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FAS Military Affairs


Chinese Military
Aircraft and Missiles
J-8 (Jian-8 Fighter aircraft 8) / F-8
The J-8 was the first PLAAF aircraft of domestic design, with design work beginning in
1964. The overall configuration is a rather straightforward enlargement of the MiG-21/J-
7 layout to accomodate two engines. Although it resembled Mikoyan's experimental Ye-
152A, contrary to some early reports, it was not based on that aircraft. Production began
in December 1979, with about 100-150 units of the first configuration entering service.
Design work on the improved J-8-2 began in 1980, with production beginning in the late
1980. As with the cancelled "Super 7" upgrade to the single-engine J-7, the J-8-2
completely reworks the front end of the aircraft, adding a much larger radar and ventral
air inlets, along with various other less pronounced improvements. The best that can be
said of the J-8 is that once upgraded it will be no more than an advanced obsolete aircraft,
comparable in configuration and aerodyanmic performance to the Su-15 FLAGON.

The Jian-8IIM upgrader, co-developed by China and Russia, is the result of a thorough
modernization of the F-8M fighter ("M" standing for export-only weaponry in China's
weapon designation system) and has actually become a new-generation fighter plane. The
first flight of this version was conducted on 31 March 1996. It features upgraded
electronics systems, the lack of which has disadvantaged China's fighter planes for a long

The J-8 and J-8II aircraft are trouble-prone aircraft with a poor weapon suite and an
inefficient engine. At best, the J-8-II can be compared with an early model (1960s) US F-
4 Phantom. In fact, after twenty-six years the J-8-II is still in the development stage, has
resulted in only about 100 fighters deployed, and meets none of the requirements of the

The twin-engined Jian-8IIM is claimed to be better equipped to survive damage than

single-engined F-16A/C and Mirage 2000 series. The high-altitude high-speed
performance of the Jian-8IIM is superior to the F-16A/C, F-18, and Mirage 2000; and its
radar and electronic equipment are better than those of the F-16A and are similar to those
of F-16C, F-18,and Mirage 2000-5. By using the new, powerful WP-13B engines, the
Jian-8IIM fighter boasts greatly improved low-altitude maneuverability, which is slightly
better than that of the F-18 and Mirage 2000-5, but still inferior to that of the F-16. The
Jian-8IIM fighter will probably be equipped with Russia's or China's helmet sight and
advanced PL-9 and P-73 missiles, with which it will outperform the F-16C in close-range
air combat. Phazotron, a Russian firm, has signed contracts with China to provide 150-
200 improved Zhuk radars mainly in support of China's new F-8II fighter, but also to
equip the new Chengdu J-10 fighter. These radars have six times the data and signal
processing power of the basic variant and greater detection range than the current 80KM.
They can track while scanning on 24 targets, display up to 8 of them, and simultaneously
provide fire-control solutions for 2-4 of them.

The Jian-8IIM does not use large amounts of expensive composite material and titanium
alloy, and it is not equipped with complicated maneuverable flaps, as found on the F-
7MG and F-16. Consequently, although their combat capabilities are similar, the Jian-
8IIM is much cheaper than the F-16C. Though mature and reliable, the Jian-8IIM is
rather cumbersome. With a fuel load exceeding that of the F-16, its operating range is
shorter than that of the latter. However, if specified by a customer, the Jian-8IIM could
incorporate composite material, titanium alloy, and maneuverable flaps to further
enhance its maneuverability and expand its external storage capacity and radius of action.

Country People's Republic of China (PRC)
Designation Jian-8 Finback
Type Intercept
Builder Shenyang Aircraft
Wing Span 30 ft in ( 9.3 m)
Length 70 ft 10 in (21.6 m)
Height 17 ft 9 in ( 5.4 m)
21,600 lb ( 9,820 kg) empty
Weight 31,500 lb (14,300 kg) normal takeoff
39,200 lb (17,800 kg) max takeoff
Engine 2 Wopen 13A-II turbojets @ 14,815 lbst thrust
Maximum speed 1,450 mph / 2,340 km/h / Mach 2.2
Cruising speed 800 mph / 1,300 km/h
Ceiling 18-20,000 meters
Range 700 nm / 1300 km cruise radius (est.)
Internal Fuel 3994 kg
480 L drop tank with 383kg of fuel for 34nm range
Drop Tanks
800 L drop tank with 639kg of fuel for 56nm range
In-Flight Refueling No
Crew One
Izmurd raging radar, RWR, Ballistic bomb sight. Will
be upgraded with APG-66 radar
2 23mm Cannon (J-8 only; not found on J-8II)
1 underfuselage hardpoint
6 underwing hardpoints for fuel, bombs, rockets, or
4 PL-2 or PL-7 and 800 L drop tank (680 nm)
2 PL-2 or PL-7 and 2 480 L drop tank and 1 800 L
drop tank (741nm)
In 1986 China signed a $550 million agreement with Grumman to modernize 55 of its
fleet of J-7 fighters under the so-called "Super-7" upgrade, but this agreement was
canceled in early 1990, in the wake of the cooling of political relations with the West, as
well as in response to a 40% increase in the cost of the project.
As a substitute for the Super-7, China is developing the FC-1 (Fighter China 1)
lightweight multipurpose fighter based on the design for the MiG-33, which was rejected
by the Soviet Air Force. The FC-1 is being developed with a total investment in excess of
$500 million, including support from the China National Aero-Technology Import and
Export Corporation (CATIC), mainly for export to replace the 120 F-7M/P fighters
currently in service in the Pakistani Air Force, though it is possible that the Chinese Air
Force will use this aircraft as well. Chengdu Aircraft Industry Company [CAIC], based in
Sichuan Province, is China's second-largest fighter production base, and the enterprise is
cooperating with Pakistan's Aviation Integrated Company and Russia's Mikoyan Aero-
Science Production Group [MASPG] in the development of the FC-1. Israel and several
European countries are being considered as suppliers for the plane's avionics. The first
flight took place in 1997 with delivery to the Pakistani Air Force scheduled for 1999.

Initially it was anticipated that the FC-1 would be a high- performance, low-cost fighter
plane to supplement the F-10 air superiority fighters developed for the Chinese Air Force.
But with the participation of MASPG, the Russians are using the FC-1 as a continuation
of the MiG-33 [R33] program developed in the 1980s. Like the MiG-33, the FC-1 uses
the "Zhuk" pulse Doppler radar and RD93 turbofans, though the FC-1 features air inlets
on the lateral sides of the fuselage rather than the ventral inlets of the MiG-33. With
Russian technical assitance the redesigned FC-11 has improved climbout performance
and steering capabilities along with a stronger fuselage. However, the most apparent
modifications to the MiG-33 design is the repositioning of the ventral fins from the
engine compartment to the added tail edgings, providing aerial maneuverability that is
claimed to match that of the American F16. These improvement in performance have
affected the program's costs, and if the final production order if fewer than 300 aircraft
the unit price will rise from the original $10 million to $15 million.

