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Structures to Learn Lesson 1 She writes letters every two weeks.

SAYING WHAT PEOPLE ARE DOING


Adverbs of frequency go after the verb 'be'.
You use the present continuous tense to ask and say what people
are doing at the moment. I'm always out on Friday nights.

In this photo he's playing the guitar. See also Level 1, Structures to Learn Lessons 13 and 18.
I think they're dancing.

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Structures to Learn Lesson 2


PRESENT SIMPLE TIME CLAUSES WITH 'WHEN'
You form the present continuous tense with the verb 'be' +
present participle. When I speak English, I feel embarrassed.
I do some gardening when the weather is good.
What are you doing at the moment?
I'm reading about the present continuous tense. DESCRIBING CHARACTER

See also Level 1, Structures to Learn Lessons 14 and 15. You use the present tense 'be' to describe people's character.

VERBS NOT USED IN CONTINUOUS FORMS She's a very kind and relaxed person.

You do not usually use the following verbs in continuous forms. DESCRIBING IMPRESSIONS

* be, cost, need, want He looks quite nice.


* hate, like, love, prefer They don't look very friendly.
* feel, hear, look (like), see, seem, smell, taste She seems rather shy.
* believe, forget, know, think(=believe), understand, I think he's a little sensitive.
remember, mean I don't think she's very happy.

DESCRIBING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES See also Structures to Learn Lessons 8 and 22.

You can use the present simple tense to talk about routine TALKING ABOUT LIKES AND DISLIKES
activities.
I love learning English.
I often borrow books from the library. I enjoy listening to music.
I'm keen on tennis.
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 5 and 10. I (quite) like dancing.
I'm not very keen on Chinese food
ASKING AND SAYING HOW OFTEN I can't stand parties.

You can use these adverbs and phrases of frequency to say how See also Structures to Learn Lesson 15.
often things happen.
AGREEING AND DISAGREEING
always usually often sometimes never
once a day A statement / Same opinion / Different
twice a week I love reading. / So do I. / Do you? I don't.
three times a month I'm not keen on jazz. / Nor am I. / Aren't you? I am.
every month I can't stand fish. / Nor can I. / Can't you? I love it.
every two days
every three weeks

I eat in restaurants twice a month.


Structures to Learn Lesson 3 What did Judy Chicago teach?
TALKING ABOUT THE PAST: PAST SIMPLE TENSE Which do you prefer?

Remember that you form the past simple tense of most regular
verbs by adding -ed or -d. Structures to Learn Lesson 4
happen happened move moved GIVING ADVICE AND CRITICISING

Most regular verbs of one syllable which end in a vowel and a You can use the modal verb 'should' and 'shouldn't' to give
consonant double the consonant and add -ed. advice and to criticise.
stop stopped fit fitted You should stand up when you greet someone.
You shouldn't smoke during a meal.
But regular verbs of one syllable which end in a vowel and -y
or -w add -ed. See also Structures to Learn Lessons 12 and 19.
play played show showed
EXPRESSING OBLIGATION AND PROHIBITION
Verbs ending in a consonant and -y change the -y to -i and add
-ed. You can use modal verb 'must' to express obligation and
marry married cry cried 'mustn't' to express prohibition.
You must drive on the left in Britain.
For a list of irregular verbs look at Tools - Irregular Forms. Children mustn't go into bars.

Remember that the past tense form is the same for all persons See also Structures to Learn Lesson 27.
except in the verb 'be'.
For the past tense of the verb 'be', see Level 1, Structures to MODAL VERBS: SHOULD AND MUST
Learn Lesson 19.
Modal verbs have the same form for all persons.
EXPRESSIONS OF PAST TIME He must leave his hotel room at 11 am.

yesterday last week last year last February six months ago You form questions and negatives without 'do'.
ten years ago Must I wear a hat?
You shouldn't point at people.
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: IN, AT, ON
You put an infinitive without 'to' after a modal verb.
in 1982 in December in the afternoon We should pay the bill.
at the weekend You mustn't smoke here.
on Friday
Here are some more modal verbs which you already know:
QUESTION WORDS: WHO, WHAT, WHICH
can could need shall will would
You can use 'who, what, which' to ask about the subject of the
sentence. You put the question word before the verb, and you
don't use the auxiliary verb 'do'. Structures to Learn Lesson 5
TALKING ABOUT THE POSSIBLE FUTURE
Who went to the USA?
What happened in 1982? THE FIRST CONDITIONAL
Which person won an Oscar?
You can use the first conditional to talk about the possible
You can also use question words to ask about the object of the future when the action or event is quite likely to happen.
sentence. You put the auxiliary verb 'do' before the subject
and the main verb after it. You form the first conditional like this:

Who did you meet ten years ago?


