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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ (MC SIR) M.O.D.


KEY CONCEPTS (METHOD OF DIFFERENTIATION)
1. DEFINITION :
If x and x + h belong to the domain of a function f defined by y = f(x), then
Limit f (x  h)  f (x) if it exists , is called the DERIVATIVE of f at x & is denoted by
h 0 h
dy f (x  h)  f (x)
f (x) or . We have therefore , f (x) = Limit
h 0
dx h
2. The derivative of a given function f at a point x = a of its domain is defined as :
Limit f (a  h)  f (a ) , provided the limit exists & is denoted by f (a) .
h 0 h
f (x )  f (a )
Note that alternatively, we can define f(a) = Limit
x a , provided the limit exists.
xa
3. DERIVATIVE OF f(x) FROM THE FIRST PRINCIPLE /ab INITIO METHOD:
y f (x   x)  f (x) dy
If f(x) is a derivable function then, Limit
x 0 = Limit
x 0 x
= f (x) =
x dx
4. THEOREMS ON DERIVATIVES :
If u and v are derivable function of x, then,
d du dv d du
(i) (u  v)   (ii) (K u)  K , where K is any constant
dx dx dx dx dx
d dv du
(iii)
dx
u . v  u dx  v dx known as “ PRODUCT RULE ”

d  u v  dudx   u  dvdx 
(iv)    where v  0 known as “ QUOTIENT RULE ”
dx  v v2
dy dy du
(v) If y = f(u) & u = g(x) then  . “ CHAIN RULE ”
dx du dx
5. DERIVATIVE OF STANDARDS FUNCTIONS :
(i) D (xn) = n.xn1 ; x  R, n  R, x > 0 (ii) D (ex) = ex
1 1
(iii) D (ax) = ax. ln a a > 0 (iv) D (ln x) = (v) D (logax) = logae
x x
(vi) D (sinx) = cosx (vii) D (cosx) =  sinx (viii) D = tanx = sec²x
(ix) D (secx) = secx . tanx (x) D (cosecx) =  cosecx . cotx
d
(xi) D (cotx) =  cosec²x (xii) D (constant) = 0 where D =
dx
6. INVERSE FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES :
(a) Theorem : If the inverse functions f & g are defined by y = f(x) & x = g(y) & if
1 dy
f (x) exists & f (x)  0 then g (y) = . This result can also be written as, if exists &
f  (x) dx

dy dx  dy  dy dx dy  dx  dx
 0 , then  1 /   or .  1 or 1 /   [  0]
dx dy  dx  dx dy dx  dy  dy

(b) Results :
1 1
(i) D (sin 1 x)  ,  1 x  1 (ii) D (cos 1 x)  ,  1 x  1
2
1 x 1  x2
1 1
(iii) D (tan 1 x)  2
, x R (iv) D (sec 1 x )  , x 1
1 x x x2  1

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1 1
(v) D (cos ec 1x )  , x 1 (vi) D (cot 1 x)  , x R
x 2
x 1 1 x2

dy du
Note : In general if y = f(u) then = f (u) . .
dx dx
7. LOGARITHMIC DIFFERENTIATION : To find the derivative of :
(i) a function which is the product or quotient of a number of functions OR
(ii) a function of the form [f(x)]g(x) where f & g are both derivable, it will be found convinient to take
the logarithm of the function first & then differentiate. This is called LOGARITHMIC
DIFFERENTIATION .
8. IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION :  (x , y) = 0
(i) In order to find dy/dx, in the case of implicit functions, we differentiate each term
w.r.t. x regarding y as a functions of x & then collect terms in dy/dx together on one side to
finally find dy/dx.
(ii) In answers of dy/dx in the case of implicit functions, both x & y are present .
9. PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION :
If y = f() & x = g() where  is a parameter , then dy  d y / d  .
dx dx / d
10. DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION W.R.T. ANOTHER FUNCTION :
dy dy / dx f ' (x)
Let y = f(x) ; z = g(x) then d z  d z / d x  g'(x) .

11. DERIVATIVES OF ORDER TWO & THREE :


Let a function y = f(x) be defined on an open interval (a, b). It’s derivative, if it exists on
(a, b) is a certain function f (x) [or (dy/dx) or y ] & is called the first derivative
of y w.r.t. x.
If it happens that the first derivative has a derivative on (a , b) then this derivative is called the second
derivative of y w. r. t. x & is denoted by f (x) or (d2y/dx2) or y .
d 3y d  d 2y 
rd
Similarly, the 3 order derivative of y w. r. t. x , if it exists, is defined by d x 3    It is also
dx  d x 2 

denoted by f (x) or y .


f (x) g(x) h(x)
12. If F(x) = l(x) m(x) n(x) , where f , g , h , l , m , n , u , v , w are differentiable functions of x then
u(x) v(x) w(x)

f ' (x) g' (x) h' (x) f (x) g(x) h(x) f (x) g(x) h(x)
F (x) = l(x) m(x) n(x) + l '(x) m' (x) n'(x) + l (x) m(x) n(x)
u(x) v(x) w(x) u(x) v (x ) w(x) u' (x) v' (x) w'(x)
13. L’ HOSPITAL’S RULE :
If f(x) & g(x) are functions of x such that :
(i) Limit f(x) = 0 = Limit g(x) OR Limit f(x) =  = Limit g(x) and
x a x a x a x a
(ii) Both f(x) & g(x) are continuous at x = a &
(iii) Both f(x) & g(x) are differentiable at x = a &
(iv) Both f (x) & g (x) are continuous at x = a , Then
Limit f (x) = Limit f '(x) = Limit f "(x ) & so on till indeterminant form vanishes.
x a g(x) x a x ag' (x) g"(x)

