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But despite these hindrances, one of the vital part of Gujarat agriculture is that the cropping

pattern in Gujarat is predominant with cash crops. The production of cotton in Gujarat is highest as
compared to any part of the country. Some of the major cash crops grow in this region are:

• cotton
• groundnut
• tobacco
• cumin
• sugarcane
• jawar
• bajra
• rice
• wheat
• pulses
• tur
• gram
• mangoes
• jamun
• guava, etc.

Agriculture in Gujarat also contributes a fair amount of forest products and different kinds of
medicinal or herbal plants. Among the important forest products and herbs, we can name a few:

• honey
• wax
• bamboo
• teak
• khair
• sadad
• hadariyo
• manual bamboo, etc.

Talking about the areas that are instrumental in enhancing the economic status of the state by its
contributions in agricultural production, we can name a few. In fact, Valsad, a small province in
Gujarat, is India's first integrated horticulture district. Some of the regions that contribute a major
share in agriculture of Gujarat are:

• Kaira
• Baroda
• Broach
• Surat, etc.

Thus, as it is evident, Gujarat, inspite of an unfavorable climate is blessed with a wide range of
agricultural yields. These crops not only contribute towards the needs of Gujarat, but it also helps
the neighboring states to compensate its agricultural deficiency.
Agriculture

Agriculture in Gujarat forms a vital sector of the state's economy.


It has to provide the required food grains for the state's
population and raw materials for most of the agro-based industries. Unsuitable climatic
conditions in some parts and rocky terrain with thin or no soils in others, have limited the
area suitable for cultivation. The difficulty of drainage in coastal areas and in the two
Ranns has made a large part of the state agriculturally unproductive.

The state's agricultural productivity is low. The yields are poor and in most cases do not
even approach the low level of average yield for the country. Low yields result from poor
soils, inadequate rainfall, frequent droughts and floods, bad drainage and undeveloped
irrigation facilities. A characteristic feature of the state's agriculture is its cropping pattern
un-proportionately dominated by cash crops. The high yield of cotton in fact the highest
in the country, reflects the overall emphasis on cash crops, which have claimed the best
agricultural land.

A higher percentage of the land is used for cultivation in central Gujarat. Kaira, Baroda,
Broach and Surat districts are the main contributors to the agricultural production of the
state. Valsad has become India's first integrated horticulture district.

The state produces a large variety of crops and its cropping pattern reflects the spatial
variations in climate and topography. Groundnut (highest production in the country),
cotton, Tobacco (second highest production in the country), isabgul, cumin sugarcane,
Jawar, Bajra, Rice, Wheat, Pulses, Tur and Gram are the important crops of Gujarat.
Another cash crop which has recently entered the field though in a few selected localities
is banana. Plenty of mangoes for export as well as home consumption are part of cash
crops.

Honey, wax and bamboo are produced in fair quantities in different forests and medicinal
herbs and fruits like Jamun and guava are produced in plenty. Forests also yield
considerable quantities of teak, Khair, sadad, hadariyo, manual bamboos and such good
quality of wood.
Agriculture sector in Gujarat is a matter of envy for all those, who have failed to capitalize on
the entrepreneurial aspect of farming. The farmers in Gujarat have maintained a tendency of
capitalizing on their farms, even if by changing crop pattern quite frequently.

Unlike farmers in some of the highly agrarian states like Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and
Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat-based farmers have emerged as an agri-entrepreneur by doing
farming with all calculations so as to maximize on their investments. Historically, Gujarat-
based farmers have followed a practice of profit maximization by experimenting with their
farms.

The brave-heart farmers of Gujarat is probably the only community in India to challenge
nature by applying different farming practices to their farms. Gujarat is the only state in India
to have adopted country’s first genetically modified crop, BT Cotton. Not only this, but the
State has one of the largest non-branded varieties of Bt-seed officially or unofficially being
sold.

This quality of farmers has placed Gujarat in a distinct category in the country’s agriculture
sector, with annual growth rate of over 12% consistently for past couple of years. The
cropping pattern in state has remained dynamic with changing preferences of farmers. Cash
crops including oilseeds, tobacco, spices etc have remained favourite among the state
farmer community. However, depending on the rains and market pricing, farmers have
remained shifting from oilseeds to cotton and vice-versa.

A latest report from the state government indicated that the cropping pattern has been
shifted in some of the areas for bajra, paddy, groundnut and sesamum to other crops like
castor, cotton and fodder crops due to delayed monsoon in recent years. But the expertise of
farmers in wealth creation from farming activity has grown manifolds over past several years
with focus shifting to horticulture crops.

The major fruit crops grown in Gujarat include banana, mango, citrus and sapota (Chikoo),
while major vegetables are onion, potato, brinjal, tomato, okra and cucumbits. The average
productivity of fruit crops is estimated at 17.67 MT/ha, while that in vegetables is estimated at
17.24 MT/ha.

Looking at the high productivity and attractive prices, farmers are attracted to take up
horticulture farming as a mainline farming in coming years. Joined by this, farmers from
different geographical regions of the State have also started focusing on agro-processing by
employing latest food processing technology. Gujarat, as it is known, is divided into seven
sub agro-climatic zones, which provides potential for the farmers to specialize in a particular
crop thereby developing entire value-chain attached to it.

In the year 2009-10, the production of fruits, vegetables, spices and flowers is estimated at
65 lakh tonnes, 69 lakh tonnes, 6.5 lakh tonnes and 0.90 lakh tonnes respectively, which is
significantly up from the year 2007-08, when the production was reported at 60.20 lakh
tonnes, 74.03 lakh tonnes, 9.67 lakh tonnes and 0.84 lakh tonnes respectively.

