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Acknowledgements

The Fisherman's Workbook has been prepared in the Fishing Technology Service, Fishery Industries Division, in
the Fisheries Department of the FAO.'
A number of consultants and experts in fishing technology worked on the preparation of this book, over a
period of several years. Without their contributions it would have been impossible to compile the book, and
we wish to thank them. We wish to thank the FAO masterfishermen working in various countries, who offered
valuable comments on the draft, and Messrs A. Smith and S. Drew, for translating and editing the English
language edition.
Finally, we wish to thank the draftspeople in the FAO Fisheries Department for preparation of the
illustrations.
FISHERMAN'S
WORKBOOK

Compiled by J. Prado
Fishery Industries Division, FAO
in collaboration with P.Y. Dremiere
IFREMER, Sete, France

Published by arrangement with the


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
OF THE UNITED NATIONS
by . .
FISHING NEWS BOOKS
OXFORD 1990
The designations employed and the presentation of
material in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city or area or of its authorities, or
concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries.

Copyright ©FAO 1990 Fishing News Books


A division of Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may Editorial Offices:
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL (Orders: Tel. 0865
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, 240201)
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02142, USA
and extent of the reproduc-tion, should be addressed to 107 Barry Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia
the Director, Publications.Division, Food and
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delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Set by Best-set Typesetter Ltd.
Printed and bound in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury
Press Ltd,
Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk

British Library
Cataloging in Publication Data Prado, J.
Fisherman's workbook.
1. Fishing equipment
I . Title
II. Dremiere, P.Y.
III. Food and Agriculture Organization 639.2
ISBN 0-85238-163-8
Notice
To fishermen, net makers, boatbuilders, and other professionals
working in commercial fisheries:

The Fisherman's Workbook is a tool intended for field use,


to carry with you for easy reference on land or sea. It contains
essential information about the choice and use of a variety of
materials and equipment necessary for commercial fishing.

The first part of the book, 'Materials and ac-cessories',


contains a review of common materials and components used in
commercial fishing, with examples and explanations of their use.
This part should help with the choice and use of appropriate
materials.

The second part, 'Fishing gear and operations', will help


with the choice of particular types of fishing gear, their
characteristics and use.

The third section, Equipment for deck and


wheelhouse', outlines the characteristics of echo-sounders and
deck machinery for handling fishing gear and gives examples of
such equipment.

A fourth part, 'Fishing vessel operation', gives information


about the most effective use of fishing vessels. Guidelines for
calculating the costs and benefits of fishing operations are
presented.

The fifth part, 'Formulae and tables', gives tables for


converting units and numbers among different systems of
measurement as well as formulae for calculations which a
fisherman may need. Finally, the section on 'Ordering equip-
ment' gives recommendations about the specifications to be
listed when ordering fishing gear and equipment.
Notice
Fishing technologies in use are generally not
dependent on exact, absolute science. Individua
experience, knowledge and skill are of great importance,
and these are often specific for particular fishing grounds or
regions. Therefore, the Fisherman's Workbook is not an
absolute set of rules or formulae appropriate for all
questions and situa-tions. It does contain sets of guidelines
drawn from wide experience in professional fishing.
These guidelines may be helpful, when considered in
combination with your own experience, knowledge and
expertise.
Although the Fisherman's Workbook covers a wide
range of subjects, it cannot pretend to cover everything,
and in the preparation of the book it was necessary to
leave out many subjects. It is hoped that the reader will
fill these 'gaps' with his personal knowledge, skill and
experience in the context of the area in which he works.
Contents

Materials and accessories Equipment for deck and


wheelhouse
density of materials
strength of hardware light
synthetic fibres echo-sounders
twine deck equipment
rope
wire rope Fishing vessel operations
net webbing propulsion
fish hooks fish holds, tanks
line fishing accessories bait
floats operations
sinkers bookkeeping
hardware regulations
lifting
Formulae and tables
Fishing gear and operations units of measurement
purse seines formulae
beach seines
bottom seines Ordering equipment
trawls fishing gear and
entangling nets accessories
traps and pots deck equipment
line fishing
longlines Index
nets, traps, lines — buoys
dredges
Density of materials

DENSITY OF MATERILS
SINKING MATERIALS FLOATING MATERIALS
■ Metals ■ Wood
Density Multiplication factor* Density Multiplication factor*
Type Type
(g/cc) freshwater sea water (g/cc) freshwater sea water
aluminium 2.5 0.60 + 0.59 + bamboo 0.50 1.00- 1.05-
brass 8.6 0.88 + 0.88 + cedar, red 0.38 1.63- 1.70-
bronze 7.4 0.86 + 0.86 + cedar, white 0.32 2.13- 2.21-
to 8.9 0.89 + to 0.88 + cork 0.25 3.00- 3.10-
cast iron 7.2 0.86 + 0.86 + cypress 0.48 1.08- 1.14-
to 7.8 0.87 + 0.87 + fir 0.51 0.96- 1.01-
copper lead 8.9 0.89 + 0.88 + oak, dry 0.65 0.54- 0.58-
11.4 0.91 + 0.91 + oak, green 0.95 0.05- 0.08-
steel 7.8 0.87 + 0.87 + pine 0.65 0.54- 0.58 -
tin 7.2 0.86 + 0.86 + pine, Oregon 0.51 0.96- 1.01-
zinc 6.9 0.86 + 0.85 + pine, poplar 0.41 1.44- 1.50-
oplar 0.48 1.08- 1.14-
spruce 0.40 1.50- 1.57-
teak 0.82 0.22- 0.25-
walnut 0.61 0.64- 0.68-

■ Textiles
Multiplicatio
Density
Type n factor* ■ Fuel
(g/cc)
freshwater sea water Density Multiplication factor*
Type
aramide (kevlar) 1.20 0.17 + 0.15 + (g/cc) freshwater sea water
cotton 1.54 0.35 + 0.33 + petrol (normal or
super) 0.72 0.39 - 0.43-
hemp 1.48 0.32 + 0.31 + petrol for lamps 0.79 0.27- 0.30-
linen 1.50 0.33 + 0.32 + diesel fuel 0.84 0.19- 0.22-
manilla 1.48 0.32 + 0.32 + crude oil, heavy 0.86 0.16- 0.19-
polyamide (PA) 1.14 0.12 + 0.10 + crude oil, light 0.79 0.27- 0.30-
polyester (PES) 1.38 0.28 + 0.26 + fuel oil, heavy 0.99 0.01- 0.04-
polyviny
alcohol (PVA) 1.30 0.23 + 0.21 + fuel oil,
polyvinyl intermediate
0.94 0.06- 0.09-
chloride (PVC) 1.37 0.27+ 0.25 + (merchant vessels)
polyvinylidene 1.70 0.41 + 0.40 +
ramie 1.51 0.34 + 0.32 + ■ Textiles
sisal 1.49 0.33 + 0.31 + Density Multiplicatie factor*
Type
■ Other Materials (g/cc) freshwater sea water
Multiplication factor* polyethylene 0.95 0.05- 0.08-
Density
Type freshwater sea water polypropylen 0.90 0.11- 0.14 -
(g/cc)
e
brick 1.9 0.47 + 0.46 + polystyrene, 0.10 9.00- 9.26-
expanded
chalk 2.4 0.58 + 0.57 +
concrete 1.8 0.44 + 0.43 + ■ Others
to 3.1 0.68 + 0.67 + ice 1 0.95 0.11- 0.14- I
earthenware 2.2 0.55 + 0.53 + oil 0.90-0.95
glass 2.5 0.60 + 0.59 + Examples of loss of buoyancy as a function of duration of immersion:
rubber 1.0 0.00 0.03 - after 0 days 10 days 15 days

to 1.5 0.33 + 0.32 + cork 4.5 kgf


4.0
sandstone 2.2 0.55 + 0.53 + wood 2.0 kgf 1.0 0
stone 2.5 0.60 + 0.59 +
ebony 1.25 0.20 + 0.18 +

' Multiplication factor used to calculate the weight in water' of


different materials, as shown on page 4.
Weight in water, with examples for materials and
for a rigged gillnet
DENSITY OF MATERILS

24.6 x 0.10( + ) = 2.46 kg flotation in sea water

P = A x {1 - DW/DM}* ■ Example c: Calculating the weight in water of a


bottom gillnet
where : component weight(kg) weight (kg)
P = weight (kg) in water in air in sea
A = weight (kg) in air water
DW = density (g/cc) of water (freshwater ropes: 2 x 90 m PP Ø 6 3.060 -0.430 -
1.00; sea water 1.026) mm
DM = density (g/cc) of material netting: 900 x 11 meshes
140 mm stretched mesh
* The term in brackets, the multiplication PAR 450 tex with
factor, has been calculated for the bolchlines 1.360 + 0.136 +
materials most commonly used in floats: 46 corks x 21 g (in 0.970 - 3.000 -
fisheries, with the results given in the air) (or 50 floats of 60 gf
tables on pages 2-3. The factor followed each)
by a + sign indicates a sinking force. The sinkers: 180 lead sinkers,
factor followed by a - sign indicates a 80g each (in air) (1 14.400 +13.100 +
buoyant or floating force. To obtain the or 111 stones, avg.
weight in water of a certain quantity of weight 200 g (2) 22.200
material, simply multiply its weight in air by
TOTAL (1)19.790
the factor.
(2) 27.590 9.806 +
Example a:
1.5 kg of cork in air The table on page 3
gives the multiplication factor for cork: The weight of a gillnet in water is calculated by adding
freshwater : 3.00(-) the weights of the different components, taking into
sea water : 3.10( -) account the sign of the factor. The sign of the total
so, indicates the type of net we have made; thus, this
gillnet with a + sign would be a bottom net with a
1.5 x 3.00(-) = 4.5 kg flotation in sinking force of 9.806 kg.
freshwater
1.5 x 3.10H = 4.65 kg flotation in sea water
Example b:
24.6 kg of polyamide (nylon) in air The
table on page 3 gives the multiplication
factor for polyamide:
freshwater : 0.12( + )
sea water : 0.10( + )
so,
24.6 x 0.12( + ) = 2.95 kg flotation in
freshwater
Safe working load, breaking load, safety factor

■ Definitions ■ Safe working load

STRENGTH OF HARDWARE
— Safe working load (SWL), is the
maximum load that an item is certified to lift in service. Another
equivalent term in use is Working load limit.

— Breaking load (BL) is the maximum load that an item can


hold with a static load before it breaks. Another equivalent
term in use is Breaking strength.
— Safety factor
= breaking load
safe working load

Very important : The loads used in these calculations are


static loads. Dynamic or shock loads increase the stress
considerably, and thus increase the possibility of breakage.
■ Values of the safety factor
(a) For ropes
Diameter (mm) 3-18 20-28 30-38 40-44 48-100
Safety factor 25 (est) 20 15 10 8

(b) For wire ropes and metal hardware : safety factor


about 5—6.
Synthetic fibres and commercial names
■ Polyamide (PA) ■ Polypropylene (PP) ■ Polyester (PES)
SYNTHETIC FIBRES
Amilan (Jap) Akvaflex PP (Nor) Dacron (USA)
Anid (USSR) Courlene PY (UK) Diolen (Ger)
Anzalon (Neth) Danaflex (Den) Grisufen (E. Ger)
Caprolan (USA) Drylene 6 (UK) Tergal (Fran)
Denderon (E. Ger) Hostalen PP (Ger) Terital (Ital)
Enkalon (Neth, UK) Meraklon (Ital) Terlenka (Neth, UK)
Forlion (ltd) Multiflex (Den) Tetoron (Jap)
Kapron (USSR) Nufil (UK) Terylene (UK)
Kenlon (UK) Prolene (Arg) Trevira (W. Ger)
Knoxlock (UK) Ribofil (UK)
Lilion (ltd) Trofil P (Ger)
Nailon (ltd) Ulstron (UK)
■ Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
Nailonsix (Braz) Velon P (USA)
Nylon (many coun) Vestolen P (Ger)
Cremona (Jap)
Perlon (Ger)
Kanebian (Jap)
Platil (Ger)
Kuralon (Jap)
Relon (Roum) ■ Copolymers (PVD)
Kuremona (Jap)
Roblon (Den) Clorene (Fran) Manryo (Jap)
Silon (Czec) Dynel (USA) Mewlon (Jap)
Kurehalon Trawlon (Jap)
■ Polyethylene (PE) (Jap) Vinylon (Jap)
Saran (Jap, USA)
Akvaflex (Nor) Tiviron (Jap)
Cerfil (Port) Velon (USA)
Corfiplaste (Port) Wynene (Can)
Courlene (UK)
Drylene 3 (UK) ■ Commercial names of combined twines for netting
Etylon (Jap)
Kyokurin Cont. fil PA + Saran
Flotten (Fran)
Hiralon (Jap) Livlon Cont. fil PA + Saran
Hi-Zex (Jap) Marlon A Cont. fil PA + St. PVA
Hostalen G (W. Ger) Marlon B Cont. fil PA + Saran
Laveten (Swed) Marlon C Cont. fil PA + Cont. fil PVC
Levilene (ltd) Marlon D Cont. fil PA + Saran
Marlin PE (Ice)
Norfil (UK) Marlon E St. PA + St. PVA (or PVC)
Northylen (Ger) Marumoron Cont. fil. PA + St. PVA
Nymplex (Neth) Polex PE + Saran
Rigidex (UK) Polysara PE + Saran
Sainthene (Fran) Polytex PE + cont. fil. PVC
Trofil (Ger)
Ryolon Cont. fil. PES + Cont. fil. PVC
Velon PS (LP) (USA)
Vestolen A (Ger) Saran-N Cont. fil. PA + Saran
Tailon (Tylon P) Cont. fil. PA + St. PA
Temimew St. PVA + St. PVC

Cont. fil. = continuous fibres


St. = staple fibre
Synthetic fibres: physical properties
■ Nylon, polyamide (PA) Sinks (density = 1.14)

SYNTHETIC FIBRES
Good breaking strength and resistance to
Abrasion
Very good elongation and elasticity

■ Polyester (PES) Sinks (density = 1.38)


Very good breaking strength
Good elasticity
Poor elongation (does not stretch)
■ Polyethylene (PE) Floats (density = 0.94-0.96)
Good resistance to abrasion
Good elasticity
■ Polypropylene (PP) Floats (density = 0.91-0.92)
Good breaking strength
Good resistance to abrasion
■ Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Sinks (density = 1.30-1.32)
Good resistance to abrasion
Good elongation
Synthetic fibres: identification

Properties PA PES PE PP
SYNTHETIC FIBRES

Floats No No Yes Yes


- Appearance
- Continuous fibres X X - X
- Short (staple) fibres (X) (X) - (X)
- Monofilament (X) (X) X (X)
- Sheets (X) X
Combustion Melts follow- Melts and Melts and Melts and
ing short burns slowly burns slowly burns slowly
duration of with bright with pale blue with pale blue
heating - yellow flame flame flame
forms molten
droplets
Smoke White Black with White White
soot
Smell Celery-like Hot oil Snuffed out Hot wax/
fishy odour faintly sweet candle burning
asphalt
Residue Solid yellow- Solid black- Solid droplets Solid brown
ish round ish droplets droplets
droplets

X = Commonly available
(X) = Material exists but is less common
- = Not available
Twine: number, tex, denier, metres/kg, diameter
■ Simple fibres ■ Estimating the diameter of twine

TWIN
Titre (denier) : Td = weight (g) of
9000 m of fibre In addition to precise measurements from
Metric number : Nm = length (m) of instruments such as micrometer, magnifying
1 kg of fibre glass and microscope, there exists a quick
English number for cotton : Nec = method of estimation. Roll 20 turns of the twine
length (in multiples of 840 yd) per lb to be measured around a pencil and measure
International system: tex = weight the total length of the turns.
(g) of 1000 m of fibre
Example:
■ Finished twine
Runnage, metres/kg : m/kg = length
(m) of 1 kg of finished twine
Resultant tex : Rtex = weight (g) of
1000 m of finished twine
■ Equivalents and conversions
Textile\system PA PP PE PES PVA
Titre/denier 210 190 400 250 267
International tex
If 20 turns of the twine measure 6 cm, then the
system 23 21 44 28 30
diameter of the twine = 60 mm/20 turns = 3 mm
Note : The strength of twine or rope depends not
only on its thickness, but also on the method and
degree of twisting or braiding its yarns.
Twin : calculation of tex
■ Calculation of Resultant tex (Rtex) of twine Case 2 : A sample of twine is available for
TWIN

evaluation
Case 1 : When the structure of the twine is
known Example ;
5 m of twine, placed on a precision scale, weigh
Example:
Netting twine made of nylon (polyamide), with 11.25 g. We know that twine of R 1 tex weighs 1 g
210 denier single yarns, 2 single yarns in each of per 1000 m, and the weight per metre of the sample
the 3 folded yarns (strands) which make up the twine is 11.25/5 = 2.25 g/m. So, 1000 m of the
twine. sample would weigh 1000 x 2.25 = 2250 g, or R
210 x 2 x 3 = 23 tex x 2 x 3 2250 tex
= 138 tex
To find the Resultant tex (Rtex) we have to Note : The strength of twine or rope depends not
apply a correction to the calculated value, taking only on its thickness, but also on the method and
into account the structure of the finished twine degree of twisting or braiding its yarns
(twisted, braided, hard lay, degree of twist, etc.).
A rough estimation of Rtex can be found by
adding 10% to the value calculated above:
138 tex + 10% = R 152 tex (estimate)

Note : in view of the complex structure of


braided twines, it is the general practice in
fisheries for the gear designer to use the Rtex
value without going into detail.
Twine: equivalents of numbering systems
Eg.: twisted nylon (polyamide) twine

TWIN
m/kg Rtex yds/lb No of yarns No.ofdeniers Tex
g/1000m a/ denier Td
20 000 50 9 921 210x2 420 47
13 500 75 6 696 3 630 70
10 000 100 4 960 4 840 93
6 450 155 3 199 6 1 260 140
4 250 235 2 180 9 1 890 210
3 150 317 1 562 12 2 520 280
2 500 450 1 240 15 3 150 350
2 100 476 1 041 18 3 780 420
1 800 556 893 21 4 410 490
1 600 625 794 24 5 040 559
1 420 704 704 27 5 670 629
1 250 800 620 30 6 300 699
1 150 870 570 33 6 930 769
1 060 943 526 36 7 560 839
980 1 020 486 39 8 190 909
910 1 099 451 42 8 820 979
850 1 176 422 45 9 450 1 049
790 1 266 392 48 10 080 1 119
630 1 587 313 60 12 600 1 399
530 1 887 263 72 15 120 1 678
400 2 500 198 96 20 160 2 238
360 2 778 179 108 22 680 2 517
310 3 226 154 120 25 200 2 797
260 3 846 129 144 30 240 3 357
238 4 202 118 156 32 760 3 636
225 4 444 112 168 35 280 3 916
200 5 000 99 192 40 320 4 476
180 5 556 89 216 45 360 5 035
155 6 452 77 240 50 400 5 594
130 7 692 64 264 55 440 6 154
100 10 000 50 360 75 600 8 392

a/ yds/lb = approx. (m/kg)/2 Note: 210 denier = 23 Tex


m/kg = approx. (yds/lb) x 2
Twines: nylon (polyamide PA), multifilament twisted or braided
A = breaking load, dry without knots (single twine)
TWIN

B = breaking load, wet, knotted (single twine)