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14. ANALYSIS AND GRAPHS OF SOME USEFUL FUNCTIONS :
 2 tan 1 x x 1
 2x   1
(i) y = f(x) = sin1  2
 =    2 tan x x 1
1  x  
 
1
   2 tan x  x  1

HIGHLIGHTS :
(a) Domain is x  R &
  
range is   2 , 2 
 
(b) f is continuous for
all x but not diff.
at x = 1 , - 1
 22 for x 1
dy  1 x
(c) =  non existent for x 1
dx  2
 1  x 2 for x 1

(d) I in (- 1 , 1) & D in (-  , - 1)  (1 , )

 1  x2   2 tan 1 x if x  0
(ii) Consider y = f (x) = cos-1   = 
 1  x2    2 tan x
1
if x  0
HIGHLIGHTS :
(a) Domain is x  R &
range is [0, )
(b) Continuous for all x
but not diff. at x = 0
 22 for x  0
dy  1 x
(c) =  non existent for x  0
dx  2
 1  x 2 for x  0

(d) I in (0 , ) & D in (-  , 0)
 2 tan 1 x x 1
2x 
(iii) y = f (x) = tan -1
=    2 tan 1 x x  1
1  x2

   2 tan 1 x
  x1

HIGHLIGHTS :
(a) Domain is R - {1 , -1} &
range is    ,  
 2  2
(b) f is neither continuous
nor diff. at x = 1 , - 1
2
dy  2 x 1
(c) =  1 x
dx  non existent x 1
(d) I  x in its domain (e) It is bound for all x

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(IV) y = f (x) = sin1 (3 x  4 x3) =  3 sin 1 x if  12  x  1
2
   3 sin 1 x if 1
x1
 2
Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ (MC SIR) M.O.D.
HIGHLIGHTS :
(a) Domain is x  [ 1 , 1] &
  
range is  2 , 2 
 

1
(b) Not derivable at x 
2

dy
 3
2 
if x   12 ,  1
2
(c) =  1  x3
dx  if x 1 ,     1
2
1
2
, 1
 1  x2

(d) Continuous everywhere in its domain

 3 cos 1 x  2  if  1  x   12

(v) y = f (x) = cos-1 (4 x3 - 3 x) = 2   3 cos 1 x if  12  x  12
 3 cos 1 x if 1
x1
 2

HIGHLIGHTS :
(a) Domain is x  [- 1 , 1] &
range is [0 , ]

(b) Continuous everywhere in its domain


1 1
but not derivable at x = ,
2 2

 1 1

(c) I in   ,  &
 2 2

1   1
D in  2 , 1   1 ,  2 
 

dy
 3
2 
if x   12 ,  1
2
(d) =  1  x3
dx  if x 1 ,     1
2
1
2
, 1
 1  x2

GENERAL NOTE :
Concavity in each case is decided by the sign of 2nd derivative as :
d2y d2y
d x2
> 0  Concave upwards ; d x2
< 0  Concave downwards

D = DECREASING ; I = INCREASING

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SOLVED ILLUSTRATIONS :
log x
1 Differentiate (log x) , x > 1 w.r.t. x
Sol. Let f(x) = (log x) log x
Taking log on both sides
 log f(x) = (log x) log (log x)
Differentiating both sides
1 1 1 1
  f '  x   log (log x) + (log x)  log x 
f x x log x dx

1 1
 f '(x) = (log x) log x  log  log x   
x x

 3
2. Differentiate (sin x – cos x)(sin x – cos x) , x w.r.t. x.
4 4
Sol. Let f(x) = (sin x – cos x)(sin x – cos x)
Taking log on both sides
 log f(x) = (sin x – cos x) log (sin x – cos x)
Differentiating both sides
1
 × f ' (x) = (cos x + sin x) log (sin x – cos x) + (sin x – cos x)
f x

1 d
(sin x – cos x)
 sin x  cos x  dx
 f ' (x) = (sin x – cos)(sin x – cos x) (cos x + sin x)(log (sin x – cos x) +1)

dy
3. Find , if yx + xy + xx = ab.
dx
Sol. Given that yx + xy + xx = ab.
Putting u = yx, v = xy and w = xx, we get u + v + w = ab
du dv dw
Therefore   0 ..... (1)
dx dx dx
Now, u = yx. Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log u = x log y
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have
1 du d d 1 dy
.  x  log y   log y  x   x .  log y.1
u dx dx dx y dx

du  x dy   x dy 
So  u  log y   y x   log y  ..... (2)
dx  y dx   y dx 
y
Also v = x
Taking logarithm on both sides we have log v = y log x
Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x we have
1 dv d dy 1 dy
.  y  log x   log x  y.  log x.
v dx dx dx x dx

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dv y dy  y dy 
So  v   log x   x y   log x  .....(3)
dx x dx  x dx 
x
Again w=x
Taking logarithm on both sides we have log w = x log x
1 dw d d 1
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have . x (log x) + log x .  x   x.  log x.1
w dx dx dx x
dw
i.e., = w ( 1 + log x) = xx ( 1 + log x) .....(4)
dx
From (1),(2), (3), (4) we have
 x dy  y dy 
yx   log y   x y   log x   x x 1  log x   0
 y dx  x dx 
dy
or (x. yx–1 + xy.log x) = –xx (1 + log x) – y. xy–1 – yx log y
dx
x y1 x
dy   y log y  y.x  x 1  log x  
Therefore 
dx x.y x1  x y log x

 x  3  x 2  4 
4. Differentiate w.r.t . x
3x 2  4x  5

 x  3  x 2  4 
Sol. Let y =
3x 2  4x  5
Taking logarithm on both sides, we have
1
log y = [log (x – 3) + log (x2 + 4) – log (3x2 + 4x + 5)]
2
Now. differentiating both sides w.r.t. x we get