Conditional clause Main clause Have you been to London yet?
if + present tense future simple I haven't read it yet.
-------------------------------------------------------------
If you give up smoking, you'll feel better. You form the present perfect tense with 'have/has' + past
participle.
The conditional clause can go after the main clause.
Affirmative
You'll feel better if you give up smoking.
Full form / Short form
You can use 'perhaps' and 'maybe' to talk about the possible I/you/we/they have worked I've/you've/we've/they've worked
future. he/she/it has worked he's/she's/it's worked

Perhaps I'll spend more time reading. Negative


Maybe I'll watch less television.
Full form / Short form
See also Level 1, Structures to Learn Lessons 28 and 30. I/you/we/they have not worked I/you/we/they haven't worked
he/she/it has not worked he/she/it hasn't worked
TALKING ABOUT FUTURE PLANS
Questions / Short answers
Remember that you can use 'going to' + infinitive to talk about Have I/you/we/they worked Yes, I/you/we/they have.
future plans. No, I/you/we/they haven't.

I'm going to go running before breakfast. Has he/she/it worked? Yes, he/she/it has.
He's going to listen to the radio. No, he/she/it hasn't.

DESCRIBING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES The past participle of regular verbs is the same as the past
simple form.
I sleep about eight hours a day. work worked
I spend eight hours a day working. use used
design designed
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 1.
For the past participles of irregular verbs, see Irregular
forms.
Structures to Learn Lesson 6
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES: WHO For more information about the present perfect tense, see
Structures to Learn Lessons 7, 8 and 10.
You can define people with a relative clause beginning with
'who'.
An architect is someone who designs buildings. Structures to Learn Lesson 7
TALKING ABOUT WHAT HAS (JUST) HAPPENED
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 7 and 14.
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: RECENT EVENTS
TALKING ABOUT EXPERIENCE
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE : INDEFINITE PAST You use the present perfect tense to talk about what has
happened recently and has an effect in the present.
You can use the present perfect tense to talk about experience. We've moved to Brighton. (=We live in Brighton now.)
Have you read "Dr Zhivago"? I've given up smoking. (=I don't smoke now.)
Have you ever (= at any time) been to Hong Kong?
He's worked in a bar but he hasn't worked in a restaurant. You use the present perfect tense + 'just' to emphasise that
You can add 'yet' (= up to now) to questions and negative something has happened very recently.
statements in the present perfect to suggest that someone I've just been on holiday.
intends to do something. I've just bought it.
She looks quite patient.
You use the past simple to ask for or give more detailed
information about recent events. You use 'look as if' + clause.
When did it happen? About six months ago. He looks as if he has a sense of humour.
Where did you go? I went to East Africa.
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 2 and 22.
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 6, 8 and 10.
ASKING AND SAYING HOW LONG
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES: WHO THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: WITH 'SINCE' AND 'FOR'

He's/she's the ... (man, boy, person, one,w oman) who ... You use the present perfect tense with 'since' or 'for' to ask
and say how long when talking about actions that started in the
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 6 and 14. past and continue up to the present.
How long have you lived here?
PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE We've lived here for ten years, since 1982.

on the left/right, in the middle/corner (of), in front of, You use 'since' to refer to a specific point in time.
behind, next to, near, between, on since last year since July since 1982

She's standing on the left. You use 'for' to refer to the length of time.
The table is in the middle of the room. for a week for seven months for ten years
There's a chair in the corner.
She's standing in front of him. See also Structures to Learn Lessons 6, 7 and 10.
He's sitting behind her.
He's next to the table. PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE
She's near the window.
He's between the window and the sofa. You use the present perfect to talk about experience, recent
He's sitting on the chair. events (often with 'just'), and actions that started in the
past and continue up to the present.
MEETING PEOPLE We've lived in Rome for ten years. (=We still live in Rome.)

