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Jun Gao

School of Municipal & Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box Number 2644, 150090, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China e-mail: race_gj@hit.edu.cn

Jia-ning Zhao

School of Municipal & Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box Number 2644, 150090, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China e-mail: zhaojianing@sina.com.cn

Xiao-dong Li

School of Municipal & Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box Number 2644, 150090, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China e-mail: lxd8802@163.com.cn

Fu-sheng Gao

School of Municipal & Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box Number 2644, 150090, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China e-mail: gfs@hit.edu.cn

A Zonal Model for Large Enclosures With Combined Stratification Cooling and Natural Ventilation: Part 1—Model Generation and its Procedure

This paper describes a combined system of stratificated air conditioning and natural ventilation for large enclosures, which uses stratificated air conditioning to cool the occupied part of a space and uses natural ventilation to cool the upper part to reduce heat penetration into the lower air-conditioned part. A zonal model is constructed to predict the vertical temperature profiles of large enclosures under such a combined system. This model incorporates airflow and heat transfer throughout the space into the mass and heat balance equations for each horizontally settled zone. It introduces some particular flow dynamics and thermal effects into the predictions of mean airflows and temperature distributions. Different from those pressure-based zonal models applied gen- erally to the predictions for small building rooms, it is termed a temperature-based zonal model, which uses correlations based on temperature differences in combination with submodels for modeling of mass flow and heat transfer in the large enclosures. The present paper provides a calculation procedure for the model. Model performances are then discussed through analyzing the impacts of some influential factors on the space air temperature profiles. DOI: 10.1115/1.2188958

1 Introduction

Large enclosures such as industrial buildings, aircraft hangars, and gymnasiums cover a wide range of sizes and consume a con- siderable amount of energy for cooling and heating. A common point of large enclosures is that the whole space is so large, while the occupied part is so small in comparison. Therefore, large en- closures have air conditioning or ventilating needs very different to those of small buildings. Improperly designed air conditioning or ventilation for large enclosures may lead to both considerable energy costs and thermal discomfort. Thermal stratification is very common in buildings with a single high and large open space. It is usually caused by the heat gains through building envelopes and convection along vertical walls. Significant excess heating requirement for large enclosures due to strong thermal stratification has been reported compared to the case with no stratification by Said et al. 1 . However, in other large enclosures, where cooling load is concerned, the stratifica- tion effects can be most desirable. The subject of energy efficient and thermal comfortable air con- ditioning and ventilation for large enclosures has received much attention since the 1980s. Gorton and Sassi 2,3 first started working on some problems of the stratification, cooling load cal- culations, and minimum-energy consumption procedures for stratification cooling of large enclosures. At the same time, Ball and Bailey 4 began to investigate a chilled jet projected verti- cally into the thermally stratified environment. The terms “strati- fication cooling,” “stratified system air conditioning,” or “stratifi- cated air conditioning” were proposed as early as that time.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOUR- NAL OF S OLAR E NERGY E NGINEERING. Manuscript received July 18, 2004; final manu- script received August 3, 2005. Review conducted by Agami Reddy.

Almost at the same time, a Chinese group under China Academy of Building Research CABR 5 launched a research project of air distributions and cooling load calculations for stratification cooling of large enclosures. In this project, multiple horizontally projected nonisothermal jets were proposed which were easier to be mounted and ensured a better use of space than the vertically discharged chilled jet. Annex 26 6 initiated by the International Energy Agency IEA carried out a study of energy-efficient ven- tilation of large enclosures which was completed in 1996. In this project, a promising zonal model, BLOCK model 7,8 , was sug- gested for predicting the vertical temperature distributions in large enclosures. This model was originally validated in a scale-down space 3 3 2.5 m high and has had an extended application in real large and high buildings with open spaces 9,10 , where the multiple nonisothermal jets and heat gain in the air-conditioned zone were considered. Natural ventilation has been more and more popular in build- ings and began to be utilized in large enclosures such as commer- cial and industrial buildings. Theoretical and experimental studies of natural ventilation can be extensively investigated in the litera- ture 11–15 , while few studies of natural ventilation in large en- closures, especially when combined with the stratification cooling, were reported. Andersen 16 investigated natural ventilation of atria and presented a set of formulas for determining air tempera- ture differences and ventilation capacity in relation to openings, heat loads, and building geometry. Calay et al. 17 proposed a new method for providing ventilation in large enclosures, which utilized the principal of “selective withdraw” of contaminants while ensuring energy efficiency and allowing a better use of space. Gao et al. 18 proposed a multilayer model to incorporate