1 dy 1  1 2x 6x  4 
.    2  2 
y dx 2   x  3 x  4 3x  4x  5 

dy y  1 2x 6x  4 
or    2  2 
dx 2   x  3 x  4 3x  4x  5 

1  x  3  x 2  4  
1 2x 6x  4 
= 2   2  2 
2 3x  4x  5   x  3 x  4 3x  4x  5 

dy  
5. Find , if y = 12 (1 – cos t), x = 10 (t – sin t), t
dx 2 2

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dy
dy dt dy dx
Sol.  ; = 12 sin t, = 10(1– cos t)
dx dx dt dt
dt

t t
dy 12sin t 6 2sin 2 cos 2 6 t
     cot  
dx 10 1  cos t  5 2sin 2
t 5  2
2

dy 1
6. If x 1  y  y 1  x  0 , for –1 < x < 1, prove that  .
dx 1  x  2

Sol. x 1  y  y 1  x  0  x 1  y   y 1  x
 x and y must be opposite in sign now squaring both sides
x2 (1 + y) = y2 (1 + x)  y2 (1 + x ) – x2y – x2 = 0

x 2  x 4  4x 2  4x 3 x 2   x 2  2x 
 y  y =
2 1  x  2 1  x 

x 1
 y  or y = x y = –1 + or y = x (not possible).
1 x 1 x
1 dy 1
y = – 1 +  
1 x dx 1  x  2

3/ 2
  dy  2 
1    
  dx  
7. If (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = c2, for some c > 0, prove that is a constant independent of a
d2y
dx 2
and b.
Sol. Let x = a + c cos  and y = b + c sin 
dy
dy d dy c cos 
     cot 
dx dx dx csin 
d

d2y d d d d 2 y cos ec 2  1
2
   cot      cot     2    cos ec3
dx dx d dx dx  csin  c

3/ 2
  dy  2 
1    
  dx   cos ec3
  =  c
d2y 1 3
 cos ec 
dx 2 c

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2
dy cos  a  y 
8. If cos y = x cos (a + y), with cos a 1, prove that 
dx sin a
cos y
Sol. cosy = xcos (a + y)  x
cos  a  y 
Differentiating both sides
dy dy
cos  a  y   sin y   cos ysin  a  y 
 dx dx  1
cos 2  a  y 
2
dy dy cos  a  y 
 (cos y sin (a + y) – sin y cos (a + y)) = cos2 (x + y)  
dx dx sin a

d2y
9. If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t), find .
dx 2
dy
dy dt dy a  cos t  cos t  t sin t  dy
Sol.     = tan t
dx dx dx a   sin t  sin t  t cos t  dx
dt

d2y d d dt
2
  tan t    tan t 
dx dx dt dx
d 2 y sec 2 t sec3 t
 
dx 2 at cos t at

dy 23 2
3
2
3
10. Find , x  y  a .
dx
Sol. Let x = a cos3 , y = a sin3 
2 2
3 3
Then x  y = (a cos3 )2/3 + (a sin3 )2/3 = a2/3 [(cos2 ) + (sin2 )] = a2/3
2 2 2
3 3 3
Hence, x = a cos , y = a sin  is parametric equation of x  y  a
3 3

dx dy
Now = –3a cos2  sin and = 3a sin2 cos 
d d
dy
dy d 3a sin 2  cos  y
Therefore   2 = – tan=  3
dx dx 3a cos  sin  x
d

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f x g x h  x f ' x  g ' x  h ' x 


dy
11. If y =  m n , prove that   m n
dx
a b c a b c

f x gx h x


m n  n  m
Sol. y=  m n y = f(x)  gx  hx
b c a c a b
a b c

f ' x  g ' x  h ' x 


dy m n  n  m dy
  f ' x   g ' x   h ' x     m n
dx b c a c a b dx
a b c

–1 d 2 y xdy 2
12. If y = ea cos x, –1 x 1, show that (1 – x2)  a y  0.
dx 2 dx
–1x
Sol. y = ea cos
dy 1
 ea cos x
 a 

dx 1 x2
dy 1
 1  x 2  ae a cos x
dx
Differentiating both sides
1

 1  x
d2y

 2x  dy  a 2e a cos x
2

dx 2 2 1  x 2 dx 1 x2
d2y dy
 1  x 2  2
 x  a 2y  0
dx dx

13. Differentiate sin2 w.r.t. e cosx.


du du / dx du
Sol. Let u (x) = sin2 x and v (x) = ecos x . We want to find  . Clearly = 2 sin x cos x and
dv dv / dx dx
dv
= ecos x (–sin x) = – (sin x) e cos x.
dx
du 2sin x cos x 2cos x
Thus = cos x
  cos x
dv  sin xe e

14. If 0 < x < 1, then


1 2x 4x 3 8x 7
    ...... 
1  x 1  x2 1  x4 1  x8
1 x x 1 x
(A) (B) (C) (D)
1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x
2 4 8 2n–1
Sol. Let y = (1 + x) (1 + x ) (1 + x ) (1 + x ) ..... (1 + x )

