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Periodic Table of elements – divided into s, p, d, f blocks

s block
• s orbitals partially fill

p block
d block
• p orbital partially fill
• d orbitals partially filled
• transition elements

f block
• f orbital partially fill
Electron filled according to 3 Principles

1 Aufbau Principle
• electron occupy orbitals of lower energy first
• building up, construction from bottom up

High energy
4Be - 1s2 2s2 5B - 1s2 2s2 2p1

2p 2p

2s 2s
Click here to view simulation
1s 1s
lower energy

2 Hund’s Principle
• electron occupy orbitals singly first before pairing up

7N High energy 8O - 1s2 2s2 2p4


- 1s2 2s2 2p3

2p

2s Click here to view simulation


1s lower energy
3
Pauli Exclusion Principle
• each orbital occupy by 2 electron opposite spin

High energy 10Ne


4Be - 1s2 2s2 - 1s2 2s2 2p6

Click here to view simulation

lower energy
Electron configuration Energy level and sublevels Electron occupy 4s first then 3d

5 B 1s2 2s2 2p1


6 C 1s2 2s2 2p2
7 N 1s2 2s2 2p3
8 O 1s2 2s2 2p4
4s energy level lower than 3d
9 F 1s2 2s2 2p5
10 Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6
3d
11 Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 4s
12 Mg 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
3p
13 Al 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 3s
14 Si 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
18Ar – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
2p Electrons fill 4s first
15 P 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
16 S 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 2s
3d
17 CI 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 4s
1s
18 Ar 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3p
19 K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 19K – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
3s
20 Ca 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4s then 3d is fill
21 Sc 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 2p
22 Ti 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2
3d
23 V 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 2s 4s
24 Cr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5
1s 3p
25 Mn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5
3s
26 Fe 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6 21Sc – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1
27 Co 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7
2p
28 Ni 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8
29 Cu 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
2s
30 Zn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10
1s
Electron Notation

Atom Positive/Negative Ion

s, p, d, f notation Noble gas notation Noble gas notation


Complete configuration Condensed configuration Complete configuration

10 Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6 10 Ne [Ne] 10 Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6 /[Ne]


11 Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 11 Na [Ne] 3s1 11 Na+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 / [Ne]
12 Mg 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 12 Mg [Ne] 3s2 12 Mg2+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 / [Ne]
13 Al 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 [Ne] 13 Al [Ne] 3s2 3p1 13 Al3+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 / [Ne]
14 Si 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 14 Si [Ne] 3s2 3p2 14 Si4+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 / [Ne]
15 P 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 15 P [Ne] 3s2 3p3 15 P3- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 /[Ar]
16 S 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 16 S [Ne] 3s2 3p4 16 S2- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 /[Ar]
17 CI 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 17 CI [Ne] 3s2 3p5 17 CI- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6/ [Ar]
18 Ar 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 18 Ar [Ar] 18 Ar [Ar]
19 K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 19 K [Ar] 4s1 19 K+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 /[Ar]
20 Ca 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 20 Ca [Ar] 4s2 20 Ca2+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 / [Ar]
21 Sc 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 21 Sc [Ar] 4s2 3d1
[Ar]
22 Ti 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2 22 Ti [Ar] 4s2 3d2
23 V 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 23 V [Ar] 4s2 3d3
24 Cr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5 24 Cr [Ar] 4s1 3d5
25 Mn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5 25 Mn [Ar] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6 26 Fe [Ar] 4s2 3d6
27 Co 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7 27 Co [Ar] 4s2 3d7
28 Ni 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8 28 Ni [Ar] 4s2 3d8
29 Cu 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10 29 Cu [Ar] 4s1 3d10
30 Zn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 30 Zn [Ar] 4s2 3d10
d block Exception to d block elements

4s energy level lower than 3d

3d
4s
3p
Electron configuration d block
3s
4s energy level lower than 3d
21Sc – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 2p
21 Sc 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1
2s
22 Ti 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2
1s
23 V 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 3d
24 Cr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5 24Cr – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s13d5 ✔ 3p
4s

25 Mn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5


3s
26 Fe 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6 24Cr – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d4 ✗ 2p
Half fill energetically more stable

27 Co 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7


28 Ni 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8 2s
1s
29 Cu 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
30 Zn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10
29Cu –1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10 ✔ 3p
4s 3d

29Cu –1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9 ✗ 3s


Half fill energetically more stable
2p

2s

1s
s block elements Periodic Table – s, p, d, f blocks elements p block elements
• s orbitals partially fill • p orbital partially fill