■ Twisted, continuous filament ■ Braided, continuous filament
m/kg Rtex Diam. A B m/kg Rtex Diam. A B
mm kgf kgf Appox kgf kgf
. mm
20 000 50 0.24 3.1 1.8 740 1 350 1.50 82 44
13 300 75 0.24 4.6 2.7 645 1 550 1.65 92 49
10 000 100 0.33 6.2 3.6 590 1 700 1.80 95 52
6 400 155 0.40 9 6 515 1 950 1.95 110 60
4 350 230 0.50 14 9 410 2 450 2.30 138 74
3 230 310 0.60 18 11 360 2 800 2.47 154 81
2 560 390 0.65 22 14 280 3 550 2.87 195 99
2 130 470 0.73 26 16 250 4 000 3.10 220 112
1 850 540 0.80 30 18 233 4 300 3.25 235 117
1 620 620 0.85 34 21 200 5 000 3.60 270 135
1 430 700 0.92 39 22 167 6 000 4.05 320 155
1 280 780 1.05 43 24 139 7 200 4.50 360 178
1 160 860 1.13 47 26 115 8 700 4.95 435 215
1 050 950 1.16 51 28 108 9 300 6.13 460 225
95 10 500 5.40 520 245
970 1 030 1.20 55 29 81 12 300 5.74 600 275
830 1 200 1.33 64 34 71 14 000 5.93 680 315
780 1 280 1.37 67 35 57 17 500 6.08 840 390
700 1 430 1.40 75 40
640 1 570 1.43 82 43
590 1 690 1.5 91 47
500 2 000 1.6 110 56
385 2 600 1.9 138 73
315 3 180 2.0 165 84
294 3 400 2.2 178 90
250 4 000 2.4 210 104
200 5 000 2.75 260 125
175 6 000 2.85 320 150
125 8 000 3.35 420 190
91 11 000 3.8 560 250
Twine, nylon (polyamide PA), monofilament and multimonofilament,
Japanese numbering system
A = breaking load, dry without knots (single twine)

TWIN
B = breaking load, wet, knotted (single twine)
Diam. B
m/kg Tex* A kgf
mm kgf
0.10 90 900 11 0.65 0.4
0.12 62 500 16 0.9 0.55
0.15 43 500 23 1.3 0.75
0.18 33 300 30 1.6 1.0
0.20 22 700 44 2.3 1.4
0.25 17 200 58 3.1 1.8
0.30 11 100 90 4.7 2.7
0.35 8 330 120 6.3 3.6
0.40 6 450 155 7.7 4.4
0.45 5 400 185 9.5 5.5
0.50 4 170 240 12 6.5
0.55 3 570 280 14 7.5
0.60 3 030 330 17 8.8
0.70 2 080 480 24 12.5
0.80 1 670 600 29 15
0.90 1 320 755 36 19
1.00 1 090 920 42 22
1.10 900 1 110 47 25
1.20 760 1 320 55 30
1.30 650 1 540 65 35
1.40 560 1 790 75 40
1.50 490 2 060 86 46
1.60 430 2 330 98 52
1.70 380 2 630 110 58
1.80 340 2 960 120 65
1.90 300 3 290 132 72
2.00 270 3 640 145 75
2.50 180 5 630 220 113

Japanese numbering system for


■ Multimonofilament
Monofilament
Diam. diam. Diameter*xnumberof A
N' Japan N" Japan m/kg
(mm) (mm) (mm) filaments Kgf
0.20 0.55 0.20 x 4 6 250 9
2 - 12 - 0.20 X 6 4 255 14
0.25 0.60 0.20 x 8 3 125 18
3 14 0.20 x 10 2 630 24
0.30 0.70 0.20 x 12 2 120 26
4 - 18 - * for monofilament, tex and Rtex are the
0.35 0.80 same.
5 - 24
0.40 30 0.90
6 -
7 0.45
8 0.50

10 -
Twine: polyester (PES), polyethylene (PE),
polypropylene (PP)
TWIN A = breaking load, dry without knots (single twine)
B = breaking load, wet, knotted (single twine)
POLYESTER (PES) POLYPROPYLENE (PP)
■ twisted, continuous filaments ■ twisted, continuous filaments
Diam.
Diam. A B A B
m/kg Rtex m/kg Rtex approx.
mm kgf* kgf kgf kgf
mm
11 100 90 5.3 2.8 4 760 210 0.60 13 8
0.40
5 550 80 10.5 5 3 470 290 0.72 15 9
0.50
3 640 275 16 7.3 2 780 360 0.81 19 11
2 700 370 0.60 21 9.3 2 330 430 0.90 25 14
2 180 460 0.70 27 12 1 820 550 1.02 28 15
1 800 555 0.75 32 14 1 560 640 1.10 38 19
1 500 670 0.80 37 16 1 090 920 1.34 44 23
1 330 750 0.85 42 18 840 119011 1.54 58 30
1 200 830 0.90 46 20 690 10 1.70 71 36
1 080 925 0.95 50 22 520 1 920 1.95 92 47
1 020 980 1.00 54 24 440 2 290 2.12 112 59
900 1 110 1.05 60 26 350 2 820 2.32 132 70
830 1 200 1.10 63 28 300 3 300 2.52 152 80
775 1 290 1.15 68 29 210 4 700 2.94 190 100
725 1 380 1.20 73 30 177 5 640 3.18 254 130
665 1 500 1.25 78 32
540 1 850 1.35 96 40
270 3 700 1.95 180 78

POLYETHYLENE (PE)
■ twisted or braided thick filaments ■ twisted staple fibres
Diam. Diam.
A B A B
m/kg Rtex approx. m/kg Rtex approx.
kgf kgf kgf kgf
mm mm
5 260 190 0.50 7..5 5.5 4 760 210 0.60 9 6
2 700 370 0.78 10 7 3 330 300 0.73 13 9
1 430 700 1.12 27 19 2 560 390 0.85 18 12
950 1 050 1.42 36 24 1 250 800 1.22 32 22
710 1 410 1.64 49 35 1 010 990 1.36 38 24
570 1 760 1.83 60 84 720 1 390 1.62 57 36
460 2 170 2.04 75 54 530 1 900 1.94 73 46
360 2 800 2.33 93 67 420 2 360 2.18 86 54
294 3 400 2.56 116 83 325 3 070 2.48 100 59
225 4 440 2.92 135 97 240 4 100 2.90 150 88
190 5 300 3.19 170 125 185 5 400 3.38 215 120
130 7 680 3.68 218 160 150 6 660 3.82 300 170
100 10 100 3.96 290 210
Vegetable fibre ropes*

ROPE
Tarred Cotton Hemp
Diameter kg/100 m R
Standard Extra
mm kgf
Diameter kg/ R kg/ R
3.0 1.056 45
mm" 100 m kgf 100 m kgf
3.5 1.188 55 10 6.6 631 7.8 600
4.0 1.320 66 11 8.5 745 10.0 708
4.5 1.585 77 13 11.3 994 13.3 944
5.0 1.915 88 14 14.3 1 228 17.0 1 167
5.5 2.448 100 16 17.2 1 449 20.3 1 376
6.0 2.905 113 19 25.3 2017 29.8 1 916
6.5 3.300 127 21 30.0 2318 35.4 2 202
24 40.2 3 091 47.4 2 936
Sisal 29 59.0 4 250 70.0 4 037
Standard Extra 32 72.8 5 175 86.0 4916
Diameter kg / R kgf kg/ R kgf
mm" 37 94.8 6 456 112.0 6 133
100 m 100 m
6 2.3 192 3.3 336 40 112.0 7 536 132.0 7 159
8 3.5 290 4.7 505 48 161.0 10 632 190.0 10 100
10 6.4 487 6.4 619
11 8.4 598 9.0 924 Manilla
13 10.9 800 11.0 1 027 Standard Extra
Diameter kg/ R kgf kg/ R kgf
14 12.5 915 14.0 1 285 mm" 100 m 100 m
16 17.0 1 100 17.2 1 550 10 6.2 619 6.2 776
19 24.5 1630 25.3 2 230 11 9.15 924 9.25 1 159
21 28.1 1 760 29.30 2 390 13 11.2 1 027 12.4 1 470
24 38.3 2 720 39.5 3 425 14 14.2 1 285 15.0 1 795
29 54.5 3 370 56.0 4 640 16 17.5 1 550 18.5 2 125
32 68.0 4 0501 70.0 5510 19 25.5 2 230 26.65 2 970
37 90.0 5 220 92.0 7 480 21 29.7 2 520 30.5 3 330
40 24 40.5 3 425 41.6 4 780
48 29 58.4 4 800 59.9 6 380
R = Breaking strength, dry Safe working load, see 32 72.0 5 670 74.0 7 450
page 5 37 95.3 7 670 98.0 9 770
" In English-speaking countries the size of a rope is 40 112.5 8 600 115.8 11 120
sometimes measured by its circumference in inches
48
(in.)
or by its diameter in inches Diameter of rope 0 (mm) =
approx. 8 x c (inch)
Example: 0 (mm) of a rope of 2.25 inch circumference
0 (mm) = 2.25 x 8=18 mm (approximate)
Synthetic fibre rope*
ROPE
Diameter Polyamid (PA) Polyet (PE) Polyest (PES) Polypr (PP)
mm" e kg/100 R kgf hy Rkgf er R kgf opy Rkgf
ene kg/100 ene
kg/10 m Kg/10
0m 0m
4 1.1 320 1.4 295 _ .
6 2.4 750 1.7 400 3 565 1.7 550
8 4.2 1 350 3 685 5.1 1 020 3 960
10 6.5 2 080 4.7 1 010 8.1 1 590 4.5 1 425
12 9.4 3 000 6.7 1 450 11.6 2 270 6.5 2 030
14 12.8 4 100 9.1 1 950 15.7 3 180 9 2 790
16 16.6 5 300 12 2 520 20.5 4 060 11.5 3 500
18 21 6 700 15 3 020 26 5 080 14.8 4 450
20 26 8 300 18.6 3 720 32 6 350 18 5 370
22 31.5 10 000 22.5 4 500 38.4 7 620 22 6 500
24 37.5 12 000 27 5 250 46 9 140 26 7 600
26 44 14 000 31.5 6 130 53.7 10 700 30.5 8 900
28 51 15 800 36.5 7 080 63 12 200 35.5 10 100
30 58.5 17 800 42 8 050 71.9 13 700 40.5 11 500
32 66.5 20 000 47.6 9 150 82 15 700 46 12 800
36 84 24 800 60 11 400 104 19 300 58.5 16 100
40 104 30 000 74.5 14 000 128 23 900 72 19 400

R = breaking strength, dry


Direction of twist of twines, ropes and cables

' Safe working load see page 5


" Conversioninch-mm, seepage 15
Rope: joining knots and loops

ROPE
Some knots are used more than others. In selecting which knot to use the following points should
be considered : — the use of the knot — the type of rope — whether the knot will slip — whether
the knot is permanent.
■ Joining two cords ■ Loops
Knots for stoppers and mooring
ROPE

Some knots are used more than others. In selecting which knot to use the following points should be
considered : — the use of the knot — the type of rope — whether the knot will slip — whether the knot is
permanent.
■ For stopping a rope from running through
a narrow space (i.e.
sheave)

■ Knots for mooring

■ To close the codend of a trawl


(codend knot)

■ To shorten a rope
Knots for hitches and stoppers

ROPE
Some knots are used more than others. In selecting which knot to use the following points should be
considered : — the use of the knot — the type of rope — whether the knot will slip — whether the knot is
permanent.
Loss of breaking strength due to knots and splices
ROPE
Combination wire (1)*
■ Steel - Sisal 3 strands

ROPE
Diameter Untreated Tarred
(mm) kg/m Rkgf kg/m Rkgf
10 0.094 1 010 0.103 910
12 0.135 1 420 0.147 1 285
14 0.183 1 900 0.200 1 750
16 0.235 2 400 0.255 2 200
18 0.300 3 100 0.325 2 800
20 0.370 3 800 0.405 3 500
22 0.445 4 600 0.485 4 200
25 0.565 5 700 0.615 5 300
28 0.700 7 500 0.760 6 700
30 0.820 8 400 0.885 7 600

■ Steel - Sisal 4 strands


Diameter Untreated Tarred
(mm) kg/m Rkgf kg/m Rkgf
12 0.135 1 420 0.147 1 285
14 0.183 1 900 0.200 1 750
16 0.235 2 400 0.255 2 200
18 0.300 3 100 0.325 2 800
20 0.370 3 800 0.405 3 500
22 0.445 4 600 0.485 4 200
25 0.565 5 700 0.615 5 300
28 0.700 7 200 0.760 6 400
30 0.775 8 400 0.840 7 600

R = Breaking strength dry

*Safe working loads, see page 5


22 Combination wire (2)*

■ Steel -Manilla B, 4 strands


ROPE

Diameter Untreated Tarred


(mm) kg/m Rkgf kg/m Rkgf
12 0.138 1 500 0.150 1 370
14 0.185 2 000 0.205 1 850
16 0.240 2 500 0.260 2 350
18 0.305 3 300 0.335 3 000
20 0.380 4 000 0.410 3 800
22 0.455 5 000 0.495 4 600
25 0.575 6 200 0.630 5 700
28 0.710 7 600 0.775 6 900
30 0.790 8 900 0.860 8 200
32 0.890 9 500 0.970 8 750
34 1.010 11 200 1.100 10 200
36 1.140 12 000 1.235 11 000
40 1.380 15 000 1.495 14000
45 1.706 18 500 1.860 17 500
50 2.045 22 500 2.220 20 000

■ Steel - Polypropylene
Diameter Number of kg/m Rkgf
(mm) strands

10 3 0.105 1 230
12 3 0.120 1 345
14 3 0.140 1 540
16 3 0.165 2 070
18 3 0.240 3 000
14 6 0.250 4 000
16 6 0.275 4 400
18 6 0.350 5 300
20 6 0.430 6 400
22 6 0.480 7 200
24 6 0.520 7 800
26 6 0.640 9 700

R = Breaking strength dry

* Safe working loads, see page 5


Floatlines and leadlines

Braided with a centre core of lead

ROPE
■ Floatline (with floats inside)
Diameter
kg/100 m Rkgf
(mm)
2 2.3 - 3.5 73
2.5 4.6
3 6.5-7.1 100
3.5 9.1
4 11.1 -12.3 200
4.5 14.5
5 15.2-18.1 300
Principal advantages (1) and disadvantages
(2)
1) Ease of rigging; less entanglement Diameter kg/100m Rkgf
in the meshes. (mm)
2) Need to calculate the rigging as a 7.2 7.5 360
function of the distance between 8 12.5 360
the floats; fragility of some types of 8 18.8 360
float when passing through certain 9.5 21.3 360
gillnet haulers. 9.5 23.8 360
9.5 27.5 360
11.1 30.0 360
12.7 37.5 675
Floatline (with floats inside)
Interval between Flotation gf/100m
floats (cm) Rope with a lead core in three strands
52 480 Diameter kg/100m Rkgf
47 500 6 8.7 495
35 570 7 11.2 675
20 840 8 13.3 865
35 2850 10 21.6 1 280
20 3 000 12 26.6 1 825
14 33.0 2510
■ Leadline (with leads inside)

R = breaking strength

there are also leadlines


of 0.75; 0.90; 1.2; 1.5; 1.8 kg/100m

Principal advantages (i) and disad-


vantages (2)
1) Ease of rigging; uniform weight
of leadline; better hanging; no
entanglement in meshes.
2) In the case of breaking, loss of
leads; difficult to repair; high
cost.
Steel wire rope: structure, diameter and use
WIRE ROPE

Examples of common marine wire rope


Type Structure and diameter Example of Use S
7x7(6/1) Standing rigging +
central heart: steel
12 to 28 mm
6x7 (6/1) Standing rigging
Central heart: textile Warps for small
+
8 to 16 mm trawlers
Small coastal vessels
6x12(12/fibre) Bridles and warps for
Central heart, strand cores, small trawlers moorings
fibre and running rigging ++
8 to 16 mm
6x19 (9/9/1) Trawler warps
Central heart of steel or textile +
16to30mm
6x19(12/6/1) Trawler's sweeps and
Central heart of textile warps +
8 to 30 mm running rigging
6x24(15/9/fibre) Purse wire bridles and
Central heart and strand cores otter board strops,
++
of textile running rigging
8 to 40 mm moorings and towing
6x37(18/12/6/1) Purse wire
Central heart of textile moorings and running ++
20 to 72 mm rigging mooring

S = flexibility
+ = poor or average
++ = good

As a general rule, the greater the number of strands, and the greater the number of filaments per
strand, the greater the flexibility of the cable.
Galvanised steel wire rope: runnage. breaking strength* 25

WIRE ROPE
(for structure, see page 24) examples
6x7 (6/1) 6x12 (12/fibre)
diam. kg/ R diam. kg/ R
mm 100 m kgf mm 100 m kgf
8 22.2 3 080 6 9.9 1 100
9 28.1 3 900
8 15.6 1 940
10 34.7 4 820 9 19.7 2 450
11 42.0 5 830 10 24.3 3 020
12 50.0 6 940
13 58.6 8 140 12 35.0 4 350
14 68.0 9 440 14 47.7 5 930
15 78.1 10 800 16 62.3 7 740
16 88.8 12 300

6x19(9/9/1) 6x19(12/6/1)
diam. kg/ R diam. kg/ R
mm 100 m kgf mm 100 m kgf
16 92.6 12 300 8 21.5 2 850
17 105 13 900 10 33.6 4 460
18 117 15 500 12 48.4 6 420
19 131 17 300
14 65.8 8 730
20 145 19 200 16 86.0 11 400
21 160 21 200 18 109 14 400
22 175 23 200
23 191 25 400 20 134 17 800
24 208 27 600 22 163 21 600
24 193 25 700
25 226 30 000
26 245 32 400 6x 37 (18/12/6/1)
diam kg/ R
mm 100 m kgf
6 x24(15/9/fibre) 20 134 17 100
Diam kg/ R
22 163 20 700
mm 100 m kgf
8 19.8 2 600 24 193 24 600
10 30.9 4 060
12 44.5 5 850 26 227 28 900

14 60.6 7 960 R = Breaking strength


2
16 79.1 10 400 (steel 145 kgf/mm )
18 100 13 200
* Safe Working Loads, see page 5
20 124 16 200
21 136 17 900
22 150 19 700
24 178 23 400
26 209 27 500
26 Handling wire rope
WIRE ROPE

NO YES

■ Winding onto a drum depending on the direction of lay in a wire


Matching wire ropes with drums and sheaves

WIRE ROPE
■ Drums: the diameter of a drum (D) relative to the diameter of the wire rope (0) to be
held on the drum —
D/ depends on the structure of the wire rope, and depending on the
particular situation, D should range from 20 to 48 . In practical use on
board fishing vessels, depending on the space available, the following values
are common :
D = 14 or more
■ Sheaves : The diameter of a sheave (D) relative to the diameter of the wire rope (0) to be
used with the sheave —
D/ depends on the structure of the wire rope, and depending on the
particular situation, D should range from 20 to 48 . In practical use on
board fishing vessels, depending on the space available, the following values
are common:
D = 9 or more

Width of sheave relative to the diameter of the wire rope

■ Location of sheave relative to drum

Maximum fleet angle of a steel wire between a fixed sheave and a drum with manual or automatic spooling
gear:
L - C x 5 (or more); C x 11 is recommended
(In order to let a sheave shift with changing wire angles, it is often better to use a flexibly attached block
rather than a fixed sheave.)
■ Cable clamps should be fastened with nuts on the standing part of the wire
Steel wire rope, small diameter
WIRE ROPE

■ Stainless steel, heat treated and painted (examples)


diam. R diam. R
Construction Construction
mm kgf mm kgf
1.00 75 2.2 220
0.91 60 2.0 180
0.82 50 1.8 155
0.75 45 1.6 130
0.69 40 1.5 115
0.64 34 1.4 100
0.58 28 1.3 85
1.5 210
1.4 170
1.3 155
1.3 140 2.4 290
1.2 120 2.2 245
1.1 100 2.0 200
1.0 90 1.8 175
0.9 75 1.6 155
0.8 65 1.5 130
0.7 50 1.4 110
0.6 40
0.6 30

1.9 290
2.2 290 1.8 245
2.0 245 1.6 200
1.8 200 1.5 175
1.6 175 1.3 155
1.5 155 1.2 135
1.1 110

■ Galvanised steel, not lubricated


Number of Diameter of
Diameter Rkat
Strands Wires wires kg/m
mm (steel 80 - 90 kgf/mm )
mm
2 5 1 plus 6 0.25 0.016 125
3 6 1 plus 6 0.30 0.028 215
4 6 1 plus 6 0.40 0.049 380
5 6 7 0.50 0.081 600
6 6 9 0.50 0.110 775

R = breaking stength
Meshes: Definition

NET WEBBING
■ Types of mesh nets ■ Dimension of mesh, stretched mesh (a), and
mesh opening (OM)

Knotted netting

Knotted netting
(Raschel type)

Hexagonal mesh

b = bar length

Meshes of metallic or plastic netting


see page 107
Systems of measuring net meshes in different countries
NET WEBBING

SYSTEM PLACES USED TYPE OF MEASURE


a stretched mesh international distance (N direction)
between the centres of the
2 opposite knots of a
stretched mesh *
OM mesh opening international maximum inside measure
(N direction) between the 2
opposite knots of a
stretched mesh *
b bar length some European countries length of one bar of mesh
P pasada Spain, Portugal number of meshes per 200
mm
On omfar Norway, Iceland half the number of meshes
per Alen (1 Alen = 628 mm)
Os omfar Sweden half the number of meshes
per Alen (1 Alen = 594 mm)
R rows Netherlands, UK number of rows of knots per
yard (1 yard = 910 mm)
N knots Spain, Portugal number of knots per metre
F Fushi or Setsu Japan number of knots per 6
inches (6 inches = 152 mm)
Conversions

* Note that stretched meshsize is not the same as mesh opening, which is considered in
many fisheries regulations.
A simple method of measuring stretched meshsize is as follows: extend a panel of twine fully in
the N direction (see page 32 for N direction), and measure the distance between the centres of
2 knots (or connexions) separated by 10 meshes. Then divide this measure by 10.
Knots and edges or selvedges

NET WEBBING
■ Knots

Sheet bend

The height of the single knot is approximately


equal to three times the diameter of the twine.