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So that
n–1
(1 – x) y = (1 – x) (1 + x) (1 + x2) (1 + x4) ..... (1 + x2 )
= (1 – x2) (1 + x2) (1 + x4) .... (1 + x2n–1)
Therefore, finally
n
(1 – x) y = 1 – x2
and hence
n
1 x2 1
y  as n  
1 x 1 x
Therefore the infinite product
1
(1 + x) ( 1 + x2) (1 + x4) (1 + x8) ....... =
1 x
Using logarithmic differentiation,we have
1 2x 4x 3 8x 7 1
 2
 4
 8
 .....   
1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x

15. If y2 = P(x) is a polynomial of degree 3,then


d  3 d2y 
2 y 
dx  dx 2  =
(A) P''' (x) + P'(x) (B) P''(x).P'''(x) (C) P(x)P'''(x) (D) a constant
Sol. It is given that y = P (x). In this problem, for comfor sake,we denote dy/dx by y1 and d2y/dx2 by y2.
3

Differentiating the given equation y2 = P(x) w.r.t. x, we have


2yy1 = P' (x)
Again differentiating both sides w.r.t x we get
2y12  2yy 2  P''  x 
Multiplying both sides of eq. with y2, we get
2y 2 y12  2y3 y 2  y 2P ''  x  = P (x) P''(x)
Therefore
2y3y2 = P (x) P'' (x) – 2y2y12
1
= P (x) P'' (x) – (P'(x))2
2
So
d 3 1
2 (y y2) = P' (x) P'' (x) + P (x) P''' (x) – × 2P' (x) × P'' (x)
dx 2
= P (x) P''' (x)

d2y
16. If y = sin (m sin–1x), then (1 – x2)
dx 2
dy dy dy
(A) xy – m2y2 (B) x  m2 y (C) x  m2y (D) x  my 2
dx dx dx
–1
Sol. We have y = sin (m sin x). Differentiating w.r.t.x we get

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dy m
= cos (m sin–1x) × –
dx 1 x2
d2y 1 dy
1  x2 2
  2x 
dx 2 1 x 2 dx
m
= m [–sin (m sin–1x) ×
1 x2
m 2 y
=
1 x2
Therefore
d2 y dy
(1 – x2) 2
x = –m2y
dx dx
d2y dy
(1 – x2) x –m2y
dx dx

17. The domain of the derivative of the function


 tan 1 x if | x | 1
 is
f x  1
  | x | 1 if | x | 1
2
(A) R – {0} (B) R – {1} (C) R – {–1} (D) R – {–1, 1}
Sol. We have

1
 2   x  1 if x  1

f  x    tan 1 x if 1  x  1
1
  x  1 if x 1
2
Clearly f is discontinuous at x = –1, 1 and hence at–1, 1 the function f is not differentiable.Also

 1
 2   x  1 if x  1

 1
f ' x    2
if 1  x  1
 1  x
 1
 if x 1
 2
Clearly f is discontinous at x = –1, 1 and hence 1, 1 the function f is not differentiable. Also

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 1
 2   x  1 if x  1

 1
f ' x    2
if 1  x  1
 1 x
 1
 if x 1
 2

Therefore domain of f ' (x) is R – {–1, 1}

18. If y = sin (sin x), then show that


d2y dy
2
  tan x  + y cos2 x = 0
dx dx
Sol. Differentiating y = sin (sin x) we get
dy
= cos (sin x) (cos x)
dx
d2y 2
2 = – sin (sin x) cos x + cos (sin x) (–sin x)
dx
  sin x 
= –ycos2x + cos (sin x) cos x  
 cos x 
dy
= – y cos2x – (tan x)
dx
Therefore
d2y dy
2
  tan x   y cos2 x  0
dx dx

EXERCISE–I
Q.1 Let f , g and h are differentiable functions. If f (0) = 1 ; g (0) = 2 ; h (0) = 3 and the derivatives of their
pair wise products at x = 0 are
(f g)'(0) = 6 ; (g h)'(0) = 4 and (h f)'(0) = 5
then compute the value of (fgh)'(0).
dy
Q.2(a) If y = (cos x)lnx + (lnx)x find .
dx
ex xe ex dy
(b) If y = e x  e x  x e . Find .
dx
1 1 1
Q.3 Let f (x) = x + ......... . Compute the value of f (100) · f ' (100).
2x  2 x  2 x 

x2 1
Q.4 If y =  x x 2  1  ln x  x 2  1 prove that 2y = xy' + ln y'. where ' denotes the derivative.
2 2
2
Q.5 If x = cosec  sin  ; y = cosecn  sinn  , then show that ( x  4)  d y   n 2 ( y 2  4)  0 .
2
 dx 
 

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dy 16 t (1  t 4 )
Q.6 If y = sec 4 x and x = tan–1(t), prove that = .
dt (1  6 t 2  t 4 ) 2
2
1  lnt 3  2lnt dy  dy 
Q.7 If x = and y = . Show that y  2x   1 .
t2 t dx  dx 

1 x2  1 x2
Q.8 Differentiate w. r. t. 1 x 4 .
1 x2  1 x2

Q.9 Find the derivative with respect to x of the function:


2x 
(logcosx sinx) (logsinx cosx)–1 + arcsin 2 at x = .
1 x 4
dy x 2 1  y6
Q.10 If 1  x 6  1  y 6 = a3 . (x3  y3), prove that = .
dx y2 1  x 6

1 dy 1
Q.11 If y = x + , prove that  .
1 dx 2 x
x
x
1 1
x...............
x
1
x
x....................