Consequently, the China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation

(CATIC) is trying to persuade the Chinese Air Force to use the FC-1 so as to increase the
production run and reduce the unit cost. But the Chinese military has resisted, being of
the view that equiping the Air Force with two types of fighter planes with similar
performance within the same time period would both consume limited financial resources
and complicate logistical support for dissimilar aircraft.
The FC-1 was to make it's first flight in 1996, but the project was delayed when Pakistan
sought to upgrade the performance characteristics of the FC-1 to respond to India's
acquisition of Su-30MKIs. After several years of stagnation, the Pakistani Prime
Minister's February 1998 trip to China resulted in an agreement to continue development
of the fighter. Currently Pakistan is interested in acquiring at least 150 fighters, with the
Chinese contemplating acquiring over 200.
The J-9 designation was apparently initially applied to an unbuilt aircraft that was
cancelled in development around 1979. The F-9 FANTAN designation was at one time
applied to the Q-5 FANTAN attack aircraft. Should the FC-1 enter PLAAF service, it
might carry the J-9 designation.

LENGTH 13.95 meters
HEIGHT 5.02 meters
WING SPAN 9.5 meters
MAX T-O WEIGHT 12,500 kilograms
1031 knots
MAX RANGE 864 nautical miles
SERVICE CEILING 16,000 meters
T-O RUN 500 meters
LANDING RUN 700 meters
23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon
6 - PL-7 AAM
6 - PL-10 AAMs
ASMs, bombs
J-10 (Jian-10 Fighter aircraft 10) / F-10
The J-10 [the export version being designated F-10] is a multi-role single-engine and
single-seat tactical fighter, with its combat radius of 1,000 km. It is designed for point
defensive warfare with performance generatlly matching aircraft such as the Mirage 2000
deployed by Taiwan. Apparently, Chinese engineers are trying to develop the J-10 from a
single F-16 provided by Pakistan, and with assistance from Israeli engineers associated
with Israel’s US-financed Lavi fighter program, which was cancelled in 1987.
The acquisition of Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft
with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, demonstrates a lack of
confidence in domestic industrial capabilities. China’s record on reverse engineering
aircraft has not been impressive, and it remains in doubt whether the J-10 will ever join
China’s interceptor inventory.

It is unclear what specific technologies and systems Israel has provided, although it is
reported that the Jian-10's radar and fire-control system is the Israeli-made ELM-2021
system, which can simultaneously track six air targets and lock onto the four most-
threatening targets for destruction. Some experts believe that the Israeli contribution will
focus on avionics and radar, with Russia supplying the engines. In December 1991, US
intelligence officials announced that Israel was planning to open a government
coordinated and sponsored "arms office" in the PRC. In light of what the Israelis have to
offer, and what the Chinese need, it was most likely that a transfer of avionics and other
technologies developed in the Lavi program would ensue, since there is a void in the
Chinese avionics and fire control system capability due to the 1989 termination of a
US/Chinese program in response to Tienanmen square.

China and Israel started collaboration in the early 1980's and full-scale cooperation was
underway officially by 1984. After the 1987 cancellation of the Lavi, it was taken over by
CAIC and the IAI carried on with the development of avionic equipment. However, the
Lavi project had included many elements that Israel could not develop by itself, and
China cannot obtain these key technologies from the United States, which has
consequently substantially increased the technical difficulties of the F10. In addition,
there are certain difference between the Israeli and Chinese requirements for the aircraft.
Since Israel already already had fighters such as the F-15, its primary requirement for the
Lavi was short-range air support and interdiction, with a secondary mission of air
superiority. In contrast, the Chinese Air Force is interested in replacing its large fleet of
outmoded J-6 and J-7 fighters, for which air superiority capabilities remain a top priority
while the air-to-ground attack capability is of secondary importance.

Since neither China nor Israel is capable of developing the propulsion system required by
the J-10, in 1991 China acquired the AI31F turbofan engine from Russia for
incorporation into the J-10 fighter. This engine is also used in the Su-27 air superiority
fighter that Chinese acquired from Russia. The performance of the AL31F engine is
significantly better than that of the American PW1120 originally slated for the Lavi, it
may be anticipated that the performance of the J-10 will be accordingly enhanced.
The J-10 features a delta wing canard configuration which ensures aircraft stability with
widened static stability active control technology. The deep burial of the engine and the
extensive use of composite materials for wing-fuselage fusion design reduces the
aircraft's radar signature. This aircraft uses control-figured vehicle design and nine
independent control planes: two forward wings, two forward wing flaps, two inside
elevons, two outside elevons, and one vertical rudder.

In November 1995 the Jian-10 fighter prototype crashed during a test flight, and
consequently it was decided to indefinitely suspend manufacturing plans which had
anticipated deliveries to users by 1998. By mid-1999 flight testing had resumed, with
little prospect of entering service by 2005.
J-11 [Su-27 FLANKER]
Codenamed `Flanker' by NATO, the J-11 [Su-27] is a multi-role fighter bomber and air
superiority aircraft which can also be used in the maritime strike role. The Flanker has an
operational radius of around 1500 km, and is equipped with an inflight refuelling facility
extending their radius by another 500 km. Although normally configured for
conventional operations, the J-11 could provide China with a high-performance nuclear-
capable strike aircraft.
The acquisition of Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft
with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, demonstrates a lack of
confidence in domestic industrial capabilities.

In 1991 China purchased an initial batch of 24 SU-27s for about $1 billion which were
delivered in late 1992 and based at Wuhu Air Base, 250 kilometers west of Shanghai. In
May 1995 China purchased a second batch of 24 SU-27 aircraft through Russia's main
state-run arms exporting company Rosvooruzheniye. These were delivered in April 1996
and based at Suixi Air Base in Southern China. The 48 Su-27-type aircraft include 36
one-seat Su-27SK manufactured in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and 12 two-seat Su-27UB
manufactured in Irkutsk, worth a total of 1.7 billion dollars.

In February 1996 Moscow and Beijing reached a $2.2 billion agreement for Chinese co-
production of the Sukhoi Su-27. Under the initial agreement China would produce up to
200 aircraft [without the right to reexport the jets to third countries] from Russian-made
components over three to five years. The total cost of the contract is $1.5 billion,
including $650 million for technical documents and $850 million for parts, instruments
and equipment provided by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Enterprise imeni Yuriy
Gagarin [KnAAPO], which is to deliver around 30 percent of all completing parts for 200
Chinese SU-27SK jets. Russia has licensed coproduction of Su-27s to the Shenyang
Aircraft Company, which can produce fifteen to twenty per year. In the period 1998-2000
Shenyang plans to assemble only 15 Su- 27SK fighters of the 200 permitted under the
terms of the contract. The first two aircraft built at Shenyang flew at the end of 1998.
Eventually China might seek to obtain as many as 300 Su-27s.

However the integration of the Su-27 into the Chinese Air Force has proven difficult,
particularly with respect to training and maintenance costs. Russia delivered parts and
assemblies for 2 fighters, which were assembled in 1998, bringing China's total inventory
to some 50 aircraft. However, these initial airframes proved unsatisfactory, and no
additional production had been completed by late 1999. By the end of 2000 deliveries are
planned for the parts and assemblies for the first batch of 15 Chinese-built fighters.