Reef knot
Double sheet bend

■ Edges and selvedges


Definition of cuts
NET WEBBING
Cutting rates

NET WEBBING
■ Cutting rate

D = number of meshes to decrease


H = number of meshes in height

■ Values of the parts of a cut


Bars Sideknots Meshes 1T2B 4N3B
B N T

Decrease in 0.5 0 1 1 +2x0.5 4x0 + 3x0.5


meshes D
Height in 0.5 1 0 0 + 2x0.5 4x1 + 3x0.5
meshes H
0.5 0 1 2
0.5 1 0 1 1.5/ 5.5=3/11
Common cutting rates and tapers
NET WEBBING

Number of meshes decreasing (or increasing) in width

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 AB 1T2B 1T1B 3T2B 2T1B 5T2B 3T1B 7T2B 4T1B 9T2B
2 1N2B AB 1T4B 1T2B 3T4B 1T1B 5T4B 3T2B 7T4B 2T1B
3 1N1B 1N4B AB 1T6B 1 T3B 1T2B 2T3B 5T6B 1T1B 7T6B
4 3N2B 1N2B 1N6B AB 1T8B 1T4B 3T8B 1T2B 5T8B 3T4B
5 2N1B 3N4B 1N3B 1N8B AB 1T10B 1T5B 3T10B 2T5B 1T2B
Number of meshes in height (or depth)

6 5N2B 1N1B 1N2B 1N4B 1N10B AB 1T12B 1T6B 1T4B 1T3B


7 3N1B 5N4B 2N3B 3N8B 1N5B 1N12B AB 1T14B 1T7B 3T14B
8 7N2B 3N2B 5N6B 1N2B 3N10B 1N6B 1N14B AB 1T16B 1T8B
9 4N1B 7N4B 1N1B 5N8B 2N5B 1N4B 1N7B 1N16B AB 1T18B
10 9N2B 2N1B 7N6B 3N4B 1N2B 1N3B 3N14B 1N8B 1N18B AB
11 5N1B 9N4B 4N3B 7N8B 3N5B 5N12B 2N7B 3N16B 1N9B 1N20B
12 11N2B 5N2B 3N2B 1MB 7N10B 1N2B 5N14B 1N4B 1N6B 1N10B
13 6N1B 11N4B 5N3B 9N8B 4N5B 7N12B 3N7B 5N16B 2N9B 3N20B
14 13N2B 3N1B 11N6B 5N4B 9N10B 2N3B 1N2B 3N8B 5N18B 1N5B
15 7MB 13N4B 2N1B 11N8B 1MB 3N4B 4N7B 7N16B 1N3B 1N4B
16 15N2B 7N2B 13N6B 3M2B 11N10B 5N6B 9N14B 1N2B 7N18B 3N10B
17 8N1B 15N4B 7N3B 13N8B 6N5B 11N12B 5N7B 9N16B 4N9B 7N20B
18 17N2B 4N1B 5N2B 7N4B 13N10B 1MB 11N14B 5N8B 1N2B 2N5B
19 9N1B 17N4B 8N3B 15N8B 7N5B 13M12B 6N7B 11N16B 5N9B 9N20B

N = Sideknots
T = Meshes
B = Bars
Estimation of weight of netting

NET WEBBING
■ Knotless netting
W = H x L x Rtex/1000 = H x L x (1000/m/kg)
■ Knotted netting
W = H x L x Rtex/1000 x K = H x L x (1000/m/ka)
Where
W = H x L x Rtex/1000 x K = H x L x (1000/m/ka)
W = estimated weight (g) of netting
H = number of rows of knots in the height of the netting 2 x number of meshes
L = Stretched length (m) of netting
Rtex and m/kg = the size of twine in the netting
K = knot correction factor to take into account the weight of the knots (single knot); see table below
K = (knot correction factor) for different netting panels
Stretched Twine diameter (d) in mm
meshsize
0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 2.00 3.00 4.00
(mm)
20 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 1.80 - - -
30 1.13 1.27 1.40 1.53 1.60 2.07 - -
40 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.80 - -
50 1.08 1.16 1.24 1.32 1.48 1.64 1.96 2.07
60 1.07 1.13 1.20 1.27 1.40 1.53 1.80 1.80
80 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.60
100 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.24 1.32 1.48 1.64
120 1.03 1.07 1.10 1.13 1.20 1.27 1.40 1.53
140 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.17 1.23 1.34 1.46
160 1.05 1.07 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.30 1.40
1.02
200 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.24 1.32
1.02
400 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.12 1.16
800 - - - 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.06 1.08
1 600 - - - - - 1.02 1.03 1.04

Example : Knotted netting of twisted nylon twine, R1690 tex (590 m/kg), 100 mm bar length (200
mm stretched mesh length), height 50 meshes, length 100 meshes
50 meshes = 100 rows of knots in height
Stretched length = 100 meshes x 0.200 m = 20 m
Diameter of twisted polyamide twine 1690 Rtex = 1.5 mm (see page 12)
K in the table above =1.12 (stretched mesh 200 mm; diameter 1.5 mm)
W= 100 x 20 x (1690/1000) x 1.12 = 3785 g = about 3.8 kg
Calculating twine surface area
NET WEBBING

The drag of a net is proportional to the number and type of meshes in the netting, and to
the orientation of the net panel(s) in the water.

where
S = twine surface area (square metres)
N = number of meshes at the top of the panel
n = number of meshes at the bottom of the panel
H = number of meshes in the height of the panel
a = stretched mesh (mm)
= diameter of twine (mm)
Example : In the piece of netting shown above on the right, if N = 16; n = 6;
H = 6; a = 80 mm; 0 = 1.5 mm
Calculating twine surface area of a trawl

NET WEBBING
■ NET WEBBING: CALCULATING TWINE SURFACE AREA OF A TRAWL
PANEL No of A Twine
H
Surface Panels (mm) (mm) Area
A 4 21 24 504 80 1.13 181 0.36
B 2 61 90 5490 80 1.13 181 1.99
C 1 279 30 8370 60 0.83 100 0.84
D 2 194 140 27160 60 0.83 100 5.43
E 2 136 100 13600 40 0.83 66 1.80
F 2 54 90 4860 80 1.13 181 1.76
G 2 97 30 2910 60 0.83 100 0.58
J 2 86 150 12900 40 1.13 90 2.32
2
Twine surface area without knots TOTAL S = 15.08 m

In order to compare the twine surface areas of two trawls, the trawls should be as nearly the same
shape as possible. In the case of such comparisons the surfaces of the lengthening pieces and the
codend (parts without oblique orientation), will cause no significant drag, and can be disregarded.
Hanging ratios, definition and calculation
NET WEBBING ■ Hanging ratio (E) is commonly defined as :
F = L / Lo = Length of rope on which a net panel is mounted (L) / Length of stretched netting
hung on the rope (Lo)
Example: 200 meshes of 50 mm stretched mesh size hung on a rope of 8 m

■ Other expressions used for hanging ratio :


Estimate of the
height as mounted
% of stretched
height
0.10 10% 10 90% 900% 99%
0.20 20% 5 80% 400% 98%
0.30 30% 3.33 70% 233% 95%
0.40 40% 2.5 60% 150% 92%
0.45 45% 2.22 55% 122% 89%
0.50 50% 2.00 50% 100% 87%
0.55 55% 1.82 45% 82% 84%
0.60 60% 1.66 40% 67% 80%
0.65 65% 1.54 35% 54% 76%
0.71 71% 1.41 29% 41% 71%
0.75 75% 1.33 25% 33% 66%
0.80 80% 1.25 20% 25% 60%
0.85 85% 1.18 15% 18% 53%
0.90 90% 1.11 10% 11% 44%
0.95 95% 1.05 5% 5% 31%
0.98 98% 1.02 2% 2% 20%

1) Also called external hanging co-efficient


2) Also called percentage of hanging in — Setting in x 100 — Looseness percentage of hanging
— Hang in (Asia, Japan)
3) Also called Hang in ratio (Scandinavia)

Note : It is recommended that only the hanging ratio E be used


Surface covered at different hanging ratios

NET WEBBING
■ Examples of common horizontal hanging ratios

■ Calculation of the surface covered by a piece of netting

where
S = surface covered by netting (in square metres)
E = hanging ratio (horizontal)
L = number of meshes in length
H = number of meshes in height
2
a = (stretched mesh size in metres) squared
Example:

Note : The surface covered is at a maximum when E = 0.71, that is when each mesh forms a square
NET WEBBING Mounted height of a net
■ Calculation of mounted height
The actual height of a mounted (rigged or hung) net depends on the stretched height and the hanging
ratio. The general formula permitting estimation in all cases is :
mounted height (m) = stretched height (m)
2
Where E = horizontal hanging ratio multiplied by itself
Example: Given the piece of netting described on the preceding page with hanging ratio of 0.90 :
Stretched height of netting
500 meshes of 30 mm, 500 x 30 = 15000 mm = 15 m
Mounted height = stretched height x

■ Table for estimating mounted height

Example:
Given the piece of netting described on the preceding page, mounted with the horizontal hanging ratio
0.90, we can deduce from the table above (E to A to H) that its mounted height is 44% of the stretched
height.
Stretched height = 500 meshes of 30 mm = 500 x 30 mm = 15 m
Mounted height = 44% of 15 m = 6.6 m
Joining panels of netting

NET WEBBING
■ Netting with straight edges (i.e. AB, AT, and AN)

Netting having the same number of meshes, Netting having a different number of meshes or
and meshes of the same size, or meshes of a different size
approximately the same size.
Example of joining 2/3

2 meshes of 45 mm
on 3 meshes of 30 mm
(2 x 45 = 3 x 30)

■ Netting cut obliquely with a combination of cuts B and N orT Pieces having a different number
of meshes and different cuts
Mounting (hanging or rigging) panels of netting

NET WEBBING
Examples
Terms for describing fish hooks

FISH HOOKS
■ - Examples of fish hook characteristics

Regular hooks Forged hooks


Number gap (mm) Shank diam. Number gap (mm) Shank diam.
(mm) (mm)
12 9.5 1 2 10 1
11 10 1 1 11 1
10 11 1 1/0 12 1
9 12.5 1.5 2/0 13 1.5
8 14 1.5 3/0 14.5 1.5
7 15 2 4/0 16.5 2
6 16 2 5/0 10 2.5
5 18 2.5 6/0 27 3
4 20 3 8/0 29 3.5
3 23 3 10/0 31 4
2 26.5 3.5 12/0 39 5
1 31 4 14/0 50 6
1/0 35 4.5
Principal types of fish hooks
FISH HOOKS ■ Straight hooks ■ Reversed hooks ■ Specialised hooks for particular
species or fishing methods
'J' shape, ring eye Trolling

Reversed, flatted shank

Double hook,
tuna Trolling
Large gap
Circle hook
■ Double and treble hooks

Longlines
Shank bent down

Double, reversed
Flatted shank, hole in flat,
for tuna or shark

Flatted shank Pole and line

Double, closed

Tuna jig hook, barbless

With swivel
Treble, straight

Barbless, for tuna poles and line


■ Kirbed (offset) hooks

Treble, reversed

Kirbed, ring eye


Lures, knots for fish hooks

FISH HOOKS
■ Lures

■ Knots for ring-eyed hooks

■ Knots for flatted shank hooks


Swivels, snaps, knots for longlines
LINE FISHING ACCESSORIES
■ Swivels

■ Snaps

■ Knots for joining branchline or snood to mainline

■ Knots for joining branchline to snood


Floats for seines: examples

FLOATS
Examples : in expanded PVC, two types of
manufacture

Wt. (g) buoyancy


L Ø Ø in air kgf
195 150 28 350 2.2
203 152 28 412 2.2
203 175 28 515 3.0

Wt. (g) buoyancy


L Ø Ø in air kgf
192 146 26 326 2.4
198 151 28 322 2.5
198 174 33 490 3.5

For the dimensions given, the buoyancy varies


depending on the material.
Rough estimation of the buoyancy may be found
by measuring the float.

There are a great variety of seine floats, with Estimation of the number of floats necessary for
L ranging from 100 to 400 mm; 0 from 75 to a seine :
300 mm; and buoyancy from 300 to 22 000
gf.
Durability is a most important char-
acteristic of a seine float.
Floats for gillnets and seines (1)
FLOATS
Examples Dimensions (mm) Buoyancy
ØxL Ø (gf)
30 x 50 6 30
50 x 30 8 50
50 x 40 8 67
65 x 20 8 55
65 x 40 8 110
70 x 20 12 63
70 x 30 12 95
80 X 20 12 88
80 x 30 12 131
80 x 40 12 175
80 x 75 12 330
85 x 140 12 720
100 x 40 14 275
100 x 50 14 355
100 x 75 14 530
100 x 90 14 614
100 x 100 14 690
125 x 100 19 1 060
150 x 100 25 1 523

Estimating the buoyancy from the size of the


Float:
2 2
buoyancy (in gf) = 0.67 x L (cm) x Ø (cm)

Dimensions (mm) Buoyancy


(gf)
ØxL Ø
76 x 44 8 70
88 x 51 8 100
101 x 57 10 160
140 x 89 16 560

Dimensions (mm) Buoyancy


ØxL Ø (gf)
76 x 45 8 70
89 x 51 8 100
102 x 57 10 160
140 x 89 16 560
158 x 46 8 180
Estimation of the buoyancy from the size of a float
2 2
buoyancy (in gf) = 0.5 x L (cm) x Ø (cm)
2
Ø = external diameter multiplied by itself
Floats for gillnets and seines (2)

FLOATS
Examples L Ø Ø Buoyancy
(mm) (mm) (mm) (gf)
25 32 6 20
32 58 10 60
42 75 12 110
58 66 12 175
60 70 12 200
65 75 12 220

65 80 12 250

58 23 8
60 25 10
72 35 25
80 40 35
100 50 100

Ø Ø Buoyancy
(mm) (mm) (gf)
146 100 110
146 88 200
146 82 240
184 120 310
184 106 450
200 116 590
200 112 550
Spherical floats and trawl floats
FLOATS
Examples from suppliers' catalogues
Diameter Volume Buoyancy Maximum
(mm) (litres) kgf depth (m)

plastic, 200 4 2.9 1 500


center hole 200 4 3.5 350
280 11 8.5 600
plastic, 75 0.2 0.1 400
side hole 100 0.5 0.3 500
125 1 0.8 400-500
160 2 1.4 400-500
200 4 3.6 400-500
plastic,
with "ears" 203 4.4 2.8 1 800
or lugs
plastic 200 4 3.5 400
with screw 280 11-11.5 9 500-600
lug
Aluminium 152 1.8 1.3 1 190.
191 3.6 2.7 820
203 4.4 2.8 1 000
254 8.6 6.4 1 000

The table below shows that, for floats of equal diameter (200 mm in this case), the volume and
buoyancy may vary a great deal, depending on the material and placement of holes or lugs.

Ø 200 mm Plastic, Plastic, Plastic, with Aluminium,


center hole side hole screw lug with lugs
Volume 4 4 4 4 4.4
Buoyancy (kgf) 2.9 3.5 3.6 3.5 2.8

* Note: The maximum effective depth of a float depends on the manufacture, and should be
specified by the supplier. It cannot be deduced from the appearance, shape or colour
Floats (buoys) for marking nets, lines and traps

FLOATS
Ø L Ø B C Buoyancy
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) kgf
125 300 25 200 90 2.9
150 530 25 380 100 7.8
150 600 25 450 100 9.2
150 680 25 530 100 10.4
150 760 25 580 100 11.5
200 430 45 290 110 10.5

L L H Ø Buoyancy
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) kgf
300 300 200 35 12 – 15
180 180 180 25 4

Ø Ø Ø L L Buoyancy
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) kgf
510 160 11 185 18 2
760 240 30 350 43 8
1 015 320 30 440 43 17
1 270 405 30 585 43 34
1 525 480 30 670 43 60
1 905 610 30 785 48 110
2 540 810 30 1 000 48 310

Ø Ø Ø
L (mm) Buoyancy kgf
(mm) (mm) (mm)
760 240 38 340 7.5
1 015 320 38 400 17
1 270 405 51 520 33.5
1 525 480 51 570 59
Groundrope leads and rings
Examples
■ Leads for ropes

L(mm) 25 38 38 32 32 32 25 45 45 45
Ø (mm) 16 16 13 10 8 6 6 5 5 6
G (g) 113 90 64 56 50 41 28 28 28 16

■ Leads for lines, examples of shapes

■ Example of mould for leads

■ Example of groundrope rings for a gillnet

Ex:
Ø mm Ø mm Pg
210 5 105

220 6 128
Chains and thimbles*

HARDWARE
■ Chains Approximate
Ø Ø Approximate
Weight
mm mm weight kg/m
kg/m
5 0.5 11 2.70
6 0.75 13 3.80
7 1.00 14 4.40
8 1.35 16 5.80
9 1.90 18 7.30
10 2.25 20 9.00

High tensile steel


Breaking
Ø LxE
S.W.L. Ton.f strength Weight kg/m
mm (mm)
Ton.F
7 21 X 10.5 1.232 6.158 1.090
10 40x15 2.514 12.570 2.207
13 52x19.5 4.250 21.240 3.720
16 64x24 6.435 32.175 5.640
19 76 X 28.5 9.000 45.370 7.140

■ Thimbles

■ Clips for wire rope

Cable clamps or 'bulldog grips'

Safe Working Load see page 5


Steel accessories for joining : shackles, links and clips*
HARDWARE
Ø C O S.W.L B.S.
(mm) (mm) (mm) Ton.f Ton.f
6 12 18 0.220 1.350
8 16 24 0.375 2.250
10 20 30 0.565 3.400
12 24 36 0.750 4.500
14 28 42 1.200 7.250
16 32 48 1.830 11.000
18 36 54 2.200 13.200
20 40 65 2.600 16.000
24 40 75 3.600 22.000
30 45 100 5.830 35.000

■ Links and Clips

* Safe Working Load see page 5


Swivels

HARDWARE
■ Swivel, forged steel Ø E Ø S.W.L.* B.S.**
(mm) (mm) (mm) Ton.f Ton.f
8 17 14 0.320 1.920
10 25 15 0.500 3.000
12 28 18 0.800 4.800
14 35 20 1.100 6.600
16 35 20 1.600 9.600
18 38 25 2.000 12.000
20 43 26 2.500 15.000
25 50 33 4.000 24.000
30 60 40 6.000 36.000

■ Swivel, tempered steel and hot galvanized


Ø S.W.L.* Weight
mm Ton.f Kg

8 0.570 0.17
16 2.360 1.12
22 4.540 2.61
32 8.170 7.14

■ Swivel, high tensile stainless steel


A B C S.W.L.* B.S.** Weight
(mm) (mm) (mm) Ton.f Ton.f Kg
146 48 20 3 15 1.3
174 55 27 5 25 2.1
200 62 34 6 30 2.8
Hooks and 'G' links*
HARDWARE