x1 x2 . x x3 . x 2
Q.12 If y=1+ x  x + ( x  x )(x  x ) + +..... upto (n + 1) terms then prove that
1 1 2 ( x  x1 )(x  x 2 )(x  x 3 )

dy y  x1 x2 x3 xn 
=     ...  
dx x  x1  x x 2  x x 3  x xn  x 


Q.13 Suppose f (x) = tan sin 1 ( 2 x ) 
(a) Find the domain and range of f.
(b) Express f (x) as an algebaric function of x.
(c) Find f ' 1 4  .

u 1  1   1  dy
Q.14 If y = tan 1 & x = sec 1 , u   0,  ,1 prove that 2 + 1 = 0.
1  u2
2
2u 1  2  2  dx

1  sin x  1  sin x dy      , 
Q.15 If y = cot 1 , find if x   0,    .
1  sin x  1  sin x dx  2 2 

x  1 x  dy
Q.16 If y = tan–1 2 + sin  2 tan 1  , then find
 for x  (–1, 1).
1 1 x  1 x  dx

Q.17 Let f (x) = x2  4x  3, x > 2 and let g be the inverse of f. Find the value of g  where f (x) = 2.

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1 1 1 1 1
Q.18 If y = tan 2
 tan 1 2  tan 1 2  tan 1 2 +...... to n terms.
x  x 1 x  3x  3 x  5x  7 x  7 x  13
Find dy/dx , expressing your answer in 2 terms.

x y yx dy
Q.19 If y = ln  x e a  find .
  dx

 2
y 
 1  tan  
y  2  dy 1
Q.20 If x = tan  ln  . Show that = sin y(1 + sin y + cos y).
2  y  dx 2
 tan 2 
 

y
arc sin
2 2 x 2  y2 d 2 y 2( x 2  y 2 )
Q.21 If x y e . Prove that  , x > 0.
dx 2 ( x  y)3
Q.22 If x = 2cost  cos2t & y = 2sint  sin2t , find the value of (d2y/dx2) when t = (/2).

3 d2y
Q.23 Find the value of the expression y on the ellipse 3x2 + 4y2 = 12.
dx 2

Q.24 If f : R  R is a function such that f (x) = x3 + x2 f (1) + xf (2) + f (3) for all x  R , then prove that
f (2) = f (1)  f (0).
g( x ), x0

Q.25 Let g(x) be a polynomial, of degree one & f(x) be defined by f(x) =  1/ x .
1 x 
   , x0
Find the continuous function f(x) satisfying f (1) = f(1) 2x 
EXERCISE–II
dy sin a
Q.1 If sin y = x sin (a + y) , show that = .
dx 1  2 x cos a  x 2

Q.2 Find a polynomial function f (x) such that f (2x) = f ' (x) f " (x).

cos 3x dy 6
Q.3 If y = arc cos then show that = , sinx > 0.
cos3 x dx cos2x  cos4x
d2 y
Q.4 Let y = x sin kx. Find the possible value of k for which the differential equation 2 + y = 2k cos kx
holds true for all x  R. dx

Q.5 Prove that if | a1 sin x + a2sin 2x + .......+ ansin nx |  | sin x | for x  R, then
| a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 + ...... + nan |  1
Q.6 The function f : R  R satisfies f (x2) · f ''(x) = f '(x) · f '(x2) for all real x. Given that f (1) = 1 and
f '''(1) = 8, compute the value of  f '(1) + f ''(1).
 x d2 y dy
Q.7(a) Show that the substitution z = ln  tan  changes the equation 2  cot x  4 y cos ec 2 x  0 to
 2  dx dx
(d2y/dz2) + 4 y = 0.
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(b) If the dependent variable y is changed to 'z' by the substitution y = tan z then the differential equation
2 2
d2 y 2(1  y)  dy  d 2z 2  dz 
2
 1  2   is changed to 2 = cos z  k   , then find the value of k.
dx 1  y  dx  dx  dx 

Q.8 Show that R =


1 dy dx   2 3/ 2
can be reduced to the form R2/3 =
1

1
.
d 2 y dx 2 d y dx 
2 2 2/3
d x dy 
2 2 2/3

Also show that, if x=a sin2(1+cos2) & y=acos2 (1– cos2) then the value of R equals to 4a cos3.
sin x
Q.9 Let f (x) = if x  0 and f (0) = 1. Define the function f ' (x) for all x and find f '' (0) if it exist.
x
Q.10 Suppose f and g are two functions such that f, g : R  R,

f (x) = ln 1  1  x 2  and g (x) = ln  x  1  x 2 


   
  1  '
then find the value of x eg(x)  f     g ' ( x ) at x = 1.
  x 
xe x x0
Q.11 Let f (x) =  then prove that

x  x2  x3 x0
(a) f is continuous and differentiable for all x.
(b) f ' is continuous and differentiable for all x.