In March 1996, the PLA Air Force and other PLA elements conducted joint-service
exercises in the Taiwan Strait. During these exercises the JL-11 [Su-27] fired a variety of
air-to-ground rockets, and also dropped four deceleration bombs similar to the US MK82
Snake-Eye, the first time that such bombs have been shown publicly. These exercises
clearly stressed the bombing capabilities of the JL-11, suggesting that radar and computer
software improvements to its air-to-surface attack capacities may have incorporated the
advanced SU-35 fire control equipment and functions to provide high accuracy munition

In mid-1999 Russia agreed to sell as many as 72 of the front-line Sukhoi-30 variant of the
SU-27 jet to China, in addition to the Su-27 aircraft previously agreed to. As a result of
the 7th session of the Russian-Chinese commission on economic cooperation held in
Beijing in August 1999, the two countries reached a general agreement on the deliveries
to China of the Su-30MKK two-seat multipurpose fighters, worth a total of about two
billion dollars. Under the agreement, Russia will start delivery of about 40 the jets to
China between 2000 and 2002. The Sukhoi Design Bureau developed state-of-the-art Su-
30MKK (modernised, commercial for China) especially for the specific requirements of
the Chinese military. At the same time, negotiations began for Moscow to grant a licence
for the production of another 250 Sukhoi-30 fighters, though it is unclear whether this
production would be in addition to or instead of the licensed production of the SU-27.

At the end of 1999 it was anticipated that the Irkutsk aviation industrial association will
deliver to China a total of 28 training and combatant Su-27UB fighters. The delivery will
be implemented to repay the state debt, and 8 planes will be delivered to China within the
year 2000, 10 planes in the year 2001 and 10 planes in the year 2002.
J-12 (Jianjiji-12 Fighter aircraft 12) / F-
Besides carrying on with the improvement of the J-8 series and the licensed production of
the Su-27, the Shenyang Aircraft Company (SAC) is now engaged in preliminary
research for the "No. 12" project for the development of the Chinese Air Force's main
fighter aircraft for the 21st century. Also known as the "XXJ," this fifth generation
PLAAF fighter, is currently projected to enter service in the 2013-2015 timeframe. The
aircraft is projected to have a crew of two, is anticipated to be in same class as US F-22
fighter, probably based on significant Russian technical assistance.

The J-12 designation was apparently previously applied to an aircraft built at Nanchang
in the late 1970s, with only one or two airframes being constructed prior to the program's
cancellation. Said to resemble a scaled-up MiG-15/17, it was in competition with the J-7
and J-8, though with a less robust weapon system.
JH-7 [Jianhong Fighter-Bomber] [B-7]
Xian Aircraft Industry Company [XAIC], based in Shaanxi Province, produced the new
JH-7 Jianhong-7 [Jian=fighter hong=bomber] Flying Panther supersonic fighter-
bombers for the Chinese Navy at the modest rate of two aircraft per month. Due to its
unreliable engines, the JH-7 was rejected by the PLAAF in favor of Su-27SK. It was first
revealed publicly September 1988 as model at Farnborough International air show, with
the first of two prototypes having been rolled out during previous month. The first flight
came in late 1988 or early 1989. Service entry was originally scheduled for 1992-93, but
introduction in significant numbers seems to have been delayed. Having nonetheless
entered the Chinese Navy's air arm inventory in the early 1990s, according to some
reports as few as a dozen [and probably no more than two dozen] pre-production JH-7s
are in service with PLA Naval Aviation, with additional JH-7 production awaiting the
availability of a Chinese engine.

This twin-engined, two-seat, swept-back high mounted wing supersonic fighter-bomber

has a configuration similar to the British "Tornado" attack plane. The plane is designed to
have the same role and configuration class as the Russian Sukhoi Su-24 'Fencer'. It has
high mounted wings with compound sweepback, dog tooth leading edges adn marked
anhedral; twin turbofans, with lateral air intakes; all swep tail surface, comprising large
main fin, single small ventral fin and low set all moving tailplane; small overwing fence
at approximately two third span. Quarterchord sweep angles approxomately 45 degrees
on wings and fins, 55 degrees on tailplane. Armament including twin-barrel 23mm gun in
nose; two stores pylons under each wing, plus rail for close-range air-to-air missile at
each wingtip. Typical underwing load for maritime attck includes two C-801 sea-
skimming anti-ship missiles and two drop tanks.

The JH-7 has provided the Chinese Navy with improved attack capabilities. However, he
WS9 turbofan does not have enough thrust (with boosted thrust at 9,305 kg per engine),
the maximum bomb-carrying capacity of this large fighter with a maximum takeoff
weight of 27 metric tons is only five metric tons, far less than that of foreign aircraft in
the same weight class.

The XAIC plan is to use Russian-made engines and advanced composite materials to
improve the B7 and equip it with terrain-tracking radar and electronic countermeasures
equipment. This improved JH-7A will have more reliable AL-31F engine as well as a
domestic radar with a detection range of 100 km and the ability to simultaneously track
14 targets and attack 4 to 6. This improved JH-7A is a candidate to replace the outmoded
B5 and A5 attack planes. However, the J-10 fighter-bomber has a maximum bomb-
carrying capacity of design at 6.8 metric tons, and the Su-27 also has a bomb-carrying
capacity of nearly 6.5 metric tons.

While it was widely reported that the aircraft would have upgraded Russian AL-31SM
turbofan engines, the JH-7 that was shown at the 1998 Zhuhai Aerospace Show had two
British Spey MK-202 turbofan engines. Turbofan engines are a bottleneck technology for
the Chinese aircraft industry which, from the 1960's to the present has always used less
efficient turbojet engines.

Builder Xian Aircraft Industry Company [XAIC]
Wing span 12.80 m (42 ft 0 in)
Length (excl probe) 21.00 m (68 ft 10.75 in)
Height 6.22 m (20 ft 4.875 in).
Max take off weight 27415 kg (60,439 lbs).
Two Xian WS9 turbofans (licence Rolls-Royce Spey
Powerplant Mk 202)
each 91.2 kN; 20,515 lbst with afterburning
Max level speed at 11000 m (36,080 ft):
Mach 1.6-1.7 (917-975 kt; 1.699-1.808 km/h; 1.056-
1.122 mph);
Cruise speed:
Mach 0.80-0.85 (459-487 kts; 850-903 km/h; 528-561
Service ceiling 15500 m (50,850 ft)
Combat radius 485 n miles (900 km; 560 miles).
Max weapon load 5000 kg (11,023 lbs)
Twin barrel 23 mm gun in nose;
two store pylons under each wing plus
wingtip rails for PL-5 air-to-air missiles
Typical maritime attack weapons load would be two C-
801 or C-802 (YJ-1) sea-skimming anti-ship missile
and two drop tanks.
K-8 Karakorum
China and Pakistan agreed to jointly develop the K-8 Karakorum jet trainer, which was
planned to incorporate significant American content, including Garrett engines, and
Collins and Magnavox avionics. The develpment of this project was jeopardized US
restrictions levied by the United States following the June 1989 Tienanmen Square
massacre. Manufacture of four prototypes started January 1989, and the first flight test
was conducted on 21 November 1990. A total of 12 aircraft (six each to China and
Pakistan) were delivered by end of 1996. Pakistan decided against domestic series
production in 1994. While the original plan involved up to 75 aircraft for Pakistan, by
early 1996 as many as 100 were reportedly desired to replace aging Cessna T-37 trainers.
The Chinese requirement may range up to several hundred, which would be powered by
the Progress AI-25 turbofans imported from Russia beginning in 1997.
FANTAN Q-5 / A-5
The Q-5 [Qiang-5 Attack-5, the export version being designated A-5] is a single-seat,
twin-engine supersonic fighter developed by the Nanchang Aircraft Company of China. It
offers enhanced combat performance particularly at low and super-low altitude. It is the
latest renovated type equipped with imported navigation and attack systems. It is used
mainly to assist ground troops in attacking concentrated targets on land, key
transportation points and ships near the coast. It can also intercept and fight enemy
aircraft. It has two WP-6 after burning type of turbojet engines, a fuselage 15,65 meters
long, a height of 4.33 meters, and a wingspan of 9,68 meters. Its maximum takeoff load is
11,300 kg.

