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MWD METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ENGINEERING SERVICES SECTION ELECTRICAL DESIGN MANUAL ESD-106

MWD

METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ENGINEERING SERVICES SECTION

ELECTRICAL DESIGN MANUAL

ESD-106

JANUARY 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

1 INTRODUCTION

1-1

1.1 OBJECTIVE

1-1

1.2 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ELECTRICAL DESIGNER

1-1

1.3 DESIGN TASKS

1-2

1.3.1 Study Phase

1-2

1.3.2 Preliminary Design Tasks

1-2

1.3.3 Final Design Tasks (30%)

1-2

1.3.4 Final Design Tasks (60%)

1-3

1.3.5 Final Design Tasks (90%)

1-3

1.3.6 Final Design Tasks (100%) 1-4

1.4 DOCUMENT CONTROL

1-4

2 PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

2-1

2.1 GENERAL APPROACH

2-1

2.1.1 Design Criteria

2-1

2.1.2 Drawings

2-1

2.1.3 Specifications

2-1

2.2 BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

2-2

2.2.1 List of Symbols

2-2

2.2.2 Direct Current (dc) Formulas

2-2

2.2.3 Alternating Current (ac), Single Phase

2-3

2.2.4 Alternating Current (ac), Three Phase

2-3

2.2.5 Motors

2-4

2.2.6 Power Factor Correction

2-4

2.3 DESIGN CALCULATIONS

2-4

2.3.1 General

2-4

2.3.2 Load

2-5

2.3.3 Conductor Size, General

2-5

2.3.4 Conduit Size and Fill

2-8

2.3.5 Motor Branch Circuit

2-9

2.3.6 Power Factor Correction Capacitors

2-14

2.3.7 Transformer Primary and Secondary Conductors 2-17

2.3.8 Voltage Drop

2-20

2.3.9 Short Circuit

2-23

2.3.10 Lighting

2-27

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

CHAPTER

 

TITLE

PAGE

 

2.3.11

Grounding

2-36

 

2.4

DRAWINGS

 

2-36

 

2.4.1 General

2-34

2.4.2 Organization

2-34

2.4.3 Legend

 

2-37

2.4.4 Abbreviations

2-37

2.4.5 Site Plan(s)

 

2-37

2.4.6 One-Line Diagrams

2-38

2.4.7

Floor Plans

2-39

2.4.8

Grounding Plan

2-40

2.4.9

Equipment Elevations

2-40

2.4.10

Control Schematic Diagrams

2-40

2.4.11

Installation Details

2-40

2.4.12

Electrical Schedules

2-40

 

2.5

PROJECT FILES

 

2-44

3

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES

3-1

3.1 GENERAL APPROACH

3-1

 

3.1.1 Types of Electrical Systems

3-1

3.1.2 References

 

3-1

3.1.3 Plant Distribution Systems

3-2

3.1.4 Voltage Considerations

3-7

3.1.5 Voltage Selection

3-8

3.1.6

Voltage

Rating

3-8

3.1.7 Protection/Coordination Philosophy

3-8

3.1.8 Equipment Heat Dissipation Data

3-13

 

3.2 LOCATING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

3-13

 

3.2.1 Equipment Rooms and Buildings

3-13

3.2.2 Equipment Enclosures

3-14

 

3.3 SWITCHGEAR

 

3-15

 

3.3.1 Low Voltage

3-15

3.3.2 Medium Voltage (4.16 kV through 13.8 kV)

3-17

 

3.4 TRANSFORMERS

 

3-17

 

3.4.1 Pad-Mounted

3-18

3.4.2 Unit Substations

3-18

3.4.3 Equipment Selection

3-20

 

3.5 MOTOR CONTROL EQUIPMENT

3-20

 

3.5.1 Low Voltage

3-20

3.5.2 Medium Voltage

3-25

3.5.3 Adjustable Speed Drives

3-27

3.5.4 Power Factor Correction

3-32

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

 

3.5.5

Control Circuit Devices

3-32

3.6

MOTORS

3-33

3.6.1 Basic Motor Types

3-33

3.6.2 Design Considerations

3-33

3.6.3 Low-Voltage Single-Phase Induction Motors

3-39

3.6.4 Low-Voltage Three-Phase Induction Motors

3-39

3.6.5 Medium-Voltage Induction Motors

3-39

3.6.6 Synchronous Motors

3-40

3.6.7 Direct Current Motors

3-40

3.7

RACEWAY SYSTEMS

3-41

3.7.1 Conduit System

3-41

3.7.2 Conduit Identification

3-42

3.7.3 Wireway

3-42

3.7.4 Cable Tray System

3-42

3.7.5 Trench System

3-43

3.7.6 Ductbank System

3-43

3.8

CONDUCTORS

3-44

3.8.1 Low-Voltage Wiring Systems (600 Volts and Below)

3-44

3.8.2 Medium and High Voltage Conductors (Above 600 Volts)

3-47

3.8.3 Splices and Terminations

3-47

3.8.4 Conductor Identification

3-48

3.8.5 Conductor Installation

3-48

3.9

JUNCTION BOXES AND PULL BOXES

3-49

3.9.1 Indoor Locations

3-49

3.9.2 Outdoor Locations

3-50

3.9.3 Corrosive Locations

3-50

3.9.4 Hazardous Locations

3-50

3.9.5 Terminal Junction Boxes

3-50

3.10

MANHOLES AND HANDHOLES

3-51

3.10.1 Handholes

3-51

3.10.2 Manholes

3-52

3.11

LIGHTING SYSTEMS

3-52

3.11.1 General Illumination

3-53

3.11.2 Recommended Illumination Levels

3-54

3.11.3 Lighting System Design

3-54

3.11.4 Luminaries

3-54

3.11.5 Emergency/Standby Lighting

3-57

3.11.6 Exit Signs

3-58

3.11.7 Controls

3-58

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

 

3.12

LOW VOLTAGE POWER DISTRIBUTION

3-59

 

3.12.1 Voltage Selection

3-59

3.12.2 Panelboards

3-59

3.12.3 Convenience Receptacles

3-60

3.12.4 Hazardous Area Receptacles

3-61

3.12.5 Power Receptacles

3-61

 

3.13

GROUNDING

3-64

 

3.13.1 General

3-64

3.13.2 System Grounding

3-64

3.13.3 Grounding Electrode Systems and Grounding Grids

3-65

3.13.4 Equipment Grounding

3-67

3.13.5 Instrumentation and Computer Grounding

3-67

3.13.6 Lightning Protection System Grounding

3-67

 