"G" link High tensile steel


F S.W.L.* B.S.*
mm Ton.f Ton.f
25 1.1 8
30 3.6 15
34 5.0 25 * Safe working load and breaking strength see page
38 7.0 35 5
Spreaders, codend release and purse rings

HARDWARE
■ For trawl

■ For seine : Opening purse clips or rings


Interior Exterior Exterior Thickness Opening
Breaking
Diam, Width Length Mm Mm Weight
strength
mm mm mm kg
Ton.t
A B C D E
86 128 180 22 34 0.400 1.3
107 172 244 32 47 3.800 4.0
107 187 262 32 52 5.400 5.0
110 187 262 37 53 6.500 6.0
75 128 200 19 40 1.800 2.0
94 150 231 25 47 2.200 3.0
103 169 253 28 50 3.000 4.0
103 169 262 35 53 3.500 5.0
106 175 264 38 53 3.600 6.0
25 65 111 17 17 5.000 0.5
38 80 140 15 25 6.000 0.65
36 90 153 19 29 12.000 1.1
HARDWARE Elements of trawl groundropes: steel bobbins

Ø L A B
mm mm Weight Weight
in air in air
Kg kg
200 165 7.5 9.5
250 215 10 12.5
300 260 18 22
350 310 29 34
400 360 35 40

Ø L Ø A B
mm mm mm Weight Weight
in air kg in air kg

200 380 30 12 14
250 570 32 15 17.5
300 610 35 25 29
350 660 60 42 46
400 715 60 51 56

Example of rigging a groundrope with


bobbins (1), chains (2} and spacers (3)
Elements of trawl groundropes: steel bobbins

HARDWARE
Examples
■ Bunts Ø (mm) 229 305 356 406

Wt. in air (kg) per piece 4.40 9.10 11.80 19.50

Wt. in water (kg)


0.98 2.10 2.85 4.4
per piece

■ Bobbins
Ø (mm) 305 356 406
Wt. in air (kg) 5.10 8.00 11.50
per piece

Wt. in water (kg)


1.65 2.20 3.50
per piece

■ Spacers
L(mm) 178 178
Ø (mm) 121 165
Ø (mm) 44 66
Wt. in air (kg) per piece 1.63 2.30
Wt. in water (kg)
0.36 0.57
per piece

■ Rings or "cookies" (made from old tyres)


diameter ext. Ø (mm) 60 80 110
diameter int. Ø (mm) 25 30 30
Weight* (kg/m) 2.3 3.0 7.5

diameter ext. Ø (mm) 200 240 280


diameter int. Ø (mm) 45 45 45
Weight* per piece (kg) 5.0 7.0 10.5

* Weight in air
Slings and tackles
LIFTING
Purse seine: example of plan and rigging

PURSE SEINES

Purse seine for sardine and other small pelagic species for a boat of 10 m LOA (PAJOT FAO) * Note :
With small purse seines where the purse line is not coiled on a drum, the purse line may be lashed to the
buoy line.
Purse seines: minimum dimensions, mesh sizes, twine sizes
PURSE SEINES

■ Minimum length and depth of Some examples


the purse seine, size of the bunt*
Species Stretched Size of
— Minimum length depends on the length meshsize twine
of seiner : length of purse seine > 15 x (mm) (Rtex)
length of seiner small anchovy, n'dagala, 12 75-100
— Minimum depth : 10% of the length of kapenta (East Africa)
seine anchovies, small sardine 16 75-150
— Minimum length and depth of bunt = sardine, sardinella 18-20 100-150
length of vessel
large sardinella, bonga, 25-30 150-300
flying fish, small
■ Choice of mesh size is a function of the mackerel and Spanish
target species. It is necessary to avoid mackerel
enmeshing or gilling the fish (with respect for mackerel, mullet, tilapia, 50-70 300-390
regulations on minimum mesh size]. Spanish mackerel, small
bonito
Bonito, tuna, wahoo, 50-70 (min) 450-550
Scorn beromorus sp.

■ Relationship between the diameter of the twine


where: and mesh size in different parts of the purse seine :
OM = mesh opening (mm] in the bunt diameter of twine (mm)
L = length (mm) of target species stretched mesh size (mm)

K = coefficient, a function of the Some examples


target species Body of the Bunt of the
purse seine purse seine
K = 5 for fish that are long and narrow Small Pelagic Fish 0.01 to 0.04 0.01 to 0.05
North Sea
K = 3.5 for average shaped fish
0.04 to 0.07
K = 2.5 for flat, deep-bodied, or wide Large Pelagic Fish 0.005 to 0.03 0.01 to 0.06
fish

* In purse seines, as in many types of fishing gear, the


'bunt' refers to the section of net which is hauied last or
the section in which the catch may be concentrated
Weight of ballast*, buoyancy of floats, weight of netting

PURSE SEINES
■ Ratio of ballast to weight of the buoyancy needed is a bit more than half the
netting (in air) weight (in air) of the netting.
The weight (in air) of the ballast normally ranges Buoyancy = 1.3 to 1.6 x (weight of
between 1/3 and 2/3 the weight of the netting (in netting in water + weight of ballast in
air).** The weight (in air) of the ballast per metre water)
of seine footrope is often between 1 and 3 kg = (1.3 to 1.6) x (0.10 + 0.27)
(although more is used for small mesh purse = 0.5 to 0.6 kg per kg of netting
seines used to catch deep-swimming small (weight in air)
pelagic fish and up to 8 kg/m is used in large tuna
seines). (b) If a smaller purse seine has
relatively light netting (as is common), the ballast
■ Ratio of buoyancy to total should be relatively heavy, and the buoyancy may
weight of the seine be equal to or slightly greater than the weight of the
netting (in air).
The rigging of floats on a purse seine must take
into account not only the buoyancy needed to
balance the total weight of the gear in water, but
also additional buoyancy.*** This additional
buoyancy should be of the order of 30% for calm
waters, and up to 50-60% in areas of strong
currents, to compensate for rough sea conditions Buoyancy = 1.3 to 1.6 (weight of
and other factors related to handling of the gear. netting in water + weight of ballast
Buoyancy should be greater in the area of the in water)
bunt (which has heavier twine) and mid-way = (1.3 to 1.6) x (0.10 + 0.72)
along the seine (where pulling forces are greater = 1 to 1.3 kg per kg of netting (in air)
during pursing).
In summary, the procedure of choosing weight of
In practical terms, the buoyancy of the floats ballast and buoyancy*** required is to calculate :
should be equal to about 1.5 to 2 times the weight (1) the weight (in air) of
of the ballast along the bottom of the seine, netting Wn**
(2) the weight (in air) of
Examples leads Ws
(a) If a large purse seine has relatively heavy Ws= (0.3 to 0.8) x Wn
netting (as is common), ballast may be relatively (3) Buoyancy = (1.3 to 1.6)
light, and x (0.1 Wn + 0.9 Ws)
= (1.3 to 2) x Ws

* Ballast in this case Is considered to include the


sinkers on the leadline, purse rings, chain and any
other lead or Iron rigging along the bottom of the
seine
** Weight of netting, see page 35
*** Buoyancy of purse seine floats, see pages
Hanging, leadline, tow line, purse line, depth, volume on board,
performance
PURSE SEINES

The leadline of a purse seine is usually longer AD = SD x 0.5 = SD/2 extremities


than the floatline by up to 10%; however in some
types, the two lines are equal in length. AD = SD x 0.6 centre of net

The hanging ratio (E), is usually greater on the Sinking speed of a purse seine — for different seines,
leadline than on the floatline. Hanging ratios sinking speed has been measured in a range from 2.4
generally range from 0.50 to 0.90, depending on to 16.0 m/min, with an average of 9.0 m/min.
the type of net. The hanging ratio may also vary
along the floatline or leadline, usually being lower
in the bunt. For more on hanging ratios and
methods of hanging, see pages 38, 39, and 42.
The tow line is normally about 25% of the length
of the purse seine.
The purse line is generally 1.1 to 1.75 times the
length of the leadline, usually about 1.5 times the
length of the purse seine. The purse line must
have good resistance to abrasion and good
breaking strength. As a general guideline, the
breaking strength (R) of the purse line should be
as follows :

R > 3 x (combined weight of netting, leadline,


leads and purserings)

Volume (on board) occupied by the seine when


rigged
3
V(m ) = 5 x weight (tons) of the seine (in air)
Depth in water of the seine (see also pages 39
and 40). As an approximation, the actual depth or
height (AD) can be considered equal to roughly
50% of the stretched depth (SD, or stretched
meshsize x number of meshes) of the seine at its
extremities, and 60% near the centre of the net.
Types of beach seine, bridles, ropes

BEACH SEINES
■ Beach seine without bag
A single panel of netting — no
particular rules concerning height
and length or Special meshsize and/or twinesize in
the central part

■ Beach seine with bag

■ Hauling points ■ Ropes for hauling beach seines


For a rather high small seine with bridle, handled Natural fibre rope or nylon, polyethylene,
by one man alone polypropylene

Seine length (m) diameter synthetic


fibre bridle (mm)
50- 100 6
200 – 500 14- 16
800- 1500 18
Beach seines: materials and hanging
BEACH SEINES

■ Mesh size and twine thickness height (m) Buoyancy


of seine (g/m of hung net)
In the wings, the mesh size and twine 3-4 50
thickness may be the same as, or different
from, those of the central section or bunt. 7 150
10 350-400
Examples of specifications for bunts of 15 500-600
beach seines
20 1000
stretched twine
target species mesh thickness
(mm) (R tex)
sardine 5-12 150-250 The floats are either evenly spaced along
the headrope, or placed closer together in
sardinella 30 800-1200
the bunt, and spaced increasingly farther
tilapia 25 100 apart toward the ends of the seine.
tropical shrimp/prawn 18 450
diverse large species 40-50 150-300
■ Sinkers on the footrope
The quantity and type of sinkers varies
The headrope and footrope (float line and lead according to the intended use (to 'dig' more,
or 'dig' less). Sinkers may be spaced evenly
line) are usually of the same material (PA or
along the footrope, or concentrated more
PE) and diameter.
near the bunt.

Hanging ratios (E) are usually the same on


headrope and footrope. For central sections, E
■ Ratio of buoyancy/weight
= 0.5 or slightly greater (0.5-0.7). In the wings
the hanging ratio is usually the same as in the In the bunt, the ratio of buoyancy/ weight of
bunt, but it is sometimes slightly greater (E = sinkers is around 1.5-2.0, but sometimes, to
0.7-0.9). make the net 'dig' more, a net is rigged with
more weight than buoyancy. In the wings,
the ratio of buoyancy/weight of sinkers is
■ Floats on the headrope
equal to, or slightly less than, 1.
The number of floats required increases with
the height of the seine. The following are
examples of buoyancy observed in the central
part of seines :
Bottom seines: types of bottom seines and method of setting

BOTTOM SEINES
■ Construction, rigging :
very similar to bottom trawls
Bottom seine

Original European Asian type


type
Bridles Headline
20-25 m 35 m

Rigging of spreader without 45-55 m 45 m


bridles
■ Track of the boat for shooting the anchor
seine or Danish seine

Example : Shooting 12 'coils' or 2640 m (1


Bottom seine with high headline
coil = 220 m)
Bottom seines: dimensions and properties of net
BOTTOM SEINES

■ Size of nets ■ Mesh size, twine size


Boat Net
Length Power Mouth" Headline stretched mesh Rtex
(m) (hp)* opening (m) (mm)
(m)
Bottom seine
110-150 1100-1400
(Japan) 10-15 30 50 90-110 1000-1100
70-90 700-1000
Bottom seine
40-70 600-800
(Europe) 15-20 100-200 20-30 55-65

Bottom seine 10-20 100 200 35-45 25-35


(high op.) 20 45-65 35-45
20-25 300 - 400 ~100 45-55 I
25 + 500 55 - 65

■ Vertical opening (estimation)

vertical opening of high-opening bottom seine with bridles

* Power in (hp) = 1.36 x Power in (kW)


"* The mouth opening is measured along the forward edge of the bellies, and is equal to
(bar length x number of meshes) + (bar length x number of meshes)
jupper panel) {lower panel)
However, there are local differences in how this term is used, (in some places it refers to stretched
meshsize x number of meshes), so caution in interpretation is necessary.
Bottom seines: ropes

BOTTOM SEINES
Durability, resistance to abrasion, and weight Length is expressed in coils of 200-220 m, total
are essential qualities of seine ropes. length usually 1000-3000 m.

Materials Method Fishing grounds Rope


length
Scottish shallow waters (50-70
technique m) or small areas of soft less than
bottom surrounded by 2000 m
rocky areas
medium depths (80-260 3000 m
m) or large smooth or longer
bottom areas
Japanese for depths as great as 8 to 15
technique 300-500 m or soft, times
regular bottom depth of
water

Anchor seining combination rope


(Danish seining) : Ø18-20
Fly dragging PE or PP, Ø 20-
(Scottish seining) : 32 (3 strands with
lead core in each
strand)
Fly dragging small boats :
(Japan, Korea) : manila mid-sized
boats : PVA

Diameter
Rope
Ø Weight
(kg/100 m)
PP 20 35
24 43
26 55
28 61
30 69

Often the diameter changes along a


single rope, from 24-36 mm (for mid-sized
boats). Weights are often attached along
the rope.
Bottom seines: operations
BOTTOM SEINES

■ Operating with an anchor (Denmark)

Where the direction of the current changes


with the height of the fide

■ Fly-dragging (Scotland)

■ Fly-dragging (bull trawling) (Japan, Korea)

■ Operations of 2 boats (pair seining, Canada)


Plan of a 2-panel bottom trawl

TRAWLS
This example, from FAO, is for a 50-70 hp vessel. See table below for terms.

Terms used in net plan


MAT = twine material (see pages 6-8]
Rtex = Resultant tex (twine size, see page 10)
a (mm) = stretched meshsize (see pages 29-30)
n = depth of panel in number of meshes (N direction)
The numbers appearing along the front and aft edges of panels represent
number of meshes.
Numbers and letters along inside edges of net represent cutting rates; for
example, 1N2B means 1 sideknot, 2 bars (see pages 32-33).
Ratios presented along inside edges represent numbers of meshes taken up
when joining the corresponding panels (see page 41).
Lengths of lines are presented in metres (11.00, etc).
Plan and rigging of a 4-panel midwater trawl
TRAWLS

This example is a midwater pair trawl used by French vessels of 120-150 hp, for herring and
mackerel
Trawls: relationship between mesh size and twine size for bottom trawls

TRAWLS
■ Bottom Trawls ■ Shrimp trawls, American ■ High-opening bottom
type, semi-balloon trawls
Power 30 to 100hp* try-net (see pg. 84) Power 75 to 150 hp*
Stretched Size of Stretched Size of Stretched Size of twine
rnesh twine(Rtex) mesh (mm) twine(Rtex) mesh (Rtex)
(mm) (mmW)
100 950-1 170 39.6 645 120 950
80 650- 950 80 650-950
60 650 60 650-950
40 650 40 650-950

Power 150 to 300 hp*


Power 100 to 300 hp* Stretched Size of Power 150 to 300 hp*
mesh (mm) twine(Rtex)
Stretched Size of 44 940-1190 Stretched Size of
mesh twine(Rtex) 39.6 1 190 mesh (mm) twine (Rtex)
(mm)
200 1 660-2 500 200 1 660-2 500
160 1 300 160 1 300-1 550
120 1 300-2 000 120 1 300-2 000
80 950-1 550 Power 300 to 600 hp* 80 950-1 550
60 850-1 190 Stretched Size of 60 850-1 190
mesh (mm) twine(Rtex)
40 850-1 190 47.6 1 190 40 850-1 020
39.6 1 540

Power 300 to 600 hp* Power 300 to 800 hp*


Stretched Size of Stretched Size of
mesh twine(Rtex) mesh (mm) twine(Rtex)
(mm)
200 2 500-3 570 800 5 550
160 1 230-2 000 400 3 570
120 1 230-2 000 200 2 500-3 030
80 1 660 160 1 660-2 500
* brake horsepower (BHP) or
60 950-1 190 Apparent Nominal Power (ANP), 120 1 550-2 500
see pg. 95 Power in HP = 1.36 x
40 950-1 190 80 1 300-2 500
(power in kW)
60 1 190-1 540
40 940-1 200
Relationship between mesh size and twine size for midwater trawls
TRAWLS

■ Midwater trawls ■ Midwater pair trawls


(for single vessel)

Power 150 to 200 hp* Power 2 x 100-300 hp*


Stretched mesh Size of Stretched mesh Size of
(mm) twine(Rtex) (mm) twine(Rtex)
400 2 500 800 3 030-4 000
200 1 190-1 310 400 1 190-2 280
160 950-1 190 200 1 190-1 540
120 650-950 120 950
80 650-950 80 650-950
40 450 40 450-950
40 950-1 310

Power 2 x 300-500 hp*


Power 400 to 500 hp* Stretched mesh Size of
(mm) twine(Rtex)
Stretched mesh Size of 800 5 550
(mm) twine(Rtex)
800 3 700 400 2 280
400 2 500 200 1 540
200 1 310-1 660 120 950-1 190
160 1 190-1 310 80 950-1 190
120 950 40 950-1 190
80 650-950
40 650-950
40 1 660

Power 700 hp*


Stretched mesh Size of
(mm) twine(Rtex)
800 7 140-9 090
400 3 700-5 550
200 2 500-3 700
160 2 500
120 1 660
80 1 660
* Brake horsepower (BHPj or Apparent
40 1 660 Nominal Power(APNj, see page 95. Power in
40 2 500 Hp = 1.36 X (power in kWj
Choosing the right size trawl for the power of the vessel

TRAWLS
■ Selection according to the calculated twine trawl type factor
surface area of the net (see page 37 for twine
two-panel bottom trawls: 2.4
surface area)
four-panel bottom trawls : 2.2
Given the vessel horsepower, and the type of
trawling intended, the best results will be obtained single-boat mid-water
by choosing a net of which the twine surface area
trawls (stretched mesh in
falls within a particular range.
wings up to 200 mm) : 2
single-boat mid-water
trawls (wing meshes
Iargerthan 200 mm) : 2

■ Choice by comparison with a trawl of


the same type used by a vessel in the
same horsepower range
Let us say you know the dimensions of a
particular trawl (TI) used by a particular
trawler which has horsepower P|. In order
1 Two-panel bottom trawls to calculate the right net size for another
2 Four-panel bottom trawls vessel of horsepower P2, the length and
3 Single-boat mid-wotertrawls (stretched mesh in width of each panel of P] are multiplied by
wings up to 200mm)
4 Single-boat mid-water trawls
( wing meshes larger than 200 mm )

Given the vessel horsepower and trawl type, the


twine surface area may vary according to several
factors, for example : real delivered horsepower,
rate of utilisation of the motor, type of rigging,
meshsize, type of bottom, strength of currents,
etc.
2
For pair trawling, the twine surface areas (m )
indicated above should be multiplied by the
factors shown in the table:

* Brake Horsepower (BHP) or Apparent


Nominal Power (ANP), see page 95
Power in (HP) = 1.36 x Power in (kW)
Opening of bottom trawls
TRAWLS

■ Bottom trawl with low vertical opening (VO) VO (m) S(m)

VO = 2 x N x a x 0.05 to 0.06 S ~ HR x 0.50


■ High-opening bottom trawl

VO = 2 x N x a x 0.06 to 0.07 S ~ HR x 0.50


■ Shrimp trawl (flat or semi-
balloon)
S ~ HR x 0.67
S ~ VO x 10

VO ~ n x a x 0.40
or VO = height of panel x 1.2
S ~ HR x 0.7
S ~ VO x 12

N or n = width in number of meshes of front edge of belly (seams not


included)
a = meshsize, length in metres of one stretched mesh at the part of net
considered
VO = approximate vertical opening of net mouth (metres)
S = approximate horizontal spread between ends of wings (metres)
HR = length in metres of headrope
Opening of bottom trawls and mid-water trawls

TRAWLS
■ High-opening, 4-panel bottom trawl VO (m) S(m)

S ~ HR
x0.60

S ~ HR
x0.50

■ Single-boat mid-water trawl

S ~ HR x
VO = n x a x 0 . 2 5 t o 0 . 3 0 0.50 to 0.60
■ Mid-water pair trawl

S ~ HR
VO = n x a x 0 . 2 5 t o 0 . 3 0 x0.60

n = width in number of meshes of front edge of belly (seams not included)


nv = width in number of meshes of aft edge of belly (seams not included)
HR = length of headrope in metres (not including free ends)
a = meshsize (length in metres of one stretched mesh at the part of the net
being considered)
VO = approximate vertical opening of net mouth (metres)
S = approximate horizontal spread between ends of wings (metres)
Rigging of bottom trawl for one boat
TRAWLS

Principal types, adjustments, relative length


■ Bottom trawls with low headline height

■ Bottom trawls with high headline heights (OV) : sweeps and bridles

■ Adjustments

To increase the vertical height: lengthen To increase the ground contact: lengthen thelower bridle (B)
the upper bridle (U) or shorten the lower or shorten the upper Dridle (U)
bridle (B)

N.B. the adjustments made are extremely small, measured in single chain links
■ Relative lengths of different parts of the trawl gear
F about 2.2 times the depth for deep As a general rule

water
about 10 times the depth for shallow
water
F = trawl warps (m)
B = length of sweeps or sweeps + bridles or 'forks'**

* Brake horsepower (BHPj or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP), see page 95 Power in
(HP) = 1.36 x Power in (kW) ** Fork rig, see page 8 1
Rigging of bottom and midwater trawls for single-boat
operation

TRAWLS
■ High-opening bottom trawls : fork rigging
The length of warps equals 3 to 4.5 times the depth of water

■ Single-boat midwater trawl


Rigging for pair trawling
TRAWLS

■ Bottom trawls

■ Midwater trawls

P = power of the trawler


L = distance trawl — trawler
G = weights in front of the trawl
d = distance between the trawlers

* Broke horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP), see paqe 95 Power in (HP) = 1.36 x Power
in (kW)
Estimating the depth of a midwater pair trawl

TRAWLS
It is necessary to estimate the vertical angle of the warps. (In other words, the inclination, or angle
between the warps and the horizontal plane.)
Note : These methods give only very rough approximations. They should be used only when you have | no
nelsounder to give more accurate information. Be careful to keep the net away from the bottom.