It carries a cannon in each wing, mounted near the fuselage, and it can be loaded with air
to air weapons. It can carry bombs and canisters in its hold and various kinds of bombs,
rockets and spare fuel tanks in the racks under its wings.

This derivative of the J-6 fighter originated in August 1958 as a Shenyang design
proposal. Reponsibility was assigned to Nanchang. The prototype program was cancelled
1961, but kept alive by small team and resumed officially 1963. The first flight came on
04 June 1965, with preliminary design certificate awarded and preproducton batch
authorised late 1965. Further modifications were found necessary, leading to flight test of
two much modified prototypes from October 1969. Series production was approved at the
end of 1969, with deliveries beginning 1970.

A total of approximately 1,000 aircraft were built, of which nearly 600 were the
improved Q-5A variant. An small number, perhaps a few dozen, of the Q-5As were
modified to carry nuclear weapons.

PLAAF equipment holdings have improved only slowly, hampered by the need for hard
currency, as most Chinese equipment upgrades have required foreign assistance. The
upgrade of the Q-5 aircraft centers on the addition of French inertial guidance and attack
systems, including a heads-up display and laser range-finder.

As Qiang-5 has been fitted with laser-ranging sensors, its strike accuracy has been greatly
improved. The ALR-1 laser-ranging sensor and the heads-up laser-ranging fire control
system, which consists of the new-type heads-up display and the air data computer, both
have continuous computerized point-of-impact functions. The range of the ALR-1 laser-
ranging sensor is 20-10,000 meters and its range precision is 5 meters. Its overall
performance is roughly equivalent to that of the British 105D and the French TMV of the

The wings are mid-mounted, sharply swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips and wing
fences. Two turbojets are located inside the body with semicircular air intakes and two
exhausts. The fuselage is thick, flattened, with an upward taper to the rear section. The
tail flats are high-mounted on the body, swept-back, and tapered with square tips. The
sharply swept-back tail fin has a blunt tip.

Builder Nanchang Aircraft Company
Wing Span 31 ft, 10 in (9.8 m)
Length 54 ft, 10 in (16.74 m)
Height 14.8 feet (4.51 m)
Weight 12,000 kg full load
Engine 2 Shenyang Wopen-6 5,732 lbst turbojets
Internal Fuel 2883kg
In-Flight Refueling No
Drop Tanks two 201-gal external fuel tanks
Maximum speed 1210 km/hr
Cruising speed 910 km/hr
600 km hi-lo-hi
Combat Radius
400 km lo-lo-lo
Service Ceiling 16000 meters
1000-2000 kg
2 Type 23-2 23mm Cannon
250kg bombs
8x57mm rocket pods
Sensors High Fix radar, Balistic bombsight
Crew one
Similar Aircraft Super Etendard, Yak-38 Forger, Mirage F1.
Bangladesh, North Korea, Pakistan, People’s Republic
User Countries
of China.
Chinese Airborne Early Warning (AEW)
The acquisition of an Airborne Early Warning (AEW) platform capable of conducting
data relays has held a high priority in the PLAAF's efforts to modernize. China's
acquisition of an AEW system would provide a dramatic advance in China's operational

China has tested an AEW radar rotodome on a TU-4 platform, but there is no indication
that this unique aircraft is intended as a prototype for subsequent production.

China conceivably could have fully operational AEW platforms by 2005. Israel Aircraft
Industries (IAI) currently is marketing its Phalcon airborne early warning (AEW) system
to China in competition with the British defense firm GEC-Marconi. However, this
airborne early warning program to mount the Israeli Phalcon airborne radar on a Russian
airframe remains behind schedule, and evidently negotiations continue on the deal under
which IAI would supply the advanced radar and computer systems.

It was reported in November 1995 that the Russian foreign ministry had vetoed a deal
where IAI would rebuild an Ilyushin aircraft into an AEW&C aircraft for China.
However, in 1996 Tel Aviv and Beijing signed an agreement on purchasing the Falcon
radar system, which China insisted system should be fitted onto Russian Il-76 aircraft.
The Phalcon's triangular radar array would be mounted on the rear quarter fuselage of the
Il-76 to provide full 360 degree scan coverage. China already has six such aircraft as well
as a service base for them. In May 1997 it was reported that Russia and Israel agreed to
fulfill jointly an order from China to develop and deliver an early warning system. The
first Russian aircraft was expected to arrive in Israel for refitting in 1998. But Russian
reluctance to provide technical specifications for the Il-76 delayed the program. China
reportedly ordered one Phalcon for $250 million, which entailed retrofitting a Russian-
made Ilyushin-76 cargo plane [also incorrectly reported as a Beriev A-50 Mainstay] with
advanced Elta electronic, computer, radar and communications systems. Beijing is
expected to acquire several PHALCON AEW systems, and reportedly could buy at least
three more [and possibly up to eight] of these systems, the prototype of which was
planned for testing beginning in 2000.
D-4 NPU (Xian NPU)
The D-4 is a small UAV operated by remote control. The contractor is Xian Pilotless
Research and Development Center, located at the Northwestern Polytechnical University
in China. Other similar craft are BAZ (Iran) and LG 17 (CIS). The D-4 drone's wings are
high-mounted, straight to the midsection, and tapered from midwing to tips. The engine is
a single, prop-driven engine in the nose section. The fuselage is round and tapers to front
and rear, with fixed landing pads. The tail flats are high-mounted on the body and equally
tapered. The fin is equally tapered.

Country of Origin China
Builder Xian
Role Multirole, reconnaissance, surveillance and target
Similar Aircraft MK-105 Flash. Predator
Wing Span 14 ft, 10 in (4.30 m)
Length 10 ft, 8 in (3.32 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Armament None
User Countries
The PL-9 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] is China's latest third-
generation air-to-air fighting missile. It has infrared guidance and boasts omnidirectional
attack capability and good maneuverability. Its supplier is China National Aviation
Import and Export Corporation. Its all-round performance is said to be better than that of
the AIM-9L/M Sidewinder missile, and comparable to the R-73 of Russia. Apart from its
control surfaces the PL-9 is almost identical to the Israeli Python 3, which was developed
from the AIM-9L. But the PL-9 has only about one-third the range of the Python 3. Israel
sold China its 9-mile range Python 3 infra-red guided air-to-air missile in the late 1980s.

The PL-9 is used as a surface-to-air guided missile, desinated the DK-9, in the 390
missile and artillery combination air defense system unveiled in 1991 by Beifang
Industrial Company. This complex includes a photoelectric sensor, IBIS ultra-low-
altitude searching radar, 3C&I command station, 90 double 37 anti-aircraft gun, 702 anti-
aircraft fire control system (including a radar and optical surveillance system, a friend-
and-foe identifier, a data transmission system, and fire control computer). One complete
system can cover an airspace of 3,000 square kilometers and take on 48 targets
simultaneously. The "80" anti-aircraft artillery system is a less advanced system based on
the 702 fire control system lacks the PL-9 surface-to-air guided missile.