3  1 
 x (1  x ) sin  x 2  if 0  x  1
Q.12 f : [0, 1]  R is defined as f (x) =    , then prove that
 0 if x  0
(a) f is differentiable in [0, 1] (b) f is bounded in [0, 1] (c) f ' is bounded in [0, 1]
 x  y f (x)  f (y)
Q.13 Let f(x) be a derivable function at x = 0 & f   = (k  R , k  0, 2). Show that
 k  k
f (x) is either a zero or an odd linear function.
f ( x  y)  f ( x ) f ( y)  a
Q.14 Let = + xy for all real x and y. If f (x) is differentiable and f (0) exists
2 2
for all real permissible values of 'a' and is equal to 5a  1  a 2 . Prove that f (x) is positive for all real x.
Q.15 Column-I Column-II
3 1
 ln (1  x ) ·sin x , if x  0 continuous everywhere but not
(A) f (x) =  (P)
 0, if x  0 differentiable at x  0

2 1
 ln (1  x ) ·sin x , if x  0 differentiable at x  0 but
(B) g (x) =  (Q)
 0, if x  0 derivative is discontinuous at x  0

 sin x 
 ln 1  2 , if x  0 differentiable and has
(C) u (x) =    (R)
 0, if x  0 continuous derivative

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2x 2
(D) v (x) = Lim tan 1 2  (S) continuous and differentiable
t 0  t  at x  0

(xa ) 4 ( xa )3 1 (xa ) 4 ( xa ) 2 1


Q.16 If f (x) = ( xb) 4 ( xb)3 1 then f  (x) = . ( xb) 4 (xb) 2 1 . Find the value of .
( xc) 4 ( xc)3 1 (xc) 4 ( xc) 2 1

cos(xx 2 ) sin ( xx 2 ) cos( x x 2 )


Q.17 If f(x) = sin ( xx 2 ) cos( xx 2 ) sin (xx 2 ) then find f'(x).
sin 2 x 0 sin 2 x 2
Q.18 If  be a repeated root of a quadratic equation f(x) = 0 & A(x) , B(x) , C(x) be the polynomials of
A( x ) B( x ) C( x )
degree 3, 4 & 5 respectively , then show that A() B( ) C( ) is divisible by f(x), where dash
A' ( ) B' ( ) C' ( )
denotes the derivative.
a x bx cx
Q.19 Let f (x) =   x m  x n  x . Show that f  (x) = 0 and that f (x) = f (0) + k x where k denotes
px qx rx
the sum of all the co-factors of the elements in f (0).
Q.20 If Y = sX and Z = tX, where all the letters denotes the functions of x and suffixes denotes the differentiation
w.r.t. x then prove that

X Y Z s t1
X1 Y1 Z1 = X3 1
s2 t2
X2 Y2 Z2

EXERCISE–III
Evalute the following limits using L’Hospital’s Rule or otherwise :

 1 1 x2  x  ln  x 2  1  x 
Q.1 Lim    Q.2 Lim  
1
x 0
 x sin x x2  x 0 x 3

Lim x x 
x
Q.3 Lim  1  1  Q.4
1
x 0  2
x sin 2 x  x 0

1  sin x  cos x  l n (1  x ) sin x


Q.5 Lim Q.6 Lim sin x  (sin x )
x 0 x·tan2 x x  2 1  sin x  l n (sin x )

Find the value of f(0) so that the function f(x)= 1  2


Q.7 2x
, x  0 is continuous at x = 0 & examine the
x e 1
differentiability of f(x) at x = 0.
sin (3x 2 )
Q.8 Lim
x 0 ln.cos(2x 2 x )
Lim a sin x  bx  cx 2  x 3
Q.9 If x 0 exists & is finite, find the values of a, b, c & the limit.
2x 2.ln (1  x )  2 x 3  x 4

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x 6000  (sin x ) 6000
Q.10 Evaluate: Lim
x 0 x 2 ·(sin x ) 6000
1  cos x ·cos 2x ·cos 3x........cos nx
Q.11 If Lim has the value equal to 253, find the value of n
x 0 x2
(where n  N).
Q.12 Given a real valued function f(x) as follows:

f (x) =
x 2  2 cos x  2
for x < 0; f (0) =
1
& f (x) =

sin x  ln e x cos x 
for x > 0. Test the
x4 12 6x 2
continuity and differentiability of f (x) at x = 0.
Q.13 Let a1 > a2 > a3 ............ an > 1; p1 > p2 > p3......... > pn > 0 ; such that p1 + p2 + p3 + ...... + pn = 1

Also F (x) = p1a1x  p 2 a 2x  .......  p n a xn 
1x
. Compute
(a) Lim F(x ) (b) Lim F(x ) (c) Lim F( x )
x 0 x  x  

1  cos 3x ·cos 9 x ·cos 27 x.........cos 3n x


Q.14 If Lim = 310, find the value of n.
x 0 1 1 1 1
1  cos x ·cos x ·cos x.........cos n x
3 9 27 3
Q.15 Column-I contains function defined on R and Column-II contains their properties. Match them.
Column-I Column-II
n
  
 1  tan 
Lim  2n 
(A) n     equal (P) e
 1  sin 
 3n 
1
(B) Lim 1
equals (Q) e2
x  0
(1  cosec x ) ln (sin x )
1x
2 
(C) Lim  cos 1 x  equals (R) e–2/
x 0   
(S) e/6
EXERCISE–IV
x 2 x
Q.1 If f (x) = 2 , then find the domain and the range of f . Show that f is one-one. Also find the function
x 2x
1
d f (x )
dx
and its domain. [ REE '99, 6 ]
Q.2(a) If x2 + y2 = 1, then :
(A) y y 2 (y)2 + 1 = 0 (B) y y+ (y)2 + 1 = 0
(C) y y (y)2  1 = 0 (D) y y+ 2 (y)2 + 1 = 0
[ JEE 2000, Screening, 1 out of 35 ]
(b) Suppose p (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + ...... + an xn . If p (x)  ex  1  1 for all x  0 prove that
a1 + 2 a2 + ...... + n an  1 . [ JEE 2000 (Mains) 5 out of 100 ]

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ (MC SIR) M.O.D.
Q.3(a) If ln (x + y) = 2xy, then y ' (0) =
(A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 2 (D) 0 [ JEE 2004 (Scr.)]