The warp angle may be measured with a protractor or other device

Depth of the trawl is estimated as follows :


(1) Measure the warp angle A (3) Follow the warp length down to
(2) On the horizontal scale of the angle A
the graph below, find the warp (4) Read the estimated trawl depth
length from the vertical scale at the left

Another method without using a pro- Distance WARP LENGTH (M)


tractor is shown below measured
D cm 100 200 300 400 500
(1) Mark the warp I 99 14 27 42 56 70
m aft ot block
98 21 42 62 83 103
(2) Drop a vertical
line from the block 97 25 49 72 94 116
96 28 57 82 106 130
4) Find the trawl
(3) Measure the depth in the table 95 31 62 92 123 153
distance D on the right
94 34 68 103 138 174
Shrimp (prawn) trawls and their rigging
TRAWLS

■ Gulf of Mexico type In tropical zones the ■ Rigging of booms


Example ; catch rate is propor This rigging allows an increase in shrimp
tional to the horizonta catch rate of 15-30% over that of a single
spread of the trawl. trawl. Towing speed is 2.5 to 3 knots.
In order to obtain the
greatest horizontal
opening, special types of trawl
are used, and also special
rigging.

(1) Special types of trawl

Power of Lengths (m)


enqine*
Headline Bridles Booms
TO
150 to 200 12-14 33 9
200 to 150 15-17 35 9
250 to 300 17-20 40 9
300 to 400 20 45 10
500 24 50 12

Examples of mesh (2) Special rigging


sizes Depth (m) Warp length (m)
Stretched mesh (in mm) -20 110
French Guyana : 45 West 20 to 30 145
Africa : 40-50 Persian Gulf : 30 to 35 180
30-40/ 43-45 35 to 40 220
Madagascar ; 33-40 India :
50-100 Australia : 44
* Brake horsepower {BMP) or Apparent
Nominal Power (ANP), see page 95 Power in
(HP) = 1.36 x Power in (kW)
Rigging between different parts of trawls

TRAWLS
■ Bottom trawls

■ Midwater trawls for 1 boat

■ Midwater pair trawls


Headline buoyancy and groundrope weight recommended for trawls
TRAWLS

Real
horsepower*
hp
B1 (kgf) W1 (kg air) B2 (kgf) P W2 (kg air) B3 (kgf) P W3 (kg air)
P (hp)* P (hp)* (hp)* P (hp)* (hp)* P (hp)*
50 B1=Px... W1=Px ... B2=P x... W2=P x ... B3=P x ... W3=P x ...
100 0.20 0.28 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.33
200 0.20 0.25 0.24 0.27 0.25 0.31
400 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.28
600 0.20 0.22 0.21 0.23 0.21 0.27
800 0.18 0.20 0.19 0.22 0.19 0.26

— For buoyancy, the indicated values correspond to nets made of poly-amide (nylon), a synthetic fibre
with negative buoyancy (it sinks). For nets made of floating materials, the floats may be decreased by
10-15%.
— The weights presented are estimated, with a 5-10% margin of error. They may vary according to the
trawling speed, type of bottom, buoyancy of the net and floats, target species, etc. These weights have
been calculated assuming that steel chain will be used for ballast. If another material is used, its density
must be taken into account. For example, in order to get the same sinking force in water, a length of
chain weighing 1 kg in air must be replaced by a quantity of rubber rollers which weighs 3-3.5 kg in air.

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANPj, see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1.36 x
Power in (kW)
Examples of groundropes

TRAWLS
■ Midwater trawls
(maximum vertical opening) joining
lines of braided PP. Groundrope of
leaded rope
■ High-opening bottom trawls :
Joining
lines of braided PP.
Groundrope of chain

■ Shrimp trawls, smooth bottom


Grassrope with lead rings (chain
ground-rope is also common)
■ High-opening bottom trawl
with 2 bridles : groundrope of
rubber rings
For use on rougher bottom :
groundrope of rubber bobbins or
rollers with rubber disc spacers
and chain joining lines

■ Fish or shrimp trawls, hard


bottom :
groundrope of rubber rings and
hard plastic spheres
■ Fish or shrimp trawls for soft
or muddy bottom : split wooden
rollers which can be added or re-
moved without running groundrope
through centre
Spread of otter boards and trawl
TRAWLS

■ Estimating the spread of otter boards (doors)

Example: On the vessel above, if :


A = 4.00
B = 4.18
F = 200
then
D = [(4.18 - 4.00) x 200] + 4 = 40 m spread at otter boards
■ Estimating the spread of the trawl
To estimate the horizontal spread between the wing ends :

Example: given a trawl of 25 m in length (without bag) rigged with sweeps of 50 m and otter board spread
of 40 m, then spread of trawl wing ends :
Otter boards: proportions, angles of attack

TRAWLS
■ Flat rectangular otter boards ■ Rectangular V section otter boards

■ Shrimp otter boards ■ Suberkrub pelagic otter boards

■ Angles of attack
Otter boards: angle of attack, adjustments
TRAWLS

■ Angle of attack

■ Adjustment of angle of attack

■ Adjustment of orientation

a ~ L x 1-2
Generally a = b
or b = a + (2-5% of L)
However on soft muddy bottom or small corals,
some upward tilting (b) longer than (a) may be
good

Problem

Recommended adjustment
Raise the towing brackets a little if possible

Lower the towing brockets a little if possible


or add weight to the keel

Lengthen the upper back-strop (a) or


shorten the lower backstrop (b),
keeping in mind that a little upward
till is good for certain bottom con-
ditions
Lengthen the lower back-strop lb) or
shorten the upper backstrop (a)
Otter boards: properties of the principal types, choice depending on the trawler's
power

TRAWLS
■ Rectangular and oval curved
The weights indicated below (for single board) are the maximum values used. For a given horsepower, the surface
area listed below is often used, but with a lighter material which may make a board as much as 50% lighter.
Rectangular flat Oval Curved
Power* otter boards Otter boards Weight
(hp) Dimensions Surface Dimensions Surface (Kg)
L(m) h(m) m2 L(m) h(m) m2
50-75 1.30 0.65 0.85 45
100 1.50 0.75 1.12 1.40 0.85 0.93 100-120
200 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.75 1.05 1.45 190-220
300 2.20 1.10 2.42 1.90 1.10 1.65 300-320
400 2.40 1.20 2.88 2.20 1.25 2.15 400-420
500 2.50 1.25 3.12 2.40 1.40 2.65 500-520
600 2.60 1.30 3.38 2.60 1.50 3.05 600-620
700-800 2.80 1.40 3.92 2.90 1.60 3.65 800-900

■ V otter boards ■ Midwater, Suberkrub


Power* Surface Weight
2 Dimensions
(hp) m kg Power* Surface Weight
2
100 1.40 240 (hp) (m ) (kg)
H(m) L(m)
200 2.10 400
300 2.50 580
1.88 0.80 1.50 90-100
400 2.90 720 150 200
2.05 0.87 1.80 110-120
500 3.30 890 250
2.12 0.94 2.00 150-160
600 3.60 1 000
2.28 0.97 2.20 170-180
700 3.90 1 100 300 350
2.32 1.03 2.40 220-240
800 4.20 1 200 400
2.42 1.07 2.60 240-260
450 2.51 1.12 2.80 260-280
500 2.68 1.14 3.00 280-300
600 2.86 1.22 3.50 320-350
700-800 3.00 1.33 4.00 400-430

■ Shrimp otter boards (double rig) Example of the relationship between the twine
surface area (see page 37) of a pelagic trawl (Sf in
Power Weight 2
Dimensions m m ) and the surface area of a Suberkrub otter board
(hp)* kg 2
used by the boat (Sp in m )
100-150 1.8 x 0.8-2.4 x0.9 60-90
150-200 2 x 0.9 - 2.45 x 1 2.4 90-100 Sp = (0.0152 x Sf) + 1.23
200-250 x 1 - 2.45 x 1 120

250-300 2.5 x 1 -2.7 x 1.1 3 160


300-450 x 1.1 -3 x 1.2 3.3 x 220 * Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal
450-600 1.1 -3.3 x 1.3 300 Power (ANP), see page 95
Power in HP = 1.36 X Power in (kW)
Kites
TRAWLS

Power (hp)* Lxl


150-250 0.55 x 0.45 m
250-350 0.60 x 0.45 m
350-500 0.65 x 0.50 m
500-800 0.80 x 0.60 m

Many types of kites exist and are being tested,


the simplest being a piece of sail cloth
mounted on the headline and patched to the
inside netting.

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent


Nominal
Warps: diameter and length

TRAWLS
■ Characteristics of steel trawl warps, according to power of trawler
hp* 0 (mm) kg/m R kgf
100 10.5 0.410 5 400
200 12.0 0.530 7 000
300 13.5 0.670 8 800
400 15.0 0.830 11 000
500 16,5 1.000 13 200
700 18.0 1.200 15 800
900 19.5 1.400 18 400
1 200 22.5 1.870 24 500
R= breaking strength

■ Length of warps according to depth of water (for bottom trawling)


(for shallow water less than 20 m, the length should not be less than 120 m)
This curve gives only estimates; the captain should decide warp length according to the type of bottom,
sea conditions, current, etc.

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP), see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1.36 x
Power in (kW
Trawling speed
TRAWLS

Main species groups Average trawling


speed (knots)
shrimp, small bottom species, flat fish
very small trawlers 1.5-2
mid-sized and large trawlers 2.5-3.5
mid-sized bottom species, small pelagic fish
3-4
small trawlers
4-5
mid-sized to large trawlers
cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish) 3.5-4.5
mid-sized pelagic fish >5
Power of trawlers

TRAWLS
■ The choice of fishing gear depends on type of propeller and engine k
the power of the trawler high RPM engine 0.20
fixed propeller slow turning
For trawlers with a fixed propeller, engine
reduction gear between 2 : 1 and 4 : 1, 0.25 - 0.28
and no nozzle, the tables in this book are variable pitch propeller 0.28 - 0.30
intended for use with the Brake
Horsepower (BHP). This is the figure given
most often by manufacturers as the
horsepower or rated power of an engine. It is In rough weather, p is reduced by 1/3.
expressed in horsepower (HP) or in kilowatts
(kW).
1 HP = 0.74 kW 1 kW=
1.36 HP
If a trawler has a variable pitch propeller
and/or a nozzle, Apparent Nominal Power
(ANP), should be used in the tables of
this book.
It may be calculated as follows :
ANP = bollard pull (kg) x 0.09
Example : A trawler, with a variable pitch
propeller and a nozzle, has an engine rated
at 400 BHP, and the bollard pull is 6000 kg
ANP = 6000 x 0.09 = 540 HP
Thus, the fishing gear should be chosen
from the tables according to an Apparent
Nominal Power of 540 HP, and not 400 HP.
Power available for trawling (p), is usually
15 to 20% of the BHP or ANP. This power is
used to pull the gear, and may be calculated
as follows :
In calm waters, p = 0.75 x k x (BHP or ANP)
Pulling power of trawlers
TRAWLS

■ Bollard pull BP0 of a trawler at progressively increased until vessel


fixed point (speed = 0)
B holds vessel A stationary.
BP0(kg) = 10 to 12 kg per BHP* (with fixed
propeller)
13 to 16 kg per HP of Apparent Nominal
Power* (with a variable pitch propeller or
nozzle)

■ Bollard pull BP (when fishing) The engine RPM of both vessels A and B are
If you have calculated the engine power (p) noted, for the chosen speed of 2 knots. The same
available for towing (page 95), operations are repeated for other speeds until the
range of normal trawling speeds is covered.

Revs Vessel A Vessel B


If you have measured the bollard pull BP0 at
speed 0 knots, Speed
BP(kq) = BP0(kg) 2 knots — —
2.5 — —
3
— —

3.5 — —

Choosing the appropriate engine speeds


(RPM) for 2 boats of different characteristics
for pair trawling

Vessel A pulls vessel B, engine in neutral, at


the chosen speed, for example 2 knots. Then
vessel B engine is engaged and the revs
Plan and rigging of a gillnet : example

ENTANGLING NETS
Gillnet Vessel
bottom set for spider crabs length 5-15 m
Brittany, France HP 15-20

This drawing shows the following information about the net: for more details
Stretched meshsize : 320 mm pages 29-30
Length : 313 meshes
Height : 5 1/2 meshes
Hanging ratio (Ej : 0.50 pages 38-39
Floats" : 32 plastic floats, each with buoyancy of 50 gf pages 47-49
Sinkers +. 156 leads, each weighing 50 g
Twine : material — polyamide; size — R 1666 tex pages 7-10
Floatline : polypropylene/polyamide, diameter 6 mm, length 50 m pages 7-8
Leadline : polypropylene/polyamide, diameter 6 mm, length 50 m pages 7-8
Choosing the meshsize of gillnets*
ENTANGLING NETS

■ Choice of meshsize according to fish Temperate demersal species


species cod 150-170
There is a ratio between the body girth or pollack 150-190
length of a fish one wants to catch, and
the gillnet meshsize which will be effective Pacific pollack 90
for that fish (Fridman formula). sole 110-115
OM = L(fish)/K hake 130-135
where red mullet (Mugilidae) 25
OM = mesh opening (mm)
halibut (Greenland) 250
L(fish) = average length (mm) of fish one
wants to catch turbot, monk, anglerfish 240
K = coefficient, according to
species
Crustaceans
and
shrimp (India) 36
K = 5 for long, thin fish
K = 3.5 for average-shaped shrimp (El Salvador) 63-82
fish (neither very thick nor thin) green spiny lobster 160
K = 2.5 for very thick, wide or red spiny lobster 200-220
high (shaped) fish
spider crab 320
A few examples of stretched meshsizes
(mm) adapted for particular species king crab 450

Small pelagic species


sprat 22-25
herring 50-60
anchovy 28
sardine 30-43
sardinella 45-60
shad (Ethmalosa) 60-80

Demersal tropical species small mackerel 50


threadfin (Polynemidae) 50 large mackerel 75
small catfish 75 Spanish mackerel 100-110
grunt (Pomadasidae) 50
mullet 110-120 Large pelagic species
maigre (Sciaenidae) 120-140 mackerel, bonito,
croaker (Sciaenidae) 160-200 skipjack 80-100
seabream (Sparidae) 140-160 marlin, flying fish 120-160
barracuda 120 bonito, jacks 125
Atlantic bluefin
tuna 240
sharks 170-250
swordfish 300-330
* For clarification of terms stretched
salmon 120-200
meshsize and mesh opening see page 29
Choosing twine type for gillnets

ENTANGLING NETS
The twine should be relatively thin, ■ Choosing twine diameter for
but not so fine that it damages, entangled gillnets
fish. Good breaking strength is important,
especially for bottom set gillnets, taking into ac- Twine diameter should be propor-
count the size of the fish and the meshsize. The ional to meshsize. The ratio
twine should have low visibility, either clear (mono
twine diameter (same units of
or multi-monofilament) or of a colour which blends
stretched meshsize measurement)
in with the environment. It should also be flexible.
should be between 0.0025, for calm
waters and low catches, and 0.01, for
rough waters or bottom set. An
average ratio is 0.005.
Note : A length of twine may stretch 20-40% before
breaking

■ Examples of twine sizes used with certain types of gillnets and meshsizes

stretched inland waters, coastal waters pen ocean


meshsize lakes, rivers
multifil. monofil. multifil. monofil. multimono. monofil. multimono.
mm multifil. m/kg
m/kg Ømm m/kg Ømm nxØmm Ømm nxØmm
30 20 000 0.2 10 000 0.4
6 660
50 20 000 13 400 0.2 6 660
60 13 400 0.2 10 000 4 440
80 10 000 6 660 4x0.15 4 440 0.28-0.30 6a8x0.15
100 6 660 4 440 0.3 3 330 0.5 6x0.15
120 6 660 4 440 0.35-0.40 3 330 0.6
140 4 440 3 330 0.33-0.35 6x0.15 2 220 8x0.15
160 3 330 3 330 0.35 8a10x0.15 2 220 0.6-0.7
200 2 220 2 220 1 550 0.9 10x0.15
240 1 550 1 550 1 100 0.9
500 1 615-2 220
600 3 330 1 615-2 220
700 2 660
Rigging or hanging gillnets
ENTANGLING NETS
■ Effect of the hanging ratio on
the catching efficiency of the net
Generally the horizontal hanging ratio is about
0.5 for gillnets (see page 38).
— If E is smaller than 0.5 the net will
tend to tangle fish, and will capture
a variety of different species. This is
the case with most set nets.
— If E is greater than 0.5 the net will
tend to gill the fish and be more
selective than in the preceding case.
This is the case with most driftnets.

■ Examples of rigging
On the headrope with floats
attached

On the footrope with sinkers attached


plan and rigging of trammel net

ENTANGLING NETS
Trammel net*
Bottom set or drifting, for shrimp
Sri Lanka

* For clarification of symbols used in drawing of entangling net see page 97


Trammel nets: mesh sizes and rigging
ENTANGLING NETS
■ Choosing the mesh sizes according to the The stretched height of the central net panel
size of target species* should be 1.5 to 2 times the
stretched height of the external netting.
— Central panel : The meshsize
should be small enough to catch the
The actual height in the water of the
smallest fish wanted, by bagging. A
trammel net depends on the height of the external
rough estimate of the required mesh-
size is given by the Fridman formula netting. The central net panel should be very slack.
for net bags:
■ Hanging ratios of the net panels
OM should be smaller than :
The horizontal hanging ratios are often close to the
following values:
E central netting = 0.4 to 0.5
where
OM (mm) = mesh opening of the central E external netting = 0.6 to 0.75
net
L (mm) = length of the smallest fish
wanted
K = coefficient dependent
on the target species
K = 5 for long and narrow
fish
K = 3.5 for average fish
K = 2.5 for flat, thick or large
fish
— External panels : the mesh size
should be 4 to 7 times larger than
that of the central netting.

