You are on page 1of 9

Paper presentation

On

MOBILECOMPUTING

Department of electronics & communications engineering,
KOTTAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
CHINNA TEKURU,
KURNOOL.

Presented by

R.SIVA KUMAR
III/IV B.TECH
ROLL :O7EH1A0449
E-mail: rsivakumar449@hotmail.com
Cell: 9502662108
Abstract

The main aim of this thesis is to throw light on the overview of mobile computing. Technology has
developed rapidly over the last twenty years. This development in technology resulted in the
development of communication. For example, Internet, email, wireless communication techniques
etc . This development has still not given the user the freedom to access data anywhere or anytime
he wants because of the limitations like the change in location resulted in either routing problems or
connection breaks.

The advent of MOBILE COMPUTING has given birth to hopes of overcoming the
above limitations. These mobile networks have facilitated communication anywhere in the world at
any time. The word MOBILE itself illustrated what it does. These mobile networks provide
communication even when the source and destination are constantly changing their location.

Here we present the basic concept of MOBILE COMPUTING and it’s real objective as mentioned
below…

Contents:

Introduction

 What is mobile computing?
 Mobile Communications Principle:

Distinction between "wireless" and "mobile”.
Mobile Devices
Challenges in mobile computing
Merits and Demerits
Applications
Wireless Internet Future
Conclusion
Bibliography
Introduction
Wireless networking technology has engendered a new era of computing, called mobile computing.
Mobile Computing is an umbrella term used to describe technologies that enable people to access
network services any place, anytime, and anywhere.

Ubiquitous computing and nomadic computing are synonymous with mobile computing. Mobile
computing helps users to be productive immediately by reducing the training requirements associated
with traditional automated data collection methods and provides a higher level of portability than
keyboard-based systems.

Field-based users can access any information available from the system at any time to make critical
business decisions.

Portable devices like laptop and palm top computers give mobile users access to diverse sources of
global information anywhere and at any time. Field-based users can access any information available
from the system at any time to make critical business decisions. One of the most important and
highly publicized recent developments in the PC world has been the introduction of the pen interface.

The pen interface allows users to interact with the computer in a very natural and familiar
way by entering text, numbers, and graphics in “electronic ink” directly on the screen. The pen
interface also provides users with highly intuitive and efficient applications, whether tapping
graphical icons to navigate through applications or selecting options from scrolling lists and
checkboxes.

How it emerged?

Don Ring of Bell Labs, USA in 1947, invented the cellular concept. The first commercial mobile
communications were in the form of radio paging networks. Advanced Mobile Phone System
(AMPS) is a major cellular networks established in America using analog cellular technology. Total
Access Communication System (TACS) is a major system use in Europe. Recently a number of
digital communications are also introduced.

Cellular concept based on the concept of network of cells, which covers a large geographical area to
communicate over the world.

Mobile Communications Principle:

Each mobile uses a separate, temporary radio channel to talk to the cell site. The cell site talks
to many mobiles at once, using one channel per mobile.

Channel use a pair of frequencies for communications- one frequency (the forwarding link)
for transmitting from the cell site and one frequency (the reverse link) for the cell site to receive from
the users. Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to
maintain communications. The basic structure of mobile network includes telephone systems and
radio services. Where mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to the
telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network.

Distinction between "wireless" and "mobile."

Wireless refers to the method of transferring information between computing devices, such as a
personal digital assistant (PDA), and a data source, such as an agency database server, without a
physical connection. Not all wireless communications technologies are mobile. For example, lasers
are used in wireless data transfer between buildings, but cannot be used in mobile communications at
this time.
Mobile simply describes a computing device that is not restricted to a desktop. A mobile
device may be a PDA, a "smart" cell phone or Web phone, a laptop computer, or any one of
numerous other devices that allow the user to complete computing tasks without being tethered, or
connected, to a network. Mobile computing does not necessarily require wireless communication. In
fact, it may not require communication between devices at all.

Mobile devices

Laptops :-are typically used and supported in the same way as desktop PCs. These are portable in
nature.

PDA:-PDA’s are most often used for storing and synchronizing personal information such as
addresses, schedules and E-mail.

Smart phones:- that allow users to access phone calls, two-way radio transmissions, and paging
and data transmissions .

Pagers:- that support one- and two-way text messaging are also used in similar situations. Third
party vendors most often provide support for these devices.

Task devices:- they are frequently mission-critical, most corporations support task devices as
rigorously as desktop computers.

• Bluetooth:- A short-range wireless standard that specifies radio connections between
devices within a 10-meter range of each other
• Bridge:- A device that connects two local-area networks (LANs), or two segments of the
same LAN. Bridges simply forward packets from one segment to another without analyzing or
routing messages. This allows them to connect dissimilar networks (e.g., a bridge can connect an
Ethernet and Token-Ring network).
Challenges in mobile computing

Physical constraints become much more important, such as device weight, battery power, screen size,
portability, quality of radio transmission, error rates. The major challenges in mobile computing
includes…

Low Bandwidth

Wireless networks deliver lower bandwidth than wired networks. As a result, mobile applications
have to be carefully designed to control the bandwidth consumption. Software techniques required to
improve effective bandwidth usage include data compression logging requests to combine multiple
short ones, lazy write back, difference-based updates, caching, prefetching, usage of proxy, priority
scheduling, etc.