Entered Service
Total length 2.99 m
Diameter 160 mm
Wingspan 0.81 m
Weight 120 kg
Warhead Weight 10 kg
Propulsion single stage solid rocket
Maximum Speed Mach 2
Maximum effective 15 km
Guidance mode IR
Single-shot hit
HQ-7 / FM-80/-90 Feimeng 80
The Feimeng 80 air defense missile is a point defense missile that is usually deployed to
ammunition depots or military bases. Its mission is similar to that of the "Avenger"
missile. With an effective engagement range of 12-15km the system uses an E/F-band
Acquisition radar and a J-band Engagement radar.

In order to reduce the danger of being hit by the enemy's air defense units, fighter
bombers now use ultra-low-altitude flight to launch surprise assaults against ground
targets. Ordinary radar and air defense missiles are relatively ineffective against planes
and helicopters using this kind of tactics, flying at altitudes of scores of meters. Under
such circumstances, low-altitude air defense missiles specially designed to hit objects
flying in low altitudes have become increasingly important.

In the early 1990s China first publicly displayed its first mobile low-altitude and ultra-
low-altitude missile -- the "Feimeng (Flying Midge)-80." Using a combination of
infrared, television and radar guidance systems, this air defense missile system is under
wireless command control all the way, which gives it excellent resistance to passive
jamming, active jamming and crustal and meteorological noises. Compared to similar
types of advanced air defense missiles abroad, the "Feimeng-80" is superior to the US
Chaparrel, the British Rapier, and the German and French Roland in all-weather
capability, combat response time, combat air space, and ability to deal with multiple
targets. Its overall performance is comparable to the improved Sidewinder.

At the end of 1998, the "Feimeng-90," an improved version of the "Feimeng-80," was
introduced. Compared to the old system, the target seeking range of the new system is
increased from 18,400 meters to 25,000 meters, the homing range is increased from
17,000 meters to 20,000 meters, the maximum speed is increased from 750
meters/second to 900 meters/second, and the maximum range is increased from 12,000
meters to 15,000 meters, thus enhancing its long-range combat capability. At the same
time, its maximum ultra radio frequency height is reduced from 30 meters to 15 meters.
The new system also makes use of two-waveband radar instead of ordinary radar and
features an improved television tracking system, which greatly increases its combat

Entered Service
Total length 3.0 m
Diameter 0.15 m
Wingspan 0.55 m
Weight 85 kg
Warhead Weight
Maximum Speed Mach 2.3
Operating altitude 15 - 5500 m
Operating range 8000 - 12000 m
Guidance mode Radar, IR & optical
Single-shot hit
HQ-9 / FT-2000
The the [yet-to-be-deployed] HQ-9 is a program to develop a new long-range surface-to-
air missile (SAM). The HQ-9 development effort may be based on a Chinese-designed
missile motor, search and guidance hardware based on the Russian S-300PMU, and
guidance technology from the American Patriot. China purchased four to six S-300PMU
batteries (48 to 72 missiles) in 1991 and purchased an additional 120 missiles in 1994. In
1993 it was alleged that Israel had transferred a Patriot missile or missile technology to
China, though Israel denied the charges. In 1997 the US Office of Naval Intelligence
suggested that "technology from advanced Western systems may be incorporated into the
HQ-9." A naval version of HQ-9 could be installed on the Luhai-class destroyers if the
HQ-9 enters service. However, China is said to have encountered difficulties with the
associated radar system, and it is unclear whether the PLA is currently funding this

The FT-2000 surface-to-air anti-radiation missile is the first large surface-to-air anti-
radiation missile in the world. It is said to be based on a marriage of the SA-10 and the
US Patriot track-via-missile seeker. While the association of the HQ-9 and the FT-2000
remains unclear, the two programs appear to share remarkably similar development
histories, and the FT-2000 capabilities are consistent with the employment of the HQ-9
missile without the evidently problematic tracking radar. Its broadband passive radar
target seeker can detect the electromagnetic emmanations from the adversary early
warning and electronic jamming planes and shoot them down by tracing signals. Since
the missile has a passive homing system which does not transmit electromagnetic waves,
the possibility of being discovered by the enemy is greatly minimized. Its 12-100
kilometer slant range also ensures that it can strike at long range. The FT-2000 has
become the focus of attention in Taiwan, given the concern that this missile will pose a
serious threat to Taiwan's US-made E-2T early warning planes.

The missile associated with the FT-2000 is probably similar to the HQ-9 in size but may
be somewhat slower. Its maximum range reportedly is about 100 km, with a maximum
altitude of approximately 20 km. A complete FT-2000 battalion probably would consist
of a command platoon and three batteries. Sales brochure acquired at Farnborough
dubbed the FT-2000 an "AWACS killer." The FT-2000 could be deployed as a stand-
alone air defense system or deployed as part of another system. Although Beijing has
stated publicly that the FT-2000 will be available for foreign export around the year
2001, it is more likely that it will not be available until the second half of the decade. If a
foreign customer cannot be found, development could take longer or not occur at all.

Entered Service
Total length 6.8 m
Diameter 0.47 m
Weight 1300 kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion Solid rocket booster
Maximum Speed
Operating altitude 3 - 20 km
Operating range 12 - 100 km
Guidance mode Passive Radar Homing
Single-shot hit
HQ-61 / RF-61 / SD-1 / Model Type 571
The HQ-61 [Hongqi /Hungchi = Red Leader ] missile is responsible for intercepting jet
fighters in the low- to medium-altitudes. The missile's rear control wing is similar to that
of the Standard missile made by the United States. This surface-to-air missile can also be
used as a ship-to-air antiaircraft missile. Photographs of a November 1995 Chinese Navy
exercise offered the first public sighting of this RF-61 (CSA-N-2) surface-to-air missile.

Entered Service
Total length 4m
Diameter 0.28 m
Wingspan 1m
Weight 320 kg
Warhead Weight 42 kg
Maximum Speed Mach 3
Operating range 2500 - 12000 m
Maximum effective 10000 m
Guidance mode Radar
Single-shot hit
Kaishan 1
The Kaishan 1 anti-aircraft missile is 5.6 meters long, 0.4 meter in diameter, and weighs
900 kilograms. Its maximum operational range is variously reported as between 25 and
40 kilometers and minimum operational range is 0.5 kilometers. The system uses the SJ-
202 acquisition radar and a phased-array engagement radar.

Entered Service
Total length 5.6 meters
Diameter 0.4 meter
Weight 900 kilograms
Warhead Weight
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 25 kilometers
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
LY-60 / PL-10
In October 1994 the new medium-low-altitude surface-to-air missile system, the "Lieying
(Falcon)-60," was deployed to China's air defense troops. The system is mainly intended
for the interception of military aircraft and missiles flying in medium-low altitude. It a
command control system with artificial interference capability thanks to the use of
microprocessor intelligent module technology. This technology is not found on existing
medium-low-altitude air defense missiles of other countries. The "Lieying-60" search
radar can can simultaneously track up to 40 targets, and the tracking radar is able to
simultaneously track 12 targets, and engage three targets at once. The use of the moving
target tracking processing system and frequency agility technology also gives the system
good anti-jamming capability.