3.14

EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS

3-67

 

3.14.1 General

3-67

3.14.2 Emergency Power Systems

3-68

3.14.3 Legally Required Standby Power System

3-68

3.14.4 Optional Standby Systems

3-69

3.14.5 Engine Generators

3-69

3.14.6 Unit Equipment

3-70

3.14.7 Computer Power Systems

3-71

 

3.15

SPECIAL SYSTEMS

3-71

 

3.15.1 Plant Communication System

3-71

3.15.2 Fire Alarm System

3-74

 

3.16

ELECTRICAL TESTING

3-76

 

3.16.1 General Requirements

3-76

3.16.2 Plant Electrical System

3-77

3.16.3 Medium and Low Voltage Equipment

3-78

3.16.4 Conductors

3-80

3.16.5 Emergency/Standby Generators

3-80

3.16.6 Grounding

3-81

4

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES

4-1

4.1

CONTROL PANELS

4-1

 

4.1.1 NEMA Standards

4-1

4.1.2 Panel Design

4-1

4.1.3 Indicating Devices

4-2

4.1.4 Switches, Pushbuttons, and Lights

4-2

4.1.5 Annunciators

4-3

4.1.6 Relays and Timers

4-4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

 

4.1.7 Control Panel Layout

4-5

4.1.8 Wiring and Terminations

4-6

4.1.9 Nameplates

4-8

4.1.10 Installation

4-8

4.1.11 Seismic Design Requirements

4-8

4.2

FIELD WIRING

4-9

4.2.1 Field Signal Wiring

4-9

4.2.2 Conduit

4-13

4.2.3 Spare Conductors

4-14

4.3

CONTROL DEVICE INTERFACING

4-14

4.3.1 Remote Terminal Unit Outputs

4-15

4.3.2 Control Panels

4-15

4.3.3 Status Monitoring

4-16

4.3.4 Signal Convertors

4-17

APPENDIX

TITLE

PAGE

A REFERENCES

A-1

B ABBREVIATIONS

B-1

C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO

C-1

D ENCLOSURE TYPES

D-1

E MOTOR ENCLOSURE TYPES

E-1

F MOTOR DESIGN TYPES

F-1

G MOTOR TORQUE DEFINITIONS

G-1

H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF

 

ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS

H-1

FIGURE

TITLE

PAGE

2-1

Relation Between kVA, kW, and kvar

2-14

2-2

Impedance Diagram

2-23

2-3

Zonal Cavity Calculations

2-29

2-4

Calculation of Task Illumination

2-32

2-5

Example Panel Drawing

2-40

3-1

Example Control Station Wiring

3-25

3-2

NEMA Configurations of General Purpose Nonlocking Plugs and Receptacles

3-52

3-3

Additional NEMA Configurations

3-53

4-1

Constant Speed Motor Control

4-17

4-2

Reversing Motor Control

4-18

4-3

Two-Speed Motor Control

4-19

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

4-4

Incremental Valve Control

4-20

4-5

Open/Close Valve Control, Electric Motor Applicator

4-21

4-6

Open/Close Valve Control, Hydraulic/Pneumatic Operator

4-22

4-7

Variable Speed Motor Control-Single Phase

4-23

4-8

Variable Speed Motor Control-Three Phase

4-24

F-1

Examples of Power Feeder Cable Identification for Water Treatment Plant Section

F-5

F-2

Examples of Control and Instrumentation Cable Identification for Water Treatment Plant Section

F-6

F-3

Cable Identification

F-8

F-4

Identification for a Multi-Conductor Cable

F-9

F-5

Identification for a Single-Conductor Cable

F-9

F-6

Typical Box Identification

F-11

F-7

Typical Duck Bank Identification

F-12

TABLE

TITLE

PAGE

2-1

Motor Circuit Design Data--480 Volt, Three-Phase Motors

2-12

2-2

480-Volt Lighting Transformer Circuit Design Chart (75 o C)

2-17

2-3

Three-Phase Line-to-Line Voltage Drop for 600 V Single- Conductor Cable per 10,000 A-ft

2-21

2-4

Coefficient of Utilization Zonal Cavity Method

2-27

2-5

Candlepower Distribution Curve

2-31

3-1

Losses in Electrical Equipment

3-8

3-2

Recommended Illumination Levels

3-45

3-3

Requirements for Fire Alarm and Detection Devices

3-65

4-1

Annunciator Sequences

4-4

A

Conductor Voltage Level Color Codes

F-7

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

MWD Electrical Design Manual

1.1 OBJECTIVE

The objective of these electrical design standards is to provide a guide that can be used for Metropolitan Water District of Southern California's (Metropolitan) electrical practice. Anticipated users of this manual include the engineer/designer with limited experience, management staff, and the more experienced engineer/designer. The senior staff may find the manual useful as a training tool for subordinates. The information contained herein has been assembled from a number of sources; a list of the readily available sources is contained in Appendix A, References.

These electrical design standards shall be used as the basis for all designs prepared for Metropolitan. Outlined within these standards are procedures for preparing design instructions, procedures for making most of the calculations that will be required for a design, a data table that can be used in making those calculations, drawing presentation formats, standard legend items and abbreviations, descriptions of materials to be used, and a number of informative memos. This information, used with engineering judgment in conjunction with appropriate codes, national standards, and other reference information, will provide electrical systems that are safe and electrically suited for the intended application.

1.2 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ELECTRICAL DESIGNER

The electrical engineer/designer is responsible for all facets of a project

that are related to:

Electrical energy for equipment located on the project site;

Adequate illumination in all areas;

Special electrical systems;

Conduits and conductors for power distribution and instrumentation and control (I&C) systems;

Protective and safety alarm systems;

Grounding and lightning protection systems;

INTRODUCTION

MWD Electrical Design Manual

Communication systems;

Emergency power systems;

The engineer/designer must take an active role in consulting with other members of the project team to identify the needs of his or her design and the needs of other design groups.

1.3 Design Tasks

The following is a partial list of design tasks that the electrical engineer/

designer must assume responsibility for during the course of the design.

1.3.1

Study Phase

Provide electrical support for preparation of draft study.

Review electrical elements of project description in draft study.