How do you do? You use the past simple to talk about something that started
Pleased to meet you. and finished in the past.
Nice to meet you. We lived in Milan for five years. Then we moved to Rome in
1982.
GREETING PEOPLE

Great to see you. Structures to Learn Lesson 9


Good to see you again. TALKING ABOUT THE PAST: PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
How nice to see you.
Glad you could come. You form the past continuous tense with the past simple form of
How are you? the verb 'be' + present participle.
How's life?
Affirmative / Negative
I/he/she/it was driving I/he/she/it wasn't driving
Structures to Learn Lesson 8 you/we/they were driving you/we/they weren't driving
DESCRIBING IMPRESSIONS: LOOK LIKE/LOOK
Questions
You use 'look like' + noun. Was I/he/she/it driving?
He looks like an accountant. Were you/we/they driving?

You use 'look' + adjective. Short answers


Yes, I/he/she/it was. No, I/he/she/it wasn't. COMPARING PRESENT AND PAST ROUTINE ACTIVITIES
Yes, you/we/they were. No, you/we/they weren't.
Today many woman go out to work, but they used to stay at home.
PAST TIME CLAUSES WITH 'WHILE' AND 'WHEN' People used to wash clothes by hand, but now there are washing
machines.
When you want to describe two things happening at the same time
in the past, you can use: THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: CHANGES
'while' + past continuous & past continuous
While she was having dinner, they were flying to Lisbon. You use the present perfect tense to talk about changes which
While they were flying to Lisbon, she was having dinner. affect the present.

The 'while' clause can also go at the end of the sentence. The number of children in a family has fallen.
She was having dinner while they were flying to Lisbon. The number of divorces has increased.
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 6, 7 and 8.
When you want to describe what was going on at the time
something happened, you use EITHER:
'while' + past continuous & past simple Structures to Learn Lesson 11
While he was making a phone call, someone shot him. EXPRESSING DEGREES OF PROBABILITY

OR: past continuous & 'when' + past simple You can use the future simple tense + 'certainly, probably,
He was making a phone call when someone shot him. possibly' to express degrees of probability. You put the adverb
after 'will' and before 'won't'.
When you want to describe two things which happened one after Probability
the other, you use EITHER: We will certainly use more English at work. 100%
'when' + past simple & past simple It will probably snow this winter. 80%
When her phone rang, she answered it. Britain will possibly get warmer. 40%
It probably won't rain tomorrow. 20%
OR: past simple & 'when' + past simple Computers certainly won't replace teachers. 0%
She answered her phone when it rang.
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 23.

Structures to Learn Lesson 10 MAKING PREDICTIONS


SAYING WHAT THINGS ARE FOR
Remember that you can use the future simple to make
You can use 'for' + gerund (ing) to say what things are for. predictions.

A washing machine is for washing clothes. Parts of Britain will be under water in 2090.
A fridge is for keeping food cold. I think people will be younger when they start learning
English.
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 17.
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 23.
TALKING ABOUT THE PAST: USED TO
TALKING ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT
You use 'used to' + infinitive to describe routine activities
in the past. You can use 'because' and 'so' to talk about cause and effect.
The sun's heat can't escape because there's too much carbon
People used to wash clothes by hand. dioxide.
Women used to stay at home and look after the children. There's too much carbon dioxide so the sun's heat can't escape.
You form the negative with 'didn't use to' + infinitive. The atmosphere is getting warmer because the sun's heat can't
escape.
People didn't use to have washing machines. The sun's heat can't escape so the atmosphere is getting
Women didn't use to go out to work. warmer.
Structures to Learn Lesson 12 USING INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
MODAL VERBS: WOULD
After some verbs you use 'to' + infinitive.
Modal verbs have the same form for all persons. I wanted to go abroad.
We decided to stay in Britain.
Full forms / Short forms They invited us to have dinner with them.
I would go by bus. I'd go by bus.
He would not go by car. He wouldn't go by car. There are three types of verb + infinitive construction.

