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Pardo, Cebu City

“Passion for Truth and Compassion for Humanity”

Name of Learner: ____________________________________________________________
LRN / I.D. Number: ___________________________________________________________
Grade Level: ___________________________ Section: _____________________________
Subject Teacher: ____________________________________________________________
Adviser: ___________________________________________________________________
Quarter: FIRST Teacher: Ms. Dafchen Nio V. Mahasol,
Subject: MUSIC Grade Level: GRADE 10

Module Title: “MUSIC OF THE 20TH Time Frame: 1-2 weeks



The learner demonstrates understanding of the 20th century music styles and characteristic
The learner creates musical pieces using a particular style of the 20th century.


The learner will independently use their learning on Music of the 20th century , so that in the long run,
they will:

 The learner will be able to learn and identify the different music of Lowland Luzon
 Value and appreciate the music of others. Apply appropriate pitch, rhythm, expression, and style to
any song.

Graduate Attributes:
 Truth Seeker
 Community Builder

GOAL: Present a culminating activity through a video presentation of each student that is designed to
show the students understanding on how to prepare for a 20th century music presentation.
 Project producer – information about things to do when preparing for a singing presentation
 Group leader – views on how to read music notes
 Costume Designer – ways to obtain information about the clothing styles of the Medieval Era
 Music instrument player – reflections on how the music instrument may be used for identifying
the correct notes which the singers will listen to while practicing
 Music Teacher – means to classify voice as belonging to the following: soprano, tenor, alto, or
AUDIENCE: Mapeh Teacher and classmates
SITUATION: Acting in the role of a project producer/meeting facilitator, the students will show pieces
of information or visual materials that provide information on how to prepare for a 20th music
PRODUCT/PERFORMANCE: 1. Musical presentations
2. Video documentation of the presentation

STANDARDS: Use Rubrics for Product/ Performance below.


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Criteria Advanced Proficient Approachin Developing Beginning
5 points 4 points g proficiency 2 points 1 point
3 points

Persuasive The content Information is The content The content The content
Content and includes a presented as a includes a does not lacks a central
Organizatio clear statement connected clear point of present a theme, clear
n of purpose or theme with view with a clearly stated point of view,
(x4) theme and is accurate, progression theme, is and logical
creative, current of ideas and vague, and sequence of
compelling, supporting supporting some of the information.
and clearly information information. supporting Much of the
written. A rich that There is little information supporting
variety of contributes to persuasive does not seem information in
supporting understanding ideas. to fit the main the video is
information in the project’s idea or appears irrelevant to
the video main idea. as a the overall
contributes to Details are disconnected message. The
understanding logical and series of viewer is
the project’s persuasive scenes with no unsure what
main idea. information is unifying main the message is
Events and effectively idea. because there
messages are used. is no
presented persuasive
persuasively in information.
a logical order.

Production The video is The video is Video is Video is edited Tape is

Quality edited with edited edited in few spots. unedited and
1. Video only high with throughout throughout Several poor many poor
Quality and only high with some high with some shots remain. shots remain.
Editing quality shots quality shots quality shots Transitions No transitions
remaining. remaining. remaining. A from shot to between clips
Shots and Video moves variety of shot are are used. Raw
scenes flow smoothly from transitions choppy. clips run back
seamlessly. A shot to shot. are used and Transitions do to back in the
variety of has good not assist in final video.
transitions are pacing and the main idea.
used to assist timing.
g the main idea
and smooth the
flow from one
scene to next.
2. Audio The audio is The audio is The audio is The audio is Audio is cut-
Editing and clear and clear and clear but only inconsistent in off and
Voice effectively thoroughly partially clarity (too inconsistent.
Quality (x2) assists in assists in assists in the loud/ too soft Students have
communicatin communicatin main idea: at a times and a great
g the main g the main weak voice insufficiently difficulty
idea. Students idea. Students projection communicates communicatin
communicate communicate and/ or lack the main idea. g ideas with
ideas with ideas with of Students have poor voice
enthusiasm, proper preparation. difficulty projection.

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proper voice projection, Students communicatin
projection, proper communicate g ideas due to
appropriate language, and ideas with
language, and clear delivery. proper voice
clear delivery. projection,
and delivery.
Audio Background Background Background Background Background
Editing and audio is kept in audio is kept in audio is kept audio is not audio is not
Voice balance and balance and in balance balanced and balanced and
Quality (x2) does not does not and does not tends to tend to
overpower the overpower the overpower overpower the overpower the
primary audio. primary audio the primary primary audio primary audio
most of the audio some most of the almost all the
time. of the time. time. time.

Lesson Number / Learning Competencies (MELCs) Learning Objectives
Lesson 1. Week 1 & 2: At the end of the lesson, the
 MUSIC OF learners are expected to:
THE 20TH  Creates short electronic and Listens perceptively to
CENTURY chance music pieces using selected 20th century
knowledge of 20th century styles. music.
Sub-topics: Describes distinctive
 Impressionism musical elements of
 Expressionism given pieces in 20th
 Neo- century styles.
Classicism Relates 20th century
 Avant-Garde music to its historical
 Modern and cultural background.
Nationalism Explains the
 Composers performance practice
(Debussy, (setting, composition,
Ravel, role of
Schoenberg, composers/performers,
Bartok, and audience) of 20th
Stravinsky, century music.
 Prokofieff, Sings melodic fragments
Poulenc, of given Impressionism
Stockhausen, period pieces.
Glass, Cage, Explores other arts and
Bernstein, media that portray 20th
Varese, and century elements
Gershwin) through video films or
live performances.
Creates short electronic
and chance music pieces
using knowledge of 20th
century styles.