1.3.2

Preliminary Design Tasks

Prepare the written electrical design criteria that are specific

to the needs of the project. Provide input to preparation of preliminary design report

(PDR). Define the method of electrical service. Contact the utility

that will serve the site to define the interface required between the utility’s system and the site’s electrical distribution system. Obtain a copy of the electrical rates that will apply to the service. Identify and talk to the electrical inspection authority having

jurisdiction at the project site and obtain copies of any special ordinances or codes that may apply to the electrical design. Work with the process design staff and mechanical

engineers as well as other concerned design disciplines to define the electrical load that will be required on the project site and identify the electrical equipment. Develop a preliminary one-line diagram and written narrative

that describes the proposed electrical distribution system. Prepare a preliminary electrical site plan showing the

location of all major electrical equipment such as switchgear, transformers, electrical ductbanks, etc. Perform preliminary calculations to size major electrical

equipment. Prepare a draft power system study.

INTRODUCTION

MWD Electrical Design Manual

1.3.3 Final Design Tasks (30%)

Update the electrical one-line diagram. Update the electrical site plan and sections. Update calculations for sizing of electrical equipment. Complete the power system study. Update the electrical equipment list Prepare draft electrical equipment specifications Table of Contents. Prepare the electrical drawings required to define the electrical system to be constructed (See paragraph 2.4, Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.

Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.
Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.
Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.
Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.
Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.
Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.
Drawings). Prepare draft schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures, electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable,etc.

1.3.4 Final Design Tasks (60%)

Update the electrical one-line diagram.

Update the electrical site plan and sections.

Complete and stamp all electrical calculations.

Update the electrical drawings required to define the

electrical system to be constructed such as the power plan, lighting plan, grounding plan, communication systems, fire alarm systems, etc. Prepare the text electrical specifications required to define

the electrical system to be constructed (See paragraph 2.1.3, Specifications). Update all schedules for panelboards, lighting fixtures,

electrical boxes, manholes, conduit, cable, etc. Prepare draft control schematics and wiring diagrams.

Review the Instrumentation and Control System Diagrams

(I&CS) to verify that all equipment on the project site that must be interfaced with the electrical system has been accounted for. In addition, the I&CSs should be consulted when the control diagrams are being prepared because they define the relationships that exist between the electrical control equipment, the instrumentation system, and many of the equipment items supplied in other divisions of the text specifications. Prepare the ladder diagrams required for all panels that will be provided by the I&C supplier. These ladder diagrams should be used during the preparation of the process plans to determine the conduit and conductor requirements of the discrete control systems.

1.3.5 Final Design Tasks (90%)

INTRODUCTION

MWD Electrical Design Manual

Complete the electrical one-line diagram.

Complete the electrical site plan and sections.

Complete all electrical drawings required to define the

electrical system to be constructed such as the power plan, lighting plan, grounding plan, communication systems, fire alarm systems, etc. Complete all electrical equipment lists.

Complete all text specifications for electrical equipment.

Complete all control schematics and wiring diagrams.

Complete all schedules.

Complete the coordination of process control schematic

diagrams with Mechanical, I&C and SCADA design. Complete all protection relay settings.

1.3.6

Final Design Tasks (100%)

Signoff of electrical plans and specifications.

1.4

DOCUMENT CONTROL

This manual is intended to be (1) the primary technical reference resource

for new employees in this discipline, and (2) the only reference guide for engineering consultants who will augment Metropolitan engineering staff.

It is important that this manual be updated to keep it current and maintain its usefulness. To propose changes to this manual, follow the change control system procedure, located in ESD-171, Engineering Administration Manual.

Chapter 2

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

2.1 GENERAL APPROACH

A design project can be broken down into a number of specific elements that are prepared during several phases of the project. The two project phases that are being covered by this design manual are the preliminary design and final design phases. During the preliminary design phase, the needs of the project must be evaluated, a preliminary one-line diagram and electrical site plan prepared, the needs of the project outlined in a brief report, and the design criteria for the project prepared. The electrical drawings and text specifications are then prepared during final design using the information prepared during preliminary design as a basis for that design. All of the major decisions should be made during preliminary design. Final design is an implementation of those decisions.

2.1.1 Design Criteria

The Electrical Design Criteria is a compilation of general information,

specific requirements that are applicable to the project, and design instructions that shall be used by all of the design team members to assure a complete and consistent product. An example Electrical Design Criteria memo is presented in Appendix C.

2.1.2 Drawings

The purpose of a design is to develop a set of instructions and rules that a

contractor can use to bid the project and, if awarded the contract, build what the designer had in mind. The drawings are a part of that installation instruction set and describe the location and quantity of materials and equipment needed for the project; the text specifications describe the type and quality of materials and equipment and the quality of workmanship. See paragraph 2.4, Drawings, for a description of the drawings to be included in a construction package.

2.1.3 Specifications

The text specifications shall describe the materials to be furnished by the contractor and the requirements for the products themselves, the requirements for installing the products, and the quality control measures that will be used to check the products and the execution of construction. Moreover, the text specifications provide these descriptions in one place for the general contractor's comprehension and use. As an electrical engineer/designer, one may think that the electrical text specifications are written for the electrical contractor, subcontractor, or equipment supplier, but this is not the case. The text specifications are addressed to the general contractor, who decides who shall do the work.

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

2.1.3.1 Organization. The electrical text specifications will be

prepared in Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) narrative format in the indicative mood. The standard electrical text specifications will consist

of sections organized as shown in Metropolitan's ESD-135, Standard Specifications Sections Catalog.

2.1.3.2 Standard Specifications. The Standard Master Specifications

have been prepared to cover all normal projects that are expected to be designed for or by Metropolitan. It is intended that the engineer will select only those text specification sections that are applicable to the project and then use those sections without changes.

2.1.3.3 Project Specifications. The engineer shall prepare project

specifications in the CSI narrative format for any additional requirements

not covered by the Standard Master Specifications. These specifications shall also be prepared in the indicative mood. Only three parts will be provided for in each technical section:

 

Part 1--General;

Part 2--Products;

Part 3--Execution.