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Fig. 1 Schematic of a large enclosure with the combined sys- tem and definition sketch

Fig. 1 Schematic of a large enclosure with the combined sys- tem and definition sketch of a zonal model applied to the pre- dictions for it

the impact of a localized heat source at floor level and convection along vertical walls on the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in large single-cell buildings. This present paper describes a combined system of stratificated air conditioning and natural ventilation for large enclosures. As zonal models meet better the operational design requirements and are more computationally time economical than CFD codes, espe- cially for time-dependent energy analysis when incorporated into an unsteady-state model, a temperature-based zonal model is de- veloped to predict the airflows and temperature profiles in large enclosures under such a system. The present paper is the first part of the study of this zonal model. It deals with the generation and construction of the model and the corresponding calculation procedure. A subsequent paper will use CFD simulation by a turbulence model to validate the zonal model.

2 Stratification Cooling and its Combination with Natural Ventilation

Stratification cooling refers to the technique of cooling only the lower, occupied part of a large and high-ceiling building and leav- ing the upper part uncontrolled. Naturally occurred thermal strati- fication and distinct vertical temperature gradients characterize this kind of cooling. Both American and Chinese researchers 2.3.5 were probably the first to theoretically and experimentally studied this stratification cooling system. There are some differ- ences between them. First, two different chilled air jets were in- corporated into their separate studies. Second, in modeling the temperature profiles and cooling load, Gorton et al. 2 used the chilled vertical jet suggested by Ball 4 , while Zhou et al. 5 presented the horizontally discharged multiple nonisothermal jets. A combined system of stratification cooling and natural venti- lation is presented in this paper as shown in Fig. 1, where the uncontrolled upper part is naturally ventilated by two-level open- ings. From Fig. 1, it can be observed that b % of the supply air is specified as air returned to the AHU air handling unit . It means 1− b % of the supply air is the fresh air introduced to the AHU. According to an air mass balance, 1− b % of the total supply air by the AHU is extracted from the enclosure, together with the natu- rally ventilated airflow through the high-level openings by buoy- ancy force. Natural ventilation may be driven by buoyancy and/or wind force. For a hot and windless day, buoyancy-driven natural ventilation alone is the worst case, so only buoyancy force is considered in the present study. The aim to use natural ventilation in the upper part is to reduce radiant and convective heat penetrat-

368 / Vol. 128, AUGUST 2006

ing from the upper into the lower part of the space. Meanwhile, interior surface temperature will also be reduced. Natural ventila- tion in this combined system is expected to be able to improve thermal comfort in the occupied part and reduce the cooling load and energy costs.

3 Zonal Model for Large Enclosures

It is well known that in a large enclosure the horizontal tem- perature distribution is liable to be uniform except for the occu- pied zone, which is dominated by the forced or mixed convection due to the nonisothermal jets. It also should be pointed out airflow

along high vertical walls is very influential to the vertical tempera- ture profiles in the space. Therefore, commonly used two- or three-dimensional zonal models by Gagneau and Allard 19 and Musy et al. 20 are not adopted, which are usually termed pressure-based zonal models. These zonal models use pressure as

a state variable and are often difficult to obtain special laws to

describe flows in certain regions where neither initial momentum nor pressure difference drives airflows between adjacent zones. For such a system, no doubt, CFD simulation is both qualita- tively and quantitatively able to deal with the coupled indoor and outdoor environment by solving the coupled energy and Navier- Stokes equations with iterative methods. But the grid construction, the description of boundary conditions, and the mathematical rep- resentation of unsteady turbulent flows make the numerical model very difficult to implement. Also, it is still unlikely to be directly used as a design tool and to carry out a building energy simulation for a real large space. This paper studies a temperature-based zonal model to combine the stratification cooling with natural ventilation and to efficiently simulate the vertical temperature distributions in large enclosures where thermal stratification exists. This model describes airflow and heat transfer on a macroscopic scale with mass and heat bal-

ance equations in the vertically divided m zones of the object space see Fig. 1 . As a whole, it can be composed of the follow- ing four submodels. Mass and heat balance equations then can be established in each horizontally settled zone by mass flow and heat transfer determined by these submodels.