This is joined with the improved infrastructure facilities like irrigation, power and
transportation. Narmada canal networking has proved to be an incentive for farmers to stay
invested in the agriculture and participate in the value –based faring. Narmada project is the
World's largest irrigation network made possible by the Sardar Sarovar Project on Narmada
with the Dam height raised from 90 meters to 121.9 meters. However, the canal has not yet
derived its desired results, but farmers and those involved in the agriculture-based activities
are hopeful to get benefits of the canal once it is fully functional.

In order to encourage agro-processing sector and assist farmers to take up value-based


farming, the state government has also floated a state venture, Gujarat agro-industries
corporation (GAIC), which assists farmers in developing horticulture crops and providing
them a platform to yield greater returns.

Experts in the industry have maintained that the State holds major contribution in India’s
exports of some of the key agriculture commodities including cotton, sesame seed, onion,
cumin and isabgul. Gujarat is at the top position in spices exports with revenues coming from
spices exports totaling at Rs.3,000 crore.

In the processed food products, different varieties of fruit pulp including mango pulp, guava
pulp and banana pulp are also being exported from Gujarat. The total export revenue from
processed and non-processed agriculture produces stands at Rs.15,000 to Rs.16,000 per
year.

Looking at the potential in the agriculture sector, Gujarat is enjoying a premium position with
bright future ahead not only in the agro-processing but also in the alternative agriculture
crops too. The State has marked its presence in the industrial activities, but looking at the
growth potential seen with the state agriculture sector, the industry is all set to blossom to its
fullest in the coming years.
The kharif cereals other than rice. Maize, jowar and bajra form the main kharif cereals,
whereas ragi and small millets come next and are grown on a limited area. by and large, maize is
a crop grown commonly in high-rainfall areas, or on soils with a better capacity for retaining
moisture, but with good drainage. Next comes jowar in the medium rainfall regions whereas bajra
has been the main crop in areas with low or less dependable rainfall and on light textured soils.
The extent of the area under these crops during the south-westerly monsoon season is maize,
5.6 m ha; jowar (kharif), 11 mha, and bajra,12.4 m ha. Even though these crops are spread all
over the western, northern and southern India, the regions of these crops patterns are
demarcated well to the west of 80o longitude (except that of maize). Ragi as a kharif cereal (2.4 m
ha) is mainly concentrated in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh which account for main
than 60 per cent of the total area under this crop in India. The cropping patterns based on each of
these kharif cereals are discussed.

The maize-based cropping patterns. The largest area under the kharif maize is in Uttar
Pradesh (1.4m ha), followed by Bihar (0.96 m ha), Rajasthan (0.78 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.58
m ha) and Punjab (0.52 m ha). In four states namely Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, the area under maize ranges from 0.24 to 0.28 m ha in each,
whereas other states have much less area under it. Taking the rainfall of the maize growing areas
under consideration, over 72 per cent of the areas receive 20-30 cm per month of rainfall in at
least two months or more during the south westerly monsoon season.

On the all-India basis, about 12 cropping patterns have been identified. They have maize as the
base crop. In the maize growing areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, rice in kharif and wheat in rabi
are the main alternative crops. In some areas, bajra, groundnut, sugarcane, ragi and pulses are
taken as alternative crops. In Rajasthan maize is grown as an extensive crop in some areas,
whereas at other places, it is replaced by small millets, pulses, groundnut and wheat(rabi) as
alternative crop. in madhya Pradesh mainly the kharif jowar is replaced by maize, whereas rice
and groundnut are also grown to a limited extent. In Punjab maize has groundnut, fodder crops
and wheat(rabi) as alternative crops. In other states, e.g. Gujarat, rice, groundnut, cotton and
wheat form the alternative crops in the maize-growing areas of Himachal Pradesh, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, rice, kharif jowar, and oilseeds are grown in these areas.

The kharif jowar-based cropping patterns. The area under the kharif jowar in India is highest in
Maharashtra (2.5 m ha), closely followed by madhya Pradesh (2.3 m ha), whereas in each of the
states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, the area under this crops is
between 1.0 and 1.4 m ha. Jowar is mainly grown where rainfall distribution ranges from 10-20
per month at least for 3 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon or is still more abundant.

On the all-India basis, about 17 major cropping patterns have been identified. In them the base
crops is kharif jowar. Most of the alternative crops are also of the type which can be grown under
medium rainfall.

In Maharashtra cotton, pulses, groundnut and small millets are sown as alternative crops. In the
adjacent states of Madhya Pradesh, besides the above alternative crops, wheat and fodder are
sown. In Rajasthan wheat, cotton, bajra and maize are grown in the kharif-jowar tract, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, groundnuts, cotton, oilseeds and pulses form the main alternative crops.
Besides cotton and groundnut, ragi is sown in the kharif-jowar tarct of Karnataka, whereas in
Gujarat, bajra, cotton and groundnut are the major alternative crops.

The bajra-based cropping patterns. Bajra is more drought-resistent crop than several other
cereal crops and is generally preferred in low-rainfall areas and on light soils. The area under the
bajra crop in India is about 12.4 m ha and Rajasthan (4.6 m ha) shares about the 2/3 total area.
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh together have over 4.6 m ha, constituting an additional
1/3 area under bajra, in India. Over 66 per cent of this crop is grown in areas receiving 10-20 cm
per month of rainfall, extending over 1 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon.

On the all-India basis, about 20 major cropping patterns have been identified with bajra. However,
it may be observed that jowar and bajra are grown mostly under identical environmental
conditions and both have a wide spectrum adaptability in respect of rainfall, temperature and
rainfall.

Considering the cropping patterns in different states, bajra is grown along with pulses, groundnut,
oilseeds and kharif jowar in Rajasthan. Gujarat has a similar cropping pattern in its bajra areas,
except that cotton and tobacco are also grown. In Maharashtra besides having some areas solely
under bajra, pulses, wheat, rabi jowar, groundnut and cotton are substituted for it. In Uttar
Pradesh, maize, rice and wheat form the main alternative crops to this crop.