The LY60N SAM is being deployed in place of the HQ61 SAM used in the Jiangwei-
class frigates. Compared with the HQ61 wit a range of 12 kilometers and maximum
altitude of 10 kilometers, the LY60 has a range of 18 kilometers and reaches a maximum
altitude of 12 kilometers. The LY60N is installed in Jiangwei B-class frigates that have
recently been placed in service. Every launch system features a sextuple launchers and
each launcher contains four LY60N missiles, for a total of 24 missiles. The wings of the
LY60N are foldable. In comparison, the LY60 of the ground army version features a
quadruple launchers, each of its launcher contains one missile, and its missile wing is not

The system will be adopted as the shipborne vertically-launched air defense system of the
Chinese Navy's "Luhai"-class missile destroyers, with at least eight vertical launch
barrels with a total of 32 missiles.

The Air Force version of the LY-60 is the FD-60 semi-active radar-guided air-to-air
missile carried by the J8B fighter plane, which is very similar to the Aspide AAM of Italy
in appearance. This missile, which is evidently also known as the PL-10 [Pili =
Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] medium range air-to-air missile is a Chinese
copy of the Italian Aspide, which was developed from the American AIM-7E Sparrow.
The bodies of the two missiles are generally similar, though the wings of the air-to-air
PL-10 mirror those of the Sparrow, while the LY-60 wings have evidently been truncated
to improve storage. The application of the same missile to both air-to-air and ship-to-air
applications emulates the American practice with the Sparrow, which started life as an
air-to-air missile with subsequent shipboard deployments.

In addition, the Shanghai Academy has also developed a portable ground-to-air version
called the FY-60.
Shanghai Academy of Space Flight Technology
Entered Service
Total length 3.69 m
Diameter 203 mm
Wingspan 1m
Weight 220 kg
Warhead Weight 33 kg
Propulsion single stage solid rocket
Maximum Speed Mach 4
Maximum effective AA - PL-10 60 km (head on attack)
range SAM LY-60 18 km
Guidance mode Semi-Active Radar Homing
Single-shot hit


HY-5 (Hongying = Red Tassel) is a shoulder-held air defense missile. The application of
the "HY" designation to a missile of this type is somewhat confusing to Westerners, since
the other Chinese missiles using the "HY" designator are large coastal defense cruise
missiles. The confusion is entirely of Western origin, since the Chinese characters for the
Hai Ying [Sea Eagle] anti-ship missile and the Hong Ying [Red Tassel] anti-tank missile
are readily distinguished.
At the end of 1998 the improved "Qianwei (Advance Guard)-2" was introduced.
According to the developers of this new missile, the "Qianwei-2" is the world's most
effective one-man shoulder-launched ultra-low-altitude air defense missile, surpassing
the US "Stinger" and the the French "Mistral" in performance.
The PL-7 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] air-to-air missile, said by some
to be a copy of the French Magic-R550, has automatic target seeking, acquisition and
homing ability as well as dog-fight capability. Some analysts claim the missile is no more
than a cosmetically enhanced PL-5, with few internal changes.

Entered Service
Total length 2.74 m
Diameter 165 mm
Wingspan 0.66 m
Weight 89 kg
Warhead Weight 12.5 kg
Propulsion single stage solid rocket
Maximum Speed Mach 2.5
Maximum effective 7 km
Guidance mode IR
Single-shot hit
The PL-8 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] is an all-aspect air-to-air
missile with the tail stabilizing fins resembling the Israeli Python-3, and it is believed that
Israel sold the Python-3 technology to China in the 1980s. The PL-8 has been seen
carried on the naval aviation J-8II aircrat, indicating that the missile has entered
operational service. A few Jianghu III/IV class guided missile frigates mount a close-in
gun/missile system combining 2 PL-8N (PL-8H) with a twin 37mm AA gun.
PL-11 / AMR-1
The AMR-1 is an advanced next-generation medium-range active terminal guidance air-
to-air missile seeker developed by China's Leihua Electronic Technology Research
Institute. The flat-plate antenna bears some resemblance to that of active version of
Russian AA-10, although the extent of Russian assistance if any is unclear. The seeker
may be integrated onto PL-11 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] air-to-air
missile which is reportedly based on the Italian Aspide airframe. The seeker is equipped
with a miniaturized pulse Doppler radar and has the following capabilities: all- weather
and omnibearing attack, low- latitude down-firing, fire-and-forget beyond-the-horizon
launch, and interception and tracking of target in complicated electronic interference
environments. Its technical sophistication is close to that of the advanced medium-range
air-to-air missile, AMRAAM and Russia's P-77 "fire-and-forget" missile which has
caught worldwide interest. However, an insufficient military budget and low-price
competition from Russian missiles have cast batch production of this missile into doubt.
Tianyan (Celestial Swallow)-90
Helicopter gunships are becoming increasingly threatening in modern wars, but surface-
to-air missiles and antiaircraft artillery are not very efficient in fighting helicopters. One
method is to rely on helicopters to fight helicopters. This requires helicopters to carry air-
to-air missiles that are both light-weight (in order to carry more) and powerful (because
present-day helicopter gunships have thick armors). Air-to-air "Stinger" and
"Sidewinder" missiles are used on two types of US helicopters. The former is an
improved one-man air defense missile with a small warhead. The latter is an improved
air-to-air missile for fighter planes, and its weight not only restricts the number of
missiles that can be carried but also affects the air combat maneuverability of the

China has developed the "Tianyan (Celestial Swallow)-90" which is both light-weight
and powerful. As the first air-to-air missile for helicopters, this missile does not have the
drawbacks of helicopter air-to-air missiles of other countries, which are heavy and not
very powerful because they are developed from surface-to-air missiles or missiles for
fighter aircraft, and their target seekers are not suitable for hitting helicopters which
operate in near earth environments where there are strong sources interference. It also is
claimed to have the advantages of long range, extended detection range and robust anti-
jamming capability.
C-801 YJ-1 / YJ-8 (Eagle Strike)
The C-801 missile was developed in response to the Navy's need for small-scale missiles.
Said to be derived from the French Exocet, the C-801 bears little external resemblance to
this missile apart from nearly identical length and diameter, and in fact the triple control
surfaces are rather similar to those found on the American Harpoon [though the Harpoon
is only about 80% the size of the C-801]. After 8 years of R&D, the C801 ship-to-ship
missile passed final design tests in September 1985 directly hitting targets in all six test
launches. The final design of this missile was approved in 1987. The C-801 missile is the
second generation of antiship missiles developed by China.

The C-801 is carried on missile speedboats, submarines, escort boats, and destroyers, and
is used to attack destroyers or escort boats. The Han-class attack submarines are armed
with C-801 cruise missiles, as are the Song-class submarines. The Modified Romeo class
submarines are armed with 6 YJ-1 (Ying Ji = Eagle Strike) C-801 SSMs. The PLAN's
Luda-class destroyers are armed with a ballistic trajectory ASW weapon CY-1, and 8 YJ-
1 missiles. The Luhu-class destroyers are also armed with 8 YJ-1 missiles.