High Error Rate

The network quality varies as the mobile computer moves across the heterogeneous network
connections. The wireless environment exhibits higher error rates, which results in retransmission
and affects the Quality of Service

Power Limitations

Mobile computers are concerned with the limited power supply, an issue that does not appear in
distributed wired environment. Hardware improvements on batteries can help to lengthen the life of a
charge and reduce battery weight. In addition, efficient software operations can help to lower the
power consumption. Examples include: shifting the processing to a fixed host, aggressively caching
and prefetching data to reduce disk traffic, and transmitting less data while receiving more.

Security

Security and privacy are of specific concerns in wireless communication because of the ease of
connecting to the wireless link anonymously. Common problems are impersonation, denial of service
and tapping. The main technique used is encryption. In personal profiles of users are used to restrict
access to the mobile units.
Limited Capabilities

Unlike stationary computers, mobile computers are smaller in physical size and have smaller storage
capacity. PDA’s like Infopad and ParcTab are designed to have extreme portability and provide
ubiquitous information access. Even ordinary laptops typically have less RAM and smaller hard
disks than stationary computers. To overcome these limitations, some useful techniques are proposed
including: Compressing file systems, accessing remote storage over the network, sharing code
libraries and compressing virtual memory pages. In addition, the user interface has to be designed to
adapt to the small screen size of the portable computers.

Disconnection

Disconnection can be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary disconnection occurs when mobile users
want to disconnect the mobile unit from the network temporarily, like working on a plane.
Involuntary disconnection is mainly due to network failures.

The mobile application should not be disrupted under these circumstances.

Mobility

There are two types of mobility described: (a) mobility of clients and (b) mobility of resources.

Mobility of clients raises the issues of unique naming of the clients and finding their current
locations. Unlike stationary computers, where information on location is configured statically mobile
computers have to configure information dynamically Mobility of resources addresses this problem.
When a mobile host moves into a new cell or administrative domain, it has to discover the resources
available there. At the same time, any server that needs to communicate with the mobile host has to
identify its new location. Location transparency should be provided to the mobile applications by the
underlying runtime system so that the users are not aware of the effects of mobility.

Merits

The benefits of automating data collection applications with mobile computing are the reduction of
hard and soft costs, enhancement of revenue potential, and a distinct competitive advantage through:

 Improving the data collection process
 Improving data accuracy
 Reducing paperwork
 Enforcing collection of more complete information
 Facilitating collection of more useful information
 Eliminating redundant data entry
 Reducing administrative costs
 Reducing billing errors
 Reducing data backlog
 Improving information flow
 Allowing faster adaptation to changing business conditions
 Increasing responsiveness and customer satisfaction
 Providing access to previously unavailable information

Demerits

The demerits of the mobile computing are discussed as follows:

 Information access via a mobile device is plagued by low available
bandwidth, poor connection maintenance, poor security, and addressing problems. Unlike their
wired counterparts, design of software for mobile devices must consider resource limitation,
battery power and display size. Consequently, new hardware and software techniques must be
developed. For example, applications need to be highly optimized for space, in order to fit in
the limited memory on the mobile devices.
 Mobility brings additional uncertainties, as well as opportunities to provide
new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find
themselves.
 Day by day as the standard of the mobile computing is increasing the boons of
mobile computing are changing to banes. Eg: The most deadly terrorist attack occurred on sept
11, 2001.
Applications

This field has provided the best ways of communication in the form of cellular telephony, radio,
laptops,palmtops,mobile satellites etc. All these applications of Mobile computing are best in terms
of speed ,bandwidth. Moreover, they are very reliable means to communicate through.
New technical and application developments have established that mobile systems can be a cost-
effective, efficient, and productive solution in several different types of application environments.

They are:- a new generation of satellites especially Low-Earth Orbit systems (LEOS) are
under development with the Internet in mind. Companies like Teledesic and Orbcomm are actively
promoting Internet access.

Vertical industries where mobile technology has already been successfully adopted include
Consumer Goods, Delivery and Route Sales, Government, Healthcare, Market Research,
Pharmaceuticals, Transportation, and Utilities.

Conclusion

• Mobile computing is rapidly becoming popular, and user demand for useful wireless
applications is increasing.
• Additionally, this paper shows how these behavioral extensions serve as a powerful
abstraction for practical systems.
• In this paper, we have looked at issues related to portable devices, merits, demerits and
applications in mobile environment.
• Because of the banes of mobile computing the security level should be improved.
Bibliography

• Terri Watson. : Application design for wireless computing.
• Application design for wireless computing : M-Mail: A Case Study of Dynamic
Application Partitioning in Mobile Computing
• Christine Julien and Gruia-Catalin Roman : Active Coordination in Ad Hoc Networks
• Raymond J. Brunsting : Quality of Service Issues in Wireless Networks