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Module Module 04 04 WWER/ WWER/ VVER VVER ( ( Soviet Soviet designed designed Pressurized
Module Module 04 04 WWER/ WWER/ VVER VVER ( ( Soviet Soviet designed designed Pressurized

ModuleModule 0404

WWER/WWER/ VVERVVER ((SovietSoviet designeddesigned PressurizedPressurized WaterWater ReactorsReactors))

Prof.DrProf.Dr H.H. BBööckck ViennaVienna UniversityUniversity ofof TechnologyTechnology /Austria/Austria AtominstituteAtominstitute StadionalleeStadionallee 2,2, 10201020 Vienna,Vienna, AustriaAustria boeck@ati.ac.atboeck@ati.ac.at

Stadionallee Stadionallee 2, 2, 1020 1020 Vienna, Vienna, Austria Austria boeck@ati.ac.at boeck@ati.ac.at

VVER=VVER= VedaVeda--VodyanoiVodyanoi EnergeticheskyEnergetichesky Reaktor=Reaktor= WaterWater CooledCooled PowerPower ReactorReactor

WWERWWER 440/230440/230 WWERWWER 440/213440/213 WWERWWER 1000/3201000/320

Cooled Power Power Reactor Reactor WWER WWER 440/230 440/230 WWER WWER 440/213 440/213 WWER WWER 1000/320

CommonCommon FeaturesFeatures ofof VVERsVVERs (1)(1)

HexagonalHexagonal fuelfuel assemblyassembly cassettescassettes

HorizontalHorizontal steamsteam generatorgenerator

PrimaryPrimary circuitcircuit andand secondarysecondary circuitcircuit usingusing differentdifferent materialsmaterials

ReducedReduced inspectioninspection possibilitiespossibilities ofof componentscomponents

LittleLittle documentationdocumentation (440/230)(440/230)

possibilities of of components components • • Little Little documentation documentation (440/230) (440/230)

CommonCommon FeaturesFeatures ofof VVERsVVERs (2)(2) mainlymainly validvalid forfor 440/230440/230

LackLack ofof indepententindepentent controlcontrol andand regulatoryregulatory supervisionsupervision

QualityQuality lacklack inin instrumentationinstrumentation,, controlcontrol andand datadata processingprocessing

NotNot reproducablereproducable safetysafety analysisanalysis

LowLow powerpower densitydensity duedue toto highhigh ratioratio ofof waterwater volumevolume toto thermalthermal powerpower

density due due to to high high ratio ratio of of water water volume volume to

CommonCommon FeaturesFeatures ofof VVERsVVERs (3)(3)

Common Common Features Features of of VVERs VVERs (3) (3)
Common Common Features Features of of VVERs VVERs (3) (3)

TechnicalTechnical AspectsAspects ofof VVERsVVERs forfor 1st1st GenerationGeneration

VVERsVVERs areare thethe workhorsesworkhorsesofof formerformer SovietunionSovietunion

Simple,Simple, cheapcheap andand robustrobust contructionscontructions

RelyRely moremore onon overdimensionoverdimension thanthan onon sophisticatedsophisticated computercomputer codescodes

LittleLittle automatisationautomatisation,, humanhuman reliabilityreliability isis higherhigher thanthan thethe reliabiltyreliabilty ofof I&CI&C systemssystems

AccidentAccident preventedprevented withwith choicechoice ofof materialmaterial andand materialmaterial dimensiondimension

prevented prevented with with choice choice of of material material and and material material dimension dimension

DevelopmentDevelopment

ofof

VVERsVVERs

Development Development of of VVERs VVERs

VVERVVER FuelFuel AssemblyAssembly

VVER VVER Fuel Fuel Assembly Assembly
VVER VVER Fuel Fuel Assembly Assembly
VVER VVER Fuel Fuel Assembly Assembly
VVER VVER Fuel Fuel Assembly Assembly

VVERVVER FuelFuel PelletsPellets

VVER VVER Fuel Fuel Pellets Pellets
VVER VVER Fuel Fuel Pellets Pellets

RefuellingRefuelling

VVERVVER

NewNew FuelFuel

Refuelling Refuelling VVER VVER New New Fuel Fuel
Refuelling Refuelling VVER VVER New New Fuel Fuel
Refuelling Refuelling VVER VVER New New Fuel Fuel

VVERVVER PrimaryPrimary CircuitCircuit

VVER VVER Primary Primary Circuit Circuit
VVER VVER Primary Primary Circuit Circuit
VVER VVER Primary Primary Circuit Circuit

VVERVVER SteamSteam GeneratorGenerator

VVER VVER Steam Steam Generator Generator Structure of the steam generators in VVER-440 units 1 -

Structure of the steam generators in VVER-440 units 1 - steam generator body, 2 - primary cold leg collector, 3 - primary hot leg collector, 4 - manhole, 5 - heat exchanger tubes, 6 - vertical distance grid, 7- horizontal distance grid, 8 - feedwater pipeline, 9 - separator, 10 - perforated sheet, 11 - steam header, 12 - primary circuit header cover, 13 - secondary circuit header cover, 14 cover seals for the primary and secondary circuit, 15 - secondary circuit seal cover monitoring location, 16 secondary circuit air vent, 17 - primary circuit seal cover monitoring location, 18 - primary circuit air vent, 9 - header periodic blowdown, 20 - steam generator periodic blowdown, 21 - steam generator permanent blowdown, 22 - nozzle, 23 - pipe unions for steam generator level checking.

blowdown, 21 - steam generator per manent blowdown, 22 - nozzle, 23 - pipe unions for

