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Translation as a term and notion is of polysemantic nature, its common and most general meaning
being mostly associated with the process of rendering the meaning of a source language in a target
Translating – the process (the activity rather than the tangible object);
A translation – a product of the process of translating (translated text);
Translation – the abstract concept which encompasses both the process of translating and the
product of this process.

2. In his seminal paper “On linguistic aspects of translation” Roman Jacobson described 3 main types
of translation:
Intralingual translation (rewording) – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of
the same language.
Interlingual (translation proper) – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other
Intersemiotic translation (transmutation) – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of
non-verbal sign system,

3. Translators and interpreters work with different aspects of problem solving: translators work with
written languages, and interpreters work with spoken languages. An interpreter provides an oral
version of the same information expressed by the speaker in the original language. Translators
generally receive their material in file-format, type the translated text and deliver the file back.
Interpreters work directly with their customers.

4. Five major differences between translation and interpretation:

Format – interpretation handles spoken languages in real-time while translation-services are text-
Delivery – interpretation takes place on the spot, the process can occur in person, over the phone or
via video. Translation can happen long after the source text is created.
Accuracy – interpretation acquires a lower level of accuracy than translation.
Direction – interpreters must be fluent in both the source and target language without the aid of
reference materials. Professional translators typically work in one direction: into their own mother
Intangibles – making metaphors, analogies, and idioms resonate with a target audience is a
challenge that both interpreters and translators face. On top of this, interpreters must capture tone,
inflections, voice quality of the spoken word and then convey them to the audience.

5. A TU has been given various definitions by different theorists. Shuttleworth and Covey define it as a
term which refers to the linguistic level at which a ST is recodified in TL. In other words it is an
element with which the translator decides to work while translating the SL.
Barkhudarov defines it as the smallest unit of SL which has an equivalence in TL.
Vinay and Darbelnet suggest the next definition: TU is the smallest segment of the utterance whose
signs are linked in such a way that they should not be translated literally. The main purpose of UT is
to establish an equivalence.
Forms of UT:
Simple units – Vinay and Darbelnet correspond this type to a single word. The number of the units
equals to the number of the words;
Diluted units – these units contain several words which in turn shape a lexical unit, since they
pursue a single idea;
Fractional units – “a fraction of a word’ is what this type of UTs are consisted of.

6. Methods of translating:

Literal translating -- is to be employed when dealing with separate words whose surface form and
structure as well as their lexical meaning in the SL and TL fully coincide.
Transliteration – the orthographic form of the SL words is rendered/
Transcription – the acoustic form of the SL word is rendered;

Verbal translating –never renders the orthographic or sound form, but their denotative meaning
only. It cannot provide faithful conveying at other than the word level because it may violate the
grammatical structure of the sentence.

Word for word translating – presents a consecutive verbal translating at the level of
word-combinations and sentences. It happens when the lexical meanings and structure, and the word
order in the SL and TL fully coincide.

The Interlinear way of translating – is a conventional form for a strictly faithful rendering sense
expressed by sentences at the level of text. It also permits various transformations like reduction,
extension, addition and the like. It helps to the necessary training in the main aspects of the foreign
language and master the means of expressing pertaining to the source/target language.

Literary translating -- represents the highest level of translator’s activity. The matter skillfully
turned into the target language by a regular master of pen. May acquire faithfulness and the literary
standard equal to that of the source language.

Descriptive translating – is very often employed to render the content of idioms/phraseologisms

which have no equivalents in the target language. Descriptive translating is also often employed
when dealing with notions of specific national lexicon.

The antonymic translating is conveyed as a negative in sense or structure but identical in content
language unit or vice versa

Hyperonimic translation – implies concretization and generalization of units

Concretization – rendering of generic terms by their specific counterparts.
Generalization – is the reverse process.


Scientific and technical – fosters the process in various fields of science in all
Social and political – it provides the dissemination of political ideas
Cultural – means sharing achievements and enriching national literatures.
Linguistic – promotes the enrichment of lexicon in target language.
Educational – is necessary for the spread of informatiom