Lesson Number 1.


This module is intended to help you continue learning Music at Home. The start of the
20th century saw the rise of distinct musical styles that reflected a move away from the

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conventions of earlier classical music. These new styles were: impressionism, expressionism,
neo-classicism, avant-garde music, and modern nationalism.

The distinct musical styles of the 20th century would not have developed if not for the
musical genius of individual composers such as Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Arnold
Schoenberg, Bela Bartok, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofieff, and George Gershwin stand out
as the moving forces behind the innovative and experimental styles mentioned above. Coming
from different nations—France, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and the United States— these
composers clearly reflected the growing globalization of musical styles in the 20th century.

Music evolved alongside with man’s constant quest for growth and development.

Keep reading and Have a nice Day!

The following are the standard symbols (icons) used to represent some parts the module:

What I know This is the pre-assessment. It is given to

check what you know about the lesson you
are about to take.

What’s in This part connects the current lesson with

the previous lesson by allowing you to go
over concepts that you learned previously.

What’s new It is in this part that the new lesson is

introduced through a story, a poem, song
situation or an activity.

What is it This part provides a brief discussion of the


What’s more In this part, you will be asked to do

enrichment activities that are designed to
reinforce or refine your understanding.

What I have Learned This part offers a question, fill in the blank
sentence/paragraph to enable you to process
what you have learned from the lesson.

What I can do This part presents an activity that will allow

you to transfer the skills/knowledge you
gained or learned into real life

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This evaluates your level of mastery in
achieving the learning objectives, validates
Assessment the concepts and provides more
opportunities to deepen the learning.

Additional Activities This part provides an activity in any form

that can increase the strength of your
responses and encourages repetitions of

Student Instruction


To assess what you know about the music of the 20th century answer the following

What I Know

A. Guess Who?

Directions: Write the name of each composer below the picture.

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_________________________ _________________________

___________________________ __________________________

Good job! You did it well even though it’s not familiar with you. Do you want to know
them more? Just keep reading! but before you will know them you have another step to

Lets! Start!

What’s in

A. Picture Display

Direction: Describe each of the pictures in your own words in 5 minutes. Type your
answer on a google docs send via google classroom.

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B. Listening Activity

Direction: Listen to the following songs. After that there is a reflection to follow, write
your answer on your MAPEH notebook.

1. Gustav Mahler - Symphony No.9 in D-major - IV, Adagio. Sehr langsam und noch

2. Impressionism: Ravel & Debussy | Classical Piano Music

3. Igor Stravinsky: Pulcinella (Ouverture, Scherzino, Allegro, Adantino, Allegro)

4. Wir sind des Geyers schwarzer Haufen


1. Were you aware that some of those music were composed centuries ago?
2. How was it used as background music?
3. Do you think they were used creatively? Was the music used appropriately?
4. If you were one of the original composers, would you allow your compositions to be used as

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they are used today? Why or Why not?

What’s new

A. Enumeration

Direction: Answer the following questions.

1. What group of people inspired many of Bartok’s compositions?


2. Which Russian composer created the music for the ballet The Firebird?

3. Who is considered the foremost impressionist?


4. Who was the target audience of Prokofieff’s Peter and the Wolf?
5. What kind of musical style is attributed to Schoenberg and Stravinsky?

B. Identification

Direction: Give an example of a musical work of each of the composers below.

Write the title in the blanks.

Composer Musical Work

6. Debussy _____________________________________
7. Ravel _____________________________________

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8. Schoenberg _____________________________________
9. Stravinsky _____________________________________
10. Bartok _____________________________________
11. Prokofieff _____________________________________
12. Poulenc _____________________________________
13. Gershwin _____________________________________
14. Glass _____________________________________
15. Bernstein _____________________________________

In this module, you will learn the first part of the history of
20th century music. We will be discussing the characteristic
features of each period, composers, historical and cultural

