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FLEX Course Material


Determine different
factors affecting
human comfort in a
given space
AIR-
Understand single CONDITIONING
zone and multizone
system AND
Identify different
design conditions in
VENTILATION
air-conditioning and
properly implement
SYSTEM -
them
Estimating heat loss
Laboratory
and heat gain from
through a building
envelop
Cooling and Heating Load
Familiar with the Calculation
different air-
conditioning
requirements aligned
with different codes
and standards
provided by ASHRAE
and PME Codes

Prepared by
Engr. Jestoni Asi

Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


#7

Occupants

2 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Equation
𝑯𝑮𝑺
𝒒𝑺 = 𝒏 𝑪𝑳𝑭 ; 𝑺𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

𝑯𝑮𝑳
𝒒𝑳 = 𝒏 ; 𝑳𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

Table 4-7 shows loads from occupants as a function of their activity.


The greatest uncertainty in estimating this load component is the
number of occupants. If the number of occupants is unknown, values
such as those in Table 4-8 may be used. Since a portion of the heat
transferred from occupants is by radiation, the ASHRAE methodology
again uses the cooling-load factor for a better representation of
actual loads Table 4-9 gives these values. Thus,

Occupant sensible cooling load in


watts = gain per person from Table 4-7 X number of people
X CLF from Tahle 4-9

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Zone B: GYM

Floor Area, A
𝐴 = 10𝑚 × 15𝑚 − 5𝑚 × 2.5𝑚 = 137.5𝑚2

4 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


𝑯𝑮𝑺 𝑯𝑮𝑳
𝒒𝑺 = 𝒏 𝑪𝑳𝑭 & 𝒒𝑳 = 𝒏
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

For the value of no. of person, refer to Table 4-8 the space per
occupant or from Table 5.3. The equation of number of person is
shown below.
I prefer to use this
𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝒐𝒇 𝒇𝒍𝒐𝒐𝒓 Table
𝒏=
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒚

𝟏𝟑𝟕. 𝟓𝒎𝟐 × 𝟑. 𝟐𝟖𝟏𝒇𝒕 𝟐


𝒏= = 𝟏𝟎𝟑. 𝟔 ≈ 𝟏𝟎𝟒 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒐𝒏𝒔
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒇𝒕𝟐
𝟕𝟎𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒐𝒏𝒔

Always Round up.


Take Note this
value, It will be used
in ventilation
calculation

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𝑯𝑮𝑺 𝑯𝑮𝑳
𝒒𝑺 = 𝒏 𝑪𝑳𝑭 & 𝒒𝑳 = 𝒏
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

HG/person : For the Heat Gain per person, refer to Table 4-7 the
space per occupant or from Table 4.5.

I prefer to use this Table. If the values are not available


in this table, use Table 4-7

Sensible Heat Gain Latent Heat Gain

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𝑯𝑮𝑺 𝑯𝑮𝑳
𝒒𝑺 = 𝒏 𝑪𝑳𝑭 & 𝒒𝑳 = 𝒏
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

If You Use Table 4-7

Sensible Heat Gain is


the product of this two Example: Standing Walking
and the remaining HGs = 305*0.35=106.75W
from total heat gain is HHl = 305 – 106.75 =
the Latent Heat Gain 198.75W

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𝑯𝑮𝑺 𝑯𝑮𝑳
𝒒𝑺 = 𝒏 𝑪𝑳𝑭 & 𝒒𝑳 = 𝒏
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

CFL : Cooling Load Factor, refer to Table 4-9


Assuming that the room is open at 9:00am to 5:00pm. The total hours
in space is 13hrs

We compute the Cooling load at 1:00pm, so


1:00pm is 4 hours after each entry into space
Get the
(9:00am – 1:00om)
average of
these two
for CLF
value
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𝑯𝑮𝑺
𝒒𝑺 = 𝒏 𝑪𝑳𝑭
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

𝟏𝟖𝟓𝑾
𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏𝟎𝟓𝒑𝒆𝒔𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝟎. 𝟕𝟔
𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒐𝒏

