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Indian species diversity –India contains a great wealth of biological

diversity in its forests, its wetlands and in the marine areas. This
richness is shown in absolute number of species and the proportion
they represent of the total world.
ENDANGERED SPECIES – species on the verge of extinction,
critically reduced no .of individuals, facing intermediate danger of
extinction e.g. –lion, wild ass, blue whale etc.
RARE SPECIES – species whose population is originally small &
scattered i.e. why these can any time enter into categories of
endangered and vulnerable e.g. clouded leopard, great Indian
VULNERABLE SPECIES – species whose population is gradually
decreasing & facing the risk of entering into endangered category
e.g. addax antelope.
Of the worlds 1.9 million described species out of which 15,589
species are threatened with extinction according to IUCN’s Red
LIST 2006.
India contains 172 species of animals which are considered globally
threatened by IUCN, or 2.9 % of the worlds total number of
threatened species .
These include 53 species of mammals, 69 birds, 23reptiles and 3
species of amphibians.
India contains globally important populations of some of Asia’s
rarest animals such as :
Critically Endangered:
Jenkin's Shrew (Crocidura jenkensii). (Endemic to India.)
Malabar Large Spotted Civet (Viverra civettina).
Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Biswamayopterus biswasi). (Endemic to India.)
Pygmy Hog (Sus salvanius).
Salim Ali's Fruit Bat (Latidens salimalii). (Endemic to India.)
Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).
Wroughton's Free-tailed Bat (Otomops wroughtoni). (Endemic to India.)
Andaman Shrew (Crocidura andamanensis). (Endemic to India.)
Andaman Spiny Shrew (Crocidura hispida). (Endemic to India.)
Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).
Banteng (Bos javanicus).
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus).
Capped Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus pileatus).
Chiru (Tibetan Antelope) (Pantholops hodgsonii).
Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus).
Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).
Golden Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus geei).
Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus).
Hoolock Gibbon (Bunipithecus hoolock) (Previously Hylobates hoolock).
Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).
Indus River Dolphin (Platanista minor).
Kondana Soft-furred Rat (Millardia kondana). (Endemic to India.)
Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus). (Endemic to India.)
Markhor (Capra falconeri).
Marsh Mongoose (Herpestes palustris). (Endemic to India.) (Previously considered to be
a subspecies of Herpestes javanicus.)
Nicobar Shrew (Crocidura nicobarica). (Endemic to India.)
Nicobar Tree Shrew (Tupaia nicobarica). (Endemic to India.)
Nilgiri Tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius). (Endemic to India.)
Particolored Flying Squirrel (Hylopetes alboniger).
Peters' Tube-nosed Bat (Murina grisea). (Endemic to India.)
Red Panda (Lesser Panda) (Ailurus fulgens).
Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis).
Servant Mouse (Mus famulus). (Endemic to India.)
Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia).
Tiger (Panthera tigris).
Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). (Previously Bubalus arnee.)
Woolly Flying Squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus).
Andaman Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus cognatus). (Endemic to India.)
Andaman Rat (Rattus stoicus). (Endemic to India.)
Argali (Ovis ammon).
Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus).
Asiatic Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii).
Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus).
Assamese Macaque (Macaca assamensis).
Back-striped Weasel (Mustela strigidorsa).
Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli).
Bare-bellied Hedgehog (Hemiechinus nudiventris). (Endemic to India.)
Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).
Central Kashmir Vole (Alticola montosa). (Endemic to India.)
Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).
Day's Shrew (Suncus dayi). (Endemic to India.)
Dhole (Cuon alpinus).
Dugong (Dugong dugon).
Eld's Deer (Cervus eldi).
Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira). (Endemic to India.)
Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra).
Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).
Four-horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis).
Gaur (Bos frontalis).
Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus).
Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
Indian Giant Squirrel (Ratufa indica). (Endemic to India.)
Irrawaddy Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus).
Jerdon's Palm Civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni). (Endemic to India.)
Kashmir Cave Bat (Myotis longipes).
Kerala Rat (Rattus ranjiniae). (Endemic to India.)
Khajuria's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros durgadasi). (Endemic to India.)
Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat (Hipposideros hypophyllus). (Endemic to India.)
Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros).
Mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis).
Malayan Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura).
Mandelli's Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis sicarius).
Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata).
Mouflon (or Urial) (Ovis orientalis).
Nicobar Flying Fox (Pteropus faunulus). (Endemic to India.)
Nilgiri Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus johnii). (Endemic to India.)
Nilgiri Marten (Martes gwatkinsii). (Endemic to India.)
Nonsense Rat (Rattus burrus). (Endemic to India.)
Pale Grey Shrew (Crocidura pergrisea). (Endemic to India.)
Palm Rat (Rattus palmarum). (Endemic to India.)
Red Goral (Naemorhedus baileyi).
Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus).
Sikkim Rat (Rattus sikkimensis).
Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus).
Slow Loris (Loris tardigradus).
Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata). (Previously Lutra perspicillata.)
Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon).
Sri Lankan Giant Squirrel (Ratufa macroura).
Sri Lankan Highland Shrew (Suncus montanus).
Stumptail Macaque (Macaca arctoides).
Takin (Budorcas taxicolor).
Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus).
Wild Yak (Bos grunniens).