What Is It


One of the earlier but concrete forms declaring the entry of 20th century music was
Known as impressionism. It is a French movement in the late 19th and early 20th
Century. The sentimental melodies and dramatic emotionalism of the preceding
Romantic Period (their themes and melody are easy to recognize and enjoy) were being
replaced in favor of moods and impressions. There is an extensive use of colors and
effects, vague melodies, and innovative chords and progressions leading to mild
Sublime moods and melodic suggestions replaced highly expressive and program
music, or music that contained visual imagery. With this trend came new combinations
of extended chords, harmonies, whole tone, chromatic scales, and pentatonic scales.
Impressionism was an attempt not to depict reality, but merely to suggest it. It was
meant to create an emotional mood rather than a specific picture. In terms of imagery,
impressionistic forms were translucent and hazy, as if trying to see through a rain-
drenched window.
In impressionism, the sounds of different chords overlapped lightly with each other to
produce new subtle musical colors. Chords did not have a definite order and a sense of
clear resolution. Other features include the lack of a tonic-dominant relationship which
normally gives the feeling of finality to a piece, moods and textures, harmonic
vagueness about the structure of certain chords, and use of the whole-tone scale. Most
of the impressionist works centered on nature and its beauty, lightness, and brilliance.
A number of outstanding impressionists created works on this subject.
The impressionistic movement in music had its foremost proponents in the French
composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel. Both had developed a particular style
of composing adopted by many 20th century composers. Among the most famous
luminaries in other countries were Ottorino Respighi (Italy), Manuel de Falla and Isaac
Albeniz (Spain), and Ralph Vaughan Williams (England).

CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862–1918)

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One of the most important and influential of the 20th century composers was
Claude Debussy. He was the primary exponent of the impressionist movement
and the focal point for other impressionist composers. He changed the course of
musical development by dissolving traditional rules and conventions into a new
language of possibilities in harmony, rhythm, form, texture, and color.
Debussy was born in St. Germain-en-Laye in France on August 22, 1862. His
early musical talents were channeled into piano lessons. He entered the Paris
Conservatory in 1873. He gained a reputation as an erratic pianist and a rebel
in theory and harmony. Headed other systems of musical composition because
of his musical training. In 1884, he won the top prize at the Prix de Rome
competition with his composition L’ Enfant Prodigue (The Prodigal Son). This
enabled him to study for two years in Rome, where he got exposed to the music
of Richard Wagner, specifically his opera Tristan und Isolde, although he did
not share the latter’s grandiose style.

Debussy’s mature creative period was represented by the following works:

 Ariettes Oubliees
 Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
 String Quartet
 Pelleas et Melisande (1895)—his famous operatic work that drew mixed
extreme reactions for its innovative harmonies and textural treatments.
 La Mer (1905)—a highly imaginative and atmospheric symphonic work
for orchestra about the sea
 Images, Suite Bergamasque, and Estampes—his most popular piano compositions; a
set of lightly textured pieces containing his signature work Claire de Lune (Moonlight)
His musical compositions total more or less 227 which include orchestral music,
chamber music, piano music, operas, ballets, songs, and other vocal music.

The creative style of Debussy was characterized by his unique approach to the various
musical elements. Debussy’s compositions deviated from the Romantic Period and is
clearly seen by the way he avoided metric pulses and preferred free form and
developed his themes. Debussy’s western influences came from composers Franz Liszt
and Giuseppe Verdi. From the East, he was fascinated by the Javanese gamelan that he
had heard at the 1889 Paris Exposition. The gamelan is an ensemble with bells, gongs,
xylophone, and occasional vocal parts which he later used in his works to achieve a
new sound. From the visual arts, Debussy was influenced by Monet, Pissarro, Manet,
Degas, and Renoir; and from the literary arts, by Mallarme, Verlaine, and Rimbaud.
Most of hisclose friends were painters and poets who significantly influenced his
compositions. His role as the “Father of the Modern School of Composition” made its
mark in the styles of the later 20th century composers like Igor Stravinsky, Edgar
Varese, and Olivier Messiaen. Debussy spent the remaining years of his life as a critic,
composer, and performer. He died in Paris on March 25, 1918 of cancer at the height
of the First World War.


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MAURICE RAVEL (1875–1937)

Joseph Maurice Ravel was born in Ciboure, France to a Basque mother and a
Swiss father. He entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of 14 where he
studied with the eminent French composer Gabriel Faure. During his stint with
the school where he stayed until his early 20’s, he had composed a number of
The compositional style of Ravel is mainly characterized by its uniquely
innovative but not atonal style of harmonic treatment. It is defined with
intricate and sometimes modal melodies and extended chordal components. It
demands considerable technical virtuosity from the performer which is the
character, ability, or skill of a virtuoso—a person who excels in musical
technique or execution.
The harmonic progressions and modulations are not only musically satisfying
but also pleasantly dissonant and elegantly sophisticated. His refined delicacy
and color, contrasts and effects add to the difficulty in the proper execution of
the musical passages. These are extensively used in his works of a
programmatic nature, wherein visual imagery is either suggested or portrayed.
Many of his works deal with water in its flowing or stormy moods as well as
with human characterizations.

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Ravel’s works include the following:

 Pavane for a Dead Princess (1899), a slow but lyrical requiem

 Jeux d’Eau or Water Fountains (1901)
 String Quartet (1903)
 Sonatine for Piano (c.1904)
 Miroirs (Mirrors), 1905, a work for piano known for its harmonic evolution and
 Gaspard de la Nuit (1908), a set of demonic-inspired pieces based on the poems of
Aloysius Bertrand which is arguably the most difficult piece in the piano repertoire.
 These were followed by a number of his other significant works, including Valses
Nobles et Sentimentales (1911)
 Le Tombeau de Couperin (c.1917), a commemoration of the musical advocacies of the
early 18th century French composer Francois Couperin,
 Rhapsodie Espagnole
 Bolero
 Daphnis et Chloe (1912), a ballet commissioned by master choreographer Sergei
Diaghilev that contained rhythmic diversity, evocation of nature, and choral ensemble
 La Valse (1920), a waltz with a frightening undertone that had been composed for
ballet and arranged as well as for solo and duo piano.
 The two piano concerti composed in 1929 as well as the violin virtuosic piece Tzigane
(1922) total the relatively meager compositional output of Ravel, approximating 60
pieces for piano, chamber music, song cycles, ballet, and opera.

