Paper presentation On

MOBILECOMPUTING
Department of electronics & communications engineering,

KOTTAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHINNA TEKURU, KURNOOL.

Presented by

R.SIVA KUMAR III/IV B.TECH ROLL :O7EH1A0449 E-mail: rsivakumar449@hotmail.com Cell: 9502662108

Abstract
The main aim of this thesis is to throw light on the overview of mobile computing. Technology has developed rapidly over the last twenty years. This development in technology resulted in the development of communication. For example, Internet, email, wireless communication techniques etc . This development has still not given the user the freedom to access data anywhere or anytime he wants because of the limitations like the change in location resulted in either routing problems or connection breaks. The advent of MOBILE COMPUTING has given birth to hopes of overcoming the above limitations. These mobile networks have facilitated communication anywhere in the world at any time. The word MOBILE itself illustrated what it does. These mobile networks provide communication even when the source and destination are constantly changing their location. Here we present the basic concept of MOBILE COMPUTING and it’s real objective as mentioned below… Contents: Introduction   What is mobile computing? Mobile Communications Principle:

Distinction between "wireless" and "mobile”. Mobile Devices Challenges in mobile computing Merits and Demerits Applications Wireless Internet Future Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction
Wireless networking technology has engendered a new era of computing, called mobile computing. Mobile Computing is an umbrella term used to describe technologies that enable people to access network services any place, anytime, and anywhere. Ubiquitous computing and nomadic computing are synonymous with mobile computing. Mobile computing helps users to be productive immediately by reducing the training requirements associated with traditional automated data collection methods and provides a higher level of portability than keyboard-based systems. Field-based users can access any information available from the system at any time to make critical business decisions.

Portable devices like laptop and palm top computers give mobile users access to diverse sources of global information anywhere and at any time. Field-based users can access any information available from the system at any time to make critical business decisions. One of the most important and highly publicized recent developments in the PC world has been the introduction of the pen interface. The pen interface allows users to interact with the computer in a very natural and familiar way by entering text, numbers, and graphics in “electronic ink” directly on the screen. The pen interface also provides users with highly intuitive and efficient applications, whether tapping graphical icons to navigate through applications or selecting options from scrolling lists and checkboxes.

How it emerged?
Don Ring of Bell Labs, USA in 1947, invented the cellular concept. The first commercial mobile communications were in the form of radio paging networks. Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is a major cellular networks established in America using analog cellular technology. Total

Access Communication System (TACS) is a major system use in Europe. Recently a number of digital communications are also introduced. Cellular concept based on the concept of network of cells, which covers a large geographical area to communicate over the world. Mobile Communications Principle: Each mobile uses a separate, temporary radio channel to talk to the cell site. The cell site talks to many mobiles at once, using one channel per mobile.

Channel use a pair of frequencies for communications- one frequency (the forwarding link) for transmitting from the cell site and one frequency (the reverse link) for the cell site to receive from the users. Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications. The basic structure of mobile network includes telephone systems and radio services. Where mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to the telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network.

Distinction between "wireless" and "mobile."
Wireless refers to the method of transferring information between computing devices, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), and a data source, such as an agency database server, without a physical connection. Not all wireless communications technologies are mobile. For example, lasers are used in wireless data transfer between buildings, but cannot be used in mobile communications at this time.

Mobile simply describes a computing device that is not restricted to a desktop. A mobile device may be a PDA, a "smart" cell phone or Web phone, a laptop computer, or any one of numerous other devices that allow the user to complete computing tasks without being tethered, or connected, to a network. Mobile computing does not necessarily require wireless communication. In fact, it may not require communication between devices at all.

Mobile devices
Laptops :-are typically used and supported in the same way as desktop PCs. These are portable in nature. PDA:-PDA’s are most often used for storing and synchronizing personal information such as addresses, schedules and E-mail. Smart phones:- that allow users to access phone calls, two-way radio transmissions, and paging and data transmissions . Pagers:- that support one- and two-way text messaging are also used in similar situations. Third party vendors most often provide support for these devices. Task devices:- they are frequently mission-critical, most corporations support task devices as rigorously as desktop computers.

Bluetooth:- A short-range wireless standard that specifies radio connections between Bridge:- A device that connects two local-area networks (LANs), or two segments of the

devices within a 10-meter range of each other

same LAN. Bridges simply forward packets from one segment to another without analyzing or routing messages. This allows them to connect dissimilar networks (e.g., a bridge can connect an Ethernet and Token-Ring network).