The groundnut based cropping patterns. Groundnut is sown over an area of about 7.2 m ha,
mostly in five major groundnut-producing states of Gujarat (24.4 per cent area), Andhra Pradesh
(20.2) per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.5 per cent), Maharashtra (12.2 per cent) and Karnataka (12.0
per cent). Five other states viz. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Orissa
together have about 17.3 per cent of the total area under this crop. The rainfall in the groundnut
area ranges from 20-30 cm per month in one of the monsoon months and much less in the other
months. In some cases the rainfall is even less than 10 cm. per month during the growth of the
crop. The irrigated area under groundnut is very small and that too, in a few states only, viz.
Punjab(16.4 per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.3 per cent)and Andhra Pradesh (12.5 per cent).

On the all-India level, about 9 cropping patterns have been identified with this crop. In Gujarat
besides the sole crop of groundnut in some areas, bajra, is the major alternative crop, whereas
the kharif jowar, cotton and pulses are also grown in this tract. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu, this crop receives irrigation in some areas and rice forms an alternative crop. Under rainfed
conditions, bajra, kharif jowar, small millets, cotton and pulses are grown as alternative crops. In
Maharashtra both the kharif and rabi jowar and small millets are important alternative crops. In
Karnataka also, jowar is the major alternative crop, whereas cotton, tobacco, sugarcane and
wheat are also grown in this tract.

The cotton-based cropping patterns. Cotton is grown over 7.6 m ha in India. Maharashtra
shares 36 per cent (2.8 m ha), followed by Gujarat with 21 per cent (1.6 m ha), Karnataka with 13
per cent (1 m ha) and Madhya Pradesh with 9 per cent (0.6 m ha) of the area. Together, these
four states account for about 80 per cent of the area under cotton. Other cottom-growing states
with smaller areas are Punjab, with 5 per cent (0.4 m ha), Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu each
with 4 per cent (0.31 m ha), Haryana and Rajasthan with 3 per cent of each (0.2 m ha each).
Most of the coton areas in the country are under the high to medium rainfall zone. The cotton
grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh (4.8 m ha) is rainfed,
whereas in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu (1.93 m ha) it receives partial irrigation 16-20 per cent of the
area). The area under cotton in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (0.8 m ha)gets
adequate irigation, randing from 71 to 97 per cent of the area. These growing conditions, together
with the species of cotton grown, determine the duration of the crop which may vary from about 5
to 9 months.

On the all-India basis, about 16 broad cropping pattens have been identified. In Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the cropping patterns in the cotton-growing
areas are mostly similar owing to identical rainfall. These patterns include jowar (kharif and rabi),
groundnut and small millets. Pulses and wheat are also grown in a limited area. In some pockets,
wher irrigation is available, rice and sugarcane are also grown. In Gujarat, rice, tobacco and
maize are grown, besides the rainfed crops, e.g. jowar and bajra.
The kharif cereals other than rice. Maize, jowar and bajra form the main kharif cereals,
whereas ragi and small millets come next and are grown on a limited area. by and large, maize is
a crop grown commonly in high-rainfall areas, or on soils with a better capacity for retaining
moisture, but with good drainage. Next comes jowar in the medium rainfall regions whereas bajra
has been the main crop in areas with low or less dependable rainfall and on light textured soils.
The extent of the area under these crops during the south-westerly monsoon season is maize,
5.6 m ha; jowar (kharif), 11 mha, and bajra,12.4 m ha. Even though these crops are spread all
over the western, northern and southern India, the regions of these crops patterns are
demarcated well to the west of 80o longitude (except that of maize). Ragi as a kharif cereal (2.4 m
ha) is mainly concentrated in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh which account for main
than 60 per cent of the total area under this crop in India. The cropping patterns based on each of
these kharif cereals are discussed.

The maize-based cropping patterns. The largest area under the kharif maize is in Uttar
Pradesh (1.4m ha), followed by Bihar (0.96 m ha), Rajasthan (0.78 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.58
m ha) and Punjab (0.52 m ha). In four states namely Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, the area under maize ranges from 0.24 to 0.28 m ha in each,
whereas other states have much less area under it. Taking the rainfall of the maize growing areas
under consideration, over 72 per cent of the areas receive 20-30 cm per month of rainfall in at
least two months or more during the south westerly monsoon season.

On the all-India basis, about 12 cropping patterns have been identified. They have maize as the
base crop. In the maize growing areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, rice in kharif and wheat in rabi
are the main alternative crops. In some areas, bajra, groundnut, sugarcane, ragi and pulses are
taken as alternative crops. In Rajasthan maize is grown as an extensive crop in some areas,
whereas at other places, it is replaced by small millets, pulses, groundnut and wheat(rabi) as
alternative crop. in madhya Pradesh mainly the kharif jowar is replaced by maize, whereas rice
and groundnut are also grown to a limited extent. In Punjab maize has groundnut, fodder crops
and wheat(rabi) as alternative crops. In other states, e.g. Gujarat, rice, groundnut, cotton and
wheat form the alternative crops in the maize-growing areas of Himachal Pradesh, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, rice, kharif jowar, and oilseeds are grown in these areas.

The kharif jowar-based cropping patterns. The area under the kharif jowar in India is highest in
Maharashtra (2.5 m ha), closely followed by madhya Pradesh (2.3 m ha), whereas in each of the
states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, the area under this crops is
between 1.0 and 1.4 m ha. Jowar is mainly grown where rainfall distribution ranges from 10-20
per month at least for 3 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon or is still more abundant.

On the all-India basis, about 17 major cropping patterns have been identified. In them the base
crops is kharif jowar. Most of the alternative crops are also of the type which can be grown under
medium rainfall.