* For clarification of terms


stretched meshsize and mesh
opening see page 29
Average bouyancy (B) and ballast (W) of gillnets and trammel nets

ENTANGLING NETS
■ Floating gillnets and trammel nets

B2 = 50-120
B(gf/m) 100-160 600 - 1 500
B1 = 50 - 80
W1 = 30-80
W (g/m) 50-80 300 - 1 000
W2 = 25-60

B/W 2 1.5-2

Length of leadline < 1 B1 - Wf + W1


Length of floatline Wf = weight of netting
in water
(smaller or equal)

Bottom set gillnets and trammel nets

B (gf/m) 40-80 100-200


W (g/m) 120-250 250-400
B/W

(greater or equal)

Note : These weights do not include anchors, etc.


Rigging of entangling nets: some examples
ENTANGLING NETS
■ Set gillnets and trammel nets

■ Drifting gillnets
Plan and rigging of pots: an example

TRAPS AND POTS


Crab trap Vessel
Hokkaido, Japan Length 12-15 m
Nova Scotia, Canada hp 40-100
Dimensions of pots and traps
TRAPS AND POTS

These gears, which can be used for catching fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cephalopods (squid,
octopus, etc.), are made in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, using many different materials. They may
be used on the bottom or in mid-water, with or without bait.

■ Choosing the size of a pot or trap


If a pot gets too crowded with captured fish inside, it will stop catching. The interior volume of a pot must
be large enough to avoid this situation. On the other hand, in some cases an interior volume which is too
large may lead to cannibalism (some captives eating others). Some types of pots appear to be effective
because their shape and size make them attractive shelters for certain species.

A few examples:

Species Country Volume


(cubic decimeters - see p. 157)
octopus 6
small shrimp 40-70
small crabs Japan 70-90
crabs Canada 450
King crab, snow crab USA 2500-4500
spiny lobster Europe 60-130
lobster USA 200
spiny lobster Caribbean 300-800
spiny lobster Australia 2500
sea bream Morocco 150-200
mixed reef fish Caribbean 500-700 (up to 2000)
torsk, wolf fish Norway 1300
grouper India 1400
black cod USA, Alaska 1800
Making fish traps and pots

TRAPS AND POTS


Choice of materials must consider such factors as durability, resistance to immersion, corrosion, and
fouling by marine growth.
Spacing of bars or laths; or size of meshes has a direct relation to the size of the target species.

A few examples (measurements in mm] : Alternatives

Species bar of mesh — For lobster pots : Triangular meshes


(diamond shape)
60-80 mm side Rectangular meshes
small shrimp 8-10
(Europe) 25 x 50 mm
Parallel wooden strips or laths,
small crabs (Japan) 12 spaced 25-38 mm apart
rock crab (Europe) 30 — For fish pots : For sea bream,

crab (Canada, USA) 50


triangular meshes 35-40 mm on a
King crab (Alaska) 127 side For black cod, USA west coast,
square meshes 51 x 51 mm For
spiny lobster (France, 30-40
Morocco) threadfin, Australia, hexagonal
meshes 25-40 mm across
lobster 25-35
torsk, wolffish (Norway) 18
sea bream (see Alternatives)

grouper (India) 40

reef fish (Caribbean) 15-20


black cod (USA) (see Alternatives)

threadfin (Australia) (see Alternatives)

Ballast in traps is very variable, from 10 to 70 kg per trap, according to the type and size of trap, the type
of bottom, and strength of currents.
Entrances: shape and position
TRAPS AND POTS

The shape is usually that of a cone or truncated pyramid, straight or curved.


■ The position : examples
Traps for fish and cephalopods : entrance(s) at the side(s)

Traps for crustaceans : entrance(s) on the side(s) or on the top


Entrances: dimensions

TRAPS AND POTS


The diameter of a pot entrance is directly related to the size and characteristics of the target
species.
A few examples:
Species Country Entrance diameter (mm)
small shrimp 40-60
small and medium crabs Japan, USA 140-170
snow crab Canada 360
King crab USA Alaska 350-480
spiny lobster, crayfish Europe 100-200
spiny lobster Australia, Caribbean 230
lobster Europe 100-150
sea bream Morocco 70-100
torsk, wolffish Norway 100
grouper India 210
black cod USA, W. coast 250
threadfin Australia 250-310
snapper Caribbean 230
TRAPS AND POTS Examples of pots or traps

■ Forfishorcephalopods
Vertical line fishing: examples, breaking strength

LINE FISHING
A: Mainline
B : Branchline (also called snood leader,
gangion, drop line)

The breaking strength of the mainline


should be greater than or equal to the
maximum weight of an individual fish to
be caught (even if there are several
branchlines).

Examples of mainline breaking


strength in common use for certain
species
Species Breaking strength
(kg, wet, knotted)
sea bream,snapper 7-15
meagre, conger, 15-30
dogfish
weakfish, grouper, 30-40
cod, moray
snapper, grouper 100
yeliowfin tuna 150-200
LINE FISHING Trolling methods

Trolling speeds vary from 2 to 7 knots, depending on target species

salmon trolling, near-surface albacore trolling, surface, France


to deep water, northeast Pacific

Tuna trolling, surface, Philippines

S ; shock absorber or snubber


DP: depressor or diving board
Pb : 'cannonball' weight
Trolling lines: rigging equipment

LINE FISHING
■ Shock absorber or snubber ■ Shearing depressor or diving board
Absorbs the shock load on the line when the fish May be adjusted to dive and also shear
strikes horizontally to spread lines

Depressor or diving board to troll deeper


Plan and rigging of bottom longlines: an example

Longline for dogfish, rays, conger, Boat


LONGLINES

ling Length 14-15 m


Channel, France TJB 20-30
Hp 150
Longline components

LONGLINES
A longline consists of a main line, to which a number of branchlines (also called snoods or gangions)
are attached. A hook is attached to the end of pnch branchline.

The material and diameter of the mainline will depend Branchlines (snoods or gangions) should
on the target species, the type of longline (bottom or be as close as possible to invisible in water,
mid-water), and gear-handling methods (manual but sometimes of steel (for example, in some
or mechanical hauling). The diameter and breaking tuna and shark fisheries).
strength must take into account not only the weight of
the fish, but also the displacement (and therefore, in- Breaking strength of branchlines (wet,
ertia) of the vessel. with knots) should be at least equal to twice
the weight of the fish one expects to catch.
As a general rule, one can choose a mainline whose (The breaking strength of the main line
breaking strength (dry, unknotted, in kg) is ; should equal 3 to 10 times that of
the branchlines.)
— both greater than 10 times the
tonnage of the vessel, and greater The length of a branchline is usually less
than the square of the vessel's length than half the distance between branchlines,
(in metres). in order to avoid tangling.
— at least 10 times the weight of the Hooks are usually chosen by experience,
largest fish one expects to catch. according to the size and behaviour of
the target species; hooked fish should
For example: stay alive (for species which can live when
What would be the minimum breaking strength for the hooked), but should not come unhooked.
main line of a longline used by a 9 m, 4 t vessel,
catching sea bream and gurnards?
Breaking strength must be greater
than 4 x 10 = 40 kg
or 9x9 = 81 kg
But, if one expects to catch individual fish weighing 10
kg, it is necessary to calculate
10 kg x 10 = 100 kg
Therefore, the line could be twisted or braided nylon
(PA), 2 mm diameter (breaking strength 130-160
kg); or nylon monofilament 170/100 (breaking strength
110 kg); or polyethylene (PE) 3 mm diameter (break-
ing strength 135 kg).
Set longlines: various rigs in use

■ Semi-pelagic longlines
LONGLINES

■ Bottom longlines
Drifting longlines: various rigs in use

Some examples:

LONGLINES
Longlines: automation of operations
Marking bouys and anchors; for nets, traps and lines

■ On the surface

NETS, TRAPS, LINES


■ On the bottom

■ Some types of anchors


Dredges
DREDGES

■ Characteristics ■ Power required


Rigid fishing gear for pulling over 1 hp per 2 kg of dredge
the bottom (types for soft bottom,
types for very hard bottom) ■ Towing cable
(one)
Sizes (usually the width is less
than 2 m, exceptionally up to 5 m) ■ Amount of warp
Height is always less than 0.5 m depends on the depth
Heavy (to scrape the bottom) of water and the
speed
■ Examples of differ
ent types (The warp paid out will need
to be increased with the
speed). In general, 3 to 3.5 x
Industrial shellfish dredge depth (at 2-2.5 knots)
Weight 500-1000 kg
■ Speed of dredging :
2 to 2.5 knots
■ Rigging, some
examples

Dredge for small fish


Weight: 30 kg

Dredge with teeth, on the lower


edge of the frame and with
depressor flap on the upper
edge Weight 70-100 kg

Rigid dredge with


teeth for venus clam
Weight: 200-300 kg

Dredge without bag for whelks.


The shells entangle in the netting
Weight: 20-25 kg
Shellfish rake
Fishing with light

LIGHT
■ Conditions which favour fishing with light ■ Resistance of electric cables
Not Average Favoura Running lamps with low voltages (for
favourable ble example, 12-24 V) may involve significant
power losses through conducting wires.
Colour of the Brown- Yellow- Green- Therefore, wires used with low voltages
Sea yellow Green Blue should be thicker than those needed for
higher voltages.
Transparency
0 to 5 5 to 10 10 to 30
(visibility m) Resistance to a continuous current (in
ohms/km) in a copper conductor is a
Moon phase Full - New
function of the cross section area of the
2
Current Strong to Medium to None cable (mm ).
Medium Weak

■ Type of Lamp and utilization


Petrol (gasoline) Electric
or liquified gas
Advantages inexpensive easy effective above
to maintain and the surface or in
use the water
Disadvantages fragile expensive
used only above heavy bulky
batteries or
the water generators

It is better to use several lights of moderate intensity,


sufficiently spaced apart, rather than a single light of
strong intensity.
When a lamp.is mounted above the surface, only half From Ben-Yami, 1976. Fishing with light.
its light effectively penetrates the water, due to reflec- FAO Fishing Manuals, Fishing News
tion from the surface. (Books), Oxford.
Characteristics of echo-sounders
ECHO - SOUNDERS

Depth Range
Frequency Common frequencies are 30-400 KHz
High Frequency Echo-sounders Low Frequency Echo-sounders
(100 to 400 kHz) (50 kHz or less)

Common use shallow water deep water


Width of Beam narrow wide
Precision very good less precise
Size of transducer small large
Usual Use fish detection navigation

Electric supply required on the vessel (voltage, power)


If the echosounder's power supply is a bit weak, its performance will be poor.
The type of display may be lamp display (flasher), paper (chart recorder), or colour screen.
Paper display Television type display
(dry, black and white) (colour)
Advantages paper record may be kept different colours may
indicate very small
differences in strengths of
Disadvantages differentiation of different echo echoes
strengths is limited (shades of no memory or limited
black and grey) cost of Recording memory, but note that
Paper recording equipment is now
available

■ Other predetermined characteristics


Wavelength (m) = 1500/frequency (Hz)
The smaller the wavelength the greater the precision of detection.
Pulse length :
Short 0.1 to 1 millisecond
Long more than 2 milliseconds
The shorter the pulse length, the greater the precision but, in fact, this is
predetermined according to the frequency and the depth of sounding.
Beam-width :
Wide : 20 to 30 degrees
Narrow : 4 to 10 degrees
Output power ranges from 100 to 5000 watts.
The greater the power, the better will be the strength and precision of
detection.
Choice of an echo-sounder according to the application

ECHO – SOUNDERS
Navigation echosounder Fish-finding echosounder
Depth of Water Frequency 20-100 kHz Frequency 100-400 kHz
Limited to 100 m Beamwidth 10-20 degrees Beamwidth 4-15 degrees
Output Power less than 1 kW Output Power around 1 kW

Pulse length less than Pulse length less than


1 millisecond 1 millisecond
Usually with TVG and
Flasher display may be whiteline
sufficient
Deeper Water Frequency 10-20 kHz Frequency 30-50 kHz
Beamwidth 4-10 degrees Beamwidth 4-10 degrees
Output Power 5 -10 Kw Output Power 5-10 kW
depending on depth depending on depth
Pulse length greater than Pulse length 1-2
2 milliseconds milliseconds, with TVG and
whiteline
Winches and net drums
DECK EQUIPMENT
■ Power required

where
P = actual power of winch or hauler (HP)
F = pulling force needed (kgf)
v = speed of hauling needed (m/s)
When estimating the engine power required to
produce the actual power at the winch, it is
necessary to add 25% for power loss through
mechanical transmission, or 100% for hydraulic
transmission. For example, if actual winch
power (P) of 10 HP is required and transmission
is mechanical, then 12.5 HP engine power will
be needed to produce this.
■ Turning speed required

■ At a constant drum diameter, the


where pulling force available decreases
as speed increases
R = turning speed of winch or hauler (RPM)
v = speed of hauling required (m/min) Work done by drum = pull x speed = constant
Ø = diameter of full drum (mm) Example:
■ At a constant hauling speed, pulling force pull at mid-drum at 1 m/s : 1.6 t
available decreases as a drum fills pull at mid-drum at 1.6 m/s : 1.0 t
(1.6 t x 1 m/s = 1.0 t x 1.6 m/s)
Pulling force
■ Tension on the material being
hauled

The torque of the drum is constant (at 5, in the


example in next column).
where
T = tension on the material (kgf)
P = power of the winch or hauler (HP)
v — speed of hauling (m/s)
Note : Main characteristics of a winch or drum are
the dimensions, the capacity and the pulling force
(in tonnes force or in daN; see pages 150.
152)
purse seine winches and drums

DECK EQUIPMENT
The pulling force of the purse line winch required for a seine of given weight can be
estimated by the following formula :
F = 4/3 (Wn/2 + Wr + Ws)
where :
F = pulling force of the winch (tf, tons force)
Wn = weight in air of the netting (t, tons)
Wr = weight in air of the footrope and purse rings (†)
Ws = weight in air of the ballast on the footrope (†)
Characteristics of some purse line winches in use (after Brissonneau and Lotz)

Drum Capacity
Vessel No. Cable Length Pull (†) Speed (m/s) P(HP)*
Length (m) Drums Ø (mm) (m) (bare drum) (bare drum)
20 2 15.4 1300 8 0.5 44

20-25 2 15.4 1800 11 0.42 70

25-30 2 17.6 1800 17 0.37 100

30-40 3 17.6 1800 21 0.30

17.6 800 21 0.30 100

17.6 600 21 0.30

45-60 3 20 2220 27 0.35

20 975 27 0.35 150

20 975 24.5 0.35

60-75 3 22 2420 27 0.35

22 1120 27 0.35 300

22 1120 24.8 0.35

■ Seine drums
some examples

width of drum inside flanges (m) 3.00 3.90

flange diameter (m) 2.45 2.44

drum diameter (m) 0.6 0.45

Seine dimensions:
hung length x stretched height (m) 360 x 30 450 x 64

stretched meshsize (mm) 32


(centre section)
twine size (centre section, Rtex) 376

* Power (HP) = 1.36 x Power (kW)


DECK EQUIPMENT Trawl winches

Power* of Power of Capacity of drums hauling speed Pull at


trawler(HP) winch(HP) (m/sec) mid-drum (kg)
drums combined
Length(m) Ø of
wire(mm)
50-75 200 6.3 500-750
100 25 700 10.5 1.00 900
200 40 1000 12.0 1.20 1600
300 60 1250 13.5 1.35 2500
400 80 1350 15.0 1.40 3500
500 120 2100 16.5 1.50 4500
700-800 165 2000 19.5 1.50 6500

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP), see page 95 Power in (HP] = 1.36 x Power
in (kW)

At constant drum RPM, pull x diameter ■ Dimensions


= constant; thus, — Diameter of the bare drum : about 14 to 20
times the diameter of the warp.
— Depth of drum(A - B): at least
2
equal to the diameter of the bare drum
■ Capacity of a winch drum
— With automatic spooling (level-
wind) and drum dimensions given
■ Performance above, If L = length (m) of warp, and
0 = diameter (mm) of warp :

— Maximum Pull : At the most, equal to


1/3 the breaking strength of the warp.
In order to haul the trawl the winch has to
develop more power than tha' which is exerted
in towing the trawl.
The pull of the winch at mid-drum should be at
least 80% of the maximum bollard pull of the — Manual spooling reduces this capacity by
vessel. It is best to use the formula : about 10%.

Pull of the winch (at mid-drum) Note : Tolerances must be taken into account when
= 1.3 x pull of the trawler accessories (i.e. chains, shackles) swivels] are hauled
on with the warps.
Trawl net drums

DECK EQUIPMENT
■ Capacity of a drum Pull B average
(tonnes) (mm)
Usable volume of drum
3 2 2
(m ) = 3 x C x (A - B ] <3 240
5-8 300
8-13 450
20-30 600

Thus, A and C will be chosen depending on the type of net,


use of the drum (storage and/or hauling) the volume of the
net, and deck space available.
■ Pulling force
In order to maintain the speed of hauling, the pull of the net
Note : The volume of a trawl (V) con be drum at bare drum should be at least equal to the pull of
estimated from its weight W: midwater trawl the winch at full drum.
V (cubic m) = 3.5 X W (tonnes) bottom trawl ■ Hauling speed is generally great
V (cubic m) = 4.0 x W (tonnes) er than or equal to 30 m/min.
Note : when sweeps and/or the bridles of A few guidelines:
combination rope are to be reeled onto the Note that for a given capacity, the pulling force and speed
drum with the net, their volume must be taken may vary a great deal, according to the strain on the winch.
into account. The same is true for the floats,
ballast, sinker chain and bobbins.
■ Main dimensions Vessel Capac Weig Pull (t) Speed Weight
horsep ity ht (bare (m/min) of
For a given application (requiring a [certain
ower (cubic of net drum) Drum
pull, speed and capacity) there may be
m) (kg) (t)
several alternatives to choose from.
100 0.5 120
200 1 250
300 1.5 400 1-1.2
400 2 550 2-4 10 1.5

500 2.5 700


600 3 800 6-10 13.5 1.7-1.8
700 3.5 1000
800 4 1100 7-12 17 2-2.5

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal


The bare drum diameter B generally does not Power (ANP), see page 95
vary much for a given pull. Power in (HP) = 1.36 x Power in (kW)
Power block
DECK EQUIPMENT
■ Choice of model

Capacity Pull
The netting should fill only the groove
(circumference tonnes
(throat) of the power block. The model is
chosen according to the circumference of of net, mm)
the seine gathered together, estimated by
two different methods : 500-800 0.5-1.5
(1) Direct measurement — take the 800-1100 1.0-2.0
leadline with the floatline to form a
large bundle with the netting and 1100-1800 3.0-5.0
measure the circumference of the 1800-2500 6.0-8.0
bundle with a piece of twine,
passing it between the leads and
the floats. ■ Performance of power blocks in common
use according to the size of the vessel

Seiner Pull Speed Power


length (tonnes) .. (m/min) (HP*)
(m)
9-12 0.5-1.0 30-40 8-16
■ Pull available 12-24 1.0-1.5 30-40 13-20
The power block should be capable of 18-30 2 40-50 30-45
pulling 20% to 50% of the total weight of the
net (in air), at speeds of between 30 m/min 24-39 4 40-50 60-85
for a small seiner to 80 m/min for a larger
24-34 5 40-70 80-150
seiner.
Values of pulling force available at mid- 30-75 6-7 40-90 90-220
diameter for power blocks of different
capacities in common use. * Power in (HP) = 1.36 x power in (kW)
Net haulers: some examples

DECK EQUIPMENT
Other than power blocks (page 130)

Hauling with a net drum Hauling with a net drum crossing two 'shakers'
Line haulers
DECK EQUIPMENT
■ Hauler (gurdy) for trolling ■ Haulers for vertical lines, ■ Haulers for long-lines
lines jigging machine
pot/trap haulers