Ravel was a perfectionist and every bit a musical craftsman. He strongly

adhered to the classical form, specifically its ternary structure. A strong
advocate of Russian music, he also admired the music of Chopin, Liszt,
Schubert, and Mendelssohn. He died in Paris in 1937.

Transcriptions for Two Pianos (Excerpt)
Maurice Ravel

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Comparative Styles of Debussy and Ravel. As the two major exponents of

French Impressionism in music, Debussy and Ravel had crossed paths during
their lifetime although Debussy was thirteen years older than Ravel. While their
musical works sound quite similar in terms of their harmonic and textural
characteristics, the two differed greatly in their personalities and approach to
music. Whereas Debussy was more spontaneous and liberal in form, Ravel was
very attentive to the classical norms of musical structure and the compositional
craftsmanship. Whereas Debussy was more casual in his portrayal of visual
imagery, Ravel was more formal and exacting in the development of his motive


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Arnold Schoenberg was born in a working-class suburb of Vienna, Austria on
September 13, 1874. He taught himself music theory, but took lessons in
counterpoint. German composer Richard Wagner influenced his work as
evidenced by his symphonic poem Pelleas et Melisande, Op 5 (1903), a
counterpoint of Debussy’s opera of the same title. From the early influences of
Wagner, Schoenberg’s style was constantly undergoing his tonal preference
gradually turned to the dissonant and atonal, as he explored the use of
chromatic harmonies. Although full of melodic and lyrical interest, his music is
also extremely complex, creating heavy demands on the listener. His works
were met with extreme reactions, either strong hostility from the general public
or enthusiastic acclaim from his supporters.

Schoenberg is credited with the establishment of the twelve-tone system. His works
include the following:

 Verklarte Nacht, Three Pieces for Piano, op. 11

 Pierrot Lunaire,
 Gurreleider
 Verklarte Nacht (Transfigured Night, 1899), one of his earliest
successful pieces, blends the lyricism, instrumentation, and melodic
beauty of Brahms with the chromaticism and construction of Wagner.

Hismusicalcompositions totalmoreor less213 which include concerti,orchestral

music, piano music, operas, choral music, songs, and other instrumental music.
Schoenberg died on July 13, 1951 in LosAngeles, California, USAwhere he had
settled since 1934.


Arnold Schoenberg

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He was born in Oranienbaum(now

Lomonosov), Russia on June 17, 1882. Stravinsky’s early music reflected the
influence of his teacher, the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. But
in his first successful masterpiece, The Firebird Suite (1910), composed for
Diaghilev’s Russian Ballet, his skillful handling of material and rhythmic
inventiveness went beyond anything composed by his Russian predecessors. He
added a new ingredient to his nationalistic musical style. The Rite of Spring
(1913) was another outstanding work. A new level of dissonance was reached
and the sense of tonality was practically abandoned. Asymmetrical rhythms

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successfully portrayed the character of a solemn pagan rite. When he left the
country for the United States in 1939, Stravinsky slowly turned his back on
Russian nationalism and cultivated his neo-classical style.
Stravinsky adapted the forms of the 18th centurywith his contemporary style of
writing. Despite its “shocking” modernity, his music is also very structured,
precise, controlled, full of artifice, and theatricality. Other outstanding works
include the ballet Petrouchka (1911), featuring shifting rhythms and
polytonality, a signature device of the composer. The Rake’s Progress (1951), a
full-length opera, alludes heavily to the Baroque and Classical styles of Bach
and Mozart through the use of the harpsichord, small orchestra, solo and
ensemble numbers with recitatives stringing together the different songs.
Stravinsky’s musicaloutputapproximates127 works,
includingconcerti,orchestral music, instrumental music, operas, ballets, solo
vocal, and choral music. He died in New York City on April 6, 1971.



 Primitivistic music is tonal through the asserting of one note as more

important than the others. New sounds are synthesized from old ones by
juxtaposing two simple events to create a more complex new event.
 Primitivism has links to Exoticism through the use of materials from
other cultures, Nationalism through the use of materials indigenous to
specific countries, and Ethnicism through the use of materials from
European ethnic groups. Two well-known proponents of this style were
Stravinsky and Bela Bartok. It eventually evolved into Neo-classicism.