Multiple air jets submodel: It handles the flow rate, air entrainment, and upward spread of the horizontally dis- charged interparalleled nonisothermal multiple air jets.

Wall surface current submodel: It evaluates mass and heat transfer along interior surfaces of walls.

Natural ventilation submodel: It calculates ventilation airflow rate driven by buoyancy force in the upper space with distinct vertical temperature gradient.

Surface heat balance submodel. It deals with the coupled heat transfer of conduction, convection, and radiation on interior surfaces of building envelopes.

3.1 Multiple Air Jets Submodel. The multiple air jets used in

the stratificated air conditioning have been systematically studied

in Refs. 5,10 . Momentum in the multiple air jets decrease more

slowly than that in a single horizontal jet, because the multiple jets are significantly confined by their spatial superposition. The cen- terline trajectory of one of the multiple jets studied by Zhou

et al.’s experiments during the 1980s is 5

1

y / d 0 = 0.81Ar 1.158 x / d 0 2.5

where Ar is the Archimedes number and is given by

2

Ar = gd 0 t / Tu 0

The parameters in the equations above and all later ones are listed

in the nomenclature.

Due to the interaction effect caused by the spatial superposition,

a mean correction factor for air velocity in the jets is defined 10 , which establishes the relationship between the momentum in one

2

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of multiple jets and that in a single jet. For a single circular hori- zontal jet, Rajaratnam 21 suggested the following equation for the maximum velocity:

3

While for one of the multiple jets, the maximum velocity is

u m = 3.347u 0 Ar 0.147 x / d 0 1.151 4

u m = 6.3u 0 d 0 / s

When the multiple jets interact each other, momentum at an arbitrary point in the jet section is regarded as the total one of each of the interacted jets whose jet sections contain that point. Based on the momentum conservation together with a usually used Gaussian approximation for the velocity section, the mean velocity correction factor is obtained by 10

5

K vm =

i =1

a i s / L i 1

5

where L is the half separation of two adjacent jets; and a 1 = 7.690 10 1 , a 2 = 5.310 10 2 , a 3 =−5.347 10 4 , a 4 = 2.514 10 5 , a 5 =−0.454 10 9 . Because of the interaction, each of the multiple jets entrains less air than a single jet. Using R to denote the radius of a jet, which is about 0.22s 5 , the entrainment effect is then decided by the ratio of R to L . The following equation expresses the airflow rate of each of the multiple air jets 10 . For R / L 1.0

V t = 4 u m K vm F + 6.223 10 3 s 2 2 − arccos

+ 0.0484s 2 L 2 L

2

For R / L 1.0

V t = 0.079 u 0 d 0 / s

0.22s

L

6

7

where the term of F denotes an integration and is derived by

4

F = b i s / L i 1

i

=1

8

where

= 7.305 10 7 ; a parameter s in Eqs. 3 7 denotes the throw of

the jets, and it can be derived by line integral of Eq. 1 from x

b 1 = 1.966 10 2 , b 2 =−4.388 10 2 , b 3 = 2.910 10 4 , b 4

= 0 to x = X as Eq. 9

s = x =0

x

=

X 1 + d y d x 2

d x

9

The horizontal distance X is predetermined by a desired jet length, which is about half of the width of the enclosure see Fig. 1 . Together with u 0 and d 0 , it is then used to evaluate the maximum velocity at x = X and the vertical throw of the jets y = Y . If u m there is too high or slow and Y is lower than a desired occupied zone height, then u 0 and d 0 should be respecified. In addition, air den- sity of the jets is assumed to be the averaged value of supply air and entrained air from zone 1 . When the air jets discharged from two opposite walls encounter at x = X see Fig. 2 , the upper half of the jets from two opposite directions will collapse. The mean velocity u X at the end of the jets is assumed half of the maximum one and it is approximately equal to the downward air velocity. Thus, if both momentum in the vertical direction and kinetic energy are absolutely conserved during the collapse, the upward air velocity will be equal to u X and then the upward spread of the jets can be estimated by

10

G up = 0.25G 1 − sin

According to Eq. 1 , the angle between the velocity vector and horizontal direction see Fig. 2 can be calculated by

Journal of Solar Energy Engineering

can be calculated by Journal of Solar Energy Engineering Fig. 2 Upward spread of the opposite

Fig. 2 Upward spread of the opposite jets

=

dy / dx 1 + dy /

dx 2 x = X

11

To estimate the height where of the upward flow arrives, a nega- tively plane buoyant jet is then introduced to predict the further movement of the flow see Fig. 2 . Based on the theory of the negatively buoyant jet 22 , its vertical terminal is then derived by

h up = R cos 2 − 1.12

g R cos −2/3 g R cos 4/3

u

X

u

X

12

In Eq. 12 , the reduced gravity of the buoyant jet is obtained by

g = g ¯ t t j / ¯ t

13

3.2 Wall Surface Current Submodel. Vertical airflow and

heat convection along walls see Fig. 3 are evaluated using the classical theory for a turbulent boundary layer see Appendix A .