2.2

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

2.2.1

List of Symbols

E

= voltage (volts)

I

= current (amps)

R

= resistance (ohms)

X

= reactance (ohms)

Z

= impedance (ohms)

P

= power (watts)

VA

= voltampere

W

= watt

= angle whose cosine is the power factor

= phase

Eff

= efficiency

2.2.2

Direct Current (dc) Formulas

Basic formulas for dc current include:

Voltage (E) = Current (I) x Resistance (R)

(Eq. 2-1)

Power (P) = E 2 /R = EI

(Eq. 2-2)

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

P = I 2 x R

(Eq. 2-3)

2.2.3 Alternating Current (ac), Single Phase

Basic formulas for ac current, single phase, include:

Voltage (E) = Current (I) x Impedance (Z)

Power factor (PF) = cos Apparent Power (VA) = E x I Reactive Power (vars) = E x I x sin Real Power (Watts) = E x I x PF = arctan (vars/Watts) PF = Watts/(E x I) = Watts/VA

The voltage drop formula is:

E d = 2 x (I x R x cos ) + (I x X x sin )

(Eq. 2-4)

(Eq. 2-5)

(Eq. 2-6)

(Eq. 2-7)

(Eq. 2-8)

(Eq. 2-9)

(Eq. 2-10)

(Eq. 2-11)

where:

 

E

d

= voltage drop in circuit

sin

= load reactive factor

X

= line reactance for one conductor, in ohms

2.2.4

Alternating Current (AC), Three Phase

Basic formulas for ac current, three phase, include:

Line Voltage (E)

Current (I) = 3 1/2 x I (Delta-connected)

Apparent Power (kVA) = (3

Real Power (kW) = kVA x cos Reactive Power (kvar) = kVA x sin = arctan (kvar/kW) Power Factor (PF) = cos = kW/kVA PF = kW/((E x I x 3 1/2 )/ 1000)

= 3 1/2 x E

(Wye-connected)

1/2

x E x I)/1000

The voltage drop formula is:

E d

= 3 1/2 x (I x R x cos + I x X x sin )

where:

E

sin = load reactive factor

d

= voltage drop in circuit

(Eq. 2-12)

(Eq. 2-13)

(Eq. 2-14)

(Eq. 2-15)

(Eq. 2-16)

(Eq. 2-17)

(Eq. 2-18)

(Eq. 2-19)

(Eq. 2-20)

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

X

= line reactance for one conductor in ohms

R

= line resistance for one conductor in ohms

2.2.5 Motors

Motor (general) formulas include:

1 horsepower (hp) = 746 Watts Torque (ft-lb) = (hp x 5250)/rpm Fan hp = (cfm x Pressure)/(33,000 x Eff) Pump hp = (gpm x Head x Specific Gravity)/(3960 x Eff)

Motor (single phase) formula is:

Horsepower = (E x I x Eff x PF)/746

Motor (three phase) formulas include:

Synchronous Speed: n s = (120)(Frequency)/(# Poles)

Horsepower = (E x I x 3

1/2

x Eff x PF)/746

(Eq. 2-21)

(Eq. 2-22)

(Eq. 2-23)

(Eq. 2-24)

(Eq. 2-25)

(Eq. 2-26)

(Eq. 2-27)

2.2.6 Power Factor Correction

The size of the capacitor needed to increase the power factor from PF 1 to

PF 2 with the initial kVA given is:

kvar = kVA([1-(PF 1 ) 2 ] 1/2 - PF 1 /PF 2 [1-(PF 2 ) 2 ] 1/2 )

2.3

DESIGN CALCULATIONS

2.3.1

General

(Eq. 2-28)

Electrical calculations shall be made for all projects and filed in the project

notebook. They may be made either manually or by computer programs approved by Metropolitan. As a minimum, the following types of calculations shall be made where applicable and submitted to Metropolitan for review:

Load calculations;

Conductor sizing;

Conduit sizing;

Motor branch circuit sizing;

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

Power factor improvement;

Transformer primary and secondary circuit sizing;

Voltage drop;

Motor starting voltage dip;

Short circuit analysis;

Lighting levels;

Grounding in substations.

Note: All references to the National Electrical code (NEC) for calculations shown in this design manual are based on the 2005 Edition of the NEC.

If computer programs are used to make the calculations, the name and version of the software, along with all input and output data, shall be included in the submittal to Metropolitan. All calculations shall be certified by the signature and stamp of a registered professional electrical engineer.

2.3.2 Load

Load calculations shall be made using applicable sections of Articles 220, 430, and other sections of the NEC. The following load calculations will be used for sizing:

Feeder conductors and protective devices;

Transformers;

Panelboard and switchboard main busses;

Motor control center components;

Service entrance devices and conductors.

Load calculations must include all loads and should be made by summing all of the loads, using appropriate diversity factors as allowed by NEC Article 220, that are connected to each panelboard, switchboard, and motor control center. The loads for each branch of the distribution system can then be summed back to the service entrance equipment.

2.3.3 Conductor Size, General

Conductor sizes must be determined for general purpose branch circuit

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS

MWD Electrical Design Manual

conductors and feeder conductors in accordance with the requirements of NEC Article 220, the size of service entrance conductors as covered in NEC Article 230, the size of motor branch circuit conductors as covered in NEC Article 430, the size of air conditioning equipment branch circuit conductors as covered in NEC Article 440, the size of generator conductors as covered in NEC Article 445, the size of transformer primary and secondary conductors as covered by NEC Article 450, and the size of conductors to capacitors as covered in NEC Article 460. In this section we will look at the general requirements for sizing conductors once the calculated load current is known.

Paragraphs 210.19 and 215.2 of the NEC require that branch circuit and feeder conductors have an ampacity not less than the load to be served. NEC Paragraph 220.18 contains additional information relative to branch circuit loads. Once branch circuit and feeder loads have been determined using applicable sections of NEC Article 230 and other applicable articles, conductor sizes shall then be determined using Tables 310.16 through 310.20 of the NEC for conductors zero through 2,000 volts and Tables 310.67 through 310.86 of the NEC for conductors rated above 2,000 volts. The four examples presented below are based on the ampacities presented in NEC Table 310.16 as modified by the applicable correction factors for temperature and conduit fill.

2.3.3.1 Example No. 1. Conditions: Continuous load rated 37 amps

served by a conduit containing only the conductors for the load, running

through an area having an ambient temperature of 38 o C. Conductors shall be copper with type TW insulation.

Required ampacity per NEC Paragraphs 210.19 and 210.18:

Ampacity required

= continuous load x 125% = 37 x 1.25 or 46.25 amps

A No. 6 AWG copper conductor having an ampacity of 55 amps would appear to be the correct choice.

Where the ambient temperatures exceed the 30 o C ambient that NEC Table 310.16 is based on, the allowable ampacity of the conductor must be corrected using the correction factors at the bottom of Table 310.16 as required by NEC Paragraph 310.10.