Igor Stravinsky

BELA BARTOK (1881–1945)

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Bela Bartok was born in Nagyszentmiklos, Hungary(now Romania) on March
25, 1881, to musical parents. He started piano lessons with his mother and later
entered Budapest Royal Academy of Music in1899.Hewas inspired by the
performance of Richard Strauss’s Also Sprach Zarathustra to write his first
nationalistic poem, Kossuth in 1903. He was a concert pianist as he travelled
exploring the music of Hungarian peasants.
In 1906, with his fellow composer Kodaly, Bartok published his first collection
of 20 Hungarian folk songs. For the next decade, although his music was being
badly received in his country, he continued to explore Magyar folk songs.
Later, he resumed his career as a concert pianist, while composing several
works for his own use.
As a neo-classicist, primitivism, and nationalist composer, Bartok used
Hungarian folk themes and rhythms. He also utilized changing meters and
strong syncopations. His compositions were successful because of their rich
melodies and lively rhythms. He admired the musical styles of Liszt, Strauss,
Debussy, and Stravinsky.
He eventually shed their influences in favor of Hungarian folk and peasant
themes. These later became a major source of the themes of his works. Bartok
is most famous for his Six String Quartets (1908–1938). It represents the
greatest achievement of his creative life, spanning a full 30 years for their
completion. The six works combine difficult and dissonant music with
mysterious sounds.
The Concerto for Orchestra (1943), a five-movement work composed late in
Bartok’s life, features the exceptional talents of its various soloists in an
intricately constructed piece. The short and popular Allegro Barbaro (1911) for
solo piano is punctuated with swirling rhythms and percussive chords, while
Mikrokosmos (1926–1939), a set of six books containing progressive technical
piano pieces, introduced and familiarized the piano student with contemporary
harmony and rhythm.
His musical compositions total more or less 695 which include concerti,
orchestral music, piano music, instrumental music, dramatic music, choral
music, and songs. In 1940, the political developments in Hungary led Bartok to
migrate to the United States, where he died on September 26, 1945 in New
York City, USA.



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Bela Bartok


Neo-classicism was a moderating factor between the emotional excesses of the

Romantic period and the violent impulses of the soul in expressionism. It was, in
essence, a partial return to an earlier style of writing, particularly the tightly-knit form
of the Classical period, while combining tonal harmonies with slight dissonances. It
also adopted a modern, freer use of the seven-note diatonic scale. Examples of neo-
classicism are Bela Bartok’s Song of the Bagpipe and Piano Sonata.

In this latter piece, the classical three-movement format is combined with ever-shifting
time signatures, complex but exciting rhythmic patterns, as well as harmonic
dissonances that produce harsh chords. The neo-classicist style was also used by
composers such as Francis Poulenc, Bela Bartok, Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and
Sergei Prokofieff.


Sergei Prokofieff is regarded today as a combination of neo-classicist, nationalist, and

avant garde composer. His style is uniquely recognizable for its progressive technique,
pulsating rhythms, melodic directness, and a resolving dissonance. Born in the Ukraine
in 1891, Prokofieff set out for the St. Petersburg Conservatory equipped with his great
talent as a composer and pianist. His early compositions were branded as avant garde
and were not approved of by his elders, he continued to follow his stylistic path as he
fled to other places for hopefully better acceptance of his creativity.

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His contacts with Diaghilev and Stravinsky gave him the chance to write music for the
ballet and opera, notably the ballet Romeo and Juliet and the opera War and Peace.
Much of Prokofieff’s opera was left unfinished, due in part to resistance by the
performers themselves to the seemingly
Offensive musical content. He became prolific in writing symphonies, chamber music,
concerti, and solo instrumental music. He also wrote Peter and the Wolf, a lighthearted
orchestral work intended for children, to appease the continuing government
crackdown on avant garde composers at the time.
He was highly successful in his piano music, as evidenced by the wide acceptance of
his piano concert and sonatas, featuring toccata-like rhythms and biting harmonic
dissonance within a classical form and structure. Other significant compositions
include the Symphony no. 1 (also called Classical Symphony), his most accessible
orchestral work linked to the combined styles of classicists Haydn and Mozart and neo-
classicist Stravinsky. He also composed violin sonatas, some of which are also
performed on the flute, two highly regarded violin concerti, and two string quartets
inspired by Beethoven.
Prokofieff’s musical compositions include concerti, chamber music, film scores,
operas, ballets, and official pieces for state occasions. He died in Moscow on March
15, 1953.


Sergei Prokofieff

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One of the relatively few composers born into wealth and a privileged social position,
the neo-classicist Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc was a member of the group of young
French composers known as “Les Six.” He rejected the heavy romanticism of Wagner
and the so-called imprecision of Debussy and Ravel. His compositions had a coolly
elegant modernity, tempered by a classical sense of proportion. Poulenc was also fond
of the witty approach of Satie, as well as the early neo-classical works of Stravinsky.
Poulenc was a successful composer for piano, voice, and choral music. His output
included the harpsichord concerto, known as Concert Champetre (1928); the Concerto
for Two Pianos (1932), which combined the classical touches of Mozart with a
refreshing mixture of wit and exoticism in the style of Ravel; and a Concerto for Solo
Piano (1949) written for the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

Poulenc’s vocal output, meanwhile, revealed his strength as a lyrical melodist. His
opera works included Les Mamelles de Tiresias (1944), which revealed his light-
hearted character; Dialogues des Carmelites (1956), which highlighted his conservative
writing style; and La Voix Humane (1958), which reflected his own turbulent
emotional life.
Poulenc’s choral works tended to be more somber and solemn, as portrayed by Litanies
a la vierge noire (Litanies of the Black Madonna, 1936), with its monophony, simple
harmony, and startling dissonance; and Stabat Mater (1950), which carried a Baroque
solemnity with a prevailing style of unison singing and repetition. Poulenc’s musical
compositions total around 185 which include solo piano works, as well as vocal solos,
known as melodies, which highlighted many aspects of his temperament in his avant
garde style. He died in Paris on January 30, 1963.