Questions / Short answers Type 1: without an object


Would you go by bus? Yes, I would.
Would they go by car? No, they wouldn't. agree decide happen hope learn offer refuse seem start
try
THE SECOND CONDITIONAL
You use the second conditional to talk about imaginary or I hope to start work in September.
unlikely situations in the present and future. He refused to buy me a drink.

You form the second conditional like this: Type 2: with an object

Conditional clause / Main clause advice encourage invite remind teach tell

'if' + past simple tense, 'would' + infinitive He invited me to go to the theatre with him.
If I was cold, I'd put on a pullover. I told him to stay in a hotel.
She encouraged him to start English lessons.
The conditional clause can go after the main clause.
I'd put on the pullover if I was cold. Type 3: with or without an object

You can use 'were' instead of 'was' in formal English, and ask expect help want would like
particularly in the phrase 'If I were you ...'
If I were you, I'd take a shower. I asked to leave early.
I asked him to leave early.
GIVING ADVICE She expected to stay late.
You should ask him to turn out the lights. She expected him to stay late.
You ought to take a shower. See also Structures to Learn Lesson 24 and 25.
If I were you, I'd complain to the editors.
You'd better put on a pullover.
You'd better = You had better Structures to Learn Lesson 14
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES (3): WHO, WHICH/THAT, WHERE
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 4.
You can define animals and things with a relative clause
beginning with 'which' or 'that'.
Structures to Learn Lesson 13 The grizzly bear is an animal which lives in North America.
MAKING EXCLAMATIONS The lowland gorilla is an animal that eats mostly leaves.
A leaf is something which grows on trees.
You use 'so' + adjective. A book is a thing that you read.
It's so beautiful.
You can define places with a relative clause beginning with
You use 'such (a)' + (adjective) noun. 'where'.
It's such a beautiful view!
A forest is a place where lots of trees grow.
You use 'What (a)' + (adjective) noun. A desert is somewhere where nothing grows.
What a beautiful view! See also Structures to Learn Lessons 6 and 7.
Structures to Learn Lesson 15 You form the past simple passive with 'was/were' + past
TALKING ABOUT LIKES AND DISLIKES participle.
The steam engine was invented in 1712.
I enjoy living in a small town. Clothes were manufactured in north-west England.
I don't mind living in the country. See also Structures to Learn Lesson 22.

I love it.
I think it's peaceful. Structures to Learn Lesson 17
It's all right. DESCRIBING OBJECTS
I find it boring.
I can't stand it. What's it like? It's big/light/soft.
What shape is it? It's round/square/oval.
USING GERUND CONSTRUCTIONS: VERB + -ING What colour is it? It's black and white.
What's it made of? It's made of glass/metal/wood.
You can use a gerund (-ing) after these verbs:
can't help can't stand enjoy finish hate like love mind ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
miss regret remember stop
You put adjectives before the noun in the following order:
I can't help falling asleep in the afternoons.
They've finished building the shopping centre. opinion size/weight/texture shape colour origin material
I remember seeing more trees in the park. + noun

The gerund has the same form as the present participle, but you attractive - - blue Venetian glass bowl
use it like a noun. - large square white - cotton tablecloth

I can't stand driving. I can't stand it. It's an attractive blue Venetian glass bowl.
I miss going to the theatre. I miss it. It's a large square white cotton tablecloth.
Stop talking! Stop it!
SAYING WHAT THINGS ARE FOR
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 2 and 20.
It's something (you use) to eat with.
It's stuff for cleaning windows (with).
Structures to Learn Lesson 16 It's a device for counting kilometres (with).
THE PASSIVE: PRESENT AND PAST SIMPLE It's a machine for washing clothes (in).
It's a thing for opening bottles (with).
You use the passive when you want to focus on the action and
not the agent (the person who does or did the action). This may See also Structures to Learn Lesson 10.
be because the agent in not important:
Coffee is grown in Colombia. Structures to Learn Lesson 18
ASKING AND SAYING HOW PEOPLE TRAVEL
OR because the agent is unknown.
My address book was found on the train. How do you get to the sea?
(This could also be a request for directions, depending on the
If you want to mention the agent, you use 'by'. context.)
Penicillin was discovered in 1940 by Alexander Fleming.
I go by bicycle. / I cycle.
You form the present simple passive with 'am/is/are' + past I go by car. / I drive.
participle. I go by plane/air. / I fly.
I'm invited to the party. I go on foot. / I walk.
Coal is sent to power stations.
Cars are made in Japan. ASKING AND SAYING HOW LONG JOURNEYS TAKE
How long does it take? She should have spoken more slowly.
About 55 minutes. You shouldn't have worn jeans.