5 B [He] 2s2 2p1


1 H 1s1
6 C [He] 2s2 2p2
2 He 1s2
n = 2 period 2 7 N [He] 2s2 2p3
3 Li [He] 2s1 8 O [He] 2s2 2p4
4 Be [He] 2s2 9 F [He] 2s2 2p5
10 Ne [He] 2s2 2p6
11 Na [Ne] 3s1
12 Mg [Ne] 3s2 13 Al [Ne] 3s2 3p1
14 Si [Ne] 3s2 3p2
19 K [Ar] 4s1 15 P [Ne] 3s2 3p3
20 Ca [Ar] 4s2 16 S [Ne] 3s2 3p4
17 CI [Ne] 3s2 3p5

f block elements
18 Ar [Ne] 3s2 3p6
d block elements
• f orbitals partially fill
• d orbitals partially fill
• transition elements

21 Sc [Ar] 4s2 3d1


22 Ti [Ar] 4s2 3d2
Video on electron configuration
23 V [Ar] 4s2 3d13
24 Cr [Ar] 4s1 3d5
25 Mn [Ar] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [Ar] 4s2 3d6
27 Co [Ar] 4s2 3d7
28 Ni [Ar] 4s2 3d8
29 Cu [Ar] 4s1 3d10
30 Zn [Ar] 4s2 3d10 Click here electron structure Click here video on s,p,d,f notation Click here video s,p,d,f blocks,
Periodic Table – s, p, d, f blocks elements

Electron structure Electron structure Electron structure


Chromium d block (Period 4) Germanium p block, Gp 4 (Period 4) Iodine p block, Gp 7 (Period 5)

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p5
[Ar] 4s1 3d5 [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2 [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p5

d block – d partially filled Gp 4 -4 valence electron Gp 7 - 7 valence electron

Electron structure Electron structure Electron structure


Cadmium d block (Period 5) Mercury d block (Period 6) Lead p block, Gp 4 (Period 6)

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d106p2
[Kr] 5s2 4d10 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2

d block – d partially filled d block – d partially filled Gp 4 -4 valence electron


s block elements Periodic Table – s, p, d, f blocks elements p block elements
• s orbitals partially fill • p orbital partially fill

5 B [He] 2s2 2p1


1 H 1s1
6 C [He] 2s2 2p2
2 He 1s2
n = 2 period 2 7 N [He] 2s2 2p3
3 Li [He] 2s1 8 O [He] 2s2 2p4
4 Be [He] 2s2 9 F [He] 2s2 2p5
10 Ne [He] 2s2 2p6
11 Na [Ne] 3s1
12 Mg [Ne] 3s2 13 Al [Ne] 3s2 3p1
14 Si [Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d106p2
19 K [Ar] 4s1 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2 15 P [Ne] 3s2 3p3
20 Ca [Ar] 4s2 16 S [Ne] 3s2 3p4
17 CI [Ne] 3s2 3p5
18 Ar [Ne] 3s2 3p6

1 2 Write electron configuration for X, Y and Z 3 Write electron structure for ions:
Identify position elements P, Q, R, S and T
Electron configuration : • O - 1s2 2s2 2p4
P – 3s2 3p6 Element Group Period • O2- -
Q – 4s2 4p5 X 2 3 • V - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3
R – 3s2 3p6 4s2 • V3+ -
Y 15 2 • Cu - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9
S – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2
T – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 Z 18 3 • Cu2+ -
Answer Answer Answer
Element Group Period Classification X – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Write electron structure for ions:
Y – 1s2 2s2 2p3 • O - 1s2 2s2 2p4
P 8/18 3 Noble gas
• O2- -1s2 2s2 2p6
Z – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
Q 7/17 4 p block • V - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3
• V 3+ - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s0 3d2
R 2 4 s block
• Cu - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9
S 5 4 d block • Cu 2+ - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 4s0 3d9
T 8/18 4 Noble gas
Four Quantum Numbers

• Electrons arrange in specific energy level and sublevels No TWO electron have same
• Orbitals of electrons in atom differ in size, shape and orientation. 4 quantum number
• Allow states call orbitals, given by four quantum number 'n', 'l', 'm l' and ’ms’ - (n, l, ml, ms)

1 Principal Quantum Number (n): n = 1, 2, 3,.. ∞ 3 Magnetic Quantum Number (ml): ml = -l, 0, +l.
• Energy of electron and size of orbital/shell • Orientation orbital in space/direction
• Distance from nucleus, (higher n – higher energy) • mℓ range from −ℓ to ℓ,
• Larger n - farther e from nucleus – larger size orbital • ℓ = 0 -> mℓ = 0 –> s sublevel -> 1 orbital
• n=1, 1stprincipal shell ( innermost/ground shell state) • ℓ = 1 -> mℓ = -1, 0, +1 -> p sublevel -> 3 diff p orbitals
• ℓ = 2 -> mℓ = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 -> d sublevel -> 5 diff d orbitals
• (2l+ 1 ) quantum number for each ℓ value