The terminal guidance radar with monopulse system possesses high anti-jamming
capabilities. The high precision radio altimeter allows the missile to have minimum-
altitude flight above the sea. It uses a semi-armor-piercing anti-personnel blast warhead
which relies on the missile's kinetic energy to pierce the deck of a ship, penetrate into and
explode in the ship's interior. During final design flight tests, one missile attacked and
sank a target ship with displacement of 10,000 tons.
This multipurpose missile can with modification be loaded on various ships, aircraft and
motor vehicles. On the basis of the C801 ship-to-ship missile and in accordance with user
demands, the product series with modified design includes:

 C801A general purpose antiship missile uses folded wings, semi-

automatic testing, ballistic breakable container launching, and other new
technologies to increase the number of missiles carried by ships.
 C802 shore-to-ship missile which employs a small turbojet engine in place
of the original solid rocket engine, providing a three-fold increase in range
to 120 km.

Iran may have imported as many as 100 C-801s and eight launchers in 1987-88, and by
1994 it was claimed that Iran had about 200 C-801 missiles as well as the ability to
produce the C-801 indigenously [under the designation "Tondar"]. Other reports in 1996
suggest that China was assisting Iran with a new antiship cruise missile -- the "Karus" --
which believed to be based on the C-801 and/or C-802. In June 1997 Iran tested two
Chinese-built C-801 air-launched cruise missiles from an F-4 fighter.
The submarine-launched "Yingji no 8, model 3" anti-submarine missile officially passed
the first-phase system acceptance tests early in 1997. Taiwan sources claim that China
made the Yingji no. 8 by modifying the French "Exocet" missile. The hit probability is
expected to be higher than the missiles currently used by Chinese forces. The precise
application of the YJ-8 designation remains somewhat obscure, as it is used with
reference to both C-801 and C-802 missiles, and may be the overall designator for the
weapon system that fires both types of missiles.

CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] Electro-
Mechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Entered Service
Total length 5.81 m
Diameter 0.36 m
Wingspan 1.18 m
Weight 625 kg (not including booster)
Warhead Weight 165 kg HE
Propulsion one solid rocket engine, one solid booster
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
8-42 km
Guidance mode automatic control + homing
Single-shot hit
C-802/ YJ-2 / Ying Ji-802
C-8xx / YJ-22
The Ying-Ji-802 land attack and anti-ship cruise missile [Western designation
SACCADE], is an improved version of the C-801 which employs a small turbojet engine
in place of the original solid rocket engine. The weight of the subsonic (0.9 Mach)
Yingji-802 is reduced from 815 kilograms to 715 kilograms, but its range is increased
from 42 kilometers to 120 kilometers. The 165 kg. (363 lb.) warhead is just as powerful
as the earlier version. Since the missile has a small radar reflectivity and is only about
five to seven meters above the sea surface when it attacks the target, and since its
guidance equipment has strong anti-jamming capability, target ships have a very low
success rate in intercepting the missile. The hit probability of the Yingji-802 is estimated
to be as high as 98 percent. The Yingji-802 can be launched from airplanes, ships,
submarines and land-based vehicles, and is considered along with the US "Harpoon" as
among the best anti-ship missiles of the present-day world.

Following the 1991 Gulf War Iran imported the C-802 antiship cruise missile from
China. China suspended exports in 1996 in response to comlaints by the the United
States. In December 1996 Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, John Shalikashivili,
warned Chinese Defense Minister General Chi Haotian that arms exports would increase
destabilizing factors in the region. No international agreement bans transfers of anti-ship
missiles, and the C-802 is not covered by the MTCR, which controls exports of ballistic
and cruise missiles that can deliver 500 kg. warheads to 300 km. Iran expected to
purchase 150 C-802 missiles from China but only received a half of them because of the
arms suspension. By mid-1997 Iran reportedly possessed some 60 of the missiles
deployed in coastal batteries on Qeshm Island, a strategic point on the eastern side of the
Arabian peninsula. In 1997, General J.H. Binford Peay, Central Command commander,
said that China transferred 20 patrol boats with 15 equipped with C-802 missiles
(Washington Times, January 29, 1997). [Some reports claim that China may have
transferred hundreds of C-802s, although these claims are not widely attested].

In early 2000 it was reported that North Korea and Iran were jointly developing an
advanced version of the C-802 cruise missile. These missiles initially acquired by Iran
were not equipped with advanced systems, and the missiles acquired by Iran were rather
outdated. Iran turned to North Korea for missile system technology, and the two countries
are jointly developing an upgraded version with improved accuracy. ["N. Korea, Iran
Jointly Develop Missile: Report" Korea Times February 17, 2000]

The precise application of the YJ-8 designation remains somewhat obscure, as it is used
with reference to both C-801 and C-802 missiles, and may be the overall designator for
the weapon system that fires both types of missiles.
The YJ-22 is a land-attack cruise missile development of the anti-ship C-802 with a
400km range, and possible GPS/TM guidance currently said to be under development
with an IOC expected after 2005.

CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] Electro-
Contractor Mechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Entered Service
Total length
Warhead Weight 165 kg HE
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
120 km
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
C-601 / YJ-6
The C-601 [Western designation KRAKEN] is China's first generation air-to-ship
missile, and is generally similar to the C-201 HY-2 surface launched missile, apart from
the deletion of the solid-rocket booster motor which is superfluous to this air-launched
missile. The C-601 is carried on the Hong-6D aircraft, with a combat radius of 1800-2000
km, which can carry two missiles which are used for attacking large and medium-sized
surface ships at sea. Double fire volleys greatly increases the fighting power of the
Regardless of the control mode used after launch, once a missile is launched from an
aircraft it will fly towards the target area based on a prearranged program, relying on the
terminal guidance radar in the missile to seek the target. The aircraft can immediately
leave the combat area. The terminal guidance head uses monopulse active radar which
provides resistance to sea waves and various types of electronic jamming. The level flight
altitude of the missile can be set at 500 meters, 70 meters or 50 meters, providing good
low-altitude penetration capabilities. The missile can sink or seriously damage a 3,000
ton or higher class cruiser or a 10,000 ton class transport ship.
Development of the C601 missile series began in the mid-1960s, and in September 1975
the Military Commission of the Central Committee of the CPC formally approved
development work on this air-to-ship missile weapons system. After 9 years of R&D,
with four hits in seven firings in 1984, design formulation flight tests were completed for
the entire weapon system. Following this the C601 "basic model" entered serial

The C-611 is modified with high energy oxidizer fuel and an improved engine that
extended the firing range to 186-200 km.

CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] Electro-
Mechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Entered Service
Total length 7.1 m
Diameter 0.76 m
Wingspan 2.4 m
Weight 2988 kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion one liquid rocket engine
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective 90-100 km basic C-601
Guidance mode automatic control + homing
Single-shot hit 70%
C-101 / YJ-16
SY-2 / FL-2
The C-101 is a supersonic short range air, ground, and ship-launched anti-ship missile
with two side-mounted ramjet engines at the rear of the airframe. China acquired the C-
101 missile technology in the late 1970s, and production began in the mid-1990s replace
obsolete HY-2/CSS-N-2 missiles. The Chinese Navy tested the C-101 antiship missile on
the Hoku-class fast attack craft [FAC], and Huang-class craft are being fitted with four C-
101 launch tubes, while other FAC classes will carry two launch tubes. The air launched
version has been reportedly carried on the H-5 and H-6 bombers and the SH-5
amphibian. The missile is believed to have a 300 kg semi-armour-piercing warhead with
a delayed impact fuse. Cruising at an altitude of 50 meters, the missile dives about 3
kilometers away from the target to impact about 5 meters above the waterline.