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏𝟒, 𝟕𝟔𝟑𝑾

𝑯𝑮𝑳
𝒒𝑳 = 𝒏
𝒐𝒄𝒄𝒖𝒑𝒂𝒏𝒕

𝟑𝟒𝟎𝑾
𝒒𝑳 = 𝟏𝟎𝟒𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒐𝒏𝒔
𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒐𝒏𝒔

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟑𝟓, 𝟑𝟔𝟎𝑾

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#8

Infiltration

10 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Infiltration

• Infiltration is the uncontrolled inward flow of outdoor air through


cracks and openings in the building envelope due to the pressure
difference across the envelope. The pressure difference may be
caused by any of the following:
• 1. Wind pressure
• 2. Stack effect due to the outdoor and indoor temperature difference
• 3. Mechanical ventilation
• In summer, for low-rise commercial buildings that have their
exterior windows well sealed, and if a positive pressure is
maintained in the conditioned space when the air system is
operating, normally the infiltration can be considered zero. For
high-rise buildings, infiltration should be considered and calculated
in both summer and winter.
sensible and latent heat, equation for infiltraion
is shown below:

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝑸(𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊 )

𝒒𝑳 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑸(𝝎𝒐 − 𝝎𝒊 )

𝑸; for volume flow rate of outside air 𝑸 = 𝑽 𝑵𝒂𝒄


= volumetric flow rate of outside air, L/s
𝑵𝒂𝒄 = 𝒂 + 𝒃𝒗 + 𝒄 𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊

For the value of a,b and c, proceed to Table 4-5


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Zone B: GYM

Room Volume, V
𝑉 = 137.5𝑚2 4𝑚 = 550𝑚3

Tdb RH RH W
Outside
35 60 60 0.0227
Condition
Inside
20 40 50 0.0058
Condition

12 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Infiltration
sensible and latent heat, equation for infiltration
is shown below:

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝑸(𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊 )

𝒒𝑳 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑸(𝝎𝒐 − 𝝎𝒊 )

𝑸; for volume flow rate of outside air 𝑸 = 𝑽 𝑵𝒂𝒄

Building construction is tight

𝑵𝒂𝒄 = 𝒂 + 𝒃𝒗 + 𝒄 𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊

Assume v = 1m/s. For your design, use the


wind velocity on your selected location. The
resulting unit of Nac is Changes per hour

13
Infiltration
sensible and latent heat, equation for infiltration
is shown below:

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝑸(𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊 )

𝒒𝑳 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑸(𝝎𝒐 − 𝝎𝒊 )

Convert to L Convert to Changes/s

Quality of Construction
No.of Air
Volume Wind velocity a b c
Infiltraion change
550 1 0.15 0.01 0.007 0.265

to ti Wo Wi QS QL

35 20 0.0227 0.0058 746.96875 2052.646

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#9

Ventilation

15 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Ventilation

• Ventilation imposes a significant load on heating and cooling


equipment and thus is a major contribution to energy use. Space
occupancies and the choice of ventilation rates should be
considered carefully. For example, if smoking is permitted in part
of a building but restricted in another part of the building,
ventilation rates for smoking should not be assumed uniformly.
Also, the prospect of filtering and cleaning air for recirculation
must be examined carefully. The use of recirculated air will
conserve energy whenever the outdoor-air temperature is
extremely high or low.
• Moves outdoor air into a building or a room, and distributes the
air within the building or room. The general purpose of ventilation
in buildings is to provide healthy air for breathing by both diluting
the pollutants originating in the building and removing the
pollutants from it (Etheridge & Sandberg, 1996; Awbi, 2003). For
the computation of ventilation, the equation is shown below

𝐿
• First obtain the value of Q :
𝑠

• 𝑸 = 𝑽𝒐 𝒏

• Where: 𝑉𝑜 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛

• 𝑛 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛
• For the value of outdoor air ventilation requirement per
person, refer to Table 4-1, or Table 5.3

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Zone B: GYM

Number of Persons = 104

Tdb RH RH W
Outside
35 60 60 0.0227
Condition
Inside
20 40 50 0.0058
Condition

17 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Infiltration
sensible and latent heat, equation for ventilation is
shown below:

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝑸(𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊 )

𝒒𝑳 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑸(𝝎𝒐 − 𝝎𝒊 )