2 Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l): l = 0 to n-1. 4 Spin Quantum Number (ms): ms = +1/2 or -1/2
• Orbital Shape • Each orbital – 2 electrons, spin up/down
• Divides shells into subshells/sublevels. • Pair electron spin opposite direction
• Letters (s, d, p, f) • One spin up, ms = +1/2
• One spin down, ms = -1/2
s orbital
• No net spin/cancel out each other– diamagnetic electron
p orbital

writing electron spin

electron spin up/down

d orbital
Principal and Angular Momentum Quantum numbers

• Electrons arrange in specific energy level and sublevels


• Orbitals of electrons in atom differ in size, shape and orientation.
• Allow states call orbitals, given by four quantum number 'n', 'l', 'm l' and ’ms’ - (n, l, ml, ms)

1
Principal Quantum Number (n): n = 1, 2, 3, …, ∞
• Energy of electron and size of orbital /shell
• Distance from nucleus, (higher n – higher energy)
• Larger n - farther e from nucleus – larger size orbital
• n=1, 1stprincipal shell ( innermost/ground shell state)

2 Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l): l = 0, ..., n-1.


• Orbital Shape
• Divides shells into subshells (sublevels) Sublevels, l
• Letters (s,p,d,f)
• < less than n-1

Quantum number, n and l

l=1 2p sublevel
n= 2

l=0 2s sublevel

n= 1 l=0
1s sublevel
1 Principal 2 Angular momentum
Quantum #, n quantum number, l
(Size , energy) (Shape of orbital)

2p sublevel – contain 2p orbital


2nd energy level Has TWO sublevels
2s sublevel – contain 2s orbital 1 Principal Quantum 2 Angular Momentum
Number (n) Quantum Number (l)

1st energy level Has ONE sublevel 1s sublevel – contain 1s orbital


Electronic Orbitals

Simulation Electronic Orbitals


n = 1, 2, 3,…. Allowed values l = 0 to n-1 Allowed values ml = -l, 0, +l- (2l+ 1 ) for each ℓ value

ml =+2 3dx2 – y2 orbital

ml =+1 3dyz orbital

l=2 3d sublevel
ml = 0 3dz2 orbital
Energy Level

ml =-1 3dxz orbital

ml =-2 3dxy orbital

ml =+1 3pz orbital Click here to view simulation

n= 3 l=1 3p sublevel ml = 0 3py orbital

ml =-1 3px orbital

l=0 3s sublevel ml = 0 3s orbital

ml =+1 2py orbital

2pz orbital
l=1 2p sublevel ml = 0

n= 2 ml =-1 2px orbital Click here to view simulation

l=0 2s sublevel ml =0 2s orbital

n= 1 l=0 1s sublevel ml =0 1s orbital

1 Principal 2 Angular momentum 3 Magnetic Quantum


Quantum #, n quantum number, l Number (ml)
(Size , energy) (Shape of orbital) (Orientation orbital)
Click here to view simulation
Quantum Numbers and Electronic Orbitals

3dx2 – y2orbital
ml =+2
Simulation Electronic Orbitals
Energy Level
ml =+1 3dyz orbital

l=2 3d sublevel ml = 0 3dz2 orbital

ml =-1 3dxz orbital

Click here to view simulation


n= 3

ml =-2 3dxy orbital

ml =+1 3py orbital

l=1 3p sublevel ml = 0 3pz orbital

ml =-1 3px orbital


Click here to view simulation

l=0 3s sublevel ml = 0 3s orbital

ml =+1 2py orbital

l=1 2p sublevel ml = 0 2pz orbital

n= 2
ml =-1
2px orbital

l=0 2s sublevel ml =0
2s orbital

n= 1 l=0 1s sublevel ml =0 1s orbital Click here to view simulation


Quantum number No TWO electron have same Quantum number = genetic code for electron
Concept Map 4 quantum number

What are these 4 numbers?


(1, 0, 0, +1/2) 0r (3, 1, 1, +1/2)

4 numbers

Electron has special number codes


n l ml ms

Size/distance Shape Orientation Electron spin

Number + letter

1 Electron with quantum number given below

(n,l,ml,,ms) – (1, 0, 0, +1/2) 1s orbital

(n,l,ml,,ms) – (3, 1, 1, +1/2) 3py orbital

2 What values of l, ml, allow for n = 3? How many orbitals exists for n=3?
Video on Quantum numbers

For n=3 -> l = n -1 =2 -> ml = -l, 0, +l -> -2, -1, 0, +1, +2


• mℓ range from −ℓ to ℓ,
• ℓ = 0 -> mℓ = 0 –> s sublevel -> 1 orbital
• ℓ = 1 -> mℓ = -1, 0, +1 -> p sublevel -> 3 diff p orbitals
• ℓ = 2 -> mℓ = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 -> d sublevel -> 5 diff d orbitals
• (2l+ 1 ) quantum number for each ℓ value
Answer = nine ml values – 9 orbitals/total # orbitals = n 2
Click here video on quantum number Click here video on quantum number