
handedness, color blindness, vision impairment, etc. The
goal should be flexibility to accommodate the user
population so that personnel may interface effectively with
equipment. Equipment should be sized to fit the individual user.

27
2. Purpose - Ergonomic furniture should be designed
to facilitate task performance, minimize fatigue
and injury by fitting equipment to the body size,
strength and range of motion of the user.

The purchase of equipment should be task specific to


eliminate:

 static or awkward posture


 repetitive motion
 poor access or inadequate clearance and excessive reach
 display that are difficult to read and understand
 controls that are confusing to operate or require too much force.
 Office workstations must be designed carefully to meet the need of the staff and to
accomplish the goals of the facility
 Enhance human abilities
 Overcome human limitations
 Foster user acceptance

To achieve these objectives, there are several key elements of ergonomics in the office to
consider.

 Equipment - video display terminals


 Software design - system design and screen design for greater usability
 Workstation design - chairs, work surfaces and
accessories
 Environment - space planning, use of colors, lighting,
acoustics, air quality and thermal factors
 Training - preparing workers to deal with technology

Data entry is perhaps one of the most important aspects of a


company's success. When data is added correctly, the
information disseminated can help executives plan ahead,
determine goals and help rectify shortcomings. When
information is entered into the computer system with
mistakes, the conclusions are skewed and inaccurate, for
better or worse. The accuracy and efficiency that data entry
operators enter information, therefore, is of utmost
importance.

C. INTEGRATION

Instruction: Write your answer on your activity notebooks.

REFLECT As a student of today’s new normal how important it is to


ON THIS!
be precise and accurate in inputting data?
What KCC core values can you incorporate your answer
with?

END OF LESSON 3
VI. EVALUATION
28
A. IDENTIFICATION

Instruction: Identify the following statements in each item. Write you answer on your
activity notebook.

1. ________________ When you install software, it is generally already in what language?


2. ________________ What is the start of computer processing cycle?
3. ________________ This hardware It accepts data or instructions.
4. ________________ Is the place where actual execution of the instructions takes places
during the processing operations.
5. ________________ Ergonomic furniture should be designed to facilitate task
performance, minimize fatigue and injury
6. ________________ It is limited to specifically designed tasks that are, taken
independently, very simple.
7. ________________ The goal should be flexibility to accommodate the user population so
that personnel may interface effectively with equipment.
8. ________________ is a component of a computer's central processing unit that directs
the operation of the processor.
9. ________________ there are how many common design principles regarding the
environmental ergonomics in an office workplace
10. ________________ Software’s are generally created in what level of programming
language?
11. ________________- improve screen visibility by reducing bright spots or washout caused
by ambient light on monitor screens
12. ________________ processed binaries will be converted into what?
13. ________________ After completion of processing the final results are send to storage
units from what?
14. ________________ this unit converts these results into human acceptable forms.
15. ________________ It is a scientific discipline, which is concerned with improving the
productivity, health, safety and comfort of people?

29
B. Identification
Instructions:
1. Give the name, image and function of the devices, follow the sample output on
the first column of the table.
2. For the image you may cut some pictures and paste it on your activity notebook,
you may also draw image if you want too.
3. Write your answer on your activity notebook.

INPUT DEVICE (1pt) IMAGE (2pts) FUNCTION (2pts)


A computer mouse is a
hand-held pointing device
SAMPLE: MOUSE
that detects two-dimensional
motion relative to a surface. 

1.
2.
3.
OUTPUT DEVICE IMAGE FUNCTION
1.
2.
3.
STORAGE DEVICE IMAGE FUNCTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

C. Essay 10pts
a. Explain the computer processing cycle.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________
IX. REFERENCES
30
https://www.ehstoday.com/health/article/21918327/environmental-ergonomics-in-an-
office-workplace

https://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/public/oh/DisplayScreen.pdf

https://www.ohsrep.org.au/office_hazards_computers_and_vdus_-
_what_are_the_guidelines

https://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/topics/physical/ergonomics/workstation
https://www.ergotron.com/en-us/ergonomics/ergonomic-equation#:~:text=Monitor
%20tips-,Monitor%20tips,about%20an%20arm%27s%20length%20distance.

31
KCC

KCC COMMUNITY PRAYER

Most gracious and loving Father, creator of all things, we thank you for the many gifts
bestowed upon us, for our families and friends and for our community, Kabankalan Catholic
College.
Dearest Lord, we earnestly beg for your listening heart that as true-blooded KCCians, we
may be able to embrace our school’s core values and live out its vision and mission, leading
to the fulfillment of your will.
Continue to shower upon our community with Your constant love and goodness, that she
may strengthen her aims and bring into fulfillment her mission as agent of societal
transformation.
We ask You to bless each one of us. Through Your Holy Spirit guide us, as we grow in faith
and love and give us the courage to zealously partake in Your redemptive mission through
evangelization.
We make this prayer in the name of Jesus, Your Son, and through the intercession of our
Blessed Mother Mary, AMEN.

VISION MISSION
Kabankalan Catholic College is an The KCC exists to provide quality
educative and evangelizing community education and holistic formation to the
fostering the values of love, life, justice youth of the diocese, having a preferential
and care for creation, an agent of societal option for the poor in a Christ-centered
transformation and builder of God’s environment that cultivates academic
kingdom. excellence and continuous learning.

CORE VALUES DAILY ROUTINE

Love
Integrity
Faith/Prayer
Excellence/Competence
Cleanliness/Purity
Industry
Honesty
Respect
Humility
Preferential option for the poor