In Maharashtra cotton, pulses, groundnut and small millets are sown as alternative crops. In the
adjacent states of Madhya Pradesh, besides the above alternative crops, wheat and fodder are
sown. In Rajasthan wheat, cotton, bajra and maize are grown in the kharif-jowar tract, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, groundnuts, cotton, oilseeds and pulses form the main alternative crops.
Besides cotton and groundnut, ragi is sown in the kharif-jowar tarct of Karnataka, whereas in
Gujarat, bajra, cotton and groundnut are the major alternative crops.

The bajra-based cropping patterns. Bajra is more drought-resistent crop than several other
cereal crops and is generally preferred in low-rainfall areas and on light soils. The area under the
bajra crop in India is about 12.4 m ha and Rajasthan (4.6 m ha) shares about the 2/3 total area.
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh together have over 4.6 m ha, constituting an additional
1/3 area under bajra, in India. Over 66 per cent of this crop is grown in areas receiving 10-20 cm
per month of rainfall, extending over 1 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon.
On the all-India basis, about 20 major cropping patterns have been identified with bajra. However,
it may be observed that jowar and bajra are grown mostly under identical environmental
conditions and both have a wide spectrum adaptability in respect of rainfall, temperature and
rainfall.

Considering the cropping patterns in different states, bajra is grown along with pulses, groundnut,
oilseeds and kharif jowar in Rajasthan. Gujarat has a similar cropping pattern in its bajra areas,
except that cotton and tobacco are also grown. In Maharashtra besides having some areas solely
under bajra, pulses, wheat, rabi jowar, groundnut and cotton are substituted for it. In Uttar
Pradesh, maize, rice and wheat form the main alternative crops to this crop.

The groundnut based cropping patterns. Groundnut is sown over an area of about 7.2 m ha,
mostly in five major groundnut-producing states of Gujarat (24.4 per cent area), Andhra Pradesh
(20.2) per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.5 per cent), Maharashtra (12.2 per cent) and Karnataka (12.0
per cent). Five other states viz. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Orissa
together have about 17.3 per cent of the total area under this crop. The rainfall in the groundnut
area ranges from 20-30 cm per month in one of the monsoon months and much less in the other
months. In some cases the rainfall is even less than 10 cm. per month during the growth of the
crop. The irrigated area under groundnut is very small and that too, in a few states only, viz.
Punjab(16.4 per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.3 per cent)and Andhra Pradesh (12.5 per cent).

On the all-India level, about 9 cropping patterns have been identified with this crop. In Gujarat
besides the sole crop of groundnut in some areas, bajra, is the major alternative crop, whereas
the kharif jowar, cotton and pulses are also grown in this tract. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu, this crop receives irrigation in some areas and rice forms an alternative crop. Under rainfed
conditions, bajra, kharif jowar, small millets, cotton and pulses are grown as alternative crops. In
Maharashtra both the kharif and rabi jowar and small millets are important alternative crops. In
Karnataka also, jowar is the major alternative crop, whereas cotton, tobacco, sugarcane and
wheat are also grown in this tract.

The cotton-based cropping patterns. Cotton is grown over 7.6 m ha in India. Maharashtra
shares 36 per cent (2.8 m ha), followed by Gujarat with 21 per cent (1.6 m ha), Karnataka with 13
per cent (1 m ha) and Madhya Pradesh with 9 per cent (0.6 m ha) of the area. Together, these
four states account for about 80 per cent of the area under cotton. Other cottom-growing states
with smaller areas are Punjab, with 5 per cent (0.4 m ha), Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu each
with 4 per cent (0.31 m ha), Haryana and Rajasthan with 3 per cent of each (0.2 m ha each).
Most of the coton areas in the country are under the high to medium rainfall zone. The cotton
grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh (4.8 m ha) is rainfed,
whereas in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu (1.93 m ha) it receives partial irrigation 16-20 per cent of the
area). The area under cotton in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (0.8 m ha)gets
adequate irigation, randing from 71 to 97 per cent of the area. These growing conditions, together
with the species of cotton grown, determine the duration of the crop which may vary from about 5
to 9 months.

On the all-India basis, about 16 broad cropping pattens have been identified. In Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the cropping patterns in the cotton-growing
areas are mostly similar owing to identical rainfall. These patterns include jowar (kharif and rabi),
groundnut and small millets. Pulses and wheat are also grown in a limited area. In some pockets,
wher irrigation is available, rice and sugarcane are also grown. In Gujarat, rice, tobacco and
maize are grown, besides the rainfed crops, e.g. jowar and bajra.

The kharif cereals other than rice. Maize, jowar and bajra form the main kharif cereals,
whereas ragi and small millets come next and are grown on a limited area. by and large, maize is
a crop grown commonly in high-rainfall areas, or on soils with a better capacity for retaining
moisture, but with good drainage. Next comes jowar in the medium rainfall regions whereas bajra
has been the main crop in areas with low or less dependable rainfall and on light textured soils.
The extent of the area under these crops during the south-westerly monsoon season is maize,
5.6 m ha; jowar (kharif), 11 mha, and bajra,12.4 m ha. Even though these crops are spread all
over the western, northern and southern India, the regions of these crops patterns are
demarcated well to the west of 80o longitude (except that of maize). Ragi as a kharif cereal (2.4 m
ha) is mainly concentrated in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh which account for main
than 60 per cent of the total area under this crop in India. The cropping patterns based on each of
these kharif cereals are discussed.

The maize-based cropping patterns. The largest area under the kharif maize is in Uttar
Pradesh (1.4m ha), followed by Bihar (0.96 m ha), Rajasthan (0.78 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.58
m ha) and Punjab (0.52 m ha). In four states namely Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, the area under maize ranges from 0.24 to 0.28 m ha in each,
whereas other states have much less area under it. Taking the rainfall of the maize growing areas
under consideration, over 72 per cent of the areas receive 20-30 cm per month of rainfall in at
least two months or more during the south westerly monsoon season.