VVERVVER GenerationsGenerations

VVER VVER Generations Generations

WWERWWER 440/230440/230

WWER WWER 440/230 440/230

VVERVVER 440440 // 230230 SafetySafety AspectsAspects

SixSix primaryprimary loopsloops

MotorMotor drivendriven valvesvalves inin allall sixsix loopsloops

FuelFuel followerfollower controlcontrol rodsrods

TwoTwo NPPNPP onon oneone sitesite

CommonCommon turbineturbine generatorgenerator hallhall forfor bothboth NPPsNPPs

RoomsRooms designeddesigned toto withstandwithstand higherhigher pressurepressure insteadinstead ofof fullfull pressurepressure containmentcontainment

NoNo fullfull capacitycapacity emergencyemergency corecore coolingcooling systemsystem inin casecase ofof mainmain coolantcoolant pipepipe rupturerupture

AcceleratedAccelerated materialmaterial embrittlementembrittlement duedue toto fastfast neutronneutron irradiationirradiation ofof pressurepressure vesselvessel

due due to to fast fast neutron neutron irradiation irradiation of of pressure pressure vessel vessel

VVERVVER 440/213440/213

VVER VVER 440/213 440/213 Legend: Legend: 1.Reactor 1.Reactor pressure pressure vessel vessel , , 2.Steam 2.Steam
VVER VVER 440/213 440/213 Legend: Legend: 1.Reactor 1.Reactor pressure pressure vessel vessel , , 2.Steam 2.Steam

Legend:Legend: 1.Reactor1.Reactor pressurepressure vesselvessel,, 2.Steam2.Steam generatorgenerator,, 3.Refueling3.Refueling machinemachine,, 4.Spent4.Spent fuelfuel pitpit,, 5.Confinement5.Confinement systemsystem,, 6.Make6.Make--upup feedwaterfeedwater systemsystem,, 7.Protective7.Protective covercover,, 8.Confinement8.Confinement systemsystem,, 9.Sparging9.Sparging systemsystem,, 10.Check10.Check valesvales,, 11.Intake11.Intake airair unitunit,, 12.Turbine,12.Turbine, 13.Condenser,13.Condenser, 14.Turbine14.Turbine block,block, 15.15. FeedwaterFeedwater tanktank withwith degasifierdegasifier,, 16.16. PreheaterPreheater,, 17.Turbine17.Turbine hallhall cranecrane,, 18.Electrical18.Electrical instrumentationinstrumentation andand controlcontrol compartmentscompartments

, , 18.Electrical 18.Electrical instrumentation instrumentation and and control control compartments compartments

VVERVVER 440/213440/213 SafetySafety AspectsAspects

ManyMany safetysafety deficitsdeficits ofof VVERVVER 440/230440/230 removedremoved

PressurePressure suppressionsuppression systemsystem throughthrough bubblebubble condensorcondensor

EmergencyEmergency corecore coolingcooling systemsystem designeddesigned forfor maximummaximum LOCALOCA

SafetySafety systemssystems inin 33 xx 100%100% redundancyredundancy,, separatedseparated fromfrom operationaloperational I&CI&C systemsystem

ImprovedImproved firefire protectionprotection

SeparatedSeparated emergencyemergency controlcontrol roomroom

ReductionReduction ofof neutronneutron fluencefluence toto pressurepressure vesselvessel wallwall

SurveillanceSurveillance systemsystem ofof safetysafety relevantrelevant primaryprimary componentscomponents

Surveillance Surveillance system system of of safety safety relevant relevant primary primary components components

VVERVVER 1000/3201000/320 SafetySafety AspectsAspects

FullFull pressurepressure containmentcontainment designeddesigned 0.50.5 MPaMPa EmergencyEmergency coolingcooling systemsystem designeddesigned forfor wholewhole spectrumspectrum ofof LOCALOCA ImprovedImproved materialsmaterials forfor primaryprimary andand secondarysecondary componentscomponents ImprovedImproved accessaccess forfor reinspectionreinspection andand maintenancemaintenance LowLow leakageleakage corecore loadingloading toto reducereduce neutronneutron fluencefluence toto pressurepressure vesselvessel wallwall ForFor TemelinTemelin onlyonly::

ReplacementReplacement ofof totaltotal II && CC systemsystem,, byby WestinghouseWestinghouse FuelFuel elementselements producedproduced byby WestinghouseWestinghouse

by Westinghouse Westinghouse • • Fuel Fuel elements elements produced produced by by Westinghouse Westinghouse

NPPNPP TemelinTemelin

NPP NPP Temelin Temelin • • Czech Czech Republic Republic • • VVER VVER 1000/320 1000/320

CzechCzech RepublicRepublic VVERVVER 1000/3201000/320 22 ReactorsReactors 22 xx 981981 MWeMWe

Republic • • VVER VVER 1000/320 1000/320 • • 2 2 Reactors Reactors • • 2

NPPNPP MochowceMochowce

NPP NPP Mochowce Mochowce • • Slovak Slovak Republic Republic • • VVER VVER 440/213 440/213

SlovakSlovak RepublicRepublic VVERVVER 440/213440/213 22 ReactorsReactors 22 xx 440440 MWeMWe

Republic • • VVER VVER 440/213 440/213 • • 2 2 Reactors Reactors • • 2

NPPNPP DukovanyDukovany

NPP NPP Dukovany Dukovany • • Czech Czech Republic Republic • • VVER VVER 440/213 440/213

CzechCzech RepublicRepublic VVERVVER 440/213440/213 44 ReactorsReactors 44 xx 440440 MWeMWe

Republic • • VVER VVER 440/213 440/213 • • 4 4 Reactors Reactors • • 4

ReferencesReferences

http://www.nti.org/db/nisprofs/russia/reac

tor/power/novovoro.htm

http://www.npp.hu/index-e.htm

http://www.nrc.gov/

tor/power/novovoro.htm • http://www.npp.hu/index-e.htm • http://www.nrc.gov/