 1  x  c  1
b sin  2  ,  x0
  2
1

(b) f (x) =  at x  0 .
 2ax / 2
e 1 1
, 0x
 x 2

If f (x) is differentiable at x = 0 and | c | < 1/2 then find the value of 'a' and prove that 64b2 = 4 – c2.
[JEE 2004, 4 out of 60]
Q.4(a) If y = y(x) and it follows the relation x cos y + y cos x = , then y"(0)
(A) 1 (B) – 1 (C)  (D) – 

(b) If P(x) is a polynomial of degree less than or equal to 2 and S is the set of all such polynomials so that
P(1) = 1, P(0) = 0 and P'(x) > 0  x  [0, 1], then
(A) S =  (B) S = {(1 – a)x2 + ax, 0 < a < 2
(C) (1 – a)x2 + ax, a  (0, ) (D) S = {(1 – a)x2 + ax, 0 < a < 1

(c) If f (x) is a continuous and differentiable function and f 1 n  = 0,  n  1 and n  I, then


(A) f (x) = 0, x  (0, 1] (B) f (0) = 0, f ' (0) = 0
(C) f '(x) = 0 = f ''(x), x  (0, 1] (D) f (0) = 0 and f ' (0) need not to be zero
[JEE 2005 (Scr.)]

(d) If f (x – y) = f (x) · g (y) – f (y) · g (x) and g (x – y) = g (x) · g (y) + f (x) · f (y) for all x, y  R. If right
hand derivative at x = 0 exists for f (x). Find derivative of g (x) at x = 0. [JEE 2005 (Mains), 4]
Q.5 
For x > 0, Lim sin x 1 / x  1 x sin x is
x 0

(A) 0 (B) –1 (C) 1 (D) 2 [JEE 2006, 3]

d2x
Q.6 equals
dy 2
1 1
 d2y   d2y   dy 
3  d 2 y   dy  2  d 2 y  dy  3
(A)  2  (B) –  2    (C)  2   dx  (D) –  2  dx 
 dx   dx   dx   dx     dx  
[JEE 2007, 3]
Q.7(a) Let g (x) = ln f (x) where f (x) is a twice differentiable positive function on (0, ) such that
f (x + 1) = x f (x). Then for N = 1, 2, 3
 1 1
g' '  N    g ' '   =
 2  2
 1 1 1   1 1 1 
(A)  41  9  25  .....  2 (B) 41  9  25  .....  2
 (2 N  1)   (2 N  1) 

 1 1 1   1 1 1 
(C)  41  9  25  .....   (D) 41  9  25  .....  
 (2 N  1) 2   (2 N  1) 2 

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(b) Let f and g be real valued functions defined on interval (–1, 1) such that g''(x) is continuous, g(0)  0,
g'(0) = 0, g''(0)  0, and f (x) = g (x) sin x.

STATEMENT-1 : Lim [g(x) cot x – g(0) cosec x] = f ''(0)


x 0

and
STATEMENT-2 : f '(0) = g(0)
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True ; statement-2 is a correct explanation for statement-1
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True ; statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True [JEE 2008, 3 + 3]

Q. 8 If the function f(x) = x3 + ex/2 and g(x) = f–1(x), then the value of g'(1) is [JEE 2009]

bx
Q. 9 Let f : (0, 1)  R be defined by f(x) = , where b is a constant such that 0 < b < 1. Then
1  bx

1
(A) f is not invertible on (0, 1) (B) f  f–1 on (0, 1) and f '(b) = [JEE 2011]
f '(0)

1
(C) f = f–1 on (0, 1) and f '(b) = (D) f–1 is differentiable on (0, 1)
f '(0)

 1  sin      d
Q. 10 Let f() = sin  tan    , where     . Then the value of d(tan ) (f()) is
  cos 2   4 4
[JEE 2011]

1
Q. 11 If g is the inverse of a function f and f '(x) = , then g'(x) is equal to [IIT Main 2014]
1  x5

1
(A) 1 + {g(x)}5 (B) 1 + x5 (C) 5x4 (D) 1  {g(x)}5

Q. 12 The slope of the tangent to the curve (y – x5)2 = x(1 + x2)2 at the point (1, 3) is [JEE Adv. 2014]

Q. 13 The normal to the curve, x2 + 2xy – 3y2 = 0, at (1, 1) [IIT Main 2015]
(A) meets the curve again in the fourth quadrant
(B) does not meet the curve again
(C) meets the curve again in the second quadrant
(D) meets the curve again in the third quadrant

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Q. 14 Let f, g : [–1, 2]  R be continuous functions which are twice differentiable on the interval (–1, 2).
Let us values of f and g at the point –1, 0 and 2 be as given in the following table :
x=– 1 x=0 x=2
f(x) 3 6 0
g(x) 0 1 –1

In each of the intervals (–1, 0) and (0, 2) the function (f – 3g)'' never vanishes. Then the correct statement(s)
is/are [IIT Adv. 2015]
(A) f '(x) – 3g(x) = 0 has exactly three solutions in (–1, 0)  (0, 2)
(B) f '(x) – 3g'(x) = 0 has exactly one solution in (–1, 0)
(C) f '(x) – 3g'(x) = 0 has exactly one solution in (0, 2)
(D) f '(x) – 3g'(x) = 0 has exactly two solutions in (–1, 0) and exactly two solutions in (0, 2)