Other members of “Les Six”

Georges Auric (1899–1983) wrote music for the movies and rhythmic music
with lots of energy. Louis Durey (1888–1979) used traditional ways of
composing and wrote in his own, personal way, not wanting to follow form.
Arthur Honegger (1882–1955) liked chamber music and the symphony. His
popular piece Pacific 231 describes a train journey on the Canadian Pacific
Railway. Darius Milhaud (1892–1974) was a very talented composer who
wrote in several different styles. Some of his music uses bitonality and
polytonality (writing in two or more keys at the same time). His love of jazz
can be heard in popular pieces like Le Boeuf sur le Toit which he called a
cinema-symphony. Germaine Tailleferre (1892–1983) was the only female in
the group. She liked to use dance rhythms. She loved children and animals and
wrote many works about them. She also wrote operas, concerti, and many
works for the piano.


Francis Poulenc

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Copyright by

Avant Garde Music

Closely associated with electronic music, the avant garde movement dealt with

the parameters or the dimensions of sound in space. The avant garde style

exhibited a new attitude toward musical mobility, whereby the order of note

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groups could be varied so that musical continuity could be altered.

Improvisation was a necessity in this style, for the musical scores were not

necessarily followed as written. For example, one could expect a piece to be

read by a performer from left to right or vice versa. Or the performer might turn

the score over, and go on dabbling indefinitely in whatever order before

returning to the starting point.

From the United States, there were avant garde composers such as
George Gershwin and John Cage with their truly unconventional
composition techniques; Leonard Bernstein with his famed stage
musicals and his music lectures for young people; and Philip Glass
with his minimalist compositions. Through their works, these
composers truly extended the boundaries of what music was thought
to be in earlier periods.
The unconventional methods of sound and form, as well as the
absence of traditional rules governing harmony, melody, and rhythm,
make the whole concept of avant garde music still so strange to ears
accustomed to traditional compositions. Composers who used this
style includeOlivier Messiaen,John Cage,Phillip Glass,Leonard
Bernstein, George Gershwin, and Pierre Boulez.


George Gershwin was born in NewYork to Russian Jewish immigrants. His

older brother Ira was his artistic collaborator who wrote the lyrics of his songs.
His first song was written in 1916 and his first Broadway musical La La Lucille
in 1919 on Broadway. He also composed Rhapsody in Blue
From that time on, Gershwin’s name became a fixture (1924) and An American
in Paris (1928), which incorporated jazz rhythms with classical forms. His
opera Porgy and Bess (1934) remains to this day the only American opera to be
included in the established repertory of this genre. In spite of his commercial
success, Gershwin was more fascinated with classical music. He was influenced
by Ravel, Stravinsky, Berg, and Schoenberg, as well as the group of
contemporary French composers known as “Les Six” that would shape the
character of his major works— half jazz and half classical.
Gershwin’s melodic gift was considered phenomenal, as evidenced by his
numerous songs of wide appeal. He is a true “crossover artist,” in the sense that
his serious compositions remain highly popular in the classical repertoire, as his
stage and film songs continue to be jazz and vocal standards. Considered the
“Father of American Jazz,” his “mixture of the primitive and the sophisticated”
gave his music an appeal that has lasted long after his death. His musical
compositions totalaround369whichincludeorchestralmusic, chamber music,
musical theatre, film musicals, operas, and songs. He died in Hollywood,
California, U.S.A. on July 11, 1937.

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George Gershwin


Bornin Massachussetts, USA, Leonard Bernstein endeared himself to his many

followers as a charismatic conductor, pianist, composer, and lecturer. His big
break came when he was asked to substitute for the ailing Bruno Walter in
conducting the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in a concert on November
14, 1943. The overnight success of this event started his reputation as a great
interpreter of the classics as well as of the more complex works of Gustav
Bernstein’s philosophy was that the universal language of music is basically
rooted in tonality. This came under fire from the radical young musicians who
espoused the surrealist principles of that time. Although he never relinquished
his musical values as a composer, he later turned to conducting and lecturing in
order to safeguard his principles as to what he believed was best in music. He
achieved pre-eminence in two fields: conducting and composing for Broadway
musicals, dance shows, and concert music.
Bernstein is best known for his compositions for the stage. Foremost among
these is the musical West Side Story (1957),an American version of Romeo and
Juliet, which displays a tuneful, off-beat, and highly atonal approach to the
songs. Other outputs include another Broadway hit Candide (1956) and the
much-celebrated Mass (1971), which he wrote for the opening of the John F.
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C.
He composed the music for the film On the Waterfront (1954). As a lecturer,
Bernstein is fondly remembered for his television series “Young People’s
Concerts” (1958–1973) that demonstrated the sounds of the various orchestral
instruments and explained basic music principles to young audiences, as well as
his “Harvardian Lectures,” a six-volume set of his papers on syntax, musical
theories, and philosophical insights delivered to his students at Harvard
University. His musical compositions total around 90. He died in New York
City, USA on October 14, 1990.