Corrected ampacity of No. 6 conductor = 55 x correction factor

(0.82)

or Corrected ampacity = 55 x 0.82 = 45.1 amps

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Because an ampacity of 46.25 amps is required, this conductor is not adequate and the next larger size (or a conductor with different insulation) will need to be used.

2.3.3.2 Example No. 2. Conditions: The same load and ambient

temperature as above but with six phase conductors in the same conduit.

Assume that the conductors used above were No. 6 copper with RHW insulation.

Corrected ampacity of No. 6 RHW = 65 x 0.88 = 57.2 amps

Where more than three current carrying conductors are contained in the same raceway, the ampacity of the conductors must also be derated by the ampacity adjustment factors contained in NEC Table 310.15(B)(2)(a).

Corrected ampacity of No. 6 RHW conductor = 57.2 (ampacity corrected for temperature) x 0.8 (ampacity adjustment factor) =

45.7amps

Because an ampacity of 46.25 amps is required, this conductor size is not satisfactory for this application. A larger conductor or a different configuration must be used.

2.3.3.3 Example No 3. Conditions: A feeder with 200 amps of

noncontinuous load and 65 amps of continuous load to be installed in conduit in a wet area with an ambient temperature of 30 o C or less.

Required ampacity per NEC Paragraph 215.2 = noncontinuous load + 1.25 x continuous load or 200 + 1.25 x 65 = 281.25 amps

The feeder overcurrent device would be sized at 300 amps since that is the next largest standard rating (see Article 240 of the NEC).

The conductor ampacity requirement can be met by either one 300 kCMIL conductor or two 1/0 conductors with RHW insulation per phase. Because the ampacity of one 300 kCMIL RHW conductor is only 285 amps, NEC Paragraph 240.4(B) must be invoked.

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2.3.3.4 Example No. 4. Conditions: The same load as used in

example No. 3 but the conduit is to be installed in a dry area with an

ambient temperature of 38 o C.

Required ampacity calculated above = 281.25 amps.

Ampacity of one 300 kCMIL RHH conductor is 320 in a dry location.

Correction factor for 90 o C conductors in a 38 o C ambient =

0.91.

Corrected ampacity = 320 amps x 0.91 = 291.2 amps

The results are the same as for example No. 3, so NEC Paragraph 240.4(B) must be invoked.

2.3.4 Conduit Size and Fill

Where conductors are installed in conduit, the conduit shall be sized in

accordance with Tables C.1 through C.12(A) in Annex C of the NEC, and all associated notes. Following are two examples of how conduits can be sized under different circumstances.

2.3.4.1 Example No. 1. Conditions: Three 4/0 AWG conductors with

RHH/RHW insulation installed in rigid steel conduit (no separate ground

conductor).

See NEC Table 3C.8 for conduit size required for three 4/0 AWG conductors with RHH/RHW insulation.

NEC Table 3C8 would allow three conductors to be installed in a 2-inch conduit.

2.3.4.2 Example No. 2. Conditions: Three No. 4/0 AWG phase

conductors, one No. 1/0 AWG neutral and one No. 2 AWG equipment ground conductor to be installed in rigid steel conduit. Phase and neutral conductor insulation will be RHH/RHW and the ground conductor will have TW insulation.

Because NEC Table C.8 is for situations where all conductors in a conduit are the same size, they cannot be used for this example. Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC, using appropriate conduction areas from Table 5 in Chapter 9 of the NEC, must

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then be used.

Total conductor area:

Conductor size

Area

4/0 RHH/RHW 1/0 RHH/RHW # 2 TW

0.4754

0.3039

0.1333

Total Area = 3(0.4754) + 0.3039 + 0.1333 = 1.8634 sq.in.

Conduit size required:

Because more than two conductors that are not lead covered are being installed, the column for 40 percent fill in Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC can be used.

Select conduit with a usable area greater than 1.8634 square inches; therefore, conduit size = 2-1/2 inch (40 percent of total area = 1. 946 sq.in.)

2.3.5 Motor Branch Circuit

NEC Article 430, Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers, covers the provisions for motors, motor circuits, and controllers. NEC Article 430 includes tables for motor full-load currents, which are the minimum values that can be used in determining sizes of motor branch circuits, motor feeders, short circuit and overcurrent device sizes and settings, and miscellaneous load calculations. Actual nameplate currents should be used if they are known and must be used if they are larger than the minimum. The full load current to be used for motors with speeds less than 1,200 rpm should be obtained from the motor manufacturer. NEC Article 440 contains special provisions that apply to the installation of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment and should be referred to for these applications.

The following calculations and the accompanying table are based on the applicable provisions of NEC Article 430 and are provided as a guide for performing motor branch circuit and feeder calculations and for sizing components for motor branch circuits as part of a design. The typical calculations that are required are demonstrated by the following examples.

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2.3.5.1 Example No. 1. Conditions: Induction motor is rated 60 hp,

460 volts, three-phase, 1,800 rpm continuous, and will be powered by a combination motor starter through a conduit system. All equipment and the conduit system is located in areas with ambient temperatures of 30 o C or less.

In NEC Table 430.250, the motor full-load current that must be used in the calculations is 77 amps. Using this value we can size the motor branch circuit and ground fault protection device, the branch circuit conductors, and the motor disconnecting means.

Motor branch circuit and ground fault protection devices are to be sized as outlined in Part IV of NEC Article 430 with maximum settings as provided in NEC Table 430.52. Actual settings should reflect the recommendation of the manufacturer of the motor control equipment that will be provided.

For example, the following are General Electric's recommendations:

 

Rating

Device type Magnetic only circuit breaker Thermal magnetic breaker Time delay fuses

100 amp

125 amp

90 amp

Branch circuit conductors shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Part II of NEC Article 430. NEC Paragraph 430.22 requires that conductors supplying a motor must have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current of the motor. A special exception is made for motors that are operated intermittently for short periods of time.

Motor branch circuit ampacity shall be equal to or greater than:

77 amps x 1.25 = 96.25 amps

Conductor size to be No. 1 AWG copper with RHH insulation No. 1 AWG = 110 amps at 60 o C

Note: 60 o C ampacity rating of conductors No. 1 AWG and smaller must be used unless the engineer is sure that all terminals are rated for use at 75 o C--see the Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. General Information Directory for more details on this subject.

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Motor disconnecting means shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Part IX of NEC Article 430. The discon- necting means for motor circuits rated 600 volts, nominal, or less, shall have an ampere rating of at least 115 percent of the full-load current rating of the motor.