Q. 15 Let f : R  R, g : R  R and h : R  R be differentiable functions such that f(x) = x3 + 3x + 2,


g(f(x)) = x and h(g(g(x))) = x for all x  R. Then [IIT Adv. 2016]
1
(A) g'(2) = (B) h'(1) = 666 (C) h(0) = 16 (D) h(g(3)) = 36
15

 1  6x x 
Q.16 If for x   0,  , the derivative of tan 1   is
3  x . g(x), then g(x) equals [JEE Mains 2017]
 4  1  9x 

9 3x x 3x 3
(A) (B) (C) (D)
1  9x 3 1  9x 3 1  9x 3 1  9x 3

Q.17 If f(1) = 1, f '(1) = 3, then the derivative of f(f(f(x))) + (f(x))2 at x = 1 is : [JEE Main 2019]
(A) 12 (B) 33 (C) 9 (D) 15
2
 1  3 cos x  sin x     dy
Q.18 I f 2y   cot    , x   0,  then is equal to : [JEE Main 2019]
  cos x  3 sin x    2  dx

   
(A) 2x  (B) x (C) x (D) x 
3 3 6 6
Q.19 Let f be a differentiable function such that f (1) = 2 and f '(x) = f(x) for all x  R. If h (x) = f (f(x)), then
h' (1) is equal to: [JEE Main 2019]
2 2
(A) 2e (B) 4e (C) 2e (D) 4e

dy
Q.20 For x > 1, if (2x)2y = 4e2x–2y, then (1 + loge2x)2 is equal to : [JEE Main 2019]
dx
x log e 2x  log e 2
(A) (B) loge2x
x
x log e 2x  log e 2
(C) (D) xloge2x
x

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ (MC SIR) M.O.D.
dy
Q.21 If xloge(logex) – x2 + y2 = 4(y > 0), then at x = e is equal to : [JEE Main 2019]
dx
(1  2e) (2e  1) (1  2e) e
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2 4  e2 2 4  e2 4  e2 4  e2

Q.22 Let f :R R be a function such that f (x)  x 3  x 2f '(1)  xf "(2)  f '"(3), x  R. Then f(2) equals:
[JEE Main 2019]
(A) –4 (B) 30 (C) –2 (D) 8

d2 y 
Q.23 If x = 3 tan t and y = 3 sec t, then the value of at t  , is :- [JEE Main 2019]
dx 2 4

3 1 1 1
(1) (2) (3) (4)
2 2 3 2 6 6 2

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ (MC SIR) M.O.D.
ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE–I
Q.1 16
 1n(cos x)  x  1 
Q.2 (a) Dy = (cosx)lnx   tan x 1nx   1nx   1n(1nx ) ;
 x  1nx 

ex x e
x  xe ex x 1
dy e 
(b) = e x .x e  e x1nx  e x x e1 x x [1  e1nx ] x e e e  e x1nx 
dx x  x 

1 1 x 4 32 8
Q.3 100 Q.8 6
Q.9 2

x 16   1n 2
 1 1 2x 16 3 1 1
Q.13 (a)   ,  , (–  , ) ; (b) f (x) = 2 ; (c) Q.15 or 
 2 2 1  4x 9 2 2
1  2x 1 1 y x n x  x n x . n y  1
Q.16 Q.17 1/6 Q.18  Q.19 .
2 1 x 2
1 ( x  n ) 2
1 x2 x n x ( 1  x  y n a )

2 1 3
   l n  x if x  0
9 3 6 2
Q.22 3 Q.23 – Q.25 f (x) =
 4 1/ x
2  1 x 
  if x  0
2x 
EXERCISE–II
4x 3
Q.2 Q.4 k = 1, – 1 or 0 Q.6 6 Q.7 (b) k = 2
9
x cos x  sin x
 if x  0 1
Q.9 f ' (x) = x2 ; f '' (0) = – Q.10 zero
 3
0 if x  0
Q.15 (A) R, S; (B) Q, S; (C) P ; (D) R, S Q.16 3 Q.17 2(1 + 2x) . cos 2(x + x2)

EXERCISE–III
5 1 1 1
Q 1. Q 2. Q 3.  Q 4. 1 Q 5.  Q.6 2
6 6 3 2
Q.7 + 
f (0) = 1 ; differentiable at x = 0, f(0 ) =  (1/3) ; f(0 ) =  (1/3) Q.8 6
Q.9 a = 6, b = 6, c = 0; 3 Q.10 1000 Q.11 n = 11
40
Q.12 f is cont. but not derivable at x = 0 Q.13 (a) a1p1 ·a p2 2 .....a pn n ; (b) a1 ; (c) an
Q.14 n = 4 Q.15 (A) S; (B) P ; (C) R

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ (MC SIR) M.O.D.
EXERCISE–IV

d 1 3
Q.1 Domain of f (x) = R  { 2, 0}; Range of f (x)= R  { 1/2, 1}; [f ( x )] =
dx (1  x)2

Domain of f 1 (x) = R  { 1/2, 1} Q.2 (a) B Q.3 (a) A; (b) a = 1


Q.4 (a) C; (b) B; (c) B, (d) g ' (0) = 0 Q.5 C Q.6 D Q.7 (a) A, (b) D
Q. 8 2 Q. 9 A Q. 10 1 Q. 11 A
Q. 12 8 Q. 13 A Q. 14 B, C Q. 15 B, C Q.16 A

Q.17 B Q.18 D Q.19 B Q.20 A Q.21 B

Q.22 C Q.23 A

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