Causes of extinctions
The biological diversity is rapidly being depleted as direct or
indirect consequences of human actions .An unknown but large
number of species is already extinct while many others have reduced
population sizes that put them at risk.
Invasion of human beings and there activities like poaching, hunting
and smuggling of there teeth’s or some other part of there body of
wild animals have also affected there population.
Habitat loss- may be natural or caused by human beings like
Species introduction
“Cheetah,2 horned rhinoceros, Siberian tiger, golden languor,
Himalayan quail, pink headed duck, golden eagle etc. have already
become extinct from our country in the recent past”.
LEGAL PROTECTION- The endangered species could be saved
from getting extinct by taking actions against poaching activities
and safe guarding the particular area to reduce such activities.
SCIENTIFIC PROTECTION - by radio collaring the species and
observing them for a long period. For example – Tiger and Asiatic
lions are being monitored by this technique and are going to be
reintroduced in “KUNO WILD LIFE SANTUARY”.
SOCIAL PROTECTION – This can useful for making peoples aware
about the different species which are endangered and are going to
extinct. For example – A species of Indian tortoise “Kachuga
kachuga” is a endangered species found in “chambal river” and the
people are not aware- about this species and this species gets
trapped in the nets of fisher mans and die everyday.
The IUCN Red List information can be used in many different
ways as a conservation tool. The Red List can be used to: provide
information on the conservation status of individual species; guide
the listing of individual species in national or international
legislation; aid in conservation planning and priority setting; help
to identify priority species for conservation action and recovery
planning; and support educational programmes .
Conservation strategies
Ex-situ conservation – Establishment of rehabilitation centre for
highly endangered species of wild animals, for instance U.P.
government has established a rehabilitation centre for “musk deer”
at “kachula kharak” near chamoli u.p.
In-situ conservation – Conservation of wild animals in their natural
habitats According to the degree of environmental protection
afforded, we have 4 types of reserves in our country as follows;
National parks – We have 90 national parks in our country,
occupying nearly 1% geographical area. No private ownerships are
allowed i.e. cultivation, grazing of live stock, forestry & habitat
manipulation are not allowed.
Sanctuaries – India has 450 sanctuaries occupying about 3 %
geographical area . Private ownership rights like collection of forest
products, harvesting of timber, collection of fodder, grazing of live
stock etc. are allowed so long as these do not interfere the welfare of
Tiger reserves – In 1972-73 Indian government declare the royal
Bengal tiger as national animal & launch a special project tiger to
save them. Under project tiger some of the national parks &
sanctuaries were declared as tiger reserves. Each tiger reserve has
highly protected and strictly prohibited central core area & the
peripheral buffer zone with permission of limited, conservation
oriented human activities.
Network of conservation sites in India

Conservation sites Number Area coverage (Km 2) % Of Geographical Area of the

National parks 86 37,648.57 1.15
Wildlife Sanctuaries 480 1,15,351.77 3.51
Tiger Reserves 25 32,995.13 1.00
Biospheres Reserves 12 49,485.16 1.50
World Heritage Sites 5 2,810.12 0.09
RAMSAR Wetland Sites 6 1,737.00 0.05

Conservation scientists use DNA evidence from an organism to
make recommendations about how the organism should be
Identification, Inventory & Analysis.
Interpretation & Management.