Motor disconnecting means shall be sized greater than:

77 amps x 1.15 = 88.5 Disconnect to be rated 100 amps

See Table 2-1 for the conduit and conductor requirements for motors typically found in design projects.

2.3.5.2 Example No. 2. Conditions: Determine the size of the feeder

conductors and thermal magnetic circuit breaker feeding a motor control center that has a total connected motor load of 215 amps with the uppermost 60-hp motor being the largest motor. In addition, there are 45 amps of continuous load and 65 amps of noncontinuous load. Conductors shall be copper with type RHH/RHW insulation installed in an area where the ambient temperature is less than 30 o C. Assume all motors are 460 Volt, 3 phase and 1800 rpm.

Motor feeder conductors shall be sized in accordance with applicable portions of Part II of NEC Article 430 and feeder breakers shall be sized in accordance with applicable portions of Part V of NEC Article 430.

NEC paragraph 430.24 requires that the conductors supplying the motor control center have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor plus the sum of the full-load current ratings of all other motors in the group, as determined by Paragraph 430.6(A), plus the ampacity required for the other loads.

The required ampacity of the conductors shall be calculated as follows:

Total motor load + 25% of largest motor FLA + noncontinuous load + 125% of continuous load

or 215 + (.25 x 77) + 65 + (1.25 x 45) = 355 amps

Conductors may be either one 500 kCMIL or two No. 3/0 AWG per phase (one 500 kCMIL = 380 amps, two No. 3/0 = 400 amps).

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NEC Paragraph 430.62 covers the requirements for sizing the motor feeder short-circuit and ground-vault protection.

NEC Paragraph 430.63 covers the requirements for sizing the feeder protection when the feeder supplies a motor load and other power and lighting loads.

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Table 2-1. Motor Circuit Design Data 480 Volt Three-Phase Motors

HP

Mcp

Starter

FLA

FLA

Conductor Size

Conduit

Max.

Size

Size

*1.50

Size

Dist.

1/2

3/M

1

1

1.25

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

5,333

3/4

3/M

1

1.4

1.75

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

3,810

1

3/M

1

1.8

2.25

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

2,963

1-1/2

7/M

1

2.6

3.25

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

2,051

2

7/M

1

3.4

4.25

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

1,569

3

7/M

1

4.8

6.00

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

1,111

5

15/M

1

7.6

9.50

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

701

7.5

15/M

1

11

13.75

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

485

10

30/M

1

14

17.50

3#12,1#12G

3/4”

381

15

30/M

2

21

26.25

3#10,1#10G

3/4”

403

20

50/M

2

27

33.75

3#8,1#10G

1”

485

25

50/M

2

34

42.50

3#6,1#10G

1-1/4”

580

30

100/M

3

40

50.00

3#6,1#10G

1-1/4”

493

40

100/M

3

52

65.00

3#4,1#8G

1-1/4”

577

50

100/M

3

65

81.25

3#3,1#6G

1/1/2”

554

60

250/M

4

77

96.25

3#1,1#6G

2”

719

75

250/M

4

96

120

3#1,1#6G

2”

577

100

250/M

4

124

155

3#2/0,1#12G

2”

611

125

250/M

5

156

195

3#3/0,1#12G

2-1/2”

577

150

300

5

180

225

3#4/0,1#12G

2-1/2”

615

200

400

5

240

300

3#350Kcm,1#3G

3”

600

Notes:1)

Conductor ampacity is based on 60 C through size No. 1 AWG and

2)

on 75 C above size No. 1 AWG. Use thermal/magnetic circuit breakers in all autotransformer type

3)

starters. Conduit size is based on NEC Table 4 and 5, and areas are based

4)

on conductor insulation Type RHH/RHW. Conductor size is based on 125% of motor full load current.

5)

Maximum distance is based on an allowed voltage drop of 3%.

6)

These distances are calculated using Table 2-3 assuming copper conductors in rigid metal conduit and a PF of 80%. Ground conductor size (1#_G) shown in conductor size column is based on NEC Table 250-95.

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For the above example, a 400-amp device would be selected. For the 400-amp device to be used to protect the 500-kcm conductors, NEC Paragraph 240.4(B) needs to be invoked.

2.3.6 Power Factor Correction Capacitors

Power factor correction capacitors are installed for either one of the

following reasons:

To increase the measured power factor at the serving utilities meter and reduce the power factor penalty being imposed by the utility. Power factor correction for this reason cannot be justified unless the serving utility actually has a power factor penalty in their rate schedule.

To release additional capacity in existing feeder conductors.

For example, a three-phase load of 200 kW would be equal to 301 amps at 480 volts if the power factor were 80 percent, but would be only 254 amps if the power factor were raised to 95 percent. This would release 47 amps of capacity for additional loads.

Article 460 of the NEC covers the installation of capacitors on electric circuits. In this section those calculations needed to determine the size of the capacitor required and the size of conductors required to connect the capacitors to their electric power supply will be discussed. Following are several examples to illustrate the required calculations:

2.3.6.1 Example No. 1. Conditions: A load of 200 kVA exists at

480 volts with a power factor of 80 percent. Determine the amount of

capacitors required to improve the power factor to 95 percent.

Power factor = Real power (kW) Apparent power (kVA)

(Eq. 2-29)

Figure 2-1 is provided to show the relation that exists between apparent power, real power, and reactive power (kvar). By definition, the power factor is the cosine of the angle that exists between the real power and apparent power phasors.

The calculation to determine the amount of capacitance (measured in kvar) shall be made as follows:

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REAL POWER (KW) 1 2 APPARENT POWER (kVA)
REAL POWER (KW)
1
2
APPARENT POWER
(kVA)

RESULTANT REACTIVE POWER (kV AR)

RESULTANT POWER SUPPLIED BY CAPACITATORS (kV AR)

REQUIRED

REACTIVE POWER

(kV AR)

Figure 2-1. Relation Between kVA, kW, and kvar

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kvar @ initial power factor = [(kVA) 2 - (kW) 2 ] 1/2

(Eq. 2-30)

or [(kVA) 2 - (kVA X PF) 2 ] 1/2

(Eq. 2-31)

kvar = [(200kVA) 2 - (160kW) 2 ] 1/2

kvar = (40,000 - 25,600)

1/2

= 120 kvar

Because the real power of a load is not changed when the power factor is improved, we can use the known real power and desired power factor to calculate the new kvar value in the phasor triangle.

kvar @ 95% power factor = [( kW PF) 2 - (kW) 2 ] 1/2

kvar = [(160 .95)

kvar = (28,366 - 25,600)

Required kvar for correction = 120 - 52.6 = 67.4 kvar

2

- (160) 2 ] 1/2

1/2

= 52.6

(Eq. 2-32)

Similar calculations can be made to determine the size of the capacitor required to improve the power factor of a single motor to a higher power factor, but tables are available from capacitor manufacturers to simplify the selection of these capacitors. Capacitors larger than the maximum size recommended by motor manufacturers must not be installed.