On the all-India basis, about 12 cropping patterns have been identified. They have maize as the
base crop. In the maize growing areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, rice in kharif and wheat in rabi
are the main alternative crops. In some areas, bajra, groundnut, sugarcane, ragi and pulses are
taken as alternative crops. In Rajasthan maize is grown as an extensive crop in some areas,
whereas at other places, it is replaced by small millets, pulses, groundnut and wheat(rabi) as
alternative crop. in madhya Pradesh mainly the kharif jowar is replaced by maize, whereas rice
and groundnut are also grown to a limited extent. In Punjab maize has groundnut, fodder crops
and wheat(rabi) as alternative crops. In other states, e.g. Gujarat, rice, groundnut, cotton and
wheat form the alternative crops in the maize-growing areas of Himachal Pradesh, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, rice, kharif jowar, and oilseeds are grown in these areas.

The kharif jowar-based cropping patterns. The area under the kharif jowar in India is highest in
Maharashtra (2.5 m ha), closely followed by madhya Pradesh (2.3 m ha), whereas in each of the
states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, the area under this crops is
between 1.0 and 1.4 m ha. Jowar is mainly grown where rainfall distribution ranges from 10-20
per month at least for 3 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon or is still more abundant.

On the all-India basis, about 17 major cropping patterns have been identified. In them the base
crops is kharif jowar. Most of the alternative crops are also of the type which can be grown under
medium rainfall.

In Maharashtra cotton, pulses, groundnut and small millets are sown as alternative crops. In the
adjacent states of Madhya Pradesh, besides the above alternative crops, wheat and fodder are
sown. In Rajasthan wheat, cotton, bajra and maize are grown in the kharif-jowar tract, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, groundnuts, cotton, oilseeds and pulses form the main alternative crops.
Besides cotton and groundnut, ragi is sown in the kharif-jowar tarct of Karnataka, whereas in
Gujarat, bajra, cotton and groundnut are the major alternative crops.

The bajra-based cropping patterns. Bajra is more drought-resistent crop than several other
cereal crops and is generally preferred in low-rainfall areas and on light soils. The area under the
bajra crop in India is about 12.4 m ha and Rajasthan (4.6 m ha) shares about the 2/3 total area.
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh together have over 4.6 m ha, constituting an additional
1/3 area under bajra, in India. Over 66 per cent of this crop is grown in areas receiving 10-20 cm
per month of rainfall, extending over 1 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon.

On the all-India basis, about 20 major cropping patterns have been identified with bajra. However,
it may be observed that jowar and bajra are grown mostly under identical environmental
conditions and both have a wide spectrum adaptability in respect of rainfall, temperature and
rainfall.

Considering the cropping patterns in different states, bajra is grown along with pulses, groundnut,
oilseeds and kharif jowar in Rajasthan. Gujarat has a similar cropping pattern in its bajra areas,
except that cotton and tobacco are also grown. In Maharashtra besides having some areas solely
under bajra, pulses, wheat, rabi jowar, groundnut and cotton are substituted for it. In Uttar
Pradesh, maize, rice and wheat form the main alternative crops to this crop.

The groundnut based cropping patterns. Groundnut is sown over an area of about 7.2 m ha,
mostly in five major groundnut-producing states of Gujarat (24.4 per cent area), Andhra Pradesh
(20.2) per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.5 per cent), Maharashtra (12.2 per cent) and Karnataka (12.0
per cent). Five other states viz. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Orissa
together have about 17.3 per cent of the total area under this crop. The rainfall in the groundnut
area ranges from 20-30 cm per month in one of the monsoon months and much less in the other
months. In some cases the rainfall is even less than 10 cm. per month during the growth of the
crop. The irrigated area under groundnut is very small and that too, in a few states only, viz.
Punjab(16.4 per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.3 per cent)and Andhra Pradesh (12.5 per cent).

On the all-India level, about 9 cropping patterns have been identified with this crop. In Gujarat
besides the sole crop of groundnut in some areas, bajra, is the major alternative crop, whereas
the kharif jowar, cotton and pulses are also grown in this tract. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu, this crop receives irrigation in some areas and rice forms an alternative crop. Under rainfed
conditions, bajra, kharif jowar, small millets, cotton and pulses are grown as alternative crops. In
Maharashtra both the kharif and rabi jowar and small millets are important alternative crops. In
Karnataka also, jowar is the major alternative crop, whereas cotton, tobacco, sugarcane and
wheat are also grown in this tract.

The cotton-based cropping patterns. Cotton is grown over 7.6 m ha in India. Maharashtra
shares 36 per cent (2.8 m ha), followed by Gujarat with 21 per cent (1.6 m ha), Karnataka with 13
per cent (1 m ha) and Madhya Pradesh with 9 per cent (0.6 m ha) of the area. Together, these
four states account for about 80 per cent of the area under cotton. Other cottom-growing states
with smaller areas are Punjab, with 5 per cent (0.4 m ha), Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu each
with 4 per cent (0.31 m ha), Haryana and Rajasthan with 3 per cent of each (0.2 m ha each).
Most of the coton areas in the country are under the high to medium rainfall zone. The cotton
grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh (4.8 m ha) is rainfed,
whereas in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu (1.93 m ha) it receives partial irrigation 16-20 per cent of the
area). The area under cotton in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (0.8 m ha)gets
adequate irigation, randing from 71 to 97 per cent of the area. These growing conditions, together
with the species of cotton grown, determine the duration of the crop which may vary from about 5
to 9 months.

