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Chemistry Project

By:-
Anubhav Sharma
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I place my sincere thanks to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Manimala Bhattacharya for her
guidance and advices to complete my work successfully. I also thank our principal Mrs.
Nina Col for providing me all the facilities to finish the project on time.
I also take this opportunity to place on record my deep gratitude to LORD ALMIGHTY
for the countless blessings showered on me while doing the work and to complete it.
Last but not least I thank my parents for their encouragement and support in my humble
venture.
LABORATORY CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Anubhav Sharma has satisfactorily completed the course of
chemistry project of the C.B.S.E in the the laboratory of this school in 2010-2010
Contents

1. Laboratory certificate

2. Acknowledgment

3. Introduction

4. Experiment 1:-

5. Aim

6. Theory

7. Apparatus

8. Chemicals

9. Procedure

10. Conclusion

11. Experiment 2:-

12. Aim
13. Theory
14. Apparatus
15. Chemicals
16. Procedure
17. Conclusion
18. Test of SiO2

19. Bibliography
Introduction

An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or metals and non-


metals.In other words a solid solution of two or more metals or a metal and a non-
metal. It is prepared by first melting the main metal, and then, dissolving the other
elements in it in a definite proportion. It is then cooled to the room temperature. If
one of the metals is mercury, then the alloy is known as amalgam. The electrical
conductivity of an alloy is less than that of pure metals. More than ten thousands
alloys have been prepared so far and about hundred of them are in common use,
for example, stainless steel, brass, bronze, duralumin, soldering metal, gun metal,
etc. So large numbers of alloys have been prepared because the properties of the
parent metals constituting the alloy are modified a lot by alloy formation. For
example, pure copper metal is soft and ductile, but when it is alloyed with small
amount of zinc, becomes hard.
Some of the commonly used alloys, their
constituents and properties are given in
the following table:

Alloys Constituents Properties


Steel Iron,Carbon Hard,Tough,Strong
Stainless Iron,Nickel Hard,Doesn’t Rust
Brass Copper,Zinc Malleable,Strong, Resists
Corrosion
Bronze Copper,Zinc Malleable,Strong, Resists
Corrosion
Duralumin Aluminium,Copper, Light, Strong, Resistant to
Magnesium,Manganese Corrosion
Experiment #1

Aim: To analyse a sample of brass qualitatively

Theory: Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Smallamount of iron and lead
are also present. This dissolves in 50%nitric acid and generates the ions of the
constituting metals in solutions. Presence of these ions in the solution can be
conformed by qualitative inorganic analysis scheme.

Cu(s)+8HNO3 => 3Cu(NO3)2(aq)+4H2O(l)+2NO(g)


Zn(s)+8HNO3 => 3Zn(NO3)2(aq)+4H2O(l)+2NO(g)

Apparatus: Test tubes, test-tube stand, beakers, funnel, test-tube holder,


sand paper, filter paper

Chemicals: Common laboratory reagents


Procedure: (i)Clean a piece of brass with sand paper. Wash it with water. Cut it into
small pieces and place the pieces in a clean beaker.

(ii)Add to it about 10ml of 50% nitric acid. Heat the contents in a fume-closet until the brass pieces
dissolve. Concentrate the solution to a pasty mass.

(iii)Dissolve the residue in about 10ml of hot distilled water and filter if there is any turbidity. The
solution so obtained will be the original solution for inorganic analysis.

(iv)Follow the following procedure for detection of various cations present in the original solution:-

Test Observation Inference


1. Original solution + dil. HCL No ppt Ag+, Hg22+,Pb2+ absent.

2. Pass H2S gas through above Black ppts Gr.II or Cu2+ is present.
solution.
3. Filter & preserve the filtrate
for the test of Zn2+.
4. Dissolve the black ppts in Bluish Green Sol. Cu2+ present
50% hot nitric acid.
5. Add excess of NH4OH in Deep blue colour Cu2+ confirmed
above sol.
6. Boil off H2S gas from filtrate. Dirty-white ppts Zn+ may be present
Add NH4OH into it and pass H2S
gas through the ammonical
solution.
7. Filter the dirty-white ppts. Bluish white ppts. Zn2+ presence confirmed
Dissolve the in minimum amount
of dil. HCl. Boil off H2S. Cool
and add potassium ferrocynide
sol. into it.

Conclusion: Brass contains copper and zinc metals.

Experiment #2
Aim: To find out qualitatively the constituents present in the given sample
of duralumin alloy.

Theory: Duralumin is aluminium based alloy and contains about 94% of


aluminium, 4% of copper and 2% of magnesium, manganese and silicon.

Apparatus: Test tubes, test-tube stand, beakers, funnel, test-tube holder,


sand paper, filter paper.

Chemicals: Common laboratory reagents.

Procedure: Boil the alloy with concentrated nitric acid and evaporate the
solution to obtain a pasty mass. This treatment will convert all metals except ‘Si’
into nitrates which are soluble in water. Extract the pasty mass with water, when
nitrates of Al, Cu, Mg, and Mn will go into solution leaving a white residue.
Test Observation Inference
1. Original solution +dil. Hcl. No ppts Gr. II,Cu2+ is present
3. Filter and preserve the filtrate
4.Dissolve black ppts. In 50% Bluish Green sol. Cu+ present
hot nitric acid.
5. Add excess of NH4OH Deep blue colour Cu2+ confirmed.
May be Al3+
6. Add conc. HNO3 White gelatinous ppts. Al3+ confirmed
7. Filter ppt.
8. Add dil.NaOH and then add Ppt disapears and then reappers
solid NH4Cl
9. Pass H2S gas Ppt formed
10. Add dil. Hcl Ppt. Does not dissolve Gr IV present.
May be Mn+
11. Boil off H2S and preserve
some part. Add excess of NaOH
12. Boil ppt in conc. HNO3. Purple solution Mn2+ confirmed
Add solid PbO2 and boil
13. Add (NH4)2CO3 and NH4OH No ppts Gr. V absent.
May be Mg2+
14.Filtrate + (NH4)2C2O4 + White crystalline ppt Mg2+ confirmed
Na2HPO4 + NH4OH

Test of SiO2: To the SiO2 (white residue), add a smallamount of sodium


fluoride and concentrated sulphuric acid. Heat the contents. Hold a moistened
glass rod near the mouth of the
tube. Formation of white deposit confirms the presence of SiO2.

NaF + H2SO4 => NaHSO4 + HF

SiO2 + 4HF => 2H2O + SiO4

Conclusion: Duralumin contains aluminium, copper, magnesium,


manganese and silicon.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Comprehensive lab manual


2. www.google.com
3. www.scribd.com
4. www.wikipedia.org