2.3.6.2 Example No. 2. Conditions: Load is a 60-hp, 1,800-rpm motor

operating at 480 volts, three-phase. Capacitors rated 15 kvar at 480 volts

are being installed to improve the power factor. Determine the size of the conductor needed to meet the requirements of the NEC.

NEC Paragraph 460.8 contains two criteria that must be met when sizing branch circuit conductors to capacitors. First, the ampacity of the conductors must be at least 135 percent of the rated current of the capacitors. Second, if the capacitors are connected to a motor circuit, the conductors to the capacitor shall have an ampacity not less than one third of the ampacity of the motor branch circuit conductors.

Capacitor rated amps = 15 (0.48 x 1.73) = 18

Branch circuit amps = 18 x 1.35 = 24.4 minimum

Motor branch circuit amps = 1.25 x 77 = 96.25

Need to use No. 1 AWG at 110 amps (60 o C ampacity)

Capacitor branch circuit amps as one-third of motor branch circuit conductor ampacity = 110 3 = 36.7 amps

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Therefore, the branch circuit conductors to the capacitor must have an ampacity of 37 amps or greater.

Refer to the Industrial Power Systems Handbook by Beeman or Electrical Systems Analysis and Design for Industrial Plants by Lazar for additional formulas related to the application of capacitors on electrical systems.

2.3.7 Transformer Primary and Secondary Conductors

Article 450 of the NEC, Transformers and Transformer Vaults, covers the installation of all transformers. Article 450 deals with transformers over 600 volts nominal and transformers 600 volts, nominal, and less. The

calculations most often made during an electrical system design are for a transformer 600 volts, nominal, or less with both primary and secondary protection.

The following calculations and Table 2-2 are based on the provisions of NEC Paragraph 450.3(B). Primary conductors and feeder overcurrent and ground fault protection devices (feeder breakers) are sized for the next larger device above 150 percent of the transformer full-load amps to minimize the possibility of the feeder breaker tripping on transformer inrush (NEC would allow breaker to be sized up to 250 percent of primary full load amps). The secondary conductors and secondary breaker are sized at the standard rating that is nearest to 125 percent of the calculated secondary full load current as required by the NEC. Note 1 to Table 450.3(B) of the NEC allows moving up to the next higher standard rating. Following are two examples to show the calculations that are required for three-phase and single-phase transformers.

2.3.7.1 Example No. 1. Conditions: Assume a 45-kVA 3-phase

transformer with a 480-volt primary and a 208Y/120-volt secondary.

Calculate primary full-load amps:

45 kVA [(480 volts x 1.73) 1000] = 54.2 amps

Calculate required feeder breaker and conductor ampacity:

54.2 amps x 1.5 = 81 amps

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40A/2P

110A/3P

150A/2P

35A/3P

60A/2P

60A/3P

30A/2P

250A/2P

250A/3P

175A/3P

80A/2P

200A/2P

Ckt. Breaker

Rules Used: 1) Feeder circuit breaker at next size larger than 1.5 times primary amps (NEC 450.3(b) allows up to 250% of primary amps). 2) Panel main breaker sized at next size larger than 1.25 times secondary amps. (NEC 450.3(B) allows up to next larger than 125% of sec. Amps) 3) All conductors No.1 AWG and smaller sized based on 60 C ampacities, larger conductor sizes based on 75 C ampacities. (Conductors sized per NEC 240-4 including exceptions. 4) Minimum ground conductor sized at #8; Table 250.122 used for other primary side grounds and Table 250.66 used for secondary side grounds. 5) Conduit size based on NEC Chapter 9 Table 3C.

1 1/2" C-4# 2,1#6G

1 1/2" C-4# 6,1#8G

1 1/2" C-3# 6,1#8G

1" C-3# 8,1#8G

3/4" C-3# 10,1#8G

1 1/2" C-3# 4,1#8G

2" C-3# 1,1#6G

1" C-4# 10,1#8G

2 1/2" C-3# 4/0,1#2G

2 1/2" C-4# 4/0,1#2G

2 1/2" C-4# 2/0,1#4G

2”6,3#3/0,1#4G

Ckt. Conduit & Wire

Table 2-2. 480-Volt Lighting Transformer Circuit Design Chart (75 C)

Secondary Circuit

38.75

31.25

26.25

130.00

156.25

103.75

175.00

78.75

52.50

52.50

260.00

260.00

Ckt. Amps

25

125

104

156

83

63

208

208

42

42

31

21

Amps

208

240

208

208

240

240

208

240

208

240

240

240

Volts

80A/2P

20A/3P

25A/2P

125A/2P

30A/3P

20A/2P

90A/3P

50A/2P

60A/3P

30A/2P

150A/3P

175A/2P

Ckt. Breaker

1 1/4" C-2# 3,1#8G

3/4" C-3# 12,1#8G

1 1/2" C-2# 1,1#6G

1 1/2" C-3# 3,1#8G

3/4" C-3# 10,1#8G

3/4" C-2# 10,1#8G

3/4" C-2# 12,1#8G

1 1/4" C-2# 6,1#8G

1" C-3# 6,1#8G

1" C-2# 8,1#8G

2" C-3#1/0,1#6G

2" C-2#2/0,1#6G

Ckt. Conduit & Wire

Primary Circuit

16.50

27.00

15.00

54.00

135.00

156.00

31.50

78.00

24.00

81.00

46.50

117.00

Ckt. Amps

18

36

16

10

90

104

78

54

52

11

21

31

Amps

480

480

480

480

480

480

480

480

480

480

480

480

Volts

3

3

3

3

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Phase

Transformer

25
37.5

75

9
15

30
45

10
15

5
7.5

50

KVA

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Use a 90-amp breaker and No. 3 AWG copper conductors *

Calculate secondary full-load amps:

45 kVA [(208 volts x 1.73) 1000] = 125.06 amps

Calculate required secondary breaker size and conductor ampacity: 125.06 amps x 1.25 = 156.3 amps

Use a 150-amp breaker and No. 1/0 copper conductors *

Note: This selection limits the continuous load that can be supplied by the transformer to 43.2 kVA ((80% x 208 volts x 150 amps x 1.73) 1000).