On the all-India basis, about 16 broad cropping pattens have been identified. In Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the cropping patterns in the cotton-growing
areas are mostly similar owing to identical rainfall. These patterns include jowar (kharif and rabi),
groundnut and small millets. Pulses and wheat are also grown in a limited area. In some pockets,
wher irrigation is available, rice and sugarcane are also grown. In Gujarat, rice, tobacco and
maize are grown, besides the rainfed crops, e.g. jowar and bajra.

The kharif cereals other than rice. Maize, jowar and bajra form the main kharif cereals,
whereas ragi and small millets come next and are grown on a limited area. by and large, maize is
a crop grown commonly in high-rainfall areas, or on soils with a better capacity for retaining
moisture, but with good drainage. Next comes jowar in the medium rainfall regions whereas bajra
has been the main crop in areas with low or less dependable rainfall and on light textured soils.
The extent of the area under these crops during the south-westerly monsoon season is maize,
5.6 m ha; jowar (kharif), 11 mha, and bajra,12.4 m ha. Even though these crops are spread all
over the western, northern and southern India, the regions of these crops patterns are
demarcated well to the west of 80o longitude (except that of maize). Ragi as a kharif cereal (2.4 m
ha) is mainly concentrated in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh which account for main
than 60 per cent of the total area under this crop in India. The cropping patterns based on each of
these kharif cereals are discussed.

The maize-based cropping patterns. The largest area under the kharif maize is in Uttar
Pradesh (1.4m ha), followed by Bihar (0.96 m ha), Rajasthan (0.78 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.58
m ha) and Punjab (0.52 m ha). In four states namely Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, the area under maize ranges from 0.24 to 0.28 m ha in each,
whereas other states have much less area under it. Taking the rainfall of the maize growing areas
under consideration, over 72 per cent of the areas receive 20-30 cm per month of rainfall in at
least two months or more during the south westerly monsoon season.

On the all-India basis, about 12 cropping patterns have been identified. They have maize as the
base crop. In the maize growing areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, rice in kharif and wheat in rabi
are the main alternative crops. In some areas, bajra, groundnut, sugarcane, ragi and pulses are
taken as alternative crops. In Rajasthan maize is grown as an extensive crop in some areas,
whereas at other places, it is replaced by small millets, pulses, groundnut and wheat(rabi) as
alternative crop. in madhya Pradesh mainly the kharif jowar is replaced by maize, whereas rice
and groundnut are also grown to a limited extent. In Punjab maize has groundnut, fodder crops
and wheat(rabi) as alternative crops. In other states, e.g. Gujarat, rice, groundnut, cotton and
wheat form the alternative crops in the maize-growing areas of Himachal Pradesh, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, rice, kharif jowar, and oilseeds are grown in these areas.

The kharif jowar-based cropping patterns. The area under the kharif jowar in India is highest in
Maharashtra (2.5 m ha), closely followed by madhya Pradesh (2.3 m ha), whereas in each of the
states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, the area under this crops is
between 1.0 and 1.4 m ha. Jowar is mainly grown where rainfall distribution ranges from 10-20
per month at least for 3 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon or is still more abundant.

On the all-India basis, about 17 major cropping patterns have been identified. In them the base
crops is kharif jowar. Most of the alternative crops are also of the type which can be grown under
medium rainfall.

In Maharashtra cotton, pulses, groundnut and small millets are sown as alternative crops. In the
adjacent states of Madhya Pradesh, besides the above alternative crops, wheat and fodder are
sown. In Rajasthan wheat, cotton, bajra and maize are grown in the kharif-jowar tract, whereas in
Andhra Pradesh, groundnuts, cotton, oilseeds and pulses form the main alternative crops.
Besides cotton and groundnut, ragi is sown in the kharif-jowar tarct of Karnataka, whereas in
Gujarat, bajra, cotton and groundnut are the major alternative crops.

The bajra-based cropping patterns. Bajra is more drought-resistent crop than several other
cereal crops and is generally preferred in low-rainfall areas and on light soils. The area under the
bajra crop in India is about 12.4 m ha and Rajasthan (4.6 m ha) shares about the 2/3 total area.
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh together have over 4.6 m ha, constituting an additional
1/3 area under bajra, in India. Over 66 per cent of this crop is grown in areas receiving 10-20 cm
per month of rainfall, extending over 1 to 4 months of the south-westerly monsoon.

On the all-India basis, about 20 major cropping patterns have been identified with bajra. However,
it may be observed that jowar and bajra are grown mostly under identical environmental
conditions and both have a wide spectrum adaptability in respect of rainfall, temperature and
rainfall.
Considering the cropping patterns in different states, bajra is grown along with pulses, groundnut,
oilseeds and kharif jowar in Rajasthan. Gujarat has a similar cropping pattern in its bajra areas,
except that cotton and tobacco are also grown. In Maharashtra besides having some areas solely
under bajra, pulses, wheat, rabi jowar, groundnut and cotton are substituted for it. In Uttar
Pradesh, maize, rice and wheat form the main alternative crops to this crop.

The groundnut based cropping patterns. Groundnut is sown over an area of about 7.2 m ha,
mostly in five major groundnut-producing states of Gujarat (24.4 per cent area), Andhra Pradesh
(20.2) per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.5 per cent), Maharashtra (12.2 per cent) and Karnataka (12.0
per cent). Five other states viz. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Orissa
together have about 17.3 per cent of the total area under this crop. The rainfall in the groundnut
area ranges from 20-30 cm per month in one of the monsoon months and much less in the other
months. In some cases the rainfall is even less than 10 cm. per month during the growth of the
crop. The irrigated area under groundnut is very small and that too, in a few states only, viz.
Punjab(16.4 per cent), Tamil Nadu (13.3 per cent)and Andhra Pradesh (12.5 per cent).