DECK EQUIPMENT
■ Hydraulic pot hauler

■ Pot hauler powered by outboard motor


Haulers for nets, lines and traps: performance of common types
DECK EQUIPMENT

Note : within the power limits of the engine (constant torque) :


pulling force
as speed V F decreases F x V = constant =
At the hauler:
increases, (the inverse power of hauler
is also true
Pulling force
as drum
F increases
diameter F x Ø = constant
(the inverse
decreases,
is also true)

Longline haulers ■ Net haulers : the following pertain to a few


For longlines up to about 30 km long, with types in common use.
relatively short branchlines (5 m or less), the
following pertain to a few types in common use.
Vessel Depth of Pull Speed of
Length Water (kg) Hauling
(m) (m) (m/min)
5-10 < 100 150-300 20-35
10-15 <200 200-500 25-45
15-20 300 > 500-900 50-70
Vessel Ø Line Pull Speed of
Length (mm) (kg) Hauling
(m) (m/min)
<10 <6 200-300 20-40
10-15 6-12 300-400 60
15-20 8-16 500-700 70
■ Pot/trap haulers
Performance is very variable depending on the
For drifting midwater longlines (i.e. Japanese-type model, and comparable to that of line haulers
longlines for tuna), length is of the order of 100 and net haulers, except for the existence of
km, with snoods spaced 50 m or more apart. models with pulling force greater than 1000 kg
(1000, 1350, 1500 kg) and higher hauling
speeds.
Vessel Speed of
Tonnage hauling
(m/min)
10 70-80
20 70-90
40 150-210
100 > 180-260
Fuel consumption of engine, speed of vessel

PROPULSION
■ Fuel consumption of the engine — Consumption of lubricating oil =
1 to 3% (in litres) of fuel consumption
Specific consumption of fuel depending on the
type of engine ■ Maximum Economic Speed (Critical Speed)
This is related to the length of the vessel at the
waterline.
Engine Density of Consumptio
— for a displacement vessel, this
fuel n
in speed, V, can be estimated as
g/hp/hour follows :

2-stroke petrol 0.72 400-500


2-stroke petrol
(improved) 0.72 300-400
4-stroke petrol 0.72 220-270
Diesel 0.84 170-200
Diesel * petrol = gasoline
(turbo-charged) 0.84 155-180

— Consumption of fuel by an engine during a


given period of time :
C = 0.75 x P(max) x (S/d) x † x 0.001
where
0.75 is an average coefficient; free running it is
between 0.7 and 0.8 and when fishing 0.5 to 0.8
C = consumption (in litres)
P(max) = maximum power of engine in HP
S = specific consumption of
fuel in grams/HP/hour
d = density of fuel
† = time of use of engine in
hours
Note : time can be replaced with
distance covered in miles
speed in knots
Approximation :
Annual consumption of a trawler =
1000 litres/HP/year
Ice, capacity of holds and tanks, fresh water
FISH HOLD, TANKS
■ Quantity of ice required
3
(1 m of ice weighs a round 900 kg)
— In temperate waters : 1 ton of ice for 2 tons of fish (kept for more than a
week)
0.7 ton of ice for 2 tons of fish (kept for less than a week)
— In tropical waters :1 ton of ice for 1 ton of fish
These quantities may be reduced by 30 to 50% if the hold is refrigerated.

■ Capacity of the hold in kg of fish stowing rate


Material Method of stowing 3
or crustacea per m
3 kg/m

Taking into account the shape of the Ice Crushed 550


hold and arrangement for stowage,
Ice Flake 420-480
the real capacity of a hold will reflect
a stowing rate 10-20% less than the Small fish(eg sardine) Without Ice 800-900
figures shown here.
Small fish(eg sardine) In bulk with ice 650
Small fish (eg sardine) In chilled sea water 700
Average to large fish In bulk with ice 500
Average to large fish In boxes with ice 350
Average to large fish Frozen whole 500
Average to large fish Fresh or frozen fillets 900-950
Tailed shrimp Frozen in blocks 700-800
Tuna Frozen in bulk 600

■ Capacity of a live tank or well


3
Crustacea in well or tank on board : 120-200 kg of Crustacea per m of tank (Note : adequate water
circulation is essential)
3
Crustacea in cage or 'car' set in sea : 400 kg of Crustacea per m of cage Live bait well : 30/50 kg of
3
bait per m (water renewed 6 to 8 times per hour)
■ Consumption of fresh water, minimum allowance to plan :
vessel length 10 m : 10 to 15 litres of water per person per day
20 m : 20 to 25 litres of water per person per day
30 m : 30 litres of water per person per day
Bait: quantity required

BAIT
■ Longiine
Bait type Quantity (in kg) per
The quantity of bait required obviously 100 hooks
depends on the bait type, target
species and type of longiine. The Sandeel, Sardine 2.5-3
figures here are rough estimates Mackerel, Horse mackerel 5-6
taken from examples in use. Needlefish (for drifting longiine) 10

If mackerel is used as bait, the


following estimates may be given.
Target species Weight of bait (g)
per hook

Whiting 20-25
Small sharks, cod, rays 40-60
Large sharks 200 - 300
Swordfish 100 to 450

■ Live bait for tuna


In planning to catch in the order of 10 to 30 † of tuna, reckon on 1 † of bait (the proportion will
increase a little with the tonnage of the vessel).
Speed of operation
OPERATIONS ■ Longlining (manual operation ■ Purse seining
aided only by a line hauler)
Shooting the seine usually takes 2-5 min
— Bottom longline
Speed of pursing :
number of hooks per man per day : 500-1000
speed of baiting : 2-4 hooks/min/man
speed of shooting (coastal) : 50-150 m/min Length of purse seine Duration (mins)
(m)
speed of shooting (deep-water) : 200-300 m/min
300 7-10
speed of hauling (coastal) : 15-40 m/min
800 10-15
speed of hauling (deep-water) : 60 m/min 1200-1400 15-25
— Midwater drifting longline
(tuna type)
Speed of hauling with power block :
speed of shooting : 400-600 m/min or 500
hooks/h
speed of hauling : 200 hooks/h at 3-5 knots Length of purse seine Duration (mins)
(m)
■ Gillnetting
300 20-25
Length of net per man per day : 500-1000 m
800 40-60
speed of shooting : 6000-9000 m/h 1200-1400 60-100
speed of hauling : 700-1500 m/h

Loading or broiling may take several hours


depending on the catch.
■ Trawling
The amount of time needed to shoot and haul
the warps depends on the depth. Shooting the
rest of the gear (doors, sweeps, bridles, net)
may take 5-15 min. Hauling may take 15-25
min (excluding warps).
Bookkeeping

BOOKKEEPING
■ Rules Keep these two accounts well separated, preferably in two
separate books.
— Keep a record of all expenses
and receipts (1) A book for the accounts of the crew, skipper included

— Take a lot of care in organising


and classifying records
— Check accounts very regularly Date Transaction # Grass Joint Expenses
Receipts
from sale
and fish

■ Keeping and presenting accounts (several columns for


different expenses)
— The methods of settling and pre-
sentation of the accounts depend on the
habits and traditions of local fishermen,
which will determine the following :
— Particular costs are defined as joint
expenses (fuel, ice, food etc.) or boat
expenses (vessel maintenance, renting of
equipment, etc.).
— Income from the catch is divided to pay
certain expenses, as well as the labour
share (crew share) and the boat share; This will help with calculation of crew payments.
these proportions vary among different
fisheries. (2) A book for the boat's accounts (accounts of the company)

— Division of the labour share among the


crew may depend on individual Date Transaction # Expenses charged to the Owners
responsibilities, amount of experience, etc.
(several columns for different
expenses)

NEVER mix the payment of the


skipper with the boat's accounts,
which are the accounts of the
company or owner (even if the
skipper is the owner).

This will help with calculation of the boat's net income.


— Gross receipts - joint expenses = net receipts
— Net receipts are divided into labour share and boat
share
— The labour share is divided among the crew according to
the contract (calculated every week or after each trip)
The boat share - boat expenses = gross profit (calculated
on an annua! basis)
Bookkeeping (continued)
BOOKKEEPING
There is a net profit only if the gross profit is greater — Examples of amortisation
than the sum of interest on loans plus amortisation of periods :
equipment.
new hull 10-15 years
Table of loan repayment motor 1 -4 years
Amortisation is the cost associated with the loss of navigation equipment 5 years
value, (through use, wearing out) of the outfitting and fishing gear 3 years
investment
— 2 types :
(vessel, motor, etc.). Depreciation is a related term
which is used more commonly. When money for (1) linear depreciation :
replacement of equipment (which is wearing out) is value of the purchase
set aside and considered a cost, this may be called duration of amortisation
amortisation, and the amount set aside should be
equal to the depreciation (anticipated loss of value) of (2) accelerated depreciation : re
the equipment. During normal periods while the sidual value X depreciation rate
amortisation is calculated, it is not represented by — The sum of the amortisation
actual payments of money; the money associated allotments should equal the actual
with amortisation costs is actually available, but purchase price of the equipment. All
should be set aside for replacement of vessel and equipment should be amortised
equipment, as this eventually becomes necessary. during the period in which it is
actually used.
■ Keeping accounting records
• gross receipts = sum of (joint expenses + crew
shares + boat expenses)
• money available at year-end = [money available on
January 1 (cash + savings) + gross profits (before
taxes) + amortisation]
Example of accounts in a situation where the boat
and crew split 50/50:

joint expenses boat expenses


date record receip tax fuel oil ice fishing food crew boat taxes rent maint gross
# ts on gear share share for &
of trip profit
(sales sales equip. repair
) s

Jan 9 1000 50 150 50 20 30 60 320 320 32 288

Jan 12 300 15 180 15 50 20 20 2 30 85 97

Jan 15 600 30 140 20 45 65 150 150 15 135

Jan 23 1200 60 200 20 30 50 420 420 42 150 228

receipts from sales-joint expenses boat boat expenses gross


share profit
=net receipts
Local fisheries regulations and data

REGULATIONS
Use this blank page for records of local fisheries regulations and other useful local information.
Units of length

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
1 metre (m) = 10 decimetres (dm) = 100 centimetres
(cm) = 1000 millimetres (mm)
1 kilometre (km) = 1000 metres (m)
1 nautical mile = 1852 (m)
1 cable = 185 m
1 fathom = 1.83 m

Conversions between metric and


Anglo-American units ►
• 1 mm = 0.04 inch (in) or (")

1 cm = 0.4 inch (in) or (")


1 cm = 0.03 foot (ft) or ('}
1m = 3.3 feet (ft) or (')
1m = 1.09 yards (yd)
1m = 0.55 fathom (fm)
1 km = 0.54 nautical mile (nm)
1 km = 0.62 statute mile

• 1 in = 25.4 mm

1 in = 2.54 cm
1 ft = 30.5 cm
1ft = 0.3 m
1 yd = 0.9 m
1 fm = 1.83 m
1 nautical mile = 1.85 km
1 statute mile = 1609 m

Quick approximations ► 10 cm ~ 4 in
30 cm ~ 1 ft
1m ~ 40 in
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Units of area

2 2
1 square metre (m ) = 100 square decimetres (dm )
2
= 10000 square centimetres (cm )
2
= 1 000000 square millimetres (mm )
2 2
1 square kilometre (km ) = 1 000 000 m
2
1 are (a) = 100 m
2
1 hectare (ha) = 10000 m

 Conversions between metric and


Anglo-American units
2 2
• 1 mm = 0.0015 in
2 2
1 cm = 0.15 in
2 2
1m = 10.7 ft
1 ha = 2.47 acres

2 2
• 1 in = 645 mm
2 2
1 in = 6.45 cm
2 2
1ft = 0.09 m
1 acre = 0.4 ha

2 2
10 cm b ~ 1.5 in  Quick approximations
2 2
1 dm ~ 15 in
2 2
1m ~ 11 ft
2 2
10 m ~ 12 yd
Units of volume, capacity

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
3 3
1 cubic metre (m ) = 1000 cubic decimetres (dm ) = 1 000000
3
cubic centimetres (cm )
3
1 litre (1) = 1000 cubic centimetres (cm ) = 1 cubic
3
decimetre (dm )
3
1 cubic metre (m ) = 1000 litres (1)

Conversions between metric and


Anglo-American units ► 3 3
• 1 cm 0.06 in
3 3
1 dm = 0.03 ft
3 3
1m = 35.3 ft
3 3
1m = 1.3 yd
1I = 0.22 gallon (gal)
1I = 0.26 US gallon
1I = 1.75 pints
1I = 2.1 US pints

3 3
• 1 in 16.4 cm
3 3
1 ft = 28.3 dm
3 3
1 ft = 0.03 m
3 3
1 yd = 0.76 m
1 gal = 4.5 I
1 US gal = 3.8 I
1 pint = 0.57 I
1 US pint = 0.47 I

Quick approximations ► 9I ~ 2 gal


3 3
1m ~ 35 ft
Units of mass, weight and force
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

■ Mass and weight


1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams
1 tonne or metric ton (†) = 1000 kilograms

 Conversions between metric and


Anglo-American units
• 1g = 0.03 ounce (oz)
1 kg = 2.2 pounds (lb)
1 kg = 0.02 hundred weight (cwt)
1t = 0.98 (long) ton

• 1 oz = 28.3 g
1 lb = 0.45 kg
1 cwt = 50.8 kg
1 (Ion g)t = 1.01 t

10 kg ~ 22 lb  Quick approximations
50 kg ~ 1 cwt

■ Force
1 kilogram-force (kgf) = 1000 gram-force (gf) 1
kilogram-force (kgf) = 9.81 newtons (N) 1 decanewton
(daN) = 10 newtons (N)

1 kgf ~ 1 daN  Quick approximations


Units of pressure, power, light and sound

∎ Pressure

1 atmosphere (Atm) = 1 kgf/cm2 = 101 kN/m2


~ 1 bar ~ 100000 Pascals (Pa)
~ 1013 millibars (mb)
1 millibar (mb) = 100 N/m2 = 100 Pa
1 kgf/m2 = 9.81 N/m2
1 pound per square inch
= 689 mb
(PSI)
• 1 kg / mm 2 = 1 422 PSI ◄
Conversions
between
metric and
1 PSI = 0.0007 kg / mm 2 Anglo-
American
units

∎ Power

Power = force x speed


1 horsepower (HP) = 75 kg x m/s
1 kilowatt (kW) = 1.34 Hp
1 HP = 0.74 Kw

∎ Light

The international unit which describes light intensity is the candela (cd).

Illumination (E) is described in terms of units called lux (Lx).

Illumination varies inversely with the square of the distance from the light source; that is, illumination
decreases quickly as the light source draws farther away.

where r = distance from light source in metres

∎ Sound

The speed of sound in water is approximately 1500 m/s.


Units of speed

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
1 metre per second (m/s)
1 knot (kn) = 1 nautical mile per hour* = 1852 m/h = 0.51 m/s
■ Speed of a vessel

kn ~ m/s ~ km/h kn ~ m/s ~ km/h


0.5 0.3 0.9 8 4.1 14.8
1 0.5 1.8 8.5 4.4 15.7
1,5 0.8 2.8 9 4.6 16.7
2 1.0 3.7 9.5 4.9 17.6
2.5 1.3 4.6 10 5.1 18.5
3 1.5 5.6 10.5 5.4 19.4
3.5 1.8 6.5 11 5.7 20.4
4 2.1 7.4 11.5 5.9 21.3
4.5 2.3 8.3 12 6.2 22.2
5 2.6 9.3 12.5 6.4 23.1
5.5 2.8 10.2 13 6.7 24.1
6 3.1 11.1 13.5 6.9 25
6.5 3.3 12 14 7.2 25.9
7 3.6 13 14.5 7.5 26.9
7.5 3.9 13.9 15 7.7 27.8

Quick approximations Examples : 10 knots is ab/ou equivalent to :

* Note : in some countries, the distances may be measured in 'statute miles', sometimes referred to
simply as 'miles'.
I statute mile = 1609 m = 0.87 nautical mile
Units of temperature

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
-20 -29.8 -30 -22
-10 -23.3 -20 -4
0 - 17.8 - 10 14
10 - 12.2 0 32
20 -6.7 10 50
30 - 1.1 20 68
40 4.4 30 86
50 10.0 40 104
60 15.6 50 122
70 24.1 60 140
80 26.7 70 158
90 32.2 80 176
100 37.8 90 194
110 43.3 100 212
120 48.9
130 54.4
140 60.0
150 65.6
160 71.1
170 76.7
180 27.9
190 87.8
200 93.3
210 98.9
Conversion of kW to HP, and HP to kW
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

kW HP HP kW
0.2 0.3 0.5 0.4
0.4 0.5 1 0.7
0.6 0.8 2 1.5
0.8 1.1 3 2..2
1 1.4 4 2.9
2 2.7 5 3.7
4 5.4 6 4.4
6 8.2 8 5.9
8 10.9 10 7.4
10 14 20 15
20 27 30 22
30 41 40 29
40 54 60 44
50 68 80 59
60 82 100 74
70 95 200 147
80 109 300 221
90 122 400 294
100 136 500 368
200 272 600 442
300 408 700 515
400 544 800 589
500 680 900 662
600 816 1 000 736
700 952 1 200 883
800 1 088 1 400 1 030
900 1 224 1 600 1 178
1 000 1 360 1 800 1 325
1 100 1 496 2 000 1 472
1 200 1 632
1 300 1 768
1 400 1 904
1 500 2 040
Area

FORMULAE
Area, circumference
FORMULAE
Area, volume

FORMULAE
FORMULAE Pressure underwater

Depth (m) Hydrostatic pressure


kgf/cm or atmospheres
0 1
10 2 or 1 + 1
20 3 or 2 + 1
40 5 or 4 + 1
50 6 or 5 + 1
60 7 or 6 + 1
100 11 or 10 + 1
200 21 or 20 + 1
300 31 or 30 + 1
400 41 or 40 + 1
500 51 or 50+ 1
1 000 101 or 100 + 1

2
Pressure (kgf/cm ) = 0.1 x depth (m) + 1

3
(specific gravity of water 0.001 kgf/cm )
Gravity and buoyancy

FORMULAE
Ga (kgf) = weight of a body in air
3 3
Ga (kgf) = volume of the body (m ) x d (specific gravity of the body ii kgf/m )
F (kgf) = buoyant force
3 3
F (kgf) = volume of the body (m ) x dw (specific gravity of water i kgf/m )
Gw (kgf) = weight of the body in water
Gw (kgf) = weight of the body in air (kgf) — buoyant force (kgf)
Gw (kgf) = Ga - F
Gw (kgf) = Ga (1 - 1/d) [for salt water Gw (kgf) = Ga (1 - 1.02/d)]

Buoyantforce is greater than the Buoyant force is equal to the Buoyant force is less than the
weight of the body in air. weight of the body in air. weight of the body in air.
The difference [weight of the The difference [weight of the The difference [weight of the
body in air -buoyant force] is body in air -buoyant force] is body in air -buoyant force] is
negative. zero. positive.
The body (1) floats. The body (2) has neu-tral The body (3) sinks.
buoyancy.
FORMULAE Square roots of numbers from 0 to 499

Extracted from Statisfique et probabilité from the collection Aide-Mémoire TECHNOR, doc. 15 and 16,
Delagrave 1985. With permission of the editor.
Square roots of numbers from 500 to 999

FORMULAE
Check list of specifications to order fishing equipment

ORDERING EQUIPMENT
■ Essential data for suppliers
N.B. If you are uncertain of the precise details for the specification, give the manufacturer full details of the
vessel, method and intended use and let him suggest the particular size. Much money and time is wasted
foolishly specifying much too large a unit, e.g. '10 ton' winch or '100 mesh deep' gillnet.

■ Fishing gear and accessories

Accessories, Small : Intended use and in particular nature and resis- tance of elements
(swivel, clasp) placed each side

or from the catalogue (give the name of the supplier) : trade name
of model, size number, resistance

a quantity required bearing in mind the handling and selling


procedure used by the supplier (box of pieces)

Buoy : Intended use ; marker buoy, mooring buoy,


anchor buoy, protecting buoy, seine buoy, etc.
— any mechanical constraints (e.g. crushing,
passage for example through a power block)
□ form : as precise a description as possible, with drawing showing
clearly the mooring points, reinforced connectors, central axis
(diameter of marking mast to be set)
□ desired buoyancy or volume (in litres)
□ number of buoys, bearing in mind the packaging and
selling procedure used by the supplier (number per box)

Float : Intended use : float for trawl, gillnet, seine, etc.