The ground conductors for the above circuits shall be sized in accordance with NEC Tables 250.66 and 250.122. The ground conductor in the feeder to the primary shall be sized as an equipment ground in accordance with NEC Table 250.122. The grounding electrode conductor on the secondary of the trans- former shall be sized as required by NEC Paragraph 250.30 using Table 250.66.

2.3.7.2 Example No. 2. Conditions: Assume a 25-kVA single-phase

transformer with a 480-volt primary and a 120/240-volt secondary.

Calculate primary full-load amps:

25 kVA (480 volts 1000) = 52.1 amps

Calculate required feeder breaker size and conductor ampacity:

52.1 amps x 1.5 = 78.1 amps

Use an 80-amp breaker and No. 3 AWG copper conductors *

Calculate secondary full-load amps:

25 kVA (240 volts 1000) = 104.2 amps

Calculate required secondary breaker size and conductor ampacity:

104.2 amps x 1.25 = 130 amps

* Conductor sizes for examples No. 1 and No. 2 are based on the use of 60 C wire for sizes Nos. 14 through 1 AWG and 75 C wire for sizes No. 1/0 and larger as required by the General Information Directory 1988, published by Underwriters Lab, Inc., because many items of equipment are still not rated with 75 C terminals in these sizes.

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Use a 125-amp breaker and No. 1 AWG copper conductors * .

2.3.8

Voltage Drop

2.3.8.1

Feeder and Branch Circuits.

Fine-print note No. 4 to NEC Paragraph 210.19 says that branch circuit conductors must be sized so that voltage drop on the branch circuit does not exceed 3 percent. Furthermore, it states that the total voltage drop on feeder conductors plus branch circuit conductors must not exceed 5 percent. Fine-print note No. 2 to NEC Paragraph 215.2(A) would allow the voltage drop on a feeder to be 3 percent as long as the total voltage drop to the load is 5 percent or less.

Steady-state voltage drops are caused by current flowing through an impedance. To calculate steady-state voltage drop, the circuit impedance, circuit current, and power factor of that current relative to some voltage must be known. Rigorous methods of calculating voltage drop can be very involved and complicated and for purposes of ordinary use in designing power circuits for industrial projects, approximate methods are generally satisfactory. IEEE Standard 141 (Red Book) gives the approximate formula for voltage drop as:

V = IR cos + IX sin

where:

(Eq. 2-33)

V

= voltage drop in circuit, line to neutral

I

= current flowing in conductor

R

= line resistance for one conductor in ohms

X

= line reactance for one conductor in ohms

= angle whose cosine is the load power factor

cos

= load power factor in decimals

sin

= load reactive factor in decimals

The voltage drop calculated using this formula must be multiplied by 2 for single-phase circuits and 1.73 for three-phase circuits.

Calculations using the above formula are not required for most designs

* Conductor sizes for examples No. 1 and No. 2 are based on the use of 60 C wire for sizes Nos. 14 through 1 AWG and 75 C wire for sizes No. 1/0 and larger as required by the General Information Directory 1988, published by Underwriters Lab, Inc., because many items of equipment are still not rated with 75 C terminals in these sizes.

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because the results obtained using published tables give satisfactory results. The following calculations were made using Table 2-3 which is a reproduction of Table 3-12 of IEEE STD 141-1993 and the procedure for making the calculations that accompanies Table 3-12. Similar results can be obtained using published tables and graphs available in other reference books and manufacturer's catalogs.

2.3.8.2 Example. Condition: No. 1 AWG copper conductors feeding a

motor rated 60 hp (77 amps full-load), three-phase, 460 volts through rigid

metal conduit with a circuit length of 520 feet. Assume that the motor power factor is 85 percent.

Calculate voltage drop on a three-phase circuit from Table 2-3. The factor for No. 1 AWG copper conductors in magnetic conduit at 85 percent PF = 2.7 (need to interpolate between 0.8 and 0.9 PF)

Voltage drop = ((520 ft x 77 amps) 10000) x 2.7 volts drop = 10.8 volts

Calculate percent voltage drop by dividing the calculated volts drop by the system voltage and then multiplying by 100:

(10.8 volts 480 volts) x 100 = 2.25 % drop

Factors are provided at the bottom of Table 2-3 and are to be used to convert the calculated voltage drop to single-phase line-to-line and single- phase line-to-neutral values.

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50

50

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

38

38

48

48

43

43

53

53

14*

24

24

30

30

32

32

50

50

27

27

52

52

42

37

37

48

48

33

33

43

12*

20

20

24

24

30

30

19

19

17

17

32

32

27

27

15

15

33

33

21

21

10*

12

12

20

20

9.9

9.7

19

19

17

17

15

15

13

13

13

13

11

11

21

21

8*

Table 2-3. Three-phase line-to-line voltage drop for 600 V single-conductor cable Per 10 000 A-ft (60 C conductor temperature, 60 Hz)

6.4

8.4

8.4

8.0

6.6

8.2

7.2

8.2

10

7.9

12

12

9.9

7.3

13

13

13

13

11

11

6

4.4

8.4

8.4

6.4

5.2

4.7

8.2

8.2

7.2

7.9

7.9

4.8

6.5

4.3

5.3

5.3

5.3

5.3

7.3

5.1

4

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.0

5.0

3.2

4.6

5.2

5.2

5.2

4.2

4.7

2.8

3.5

3.3

3.3

5.3

4.3

3.1

5.1

Reproduced from IEEE Std 141-1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, © 1994, by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., with the permission of the IEEE.

2

2.4

2.6

2.6

2.6

3.4

3.6

2.7

2.7

4.2

4.2

4.2

4.2

3.9

2.8

2.8

3.8

2.5

2.5

4.1

4.1

1

Multiply by

2.0

3.4

3.4

3.4

2.2

2.2

3.2

2.9

2.8

2.3

2.3

2.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

3.1

1/0

0.577

0.577

1.15

1.6

1.6

2.4

2.6

2.6

1.9

1.9

1.9

2.6

2.6

1.7

1.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

1.8

1.8

1.8

2.5

2.3

2/0