On the all-India level, about 9 cropping patterns have been identified with this crop. In Gujarat
besides the sole crop of groundnut in some areas, bajra, is the major alternative crop, whereas
the kharif jowar, cotton and pulses are also grown in this tract. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu, this crop receives irrigation in some areas and rice forms an alternative crop. Under rainfed
conditions, bajra, kharif jowar, small millets, cotton and pulses are grown as alternative crops. In
Maharashtra both the kharif and rabi jowar and small millets are important alternative crops. In
Karnataka also, jowar is the major alternative crop, whereas cotton, tobacco, sugarcane and
wheat are also grown in this tract.

The cotton-based cropping patterns. Cotton is grown over 7.6 m ha in India. Maharashtra
shares 36 per cent (2.8 m ha), followed by Gujarat with 21 per cent (1.6 m ha), Karnataka with 13
per cent (1 m ha) and Madhya Pradesh with 9 per cent (0.6 m ha) of the area. Together, these
four states account for about 80 per cent of the area under cotton. Other cottom-growing states
with smaller areas are Punjab, with 5 per cent (0.4 m ha), Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu each
with 4 per cent (0.31 m ha), Haryana and Rajasthan with 3 per cent of each (0.2 m ha each).
Most of the coton areas in the country are under the high to medium rainfall zone. The cotton
grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh (4.8 m ha) is rainfed,
whereas in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu (1.93 m ha) it receives partial irrigation 16-20 per cent of the
area). The area under cotton in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (0.8 m ha)gets
adequate irigation, randing from 71 to 97 per cent of the area. These growing conditions, together
with the species of cotton grown, determine the duration of the crop which may vary from about 5
to 9 months.

On the all-India basis, about 16 broad cropping pattens have been identified. In Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the cropping patterns in the cotton-growing
areas are mostly similar owing to identical rainfall. These patterns include jowar (kharif and rabi),
groundnut and small millets. Pulses and wheat are also grown in a limited area. In some pockets,
wher irrigation is available, rice and sugarcane are also grown. In Gujarat, rice, tobacco and
maize are grown, besides the rainfed crops, e.g. jowar and bajra.
THE RABI SEASON CROPPING PATTERNS

Among the rabi crops, wheat, together with barley and oats, jowar and gram, are the main base
crops among the rabi cropping patterns. Generally, wheat and gram are concentrated in the
subtropical region in northern India, whereas the rabi sorghum is grown mostly in the Deccan. The
extent of these areas in different states is as follows;

Crop Area Region (per cent of all-India area)


Uttar Pradesh (51), Haryana (6),Bihar (6), Punjab (6),
2.5 m
Sugarcane Maharashtra (8), Andhra Pradesh (5),Tamil Nadu (5),
ha
Karnataka (3)
0.427 Andhra Pradesh (48), Gujarat (19.5), Karnataka (8.7),
Tobacco
m ha Maharashtra (3.5), Tamil Nadu (3.5)
Uttar Pradesh (33.6), Bihar (20.4), West Bengal
Potato 0.491
(13.3), Assam (5.2), Orissa (4.8)
West Bengal (60), North eastern Region (18.7), Bihar
Jute 0.778
(17.6), Orissa (6.1), Uttar Pradesh (1.7)
1.05 m Kerala (68.3), Karnataka (12.4), Tamil Nadu (9.7),
Coconut
ha Andhra Pradesh (3.5)
0.197
Rubber Kerala (92.8), Tamil Nadu (5.0), Karnataka (1.9)
m ha
0.264 Kerala (67.4), Karnataka (12.1), Andhra Pradesh
Cashew
m ha (10.8), Tamil Nadu (9.8), Maharashtra (4.8)
0.35 m West Bengal, Assam and Tripura (77), Kerala, Tamil
Tea
ha Nadu and Karnataka (20)
0.138
Coffee Kerala , Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (99)
m ha
All fruit- 1.8 m
Spread all-over India
crops" ha
Maharashtra (18.5), Karnataka (11.7), Andhra
0.16 m Pradesh (12.8), Tamil Nadu (11.2), West Bengal
Onion
ha (7.6), Madhya Pradesh (7.2), Orissa (6.8), Punjab
(6.2)
Andhra Pradesh (26.9), Maharashtra (20.4),
0.733
Chillies Karnataka(14.5), Madhya Pradesh (5.5), Tamil Nadu
m ha
(10.1)
0.283 Andhra Pradesh (36), Rajasthan (23.6), Madhya
Coriander
m ha Pradesh (11.1), Tamil Nadu (10.0)

In several sugarcane-growing areas, mono-cropping is practised, and during the interval between
the crops, short duration seasonal crops are grown. In U.P., Bihar, Punjab and Haryana, wheat and
maize are the rotation crops. rice is also grown in some areas. In the southern states, namely Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, ragi, rice and pulses are grown along with sugarcane. In
Maharashtra, pulses, jowar and cotton are grown.

In the potato-growing region, maize, pulses, wheat are the alternative crops. in the tobacco-growing
areas, depending on the season and the type of tobacco, jowar, oilseeeds and maize are grown in
rotation. in the jute-growing areas, rice is the usual alternative crop.

In the case of plantation-crops, intercropping with pulses and fodder crops is common. Spices and
condiments are generally grown on fertile soils. Chillies are rotated with jowar, whereas onion,
corriander, turmeric and ginger are grown as mixed crops with other seasonal crops.

Mixed Cropping. Crops mixtures are widely grown, especially during the kharif season. Pulses and
some oilseeds are grown with maize, jowar and bajra. Lowland rice is invariably grown unmixed,
but in the case of upland rice, several mixtures are prevalent in eastern Uttar Pradesh, with
Chotanagpur Division of Bihar and in the Chhatisgarh Division of Madhya Pradesh. During the rabi
season, especially in the unirrigated area of the north, wheat and barley and wheat and gram or
wheat + barley + gram are the mixtures of grain crops. Brassica and safflower are grown mixed with
gram or even with wheat. Mixed cropping was considered by researchers a primitive practice, but
now many researchers regard mixed cropping as the most efficient way of using land. Several new
mixtures have recently been suggested. They ensure an efficient utilization of sunshine and land.
Breeders are developing plant types in pulses and oilseeds, with good compatibility with row crops.