The average temperature of air current from zone i into the boundary layer is expressed as

14

As described in Ref. 7 by Togari et al., convective heat transfer between air and wall surface drives airflow from zone i to boundary layer

t a, i = 0.75t i + 0.25t w, i

layer t a , i = 0.75 t i + 0.25 t w , i Fig.

Fig. 3 Composition of airflow along vertical walls

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Table 1 The judgment of airflow along vertical walls

Conditions

Mass flow

t A, i t i

t i t A, i t i +1

t A, i t i +1

m in, i = m A, j , m A, i

= 0

m in, i = m A, i t i +1 t A, i t i +1 t i ,

m A, i = m A, i m in, i

m in, i =0, m A, i = m A, i

15

The choice of convective heat transfer coefficients for real build- ings is a matter of debate. The correlations used in this study are discussed and provided in Appendix B. Air current along vertical walls is ascending for the summer conditions concerned in the present paper. In order to keep a stable temperature gradient in the boundary layer, airflow along walls will flow partially back to the air zone. So there are com- position and backflow of the airflow along vertical walls see m in in Fig. 3 . Table 1 presents the judgment method of airflow along the vertical walls. Consequently, the composed airflow along the wall and its mean temperature are as Eqs. 16 and 17 see also Fig. 3 .

m o, i = 4.00h c, i A w, i / c p

m A, i = m A, i −1

+ m o, i

t A, i = m A, i −1 t A, i −1 + m o, i t n, i

m

A, i

16

17

3.3 Natural Ventilation Submodel. In the present zonal model, natural ventilation is only driven by the buoyancy force, which results from the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air and two-level openings. In this submodel, air is con- sidered as an ideal gas, and, therefore, static pressure can slightly work on the air density. Natural ventilation flow rate can then be derived as see Fig. 4

G v = e A eff

= i k

m

2 g i h i

i

18

where the reduced gravity, which was defined 11 as the effective buoyancy force in a naturally ventilated enclosure by temperature or density difference, and is expressed as

by temperature or density difference, and is expressed as Fig. 4 Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation 370 /

Fig. 4 Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation

370 / Vol. 128, AUGUST 2006

natural ventilation 370 / Vol. 128, AUGUST 2006 Fig. 5 Heat balance for interior surfaces g

Fig. 5 Heat balance for interior surfaces

g i = T i

T

e

g

= i g

e

19

Taking into account the variation of air density, the effective open- ing area of the upper enclosure with multiple openings is

A eff =

m

I

i

C d, i A i C d, j A j

J

j

e

I

i

C d, i A i 2 + m C d,

J

j

j A j 2

20

The effective opening area is derived by the Bernoulli theorem and mass equilibrium through the two-level openings. The dis- charge coefficient C d in Eq. 20 accounts for the loss coefficient and streamline contraction of openings.

3.4 Surface Heat Balance Submodel. The zonal model in

the present paper conjugates heat radiation, convection, and con- duction in the modeling of heat balance on each interior surface. The following Eq. 21 expresses the heat balance on a single

surface see Fig. 5

K i t s, i t w, i + h c, i t i t w, i +

j

1 i , j h r, ij t w, j t w, i = 0

21

where t s, i is the solar-air temperature of exterior surface zone i ; K i denotes the heat transfer coefficient from outdoor air to interior surface zone i ; i , j is a Kronecker delta when i = j , i , j = 1; and when i j , i , j =0. ; h r, ij is the radiant heat transfer coefficient from surface j to i and can be described as follows

h r, ij =

5.67 10 8 T w, j

4

T w, i

4

22

1 − i

+

1

+ 1 − j

j A w,

j A w, i t w, j t w, i

i A w,

i

F i , j A w, i

Radiation exchange between the all gray-diffuse interior sur- faces is calculated using the third linear term on the left-hand side of Eq. 21 . For the radiation exchange, a geometric function, radiant view factor F i , j in Eq. 22 , is calculated by a Monte Carlo method 23 .