From “West Side Story”


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Leonard Bernstein, with lyrics by Stephen Sondheim

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One of the most commercially successful

minimalist composer is Philip Glass who is also
an avant garde composer. He explored the
territories of ballet, opera, theater, film, and even
television jingles. His distinctive style involves
cell-like phrases emanating from bright electronic
sounds from the keyboard that progressed very
slowly from one pattern to the next in a very
repetitious fashion. Aided by soothing vocal
effects and horn sounds, his music is often
criticized as uneventful and shallow, yet
startlingly effective for its hypnotic charm.

Born in NewYork, USA of Jewish parentage, Glass became an

accomplished violinist and flutist at the age of 15. In Paris, he became
inspired by the music of the renowned Indian sitarist Ravi Shankar. He
assisted Shankar in the soundtrack recording for Conrad Rooks’ film
Chappaqua. He formed the Philip Glass Ensemble and produced works
such as Music in Similar Motion (1969) and Music in Changing Parts
(1970), which combined rock- type grooves with perpetual patterns played
at extreme volumes.

Glass collaborated with theater conceptualist Robert Wilson to produce the

four-hour opera Einstein on the Beach (1976), an instant sell-out at the
New York Metropolitan Opera House. It put minimalism in the
mainstream of 20th century music. He completed the trilogy with the
operas Satyagraha (1980) and Akhnaten (1984), based on the lives of
Mahatma Gandhi, Leo Tolstoy, Martin Luther King, and an Egyptian
pharaoh. Here, he combined his signature repetitive and overlapping style
with theatrical grandeur on stage. His musical compositions total around
170.Today, Glass lives alternately in Nova Scotia, Canada and New York,

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Philip Glass

Modern Nationalism

A looser form of 20th century music development focused on nationalist

composers and musical innovators who sought to combine modern techniques
with folk materials. However, this common ground stopped there, for the
different breeds of nationalists formed their own styles of writing.
In Eastern Europe, prominent figures included the Hungarian Bela Bartok and
the Russian Sergei Prokofieff, who were neo-classicists to a certain extent.
Bartok infused Classical techniques into his own brand of cross rhythms and
shifting meters to demonstrate many barbaric and primitive themes that were
Hungarian—particularly gypsy—in origin.
Prokofieff used striking dissonances and Russian themes, and his music was
generally witty, bold, and at times colored with humor. Together with Bartok,
Prokofieff made extensive use of polytonality, a kind of atonality that uses two
or more tonal centers simultaneously. An example of this style is Prokofieff’s
Visions Fugitive.
Modest Mussorgsky, Mili Balakirev, Alexander Borodin, Cesar Cui, and
Nikolai Rimsky In Russia, a highly gifted generation of creative individuals
known as the “Russian Five” Korsakov—infused chromatic harmony and
incorporated Russian folk music and liturgical chant in their thematic materials.

Sergei Prokofieff

Example of Modern Nationalism

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Music scholars predict that the innovative and experimental developments of

20th century classical music will continue to influence the music of the 21st
century. With so many technical and stylistic choices open to today’s
composers, it seems there is no obstacle to their creativity and to the limits of
their imagination. And yet, this same freedom that has allowed such varied
musical experimentation in recent years has also caused contemporary classical
music—or music utilizing the classical techniques of composition—to lose
touch with its audience and to lose its clear role in today’s society. Presently,
modern technology and gadgets put a great impact on all types of music.
However, what still remains to be seen is when this trend will shift, and what
the distinct qualities of emerging classical works will be.

The early half of the 20th century also gave rise to new musical styles, which
were not quite as extreme as the electronic, chance, and minimalist styles that
arose later.These new styles were impressionism, expressionism, neo-
classicism, avant garde music, and modern nationalism.

Impressionism made use of the whole-tone scale. It also applied suggested,

rather than depicted, reality. It created a mood rather than a definite picture. It
had a translucent and hazy texture; lacking a dominant-tonic relationship. It
made use of overlapping chords, with 4th, 5th, octaves, and 9th intervals,
resulting in a non-traditional harmonic order and resolution.

Expressionism revealed the composer’s mind, instead of presenting an

impression of the environment. It used atonality and the twelve-tone scale,
lacking stable and conventional harmonies. It served as a medium for
expressing strong emotions, such as anxiety, rage, and alienation.

Neo-classicism was a partial return to a classical form of writing music with

carefully modulated dissonances. It made use of a freer seven-note diatonic

The avant garde style was associated with electronic music and dealt with the
parameters or dimensions of sound in space. It made use of variations of self-
contained note groups to change musical continuity, and improvisation, with an
absence of traditional rules on harmony, melody, and rhythm.
Modern nationalism is a looser form of 20th century music development
focused on nationalist composers and musical innovators who sought to
combine modern techniques with folk materials.