The future of cropping patterns. With the increase in population, the irrigated area is increasing
and with advances in agricultural science, most of the extensive cropping patterns are giving way to
intensive cropping. The development in minor irrigation works has especially provided the farmes
with opportunities to crop their land all the year round with high-yielding varieties. This intensive
cropping will require an easy and ready availability of balanced fertilizers and plant protection
chemicals and an appropriate price policy for inputs and agricultural produce.

India is a country of small farmers. In the future the size of the holdings will diminish further. The
country has to produce enough for its people without deteriorating the quality of the environment.

This is the challenge of the future for the farmers, agricultural scientists, extension workers and
administrators.
THE RABI SEASON CROPPING PATTERNS
Among the rabi crops, wheat, together with barley and oats, jowar and gram, are the main
base crops among the rabi cropping patterns. Generally, wheat and gram are concentrated
in the subtropical region in northern India, whereas the rabi sorghum is grown mostly in the
Deccan. The extent of these areas in different states is as follows;
Crop Area Region (per cent of all-India area)
Uttar Pradesh (51), Haryana (6),Bihar (6), Punjab (6),
2.5 m
Sugarcane Maharashtra (8), Andhra Pradesh (5),Tamil Nadu (5),
ha
Karnataka (3)
0.427 Andhra Pradesh (48), Gujarat (19.5), Karnataka (8.7),
Tobacco
m ha Maharashtra (3.5), Tamil Nadu (3.5)
Uttar Pradesh (33.6), Bihar (20.4), West Bengal
Potato 0.491
(13.3), Assam (5.2), Orissa (4.8)
West Bengal (60), North eastern Region (18.7), Bihar
Jute 0.778
(17.6), Orissa (6.1), Uttar Pradesh (1.7)
1.05 m Kerala (68.3), Karnataka (12.4), Tamil Nadu (9.7),
Coconut
ha Andhra Pradesh (3.5)
0.197
Rubber Kerala (92.8), Tamil Nadu (5.0), Karnataka (1.9)
m ha
0.264 Kerala (67.4), Karnataka (12.1), Andhra Pradesh
Cashew
m ha (10.8), Tamil Nadu (9.8), Maharashtra (4.8)
0.35 m West Bengal, Assam and Tripura (77), Kerala, Tamil
Tea
ha Nadu and Karnataka (20)
0.138
Coffee Kerala , Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (99)
m ha
All fruit- 1.8 m Spread all-over India
crops" ha
Maharashtra (18.5), Karnataka (11.7), Andhra
0.16 m Pradesh (12.8), Tamil Nadu (11.2), West Bengal
Onion
ha (7.6), Madhya Pradesh (7.2), Orissa (6.8), Punjab
(6.2)
Andhra Pradesh (26.9), Maharashtra (20.4),
0.733
Chillies Karnataka(14.5), Madhya Pradesh (5.5), Tamil Nadu
m ha
(10.1)
0.283 Andhra Pradesh (36), Rajasthan (23.6), Madhya
Coriander
m ha Pradesh (11.1), Tamil Nadu (10.0)
In several sugarcane-growing areas, mono-cropping is practised, and during the interval
between the crops, short duration seasonal crops are grown. In U.P., Bihar, Punjab and
Haryana, wheat and maize are the rotation crops. rice is also grown in some areas. In the
southern states, namely Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, ragi, rice and pulses
are grown along with sugarcane. In Maharashtra, pulses, jowar and cotton are grown.
In the potato-growing region, maize, pulses, wheat are the alternative crops. in the tobacco-
growing areas, depending on the season and the type of tobacco, jowar, oilseeeds and
maize are grown in rotation. in the jute-growing areas, rice is the usual alternative crop.
In the case of plantation-crops, intercropping with pulses and fodder crops is common.
Spices and condiments are generally grown on fertile soils. Chillies are rotated with jowar,
whereas onion, corriander, turmeric and ginger are grown as mixed crops with other
seasonal crops.
Mixed Cropping. Crops mixtures are widely grown, especially during the kharif season.
Pulses and some oilseeds are grown with maize, jowar and bajra. Lowland rice is invariably
grown unmixed, but in the case of upland rice, several mixtures are prevalent in eastern
Uttar Pradesh, with Chotanagpur Division of Bihar and in the Chhatisgarh Division of
Madhya Pradesh. During the rabi season, especially in the unirrigated area of the north,
wheat and barley and wheat and gram or wheat + barley + gram are the mixtures of grain
crops. Brassica and safflower are grown mixed with gram or even with wheat. Mixed
cropping was considered by researchers a primitive practice, but now many researchers
regard mixed cropping as the most efficient way of using land. Several new mixtures have
recently been suggested. They ensure an efficient utilization of sunshine and land. Breeders
are developing plant types in pulses and oilseeds, with good compatibility with row crops.
The future of cropping patterns. With the increase in population, the irrigated area is
increasing and with advances in agricultural science, most of the extensive cropping
patterns are giving way to intensive cropping. The development in minor irrigation works
has especially provided the farmes with opportunities to crop their land all the year round
with high-yielding varieties. This intensive cropping will require an easy and ready
availability of balanced fertilizers and plant protection chemicals and an appropriate price
policy for inputs and agricultural produce.
India is a country of small farmers. In the future the size of the holdings will diminish further.
The country has to produce enough for its people without deteriorating the quality of the
environment.
This is the challenge of the future for the farmers, agricultural scientists, extension workers
and administrators.