3.5 Mass and Heat Balance in Vertical Zones. Fresh air is

introduced into the AHU, and then some air equivalent to the amount of fresh air should be extracted from the enclosure to keep a mass balance. For each of the space zone, mass flow to and from the boundary layer, mass flow between vertical adjacent zones, and mass flow produced by air supply and natural ventilation will contribute to its mass balance. As a whole, mass balance for each zone can be derived as see Fig. 6 a

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Fig. 6 Mass and heat balance for a space zone „ a … mass bal-

Fig. 6 Mass and heat balance for a space zone amass bal- ance bheat balance

23

where m c is the mass flow rate between vertically adjacent zones, which is positive when the flow direction is upward; m S is the source and/or sink of mass in the space air zone, which is gener- ally caused by air supply, extract, and natural ventilation. For heat balance of each space zone, heat transfer by tempera- ture difference and turbulent penetrative convection between ver- tically adjacent zones is introduced by using a heat transfer factor c b , which was first proposed in Ref. 7 by Togari et al., however, was difficult to be theoretically studied. The heat balance equation for a space zone can be eventually derived as see Fig. 6 b

m in, i m o, i + m c, i −1 m c, i + m S, i = 0

j

= i +1

c p m in, i t A, i t i +

j

= i −1

j

= i +1

c p m c, j t j t i + A h c b t j t i + E S, i = 0

j

= i −1

24

The first term of Eq. 24 represents heat flow by convection along vertical walls; the second one represents heat flow by mass flow between zones; and the third one represents heat flow by tempera- ture difference and penetrative convection between zones; E s de- notes heat source and/or sink in the space zone resulting from a real heat source or sink and air supply; is defined to judge the direction of airflow between adjacent zones, whose value is posi- tive when the direction is upward. The judgment method is de- scribed as Eq. 25

= 0 j = i − 1, 1 j = i − 1,

m c, j 0 m c, j 0

or j = i , m c, j 0 or j = i , m c, j 0

25

Moreover, for the uppermost and lowest space zone, convective heat transfer along the ceiling and floor surface should be in- cluded, respectively. Heat gains in zone 1 , which are incorpo- rated into the cooling load for air-conditioned zone for unsteady- state analysis, depends on heat source in the occupied zone, heat shift from unconditioned zone, and heat transfer through enve- lopes there. From Eq. 24 , total heat gains in zone 1 are finally composed of heat source within, heat convection along all sur- faces, and heat flow from and to the adjacent zone 2 .

4 Calculation Procedure

Under specified conditions of air supply for cooling, building sizes, outdoor conditions, and building materials, a calculation procedure should be programmed to solve the equations for all of the four submodels and consequently the mass and heat balance equations. Figure 7 represents the flow chart of the procedure. First, all the conditions are specified. Second, space zone tempera- ture and mass flow m c are assumed as initial values for the itera- tive solution. Third, four submodels are calculated one by one. After that, mass and heat balance equations are solved to replace the assumed values. The values of space zone temperature and mass flow are circularly updated with the iteration. When the dif- ferences of the calculated values between two iterations become sufficiently small, the newly updated values are regarded as true

Journal of Solar Energy Engineering

are regarded as true Journal of Solar Energy Engineering Fig. 7 Flow chart of the procedure

Fig. 7 Flow chart of the procedure

results. Additionally, when the calculation is completed, mass and heat balance in each space zone and the boundary layer are examined. In the procedure, resolving the four submodels is crucial for the overall zonal model to be correctly calculated. Above all, radiant view angles between each pair of interior surfaces are calculated and their results constitute a subroutine. Wall surface heat balance submodel produces a highly nonlinear system of equations, where space air temperature and wall surface temperature are intercon- nected. For the surface temperature, the equations are implicit due to the surface-air temperature difference correlations for convec- tive heat transfer coefficient and long-wave radiant exchanges be- tween interior surfaces. In the procedure, Eqs. 21 and 22 for all surfaces are solved by the Gauss-Seidel iterative method through a linearizing technique using the space zone temperature of a pre- vious solution step and the convective and radiant heat transfer coefficients of the current solution step. After the surface heat balance submodel has been calculated, surface temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients are used as input for the wall surface current submodel. In this submodel, two parameters for each vertical zone, t a and m o , are first calculated by using Eqs. 14 and 15 . For the ascending current concerned, the composed airflow along the vertical wall and its mean temperature are de- rived by Eqs. 16 and 17 . Mass backflow to the space zone and part of the composed airflow entering into a next boundary zone are judged using the equations in Table 1. Following that, equa- tions of the natural ventilation submodel are solved to obtain the natural ventilation flow rate based on the specified opening con- figurations and space air temperature calculated in the previous