TALKING ABOUT DISTANCES When you use this construction in the first person, it usually
expresses regret.
How far is your office from your home?
How far is it to the railway station? I should have done more work.
I shouldn't have eaten so much.
It's 15 minutes by car.
It's 5 kilometres away. See also Structures to Learn Lesson 4.
It's a 45-minute walk.

ASKING AND SAYING HOW FAST THINGS GO Structures to Learn Lesson 20


DESCRIBING A SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS
How fast does the train go?
It goes at 150km an hour. USING GERUND CONSTRUCTIONS: BEFORE/AFTER + -ING

ASKING AND SAYING HOW MUCH THINGS COST You can use 'before/after' + gerund (-ing) to link a sequence
of actions or instructions.
How much is it?
It's 7 francs. You check in before going through passport control.
You go through passport control after checking in.
How much does it cost?
It costs 9.20 pounds. The gerund phrase can also go at the beginning of the sentence.

Before going through passport control, you check in.


Structures to Learn Lesson 19 After checking in, you go through passport control.
GIVING INSTRUCTIONS
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 15, 19 and 21.
You can use the imperative to give instructions. The imperative
has the same form as the infinitive. EXPRESSING OBLIGATION

Pick up the receiver. You can use 'have to' to express obligation.
Don't talk too quickly.
The pilot has to check the instruments.
DESCRIBING A SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS
You can express absence of obligation with 'not have to''
You can use the following adverbs to link a sequence of actions
or instructions. The pilot doesn't have to land the plane.
first then next after that finally
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 4 and 27.
First he picked up the receiver and then he listened for the
dialling tone. Next he dialled the number. After that he
listened for the ringing tone. Finally someone answered the Structures to Learn Lesson 21
phone. TALKING ABOUT THE PAST: PAST PERFECT TENSE

See also Structures to Learn Lesson 20. You can use the past perfect tense to refer to the first of two
events which happened in the past. You use the past simple for
CRITICISING the second event.

You can use 'should have, shouldn't have' to criticise past 1 past perfect tense , 2 past simple tense
actions. After he had signed the contract, Hopkins travelled to London.
The past perfect clause can also go at the end of the sentence. THE PASSIVE: VERB + PREPOSITION
Hopkins travelled to London after he had signed the contract. When you ask questions in the passive using a verb +
preposition, you put the preposition after the past participle.
You form the past perfect tense with 'had' + past participle. What is it made of?
What was it covered with?
Affirmative
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 16.
Full form
I/you/he/he/it/we/they had worked. MAKING DEDUCTIONS
You can use the modal verbs 'could, might, must, can't' to make
Short form deductions.
I'd/you'd/he'd/she'd/it'd/we'd/they'd worked.
It could be a telephone. = possibly
Negative It might be a pen. = possibly
It must be a bottle. = certainly
Full form It can't be a glass. = certainly not
I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not worked.
DESCRIBING IMPRESSIONS: LOOK/FEEL/SOUND LIKE
Short form
I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn't worked. It looks like a box.
It feels like wool.
Questions It sounds like a telephone.
Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked?
See also Structures to Learn Lessons 2 and 8.
Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/they had.
No, I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn't. Structures to Learn Lesson 23
ADJECTIVE PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
The following words and phrases are often used with the past
perfect tense: You can add the following prefixes to adjectives to make
after because when as soon as until opposites:

ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM PARTICIPLES: ENDING IN -ED dis- disorganised, dishonest