𝑸; for volume flow rate of fresh air 𝑸 = 𝑽𝒐 𝒏

Choose higher value of


cfm and convert it to L/s
30cfm = 14.156L/s

Q,
Outdoor Air
No. person Ventilation
Ventilation Requirement
Rate
104 14.156 1472.224

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Ventilation
sensible and latent heat, equation for Ventilation
is shown below:

𝒒𝑺 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝑸(𝑻𝒐 − 𝑻𝒊 )

𝒒𝑳 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑸(𝝎𝒐 − 𝝎𝒊 )

Q,
Outdoor Air
No. person Ventilation
Ventilation Requirement
Rate
104 14.156 1472.224

to ti Wo Wi QS QL

35 20 0.0227 0.0058 27162.5328 74641.7568

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#10

Lighting

20 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Equation
Lighting load also adds to the cooling load required for the
system. The equation for determining the heat gain through the
lights is shown below:
𝒒𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒔 = 𝑳𝑹 × 𝒏 × 𝑭𝑼 × 𝑭𝑩 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

Where: 𝐿𝑅 = 𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑝 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑊


𝑛 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠
𝐹𝑈 = 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 1
𝐹𝐵 = 𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 1.2
𝐶𝐿𝐹 = 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑇𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 4 − 6

If number of lights is not given solve for the number of


lights required in the considered space. The equation for the
number of lights is shown below:

𝑬𝒗 𝑨
𝒏=
𝑳𝒖𝒎𝒆𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒂𝒎𝒑
𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑠
Where: 𝐸𝑣 = 𝐼𝑙𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑙𝑢𝑥 𝑜𝑟 𝑚2

𝐴 = 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑚2

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Zone B: GYM

Assume Lamp Rating


40 W/m2

Floor Area, A
𝐴 = 10𝑚 × 15𝑚 − 5𝑚 × 2.5𝑚 = 137.5𝑚2

22 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


𝒒𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒔 = 𝑳𝑹 × 𝒏 × 𝑭𝑼 × 𝑭𝑩 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

Since lamp rating / area is the given, equation is reduced to

𝒒𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒔 = 𝑳𝑹 × 𝑨 × 𝟏. 𝟎 × 𝟏. 𝟐 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

CLF: refer to Table


Interpolate: 13 hours of operation CLF=0.765

Same with
occupants

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𝒒𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒔 = 𝑳𝑹 × 𝒏 × 𝑭𝑼 × 𝑭𝑩 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

Since lamp rating / area is the given, equation is reduced to

𝒒𝑳𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒔 = 𝑳𝑹 × 𝑨 × 𝟏. 𝟎 × 𝟏. 𝟐 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

Utilization Ballast
Area Lamp rating CLF Qs
Lighting Factor,Fu Factor, Fb
550 40 1 1.2 0.765 20196

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#11

Miscellaneous

25 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Equation
Miscellaneous load also adds to the cooling load required
for the system. These are any equipment, machines or
appliances that consumes electricity and produces work and
heat. For the value of miscellaneous load, the equation is
shown below:

𝒒𝑴 = 𝒏 × 𝑬𝑹 × 𝑭𝒖 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

Where; ER = Equipment Rating in Watts,

FU = Utilization Factor = Number of Hours used / Total AC


Operating hours

CLF = Cooling Load Factor = 1.0

Example:

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Zone B: GYM

27 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi


Miscellaneous

𝒒𝑴 = 𝒏 × 𝑬𝑹 × 𝑭𝒖 × 𝑪𝑳𝑭

Equipment/ Unit Ratings,


Miscellaneous no. of units Fu CLF Qs, watts
Appliances W
1 Computers 3 250 1 1 750
Gym
2 Equipment 10 100 0.8 1 800
(Electric)
3 Speakers 4 10 1 1 40
4 TV 2 50 1 1 100

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REFERENCES

[1] Stoecker W.F. & Jones J.W. (1983). Refrigeration and


Air-Conditioning 2nd Edition. McGraw-hill

[2] ASHRAE. (2009). 2009 ASHRAE Handbook


Fundamentals. N.E., Atlanta: ASHRAE.

[3] Wang, S.K. (2001). Handbook of Air-conditioning and


Refrigeration, 2nd Edition. McGraw-hill.

29 Prepared by Engr. Jestoni Asi