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Fig. 8 Schematic of the enclosure with the combined system of stratification cooling and natural

Fig. 8 Schematic of the enclosure with the combined system of stratification cooling and natural ventilation used for calcu- lation; enclosure size is 44 Ã 20 Ã 16 m

solution step. The multiple air jets submodel is then resolved to obtain the mass flow rate entrained by the jets and the upward spread of the flow rate. For all the submodels, space air tempera- ture is used as input. Finally, mass flows obtained through the submodels are used to solve the mass balance equations and con- sequently the heat balance equations for the space zones. For these two linear systems, the Gaussian elimination with back sub- stitution is applied. Procedure execution times are linked directly to the number of zones. For a problem of 30 zones, it needs about several dozens of seconds to obtain the convergent solution on a personal computer of 2.8 GHz Pentium IV CPU and 768 MHz DDR memory.

5 Model Calculations

Calculations of the zonal model are performed in an enclosure 44 20 16 m high see Fig. 8 . Air supply nozzles and inflow openings are mounted in two opposite walls. Heat source of 72.6 kW is specified in the air- conditioned zone to represent heat sources there. Heat source of 5 W/m 3 is specified in the region 1 m below the ceiling to rep- resent the heat gain due to lighting there. Air supply nozzles with air supply conditions u 0 = 4.75 m/ s, d 0 = 0.27 m, and t 0 = 18°C are set at the height 5.75 m high above the floor with the separation of 2.0 m. The inflow openings with the size of 0.6 0.6 m are set at the height of 10.3 m in the two opposite walls and the outflow openings with the size of 1.2 0.6 m are horizontally set in the center of the ceiling. For each opening, discharge coefficient is 0.65. Radiant emittance of all interior surfaces is 0.91. The heat transfer coefficient from outdoor air to interior surface of the en- velopes is 0.767 W/m 2 °C, which results from a convective heat transfer coefficient on the exterior surface 18.6 W/m 2 °C and a conductive heat transfer coefficient 0.8 W/m 2 °C. The percentage of return air for the stratification cooling is 100%. The outdoor air temperature is 26.5°C. Exterior solar-air temperature is 48°C for all walls and 57°C for the ceiling. To evaluate the model perfor- mances, impacts of the number of vertically divided zones, the heat transfer factor between adjacent zones and the under- relaxation factor used in the model solutions will be discussed in the following sections.

5.1 Choice of the Number of Zones. Case calculations and

theoretical analysis are carried out to discuss the impacts of the number of zones on the calculated results of the zonal model. The value c b = 2.3 and 8.0 W/m 2 °C are used for the zones lower and higher than the height h up , respectively. However, the impacts of c b will be discussed in detail in the following Sec. 5.2. From Fig. 9 a , the change of the number of the zones in the

372 / Vol. 128, AUGUST 2006

the number of the zones in the 372 / Vol. 128, AUGUST 2006 Fig. 9 Impacts

Fig. 9 Impacts of the number of vertically divided zones on the results of the zonal model for an enclosure under the com- bined system aheight above floor vs. temperature under dif- ferent number of zones bventilation flow rate vs. the number of zones

range of 10–34 has a slight effect on the distribution of space air

temperature. It is also found this change results in small change of the interior surface temperature of the large enclosure. From Fig.

9 b , however, the natural ventilation flow rate through the two-

level openings of the upper part of the enclosure is considerably influenced by this change. A small number of zones divided may lead to overestimate the ventilation flow rate because the results are unstable in the range of less than 18 zones. It is also because that just like a finer grid needed in the CFD simulation, a larger number of zones divided in the zonal model should be able to provide more reasonable mass and heat equilibriums for each lo- cal zone, and then to reproduce a real distribution of temperature in the space. One stochastic oscillation of the ventilation flow rate is observed in Fig. 9 b at the number larger than 24. This oscil- lation is eventually found to be caused by the oscillation of the radiant view angle calculated using the Monte Carlo method, which obtains a probability distribution of the true results. It is found that 24 zones, which accounts for zone depth about 0.8 m for each zone in the upper part of the space, should be enough to obtain the relatively acceptable results for such a space. Many more cases are also calculated. It is then found that this zone depth less than 1.0 m for the zonal model can be extensively applicable for large enclosures with this combined system.