A number of outstanding composers of the 20th century each made their own distinctive mark
on the contemporary classical music styles that developed. Claude Debussy and Maurice
Ravelwere the primary exponents of impressionism, whileArnold Schoenberg was the primary
exponent of expressionism, with the use of the twelve-tone scale and atonality. Bela
Bartokwas a neo-classical, modern nationalist, and a primitivist composer who adopted
Hungarian folk themes to introduce rhythms with changing meters and heavy syncopation.
Igor Stravinsky was also an expressionist and a neo-classical composer. He incorporated
nationalistic elements in his music, known for his skillful handling of materials and his
rhythmic inventiveness.

What’s more

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The following listening activities will help and guide you to experience the beautiful
musical compositions and presentations composed during the 20th Century Music.

A. Singing or Humming Musical Fragments

1. Choose a several musical excerpts of selected 20th century composers on YouTube.

2. Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the distinct musical style of
each composer.
3. sing or hum some melodic fragments (portion only) of any of the following excerpts of
20th century music, together with the recordings and video:
a. Claude Debussy’s Claire de Lune
b. Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story
c. George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue
d. Ravel’s Bolero
e. Any work of minimalist composers, Philip Glass or Meredith Monk
f. Any work of nationalist composers, Erik Satie or Bela Bartok.
4. Make a video of yourself which you describe each composers with their songs.
5. Choose a composition that they like. Ask them to write a brief profile about the
composer, and to also give their personal reactions about the music on a one whole sheet of
bond paper and pass it on google classroom.
6. Submit your work next meeting.

What I Have Learned

Direction: Express what you have learned in this lesson by completing the sentences

1. Impressionism is

2. the vocal music of 20th century music are


3. Expressionist is

4. avant garde is

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5. Neo-classicism is

6. Modern Nationalism is
7. What can you say about 20th century music

8. 20th century music is

9. Philip Glass is
10. 20th century music composers are

What I can do

A. Film Showing or Video Watching

1. Research on the 20thcentury musical play West Side Story written by Leonard
2. Watch any video clip of West Side Story on the internet or YouTube.

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3. write a reaction paper explaining the following elements of the performance:
a. Setting
b. Musical compositions
c. Role of composer and lyricist
d. Role of performers (actors, actresses)
e. Role of the audience (students)
f. Sound and musical direction
g. Script / screenplay
h. Props, costumes, lighting
4. Answer these questions: Did you like what you watched? Why or why not?
5. Explain their answers on recording a video. Pass your work on Facebook page we have
on next meeting.


TEST I. Multiple Choice

Direction: Write the letter of the best answer. Write it on the space provided before the
_________1. A French movement developed by visual artists who favored vague blurry
images intended to capture an ‘impression’ of the subject.
A. Cubism C. Expressionism
B. Impressionism D. Primitivism
_________2. Less precision but more impression. He didn’t put much detail. He just wanted to
suggest, capture the feeling, the emotion, and the____________.
A. Love C. Impression
B. Expression D. Feeling
_________3. He was the primary exponent of the impressionist movement and the focal point
for other impressionist composers.
A. Maurice Ravel C. Claude Monet
B. Claude Debussy D. Igor Stravinsky
_________4. He changed the course of musical development by dissolving traditional rules
and conventions into a new language of possibilities in harmony, rhythm, form, texture, and
A. Maurice Ravel C. Claude Monet
B. Claude Debussy D. Igor Stravinsky
_________5. The process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superposition of
sounds, is analyzed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies,
pitches (tones, notes), or chords.
A. Color C. Harmony
B. Texture D. Rhythm
_________6.The structure of a musical composition. The term is regularly used in two senses:
to denote a standard type, or genre, and to denote the procedures in a specific work.
A. Color C. Form
B. Harmony D. Texture
_________7. This refers to the tone color, also known as timbre, is the quality of a sound that
is not characterized as frequency (pitch), duration (rhythm), or amplitude (volume).
A. Color C. Form
B. Harmony D. Texture
_________8. This refers to the combination of melody, harmony and rhythm of a given piece.
A. Color C. Form
B. Harmony D. Texture
_________9. This refers to the arrangement of sounds as they move through time.
A. Color C. Rhythm
B. Harmony D. Texture
_________10. It is an ensemble with bells, gongs, xylophone, and occasional vocal parts
which he later used in his works to achieve a new sound.

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A. Gamelan C. Brass band
B. Bamboo Organ D. Kulintang

Additional Activities


A. Essay

Direction: Answer the following question and write your answer on a short bond paper
send via google classroom

1. Which of the styles that you studied do you like best?

2. Explain your answer in essay form.

B. Search for the following video on YouTube and to view it for additional insights on
20th century music: Young People’s Concert: What is Impressionism by Leonard
You may also search for Bernstein’s other video lectures on music.

Learning Resources / References:

 Textbook (( MAPEH In Action 10)

 Other print resources:
 Online resources:

Prepared by: Reviewed by: Approved by:

Ms. Dafchen Nio V. Mahasol Mr. Peter B. Rago Sr. Cecilia P. Varon, O.P

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