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Herfried Münkler

Der Große Krieg


Schriftenreihe Band 1438

Herfried Münkler

Der Große Krieg


Die Welt 1914 –1918
Herfried Münkler, geboren 1951, ist Professor an der Humboldt-Universität
Berlin und Mitglied der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissen-
schaften.

Diese Veröffentlichung stellt keine Meinungsäußerung der Bundeszentrale


für politische Bildung dar. Für die inhaltlichen Aussagen trägt der Autor die
Verantwortung.

Bonn 2014
Sonderausgabe für die Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
Adenauerallee 86, 53113 Bonn

Copyright: © 2013 by Rowohlt · Berlin Verlag GmbH, Berlin

Umschlaggestaltung: Naumilkat – Agentur für Kommunikation und Design,


Düsseldorf
Umschlagabbildung: © akg images. „Die Kriegserklärung“,
Kaltnadelradierung von Max Beckmann, 1914
Lektorat: Bert Hoppe
Mitarbeit: Frank Pöhlmann
Bebilderung: Christoph Schmaus
Karten: Peter Palm, Berlin
Satz: Pinkuin Satz und Datentechnik, Berlin
Druck und Bindung: CPI books GmbH, Leck

ISBN 978-3-8389-0438-2

www.bpb.de
Die Grenzen vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg
Grfsm.
Mittelmächte Finnland
Verbündete der Mittelmächte
Entente Shetland-Inseln St. Petersburg
N O RW E G E N Helsingfors
Verbündete der Entente lga
Wo
Neutrale Staaten Kristiania Reval
Orkney-Inseln Stockholm
Hebriden Scapa Flow

SCHWEDEN Moskau
Skagerrak
Riga
Nordsee RUSSISCHES REICH
Kattegat Dü
n a Saratow
DÄNEMARK Ostsee
Kaunas
G R O S S B R I TA N N I E N Kopenhagen Wilna
Königsberg
UND IRLAND Minsk
Irland Dublin Danzig
Liverpool Kiel
Tannenberg
NIEDER- Hamburg Pripje
t Wolg
a
Bug
LANDE Elb Brest-Litowsk Astrachan
e Donez
Amsterdam Berlin Warschau
London Den Haag Kiew Do
n
Alexandrowsk
DEUTSCHES Rowno

Rhe
Od Dnjepr
er
REICH Kaspisches
in
Brüssel l
Ärmelkanal hse
Atlantischer BELGIEN Köln
W
eic Meer
Prag
Ozean LUXEMBURG
Se
in
e

Czernowitz Asowsches
Versailles Paris au Meer
Verdun Don Dn
j e st
Lo r
ire Wien
München Krim Tiflis
Budapest
Basel
FRANKREICH ÖSTERREICH- UNGARN
SCHWEIZ Batum
Drau Schwarzes Meer
Lyon
Sa
ve
RUMÄNIEN e n i e n
Golf von Biskaya Triest Belgrad (seit 1916) Bukarest
Trabzon r m
Bordeaux A
Donau Erzurum Täbris
Rhône

Toulouse Sarajevo
S E R B I E N B U L(seit
GARIEN
1915)
Sofia Bosporus
Marseille M O N T E N E G RO K u r d i s t a n
Duero I TA L I E N Konstantinopel
Eb

Adria Adrianopel Angora


ro

(seit 1915)
ANDORRA Skopje Marmarameer M
P O RT U G A L Korsika
Rom e s
(seit 1916)
Madrid Barcelona Durazzo Gallipoli Tig
o ri s
Tajo Saloniki Dardanellen p
Neapel ALBANIEN OSMANISCHES REICH o
Lissabon t a
S PA N I E N m
i e
Sardinien GRIECHEN- Smyrna Aleppo
Eu
ph
rat n
Gua dalquivir Balearen LAND Ägäis Bagdad
(seit 1917) Antalya
Athen
Mittelmeer Palermo
Gibraltar (brit.)
Sizilien Dodekanes Rhodos Zypern
(1912 ital.)
Tanger ER-RIF (1878 brit. Verw.)
Damaskus
(1911 internat.
Gebiet) ( S PA N . - M A RO K KO ) Algier Tunis
(1911/12 span. Protektorat) Kreta
Malta
Fes (brit.)

TUNESIEN Mittelmeer Jerusalem


(1881 franz. Protektorat)
ALGERIEN
(1879 Teil Frankreichs)
Alexandria
MAROKKO
(1912 franz. Protektorat)
Tripolis Suez
Cyrenaika Kairo

Nil
0 100 200 300 km Tr i p o l i t a n i e n ÄGYPTEN
(1911/12 ital.) (brit.)
Rotes Meer
Inhalt 4. Der festgefahrene Krieg 289
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5. Entscheidungsschlachten ohne Entscheidung 403
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6. Ausweitung des Kampfes 479
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