5.2 Choice of the Value of Heat Transfer Factor c b . As

used in Sec. 5.1, the value of c b is small for the zones where vertical mass transfer between adjacent zones is significant and large for the zones where the mass transfer is suppressed. The reason is that this value is defined to reproduce the effects of heat transfer by temperature difference and turbulent penetrative con- vection between vertically adjacent zones on the space air tem- perature distributions. Therefore, it can be influential only when the mass transfer is little and vertical temperature gradient is sig- nificant. It is difficult to choose an optimum value of c b , but is necessary to discuss its impacts on the results of the zonal model. The value of 2.3 W/m 2 °C for zones where mass transfer is sig- nificant is suggested and well validated in a scale experiment by Togari et al. 7 , so only the larger value for other zones are discussed in this work. As shown in Fig. 10, both the space air temperature distribution and the natural ventilation flow rate calculated by the zonal model are hardly affected by the considerable change in the value of the factor. From the mass equilibrium for each zone, however, it is found that air mass transfer between each pair of zones higher than h up is somewhat significant by the mass inflow by the natural ventilation. It also proves that this factor is not influential to the

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Fig. 10 Impacts of the value of c b on the results of the zonal

Fig. 10 Impacts of the value of c b on the results of the zonal model for an enclosure under the combined system 24 zones used … „ aheight above floor vs. temperature under different value of c b bventilation flow rate vs the value of c b

space air temperature distributions in the case that air mass trans- fer between zones is active. Another case using an enclosure with only the stratification cooling the two-level openings are closed is analyzed to further prove this point. As shown in Fig. 11, a lower value of c b results in higher temperature values for the upper zones, and vice versa. It means that the value of this factor is influential in the case that the vertical air mass transfer is suppressed.

5.3 Choice of Relaxation Factor in Solution. To achieve the

convergence and mathematical stabilization of the procedure for the zonal model, a relaxation method is introduced into the itera- tive solution. Because of the implicit nonlinearity of the equation set being solved and space air temperature t being the key input for each submodel, it is necessary to control the change of t during each solution step. This is typically achieved by under-relaxation. Several under-relaxation factors are tested for the case using the calculation conditions in Sec. 5 above. Figure 12 presents the results of ventilation flow rate and the space air temperature in zones 1 , 9 , and 22 . It shows that a high factor leads to a slight numerical oscillation during the iterative solution. This kind of oscillation is absolutely mathematical and is not caused by the natural ventilation, so it can be easily removed by using an appro- priate lower value of the relaxation factor.

using an appro- priate lower value of the relaxation factor. Fig. 11 Impacts of the value

Fig. 11 Impacts of the value of c b on the calculated results of the zonal model without natural ventilation

Journal of Solar Energy Engineering

natural ventilation Journal of Solar Energy Engineering Fig. 12 Impacts of relaxation factors on the results

Fig. 12 Impacts of relaxation factors on the results of natural ventilation flow rate and temperature in space zones c b =2.3 and 8, the number of zone 32

6 Conclusions

A combined system of stratificated air conditioning and natural ventilation is proposed for large enclosures. It uses stratificated air conditioning to cool the occupied part of a space and uses natural ventilation to reduce heat penetration into the lower air- conditioned part. A temperature-based zonal model is formulated to predict the vertical temperature profiles and air mass flow dis- tributions in an enclosure with the combined system. It consists of a set of coupled equations, which result from four submodels and are determined by heat and mass balance in each of the horizon- tally settled zones. The equations of the zonal model are solved iteratively with a calculation procedure. To evaluate the model performances, impacts of the number of vertically divided zones, the heat-transfer factor between adjacent zones and the under- relaxation factor used in the model solutions are discussed. So far, we have presented a promising zonal model for large enclosures with the combined system. In this paper, we worked mainly on the model generation and its procedure. In a next paper, this zonal model will be validated based on the reproducibility of the more reasonable results by the CFD simulation.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by Beijing Municipality Key Lab of Heating, Gas Supply, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Engineering.