You can use many past participles ending in -ed as adjectives in- inaccurate, inexpensive
to describe people's feelings. im- (before m/p) impatient, impolite
He was amazed. un- unselfish, unreliable
I was disappointed.
You can add suffixes -ful and -less to some nouns to make
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 24. adjectives.
careful careless thoughtful thoughtless
EMPHASISING SIMILARITIES WITH 'BOTH' AND 'TOO'
James Singer smokes. James Lewis smokes too. They both smoke. MAKING COMPARISONS: COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
Remember that you form the comparative of most short adjectives
with -er, and the superlative with -est.
Structures to Learn Lesson 22 old older the oldest
TALKING ABOUT SIZE young younger the youngest

How long was the fence? 40km long. Adjectives which end in -e only add -r, -st.
How high was the fence? 5,5 high. late later the latest
How wide was the curtain? 100m wide. large larger the largest
How deep is the water? 3m deep.
You double the final consonant when the preceding vowel is Train journeys make me feel tired.
stressed and spelt with a single letter. He's depressed about the weather.
big bigger the biggest
slim slimmer the slimmest The present participle (-ing) is active in meaning, and
BUT quiet quieter the quietest describes the person or thing which causes the feeling.

Adjectives which end in -y drop this ending and add -ier, Train journeys are tiring.
-iest. The weather is depressing.
lazy lazier the laziest
tidy tidier the tidiest MAKING SUGGESTIONS

You form the comparative form of longer adjectives with 'more', Why don't you listen to some music?
and the superlative with 'the most'. If I were you, I'd go to the zoo.
reliable more reliable the most reliable How about going to the cinema?
easy-going more easy-going the most easy-going You ought to stop wearing black.
I think you should go for a swim.
Some adjectives are irregular. You could take up yoga.
good better the best I suggest you spend a day by the sea.
bad worse the worst

EXPRESSING CONTRAST WITH 'ALTHOUGH' Structures to Learn Lesson 25


Although he's tidy at school, he's untidy at home. ASKING AND SAYING HOW YOU DO THINGS

The 'although' clause can also go at the end of the sentence. You can use 'by' + gerund (-ing) to say how you do things.
He's untidy at home, although he's tidy at school.
How do you stop a bus at a request stop?
MAKING PREDICTIONS By putting out your hand.
I'm likely to travel a lot. = I'll probably travel a lot.
I'm not likely to be famous. = I probably won't be famous. USING INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS: EXPRESSING PURPOSE
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 11.
You can use the infinitive of purpose to explain how you do
MODAL VERBS: MAY things.
You can use the modal verb 'may' to predict that something is To stop a bus at a request stop, put out your hand.
possible.
My brother may go to university. The infinitive of purpose can also go at the end of the
sentence.
Put out your hand to stop a bus at a request stop.
Structures to Learn Lesson 24 NOUN CLAUSES AFTER 'KNEW, DIDN'T KNOW, THOUGHT'
TALKING ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT
Noun clauses often begin with 'that'.
MAKE + INFINITIVE WITHOUT 'TO' I knew that you couldn't smoke on the train.

Chopping onions makes me cry. You can often leave out 'that', especially when speaking.
Comedy films make me laugh. I knew you couldn't smoke on the train.

ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM PARTICIPLES: ENDING IN -ED AND -ING When the main verb is in the past tense, you use the past tense
You can form many adjectives from participles ending in -ed and form of the verb(s) in the 'that' clause too.
-ing.
I knew (that) you couldn't smoke on the train.
The past participle (-ed) is passive in meaning, and describes (= You can't smoke on the train.)
a feeling. I didn't know (that) you had to push a button.
(= You have to push a button.)
I thought (that) it was called the 'subway'. You are obliged to have a ticket.
(= It's called the 'underground'.)
You can express absence of obligation in the following ways.

Structures to Learn Lesson 26 You don't have to get a visa.