Challenges in mobile computing
Physical constraints become much more important, such as device weight, battery power, screen size, portability, quality of radio transmission, error rates. The major challenges in mobile computing includes… Low Bandwidth Wireless networks deliver lower bandwidth than wired networks. As a result, mobile applications have to be carefully designed to control the bandwidth consumption. Software techniques required to improve effective bandwidth usage include data compression logging requests to combine multiple short ones, lazy write back, difference-based updates, caching, prefetching, usage of proxy, priority scheduling, etc. High Error Rate The network quality varies as the mobile computer moves across the heterogeneous network connections. The wireless environment exhibits higher error rates, which results in retransmission and affects the Quality of Service Power Limitations Mobile computers are concerned with the limited power supply, an issue that does not appear in distributed wired environment. Hardware improvements on batteries can help to lengthen the life of a charge and reduce battery weight. In addition, efficient software operations can help to lower the power consumption. Examples include: shifting the processing to a fixed host, aggressively caching and prefetching data to reduce disk traffic, and transmitting less data while receiving more. Security Security and privacy are of specific concerns in wireless communication because of the ease of connecting to the wireless link anonymously. Common problems are impersonation, denial of service and tapping. The main technique used is encryption. In personal profiles of users are used to restrict access to the mobile units.

Limited Capabilities Unlike stationary computers, mobile computers are smaller in physical size and have smaller storage capacity. PDA’s like Infopad and ParcTab are designed to have extreme portability and provide ubiquitous information access. Even ordinary laptops typically have less RAM and smaller hard disks than stationary computers. To overcome these limitations, some useful techniques are proposed including: Compressing file systems, accessing remote storage over the network, sharing code libraries and compressing virtual memory pages. In addition, the user interface has to be designed to adapt to the small screen size of the portable computers. Disconnection Disconnection can be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary disconnection occurs when mobile users want to disconnect the mobile unit from the network temporarily, like working on a plane. Involuntary disconnection is mainly due to network failures. The mobile application should not be disrupted under these circumstances. Mobility There are two types of mobility described: (a) mobility of clients and (b) mobility of resources. Mobility of clients raises the issues of unique naming of the clients and finding their current locations. Unlike stationary computers, where information on location is configured statically mobile computers have to configure information dynamically Mobility of resources addresses this problem. When a mobile host moves into a new cell or administrative domain, it has to discover the resources available there. At the same time, any server that needs to communicate with the mobile host has to identify its new location. Location transparency should be provided to the mobile applications by the underlying runtime system so that the users are not aware of the effects of mobility.

Merits
The benefits of automating data collection applications with mobile computing are the reduction of hard and soft costs, enhancement of revenue potential, and a distinct competitive advantage through:   Improving the data collection process Improving data accuracy

          

Reducing paperwork Enforcing collection of more complete information Facilitating collection of more useful information Eliminating redundant data entry Reducing administrative costs Reducing billing errors Reducing data backlog Improving information flow Allowing faster adaptation to changing business conditions Increasing responsiveness and customer satisfaction Providing access to previously unavailable information

Demerits
The demerits of the mobile computing are discussed as follows:  Information access via a mobile device is plagued by low available

bandwidth, poor connection maintenance, poor security, and addressing problems. Unlike their wired counterparts, design of software for mobile devices must consider resource limitation, battery power and display size. Consequently, new hardware and software techniques must be developed. For example, applications need to be highly optimized for space, in order to fit in the limited memory on the mobile devices.  themselves.  11, 2001. Day by day as the standard of the mobile computing is increasing the boons of mobile computing are changing to banes. Eg: The most deadly terrorist attack occurred on sept Mobility brings additional uncertainties, as well as opportunities to provide new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find

Applications
This field has provided the best ways of communication in the form of cellular telephony, radio, laptops,palmtops,mobile satellites etc. All these applications of Mobile computing are best in terms of speed ,bandwidth. Moreover, they are very reliable means to communicate through. New technical and application developments have established that mobile systems can be a costeffective, efficient, and productive solution in several different types of application environments. They are:- a new generation of satellites especially Low-Earth Orbit systems (LEOS) are under development with the Internet in mind. Companies like Teledesic and Orbcomm promoting Internet access. Vertical industries where mobile technology has already been successfully adopted include Consumer Goods, Delivery and Route Sales, Government, Healthcare, Market Research, Pharmaceuticals, Transportation, and Utilities. are actively

Conclusion
• • • • Mobile computing is rapidly becoming popular, and user demand for useful wireless Additionally, this paper shows how these behavioral extensions serve as a powerful In this paper, we have looked at issues related to portable devices, merits, demerits and

applications is increasing. abstraction for practical systems. applications in mobile environment. Because of the banes of mobile computing the security level should be improved.

Bibliography
Terri Watson. : Application design for wireless computing. • Application design for wireless computing : M-Mail: A Case Study of Dynamic Application Partitioning in Mobile Computing Christine Julien and Gruia-Catalin Roman : Active Coordination in Ad Hoc Networks Raymond J. Brunsting : Quality of Service Issues in Wireless Networks