Nomenclature

A opening area for natural ventilation m 2

A h horizontally interfacial area between zones m 2

A w surface area of envelope m 2 A eff effective opening area for natural ventilation m 2 Ar archimedes number

a constant for calculation of CHTC

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b constant for calculation of CHTC

c b heat transfer coefficient between zones W/m 2 °C C d discharge coefficient of opening d 0 diameter of outlet for stratification cooling m E S heat source or sink in a zone W

g gravity m/s 2

g reduced gravity m/s 2

G supply airflow rate of stratification cooling kg/s

G up upward flow rate of G kg/s G v ventilation airflow rate kg/s

h vertical depth of a zone m

h c convective heat-transfer coefficient W/m 2 °C

h r radiant heat-transfer coefficient W/m 2 °C h up vertical terminal of the upward flow m

K heat-transfer coefficient from outdoor air to interior surface of envelopes W/m 2 °C

K vm a correction factor for the multiple jets

L half separation of two adjacent outlets m

m the number of zones m c airflow between two adjacent zones kg/s m in airflow from boundary layer to zone kg/s m o airflow from zone to boundary layer kg/s m A airflow in boundary layer during zone kg/s

airflow in boundary layer from zone to zone kg/s m S mass source or sink in a zone kg/s

m

A

R radius of a jet m

S throw of the multiple jets m

t air temperature in zone °C t 0 air supply temperature °C t a temperature of mass flow m o °C t A temperature of mass flow m A and m A °C t e environment temperature °C t w interior surface temperature °C

t s solar-air temperature on exterior surface °C

T absolute temperature in zone K

u 0 air supply velocity m/s u m maximum velocity of a single horizontal jet m/s V t total airflow rate in the multiple jets m 3 / s

x horizontal distance of jets from outlet, x max

= X m

y vertical distance of jets from outlet, y max

= Y m

ij kronecker delta emittance of a surface angle between velocity vector and horizontal direction for a air jet function used to judge the direction of m c air density kg/m 3

Appendix A: Calculation of Mass Flow m o and its Aver- age Temperature t a

Taking a single boundary layer zone as an example, the sub- script i is disregarded in this appendix. The average temperature t a is approximately represented by the following equation:

t a = 0 u x t x dx 0 u x dx

A1

where is the boundary layer thickness; x is the vertical distance from wall; u x and t x are air velocity and temperature at the distance x from wall within the boundary layer, respectively.

374 / Vol. 128, AUGUST 2006

According to the analytical solution 24 of the turbulent boundary layer equations for a vertical flat plate, air velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer are as

1/7 1 − x u x = x

4

A2

t x t t w t

=1− x

1/7

A3

Substituting Eqs. A2 and A3 into Eq. A1 , the following re- lation is obtained

t a = 0.25t + 0.75t w

Equation A4 is then used to represent approximately the average temperature of the mass flow m o from the space zone. The mass flow m o is driven by convective heat transfer on vertical walls, thus it can be derived by the following heat balance equation

h c A t w t = c P m o t a t

A4

A5

Substituting Eq. A4 into Eq. A5 , the following equation is obtained:

m o = 4.00h c A / c P

A6

Appendix B: Choice of Convective Heat-Transfer Coef- ficient

In the air-conditioned zone both buoyant and mechanical forces are present, and both are significant. The mechanical force driven by air jets will enhance the convective heat transfer on interior surfaces. Consequently, the convective heat-transfer coefficients in the air-conditioned zone are obtained using the Churchill and Usagi approach 25 . The h c correlations on walls and floor can be as follows, respectively

h c = 1.5 t / H 1/4 6 + 1.23 t 1/3 6 3 1/6 + − 0.199

+ 0.19ach 0.8 t w t 0 / t 3 1/3 B1

h c = 1.4 t / D h 1/4 6 + 1.63 t 1/3 6 3 1/6 + − 0.159

+ 0.116ach 0.8 t w t 0 / t 3 1/3 B2

where ach is the air changes per hour; D h is the hydraulic diameter of the floor surface which equals four times the area divided by the perimeter length; t is the surface-to-air temperature difference, = t w t . Other vertical surfaces are treated as natural convective ones, whose h c correlations are evaluated by the surface-to-air tempera- ture difference as the following equation

h c = a t b

where a = 1.5, b = 1/ 3

B3

for walls and a = 3.0, b = 0 for ceiling 26 .

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