MAKING REQUESTS You don't need to wear a seatbelt.
It isn't necessary to tell the police.
Can you ...? lend me some money.
Could you ...? bring me the bill, please. See also Structures to Learn Lessons 4 and 20.
I wonder if you could ...? show me the bathroom.
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION
AGREEING TO DO THINGS
Of course. You mustn't park here.
Certainly. You aren't allowed to carry a gun.
Come with me. It's forbidden to criticise the government.
Here you are.
GIVING OPINIONS
REFUSING TO DO THINGS
I'm afraid I don't know. Remember that you don't usually use a negative clause after
I'm sorry, I haven't got any. 'think'. You use 'don't think' and an affirmative clause.
I don't think it should be allowed.
VERBS WITH INDIRECT AND DIRECT OBJECTS
See also Structures to Learn Lesson 4.
These verbs can have an indirect and a direct object.
bring give lend offer pay sell send show take teach AGREEING / DISAGREEING
tell write
I think ...
You usually put the indirect object first. So do I.
Yes, but ...
Bring me the bill. (=Bring the bill to me.) I think so too.
Give him a message. (=Give a message to him.)
I don't think so.
INDIRECT QUESTIONS I don't think ...
In indirect questions, the word order is the same as in the Nor do I.
statements. I don't think so either.

Can you tell me what the date is? I'm not sure.
Have you any idea where my pen is? I think ...
Do you know how long we have to wait? I agree. / I don't agree.
I'd like to know how you spell it.
I don't think ...
When there is no question words (what, where, etc.), you use I disagree.
'if' to introduce an indirect question.
I wonder if you could help me.
Structures to Learn Lesson 28
REPORTING WHAT WAS SAID
Structures to Learn Lesson 27
EXPRESSING OBLIGATION When you change direct speech into reported speech, you can use
'said (that)' + clause. You usually change the verb tenses and
You must carry an ID card. the pronouns in the reported clause.
You have to drive on the left.
You are required to wear a hat. DIRECT SPEECH - REPORTED SPEECH
'I'm the greatest.' - He said (that) he was the greatest.
'Our role in the society isn't getting better.' - She said TYPE 4: verb + object + (that) clause
(that) their role in society wasn't getting better. advise promise tell
'I've been round the world.' - He said (that) he'd been round
the world. 'I never eat anything for lunch.' - She told him that she never
'I talked to him this morning.' - He said (that) he'd talked to ate anything for lunch.
him that morning. 'I'll eat nothing for dinner tonight,' - He promised her that
'Everyone will be famous.' - He said (that) everyone would be he would eat nothing for dinner that night.
famous.
'You can't fool all of the people ...' - He said (that) you See also Structures to Learn Lessons 13 and 28.
couldn't fool all of the people.

BUT you don't change the modal verbs: would, could, should. Structures to Learn Lesson 30
'I would walk miles for a bacon sandwich.' - Princess Diana USING PHRASAL VERBS
said she would walk miles for a bacon sandwich.
A phrasal verb is a verb + adverb combination.
You usually need to change time expressions. Sometimes the meanings of phrasal verbs are obvious, for
example:
DIRECT SPEECH - REPORTED SPEECH
now - then Please sit down.
today - that day He picked up the receiver.
yesterday - the day before
tomorrow - the following day But phrasal verbs are idiomatic, and they often have several
this week/month - that week/month meanings.
last week/month - the week/month before
next week/month - the following week/month She turned down the radio. (= lowered the volume)
She turned down the offer of a job. (= refused)

Structures to Learn Lesson 29 PHRASAL VERBS WITH NO OBJECT


REPORTING WHAT WAS SAID
Prices have gone up.
You can use different reporting verbs to add colour and improve Something exciting turned up.
style when reporting what was said. Would you tell the waiter and pay up?
There are four main structures.
PHRASAL VERBS WITH AN OBJECT
TYPE 1: verb + 'to' + infinitive
agree ask decide hope offer promise refuse You can put the noun object before or after the adverb.
'Could I see the menu?' - He asked to see the menu.
'I'll have the salmon.' - She decided to have the salmon. I looked his phone number up.
OR
TYPE 2: verb + object + 'to' + infinitive I looked up his phone number.
ask advise invite promise encourage tell
You must put the pronoun object between the verb and the
'You shouldn't eat meat.' - She advised him not to eat meat. adverb.
'Follow my example.' - She told him to follow her example.
I looked it up.
TYPE 3: verb + (that) clause
agree decide explain hope promise reply say suggest EXPRESSING PREFERENCE: WOULD RATHER

'You see, my doctor has forbidden me to drink champagne.' - He Would you rather go to Australia or to the USA?
explained that his doctor had forbidden him to drink champagne. I'd rather go to the USA.
'Let's go to Foyot's.' - She suggested that we went to Foyot's.