— any mechanical constraints (crushing during
manoeuvres on a drum or a hauler, etc.) —
maximum depth of use
□ material, shape, central hole or attachment point(s), etc.
□ unit buoyancy or exact size
□ quantity required bearing in mind the handling
and selling procedure used by the supplier (num
ber per box)

Fish hook : According to the supplier's catalogue (give the


name of the supplier) : name, number(s) of the model and size
number chosen,
Fishing gear and accessories (continued)
ORDERING EQUIPMENT

or
accurate drawing of hook, full-sized
or
use : trolling or rod fishing or handline fishing or bngline fishing
— expected species sought and average size
□ single, double or triple
□ normal or forged
□ normal finish, tinned, galvanised or stainless steel
□ kirbed or reversed bend
□ extremity of hook shank : flatted or eye type
□ with or without lure : description
□ with or without barb
□ possibly with swivel incorporated
□ opening of hook, gap (distance point — shank)
□ long or short shank
□ throat (or depth of the hook)
□ quantity desired, bearing in mind the packaging and selling
procedure used by the supplier (box of x hooks)

Gillnet, mounted : The list of data to be supplied will depend on the


supplier's skill and experience in mounting gillnets.
Give a detailed drawing
or
intended used on the bottom : hard or soft bottom; or in
midwater; drifting; waters often rough or fairly calm.
— species to be fished
— handling : type of hauler
— method of ranging on board
— volume of expected catch
□ mesh size (size of the bar or stretched mesh to be specified)
or, for trommel nets, mesh size of inside net and outside panels.
□ nature of twine : twisted multifilament or mono
filament or multimonofilament
Fishing gear and accessories (continued)

ORDERING EQUIPMENT
□ twine material and twine size
□ possibly height of net when hung or stretched net; or number of
meshes deep
□ number and type of floats and sinkers
□ possibly colour
□ hanging ratio
□ length of mounted net

Net webbing : (trade) name of textile


□ twisted (direction of twist: right or left); braided, monofilament
or multimonofilament
□ size of the twine (in R tex or m/kg or denier or diameter)
□ colour
□ mesh size, in specified size of mesh bar, or stretched mesh
or mesh opening
□ knotted or knotless netting (intended use)
□ for knotted netting : simple or double knot
□ dimensions of netting :
— length of stretched net or number of meshes
— depth of stretched net or number of meshes
□ simple selvedge or double row or double mesh
□ placing of selvedges : at top and bottom of netting or along the
sides
□ if necessary, treatment (impregnation) of netting

Purse seine. The list of data to be supplied will depend on the


mounted : supplier's skill and experience in mounting seines.
Give a detailed drawing
or
minimum specifications
Intended use :
— length or tonnage of seine boat and winch power
— species to be fished, depth of fish and/or water depth
□ mesh size (body and bunt with specifications of mesh bar or
stretched mesh)
Fishing gear and accessories (continued)
ORDERING EQUIPMENT

□ length when hung (with indication of the hanging ratio along the
floatline for each part of the seine)
□ depth with stretched net (seine fully hung, in
cluding border strips or selvedges)
□ position and dimensions (width, depth) of bunt
□ form of wings
□ type of purse rings
□ number and buoyancy of the floats
□ weight of the ballast on the leadline (type of ballast : lead or
chain)

Rope, combination (trade) name of textile or composition (fibre syn-


rope : thetic and/or natural and/or steel, with or without
core)
□ braided or twisted (if possible, direction of twist — Z o r S )
□ if possible, breaking strength required
□ size of the rope : diameter (or circumference)
□ colour
□ natural or treated
□ length
intended use of rope — exposure to sunlight; wear

Trawl board : Type of board (which implies : use on the bottom or


in midwater, material, shape, main characteristics)
□ power of trawler
a length, height and weight of board
□ quantity : the pair or the port board or the
starboard board.
□ special requirements for backstrop fastening or brackets
adjustments or eye for lifting, etc.

Trawl, mounted : The list of data to be supplied will depend on the


supplier's skill and experience in mounting trawls
□ trade name of a model considered to be typical and well known
(e.g. size of opening lines followed or preceded by a trade name
coded in letters and/or figures),
Fishing gear and accessories (continued)

ORDERING EQUIPMENT
or give a detailed drawing
or specify bottom trawl or high-opening bottom trawl, 2, 4 or
more panels or pelagic trawl for one or two boats (pair trawl)
□ intended use : power of trawler(s), species to be fished, for
trawls in contact with the bottom : relationship of species fished
with the bottom, nature of bottom, average trawling speed
□ mesh size(s) (size of the bar or stretched mesh to be
specified) in the fore part
□ mesh size(s) (size of the bar or stretched mesh to be specified
in the aft part)
□ possibly material and twine size desired
□ possibly length of headline and footrope
□ nature, diameter and mounting of groundrope
□ codend
— mesh size expressed in inside opening of the
mesh (regulations in force) or size of the bar or
stretched mesh
— length, stretched net
— possibly width
— possibly reinforcements (lines, beckets)
— strop, splitting strap
□ possibly characteristics of the codend chafer or the double
protection codend
□ list of any accessories to be supplied with the trawl(s) and
characteristics (rigging, shackles, swivels, hooks, etc.)

Twine, in spool : (trade) name of texile (or usual abbreviation, PA,


PE, etc.)
□ twisted or braided, or monofilament or multi-monofilament
□ size of the twine (in R tex or m/kg or denier, or diameter)
□ breaking strength required
□ colour
□ natural or treated
Fishing gear and accessories (continued)
ORDERING EQUIPMENT

□ quantity (weight of one spool or twine length


on it, number of spools)

Warp : Intended use and desired flexibility

□ length □ diameter
□ composition : number of wires and fibres, with
or without core
□ finish : galvanised or not (black or bright) or stainless stee

□ required breaking strength

□ right or left laid

□ preparation of ends

□ delivered in coils or on wooden reel


Deck equipment

ORDERING EQUIPMENT
Drum, for net or line : Intended use : for trawl, seine, gillnet or longline
□ pulling power required
□ desired winding speed (with corresponding
pull)
□ capacity :
— for a trawl, seine or gillnet drum : estimated volume of net(s)
with any accessories (floats, groundrope, chain, various
sinkers, shackle, etc.)
— for a longline drum (storage of main line) : length and
diameter of line; type of line, multifilament or monofilament
□ possibly, in order to avoid crowding the deck :
maximum overall dimensions
□ source of power (main engine, auxiliary, PTO)
□ means of power transmission

Hauler, for net. Intended use : gillnets or lines or pots hauler


line or pot: — tonnage and possibly size of boat
— average depth of use
— best catches expected (expressed in weight) for a given
length of gear
— average sea conditions
□ pull and desired winding speed
□ for line and pot hauler : diameter of main line
□ for net hauler : height of gillnet(s) used, type of floats and
sinkers
— possibly form of groove or throat preferred
□ axle of hauler : vertical or horizontal
□ source of power (main engine, auxiliary, PTO)
□ means of power transmission

Power block : Intended use :


— tonnage and size of seiner
— circumference of bunched seine when floatline and leadline
have been joined
or, failing this, greatest height of seine (towards mid-length)
expressed in number of meshes and twine size
Deck equipment (continued)
ORDERING EQUIPMENT

□ means of power transmission


□ possibly pull and hauling speed required

Winch for seine : Intended use :


— tonnage and size of seiner
— main dimensions and weight of seine
— common sea conditions
— average behaviour of fish : stability of schools swimming speed,
any tendency to dive, etc.
— stabilisation by bait or attraction to light
— day and/or night fishing
— any fishing on bottoms where the depth would be less than the
height of the seine
□ two or three drums
□ with or without warp head(s)
□ capacity of each drum
— winch with two drums (small and medium-sized seiners), length
and diameter of the purseline
— winch with three drums (large seiners), length and diameter(s)
of the purse line, if appropriate in several pieces, + length and
diameter of tow line
□ possibly : pull and speed

Winch for trawl : Intended use :


— size of trawler and/or tonnage and/or power of main engine
— type of fishing : bottom trawling or pelagic trawling — average
depth of the fishing grounds
a driving means : mechanical (power, nature and position of driving
power) hydraulic or electric
□ possibly power and/or pull and winding speed required
□ monobloc (2 joined drums) or separate drums
□ possibly supplementary bobbins
□ capacity of each drum : expressed in length of warp of given
diameter (if appropriate take into account rigging elements and
accessories that could be put on the drum : chain, shackle, swivel,
triangle, danleno, sweeps, etc.)
Deck equipment (continued)

ORDERING EQUIPMENT
□ warp head : one, two or none
□ manual or automatic warp guide (spooling, level-
wind)
Forged accessories, tools
ORDERING EQUIPMENT

Chain, shackle, Intended use clearly indicated (junction, lifting,


anchor, bobbin, etc.: etc)
□ elements (nature, size, breaking strength) expected on each side of
the accessory
□ estimated maximum use load
□ nature of steel (semi-hard, very high resistance, etc.)
□ finish : black, galvanised or stainless steel
□ main dimensions and characteristics (e.g. opening of a shackle,
forelock, counter sunk, eye screw pin, diameter of eye of a swivel, etc.)
or
choice from catalogue (give the name of the supplier), indicating exact
trade name of accessory and code number or the calibre
corresponding to the main dimensions and necessary breaking load
(breaking strength = 6 times the estimated maximum use load
Index

A Buoyancy, of floats
Accounting; see Buoyant force, and gravity
Bookkeeping
Anchors
Angle of attack of otter C
board Cable clamps (wire rope
Apparent Nominal Power, clips)
of trawler Cable, see Wire rope
Area, formulae for Chain
calculation Circumference, formulae for
Area, see also Twine surface calculation
area Clips
Area, units of measurement Codendcip
Connectors, steel
B Conversion, units of
Backstrop, of otter board measurement
Bait Cookies, for trawl
Ballast, of purse seine groundrope
Bar (of net mesh)
Beach seme D
Beach seine, bridles and Danish seine
ropes Deck equipment
Beach seine, materials and Deck equipment, information
hanging for ordering
Beach seine, types of Denier
Bobbins, rubber Density of materials
Bobbins, steel Depressor, for trolling
Bollard pull, of trawler Depth of midwater pair
Bookkeeping trawl, estimation
Bottom seine Diving board, for trolling
Bottom seines, dimensions Door, see Otter board
Bottom seines, operation Dredges
Bottom seines, ropes Drum, information for
Bottom traw; see also Trawls ordering
Brake horsepower, BHP Drum, purse seine
Breaking strength, breaking Drum, traw! net drum
load Dutch clip (codend clip)
.Bulldog grips; see Cable
damps E
Bunt, for trawl groundrope Echo-sounders,
Bunt* of purse seine characteristics
Buoy; see float Echo-sounders, choice of
Buoyancy, of fibres and Edge, net webbing
materials Entangling nets
Index

F Groundrope, trawl:
Fish finders; see echo- Examples
sounders
Fish hooks, information for
ordering H
Fishhooks, knots for tying Handlines; see Vertical line
Fish hooks, principal types fishing
Fish hooks, terms for Hanging net panels
describing Hanging ratio
Floats, estimating Hardware
buoyancy of Hardware, hooks and G
Floats, estimating number links
needed for seine Hardware, steel, for joining
Foots, for gillnets and seines Hauler, information for
Floats, for marking stationary ordering
gear Haulers, ine haulers
Floats, for seine Haulers, net haulers
Floats, for trawls Haulers, pot/trap haulers
Floats, information for Head ine height of traw
ordering Headline, of traw
Floats, ring-shaped Height of mounted net
Floats, spherical, buoyancy Hold, fish hold
Flotation; see Buoyancy Holds, capacity
Footrope, of trawl Hooks, hardware
Force, units of measurement Hooks, see Fish hooks
Fork rigging of trawl Horsepower, HP
Formulae
Fresh water consumption
Fuel consumption of engine l
Fushi Ice, amount required
Inclination, of traw warps,
measurement

G
G links J
Gillnet, information for Jigs
ordering
Gillnets
Gillnets, choosing meshsize K
Gillnets, choosing twine Kites, for trawl
Gil nets, flotation and ballast Knots, for fish hooks
Gillnets, hanging, rigging Knots, for longlines
Gillnetting, speed of Knots, for stoppers and
operations mooring
Gravity and buoyant force Knots, net webbing
Groundrope, of trawl kW, kilowatts
Index

L Net webbing, estimation of


Lamps, (or fish attraction weight
Leads Net webbing, hanging ratio
Length, units of measurement Net webbing, information for
Lifting, slings and tackles ordering
Light, fishing with Net webbing, joining panels
Light, units of measurement Net webbing, knots, edges,
Line fishing selvedges
Line fishing accessories Net webbing, meshes,
Line, see Twine, Rope definition
Link, half-cut Net webbing, mounted
Link, riveted height
Longlines Net webbing, mounting
Longlines, automation panels
Longlines, bottom longline Net webbing, surface
plan and rigging covered
Longlines, components Net webbing, systems of
Long ines, drifting measuring
Long ines, set Net webbing, twine surface
Longlinmg, speed of area
operations Net webbing, twine surface
Lures in traw

M O
Marking buoys Omfar
Mass, units of measurement Ordering equipment, data
Mesh opening needed
Mesh size, for purse seine Otter boards, ad|ustment
Mesh size, stretched Otter boards, angle of attack
Midwater pair trawl, Otter boards, estimating
estimating depth spread
Midwater traw Otter boards, proportions
Monofilament; see also Otter boards; types, weight,
Twine surface area
Mounting net panes Otter trawl, see Trawl
Mouth opening, of bottom
seine
P
Pair trawl, midwater
N Pair trawling, engine RPM
Net webbing, common Pair trawls, rigging
cutting rates Pelagic trawls; see Trawls,
Net webbing, cutting rates midwater
Net webbing, definition of Polyamide (PA); see
cuts Synthetic fibres, Twine
Index

Polyester (PES); see Synthetic mooring


fibres, Twine Rope, loss of breaking
Polyethylene (PE); see strength due to knots and
Synthetic fibres, Twine splices
Polypropylene (PP); see Rope, synthetic fibre
Synthetic fibres, Twine Rope, vegetable fibre
Pots; see Traps and pots Rtex, Resultant tex
Power block
Power block, information for
ordering S
Power, of trawlers Safe working load
Power, units of measurement Safety factor
Prawn trawls; see Shrimp Seine, anchor or Danish
traw s Seine; see also Bottom seine
Pressure, underwater Selvedge
Pressure, units of Setsu
measurement Settling; see Bookkeeping
Propulsion Shackles
Puling power of trawler Shearing depressor, for
Purse line troling
Purse rings Shrimp (prawn| trawls
Purse seine Sinkers
Purse seine, buoyancy of Sinking speed of purse seine
floats Slings
Purse seine, depth Snaps, for long line.
Purse seine, dimensions, Sounders; see Echo-
twine sounders
Purse seine, hanging ratio Spacers, for groundrope
Purse seine, plan and rigging Speed, units of measurement
Purse seine, weight of sinkers Spread, horizontal spread of
Purse seining, speed of traw
operations Sguare roots, tables
Stainless steel; see Wire rope
Strength of hardware
Stretched mesh
R Surface covered by netting
Regulations, local fisheries Swivels
Rings, for net ballast Synthetic fibres, commercial
Rings, for purse seine names
Rings, for trawl groundrope Synthetic fibres, identification
Rope, combination wire (1) Synthetic fibres, physical
Rope, combination wire (2) properties
Rope, floa (lines and
leadlines
Rope, knots for joining and T
loops Tackles
Rope, knots for stoppers and Tanks, live
Index

Temperature, units of numbering systems


measurement Twine, information for
Thimbles ordering
Tow line, of purse seine Twine, measurement
Tramme net, example of Twine, number, tex, denier,
pan and rigging runnage, diameter
Tramme nets Twine, nylon, monofi ament,
Tramme nets, flotation and mu timonofilament
weight Twine, polyester,
Traps and pots polyethylene, polypropylene
Traps and pots, dimensions Twine, Rtex
Traps and pots, entrances Twine, runnage
Traps and pots, examples Twine, tex
Traps and pots, materials Two-boat trawls; see Pair
Trave board, information for trawls
ordering
Trawl door; see Otter board
Trawl groundropes
Trawling speed
Trawls; (see also Pair trawls) V
Trawls, bottom trawl plan Vertica line fishing
Trawls, bottom, meshsize Volume, formulae for
and twine size calculation
Trawls, buoyancy and Volume, units of
weight measurement
Trawls, choosing size for
vessel hp
Trawls, fork rigging
Trawls, midwatertrawl pan
Trawls, midwater, meshsize W
and twine size Warp, nformation for
Trawls, opening of bottom ordering
traw Warp angle, vertical, .
Trawls, opening of midwater measurement
trawls Warps, trawl; diameter,
Trawls, rigging length
Trawls, twine surface area Weight in water
Trolling Wells, live
Tw me Winch, information for
Twine size, for purse seine ordering
Twine size; see also Twine Winch, pull, power, speed
number Winch, purse seine
Twine surface area in trawl Winch, trawl
Twine, common, for netting Wire rope clips
Twine, equivalents, Wire rope, galvanized steel
Index

Wire rope, handling Wire rope, structure and use 24

Wire rope, matching drums


and sheaves
Wire rope, sma 1 diameter Y
Wire rope, stainless stee Yarn; see a so Twine
Books published by
Fishing News Books
Free catalogue available on request

Advances in fish science and technology The edible crab and its fishery in British waters
Aquaculture in Taiwan Eel culture
Aquaculture: principles and practice Engineering, economics and fisheries
Aquaculture training manual management
Aquatic weed control European inland water fish: a multilingual
catalogue
Atlantic salmon: its future
FAO catalogue of fishing gear designs
Better angling with simple science
FAO catalogue of small scale fishing gear
British freshwater fishes
Fibre ropes for fishing gear
Business management in fisheries and
aquaculture Fish and shellfish farming in coastal waters
Cage aquaculture Fish catching methods of the world
Calculations for fishing gear designs Fisheries oceanography and ecology
Carp farming Fisheries of Australia Fisheries sonar
Commercial fishing methods Fisherman's workbook
Control of fish quality Fishermen's handbook
Crab and lobster fishing Fishery development experiences
The crayfish Fishing and stock fluctuations
Culture of bivalve mollusks Fishing boats and their equipment
Design of small fishing vessels Fishing boats of the world 1
Developments in electric fishing Fishing boats of the world 2
Developments in fisheries research in Scotland Fishing boats of the world 3
Echo sounding and sonar for fishing The fishing cadet's handbook
The economics of salmon aquaculture
Fishing ports and markets Modern deep sea trawling gear
Fishing with electricity More Scottish fishing craft
Fishing with light Multilingual dictionary of fish and fish products
Freezing and irradiation of fish Navigation primer for fishermen
Freshwater fisheries management Net work exercises
Glossary of UK fishing gear terms Netting materials for fishing gear
Handbook of trout and salmon diseases Ocean forum
A history of marine fish culture in Europe and Pair trawling and pair seining
North America
Pelagic and semi-pelagic trawling gear
How to make and set nets
Penaeid shrimps — their biology and
Inland aquaculture development handbook management
Intensive fish farming Planning of aquaculture development
Introduction to fishery by-products Refrigeration of fishing vessels
The law of aquaculture: the law relating to the Salmon and trout farming in Norway
farming of fish and shellfish in Great Britain
Salmon farming handbook
The lemon sole
Scallop and queen fisheries in the British Isles
A living from lobsters
Seine fishing
The mackerel
Squid jigging from small boats
Making and managing a trout lake
Stability and trim of fishing vessels and other
Managerial effectiveness in fisheries and small ships
aquaculture
Study of the sea
Marine fisheries ecosystem
Textbook of fish culture
Marine pollution and sea life
Training fishermen at sea
Marketing in fisheries and aquaculture
Trends in fish utilization
Mending of fishing nets
Trout farming handbook
Trout farming manual
Tuna fishing with pole and line

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