Entered Service
Total length 5.8 m (19 ft)
Wingspan 1.2 m (3 ft, 9 in)
Weight 1,850 kg
Warhead Weight 300 kg
Propulsion Ramjet
Maximum Speed Mach 2
Maximum effective
45 km
Guidance mode Inertial and Active Radar
Single-shot hit
C-611 / YJ-62
The C-611 is a development of the Russian Raduga Kh-28 AS-9 KYLE. The C-611 is
modified with high energy oxidizer fuel and an improved engine that extended the firing
range to 186-200 km.

CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] Electro-
Mechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Entered Service
Total length ~6 m
Diameter ~0.4 m
Wingspan ~1.7 m
Weight ~750 kg
Warhead Weight ~150 kg
Propulsion one liquid rocket engine
Maximum Speed 3500 km/h
Maximum effective 90-100 km basic C-601
range 185-200 km improved C-611
Guidance mode automatic control + homing
Single-shot hit 70%
The C-701 light-weight anti-ship missile measures 2.5 meters long, less than half that of
the Yingji-801. The diameter of the missile is also much smaller. It has a range of 15
kilometers and a cruising speed of Mach 0.8. It uses television guidance control and is
anti-jamming capability is comparable to that of the US Maverick missile. However, the
C-701 can be launched from ships and planes, unlike the air-to-surface Maverick. The C-
701 antiship missile was first exhibited at China's Second International Aviation and
Aerospace Show held in Zhuhai late 1998.

Entered Service
Total length 2.5 meters
Weight 100 kg
Warhead Weight
Maximum Speed Mach 0.8
Maximum effective
15 kilometers
Guidance mode television
Single-shot hit
The CY-1 is an anti-submarine rocket carried on a variety of surface platforms, including
the Luda class missile destroyer and Jiangwei class missile patrol combatants.
FL-7 Feilong-7
China and Russia are the only two countries to have successfully developed supersonic
anti-ship missiles, which represent the future direction of anti-ship weapons. The
majority of anti-ship missiles are high subsonic. In addition to developing the C-101 and
C-301 supersonic anti-ship missiles which are fairly large in size, China has developed
the more compact Feilong (Flying Dragon)-7 supersonic anti-ship missile which can be
carried on airplanes and warships. The Feilong-7 has an effective range of 32 kilometers
and a speed of Mach 1.4. It has powerful anti-jamming capability and its supersonic flight
makes terminal interception difficult. The warhead of the "Feilong-7" can pierce solid
armor and destroy large and medium-sized surface warships.

It was reported in 1996 that Iran had begun indigenous production of a medium-range
antiship missile, the FL-10, based on the Chinese FL-2 or FL7 and developed with
Chinese technical assistance.

Entered Service
Total length
Warhead Weight
Maximum Speed Mach 1.4
Maximum effective
32 kilometers
Guidance mode
Single-shot hit
C-201 / HY-2 / SY-1
The C-201 is a mid-range ground-, air-, and ship-launched cruise missile developed on
the basis of the HY-1, with the primary difference being a longer fuselage accomodating
a correspondingly greater propellant capacity. Apart fromt the longer fuselage, the overall
configuration of the C-201 missile is similar to the HY-1, with two delta wings and
triform rudder and tail. C-201 anti-ship cruise missile variants include the SY-1A [Shang
You] for ship launch and the land based HY-2.

The HY-2 [Hongying / Hai Ying] coast-to-ship defensive tactical missile weapon system -
- with the Western designation "Seersucker" -- is employed at coastal fortifications, bases
or islands to attack enemy surface ships. The system features long range coverage and a
large firing sector (+/-85o, enabling one missile battalion to cover a blockaded ocean area
of 14,000 square kilometers. After the missile is fired, ground guidance and control are
not necessary, and the firing position can remain concealed.

The PLAN has three categories of frigates-Jiangwei-class, Jianghu III- and IV-class, and
Jianghu I-class. All of these are armed either with surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) YJ-
1 (Eagle Strike) or Hy-2 (C-201).

The level flight altitude of the missile is low, and the system's anti-jam capabilities are
effective against electronic countermeasures. The missile's large warhead can sink or
severely damage a 3,000 ton class destroyer.

After 5 years of development the program achieved six hits in seven firings in 1970,
when the missile passed final design testing. Based on the combat requirements of Navy
forces, a series of modified designs of the HY-2 basic model were developed and

 HY-2A terminal guidance radar of the prototype missile was modified into
a passive infrared target seeker which effectively raised the concealment
and anti-jamming capabilities of the missile. The interception performance
of this missile within guidance range can realize omnidirectional attacks
on ship targets at sea.
 HY-2B the conical scanning terminal guidance radar of the prototype
missile was modified to an advanced monopulse system radar which
improved its resistance sea waves interference and various forms of
electronic jamming.
 HY-2C terminal guidance radar of the prototype missile was modified into
a television-equipped target seeker which was able to effectively raise the
concealment and anti-jamming capabilities of the missile as well as
increase its hit probability.
 HY-2G uses a high precision radio altimeter so that the level flight
altitude of the missile can be lowered to 30-50 meters, raising penetration

The HY-2 missile is also the basis for modified test aircraft and target missiles with
various functions.

During the Iran-Iraq War, one of China's most controversial arms transfers involved the
HY-2 antiship missile, commonly [and improperly] referred to in the media as the
"Silkworm." The first of several HY-2 shipments was delivered in the summer of 1986,
and in October 1987 an American-owned tanker under the Liberian flag and a Kuwaiti
tanker under the US flag, the Sea Isle City, were hit by Iranian HY-2 missiles. China
respomded to American complaints by claiming that the weapons had been supplied by
North Korea. Although in March 1988 China stated that it would not sell antiship cruise
missiles to Iran, HY-2 transfers reportedly continued through 1989. In early 1988 Iran
claimed the capacity to manufacture HY-2s and other antiship cruise missiles
indigenously. It is currently estimated that Iran has about 100 HY-2 missiles on eight to
ten mobile missile launchers deployed on the north side of the Straits of Hormuz.

CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] Electro-
Contractor Mechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Entered Service
Total length 7.36 m
Diameter 0.76 m
Wingspan 2.4 m
Weight 2988 kg
Warhead Weight
Propulsion one liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective
Guidance mode autocontrol + homing
Single-shot hit
> 70%
C-301 / HY-3
The C-301 / HY-3 [Western CSSC-X-6] is a supersonic coastal defence anti-ship missile
with four solid rocket boosters and two ramjet sustainer engines located aft of the missile
body. The booster motors accelerate the missile to past Mach 1.8 and the kerosene-fueled
ramjet engines accelerate the missile to a cruise speed of Mach 2.0. Its range is variously
reported as up to 180 km, and it can fly as low as 50 meters in its terminal attack phase.
The missile is programmed to dive from cruising altitude to under 100 feet before the
active-radar terminal phase begins, then dive onto the target just prior to impact. While
test flights of this missile have been conducted, the operational status of the system
remains unclear.

Entered Service under development
Total length 9.85 meters
Wingspan 2.24 meters
Weight 3,400 kg
Warhead 300-500 kg Semi AP HE
two side-mounted ramjet engines
four solid propellant boost motors
Maximum Speed Mach 2.0
Maximum effective
100-180 km
Guidance mode Inertial and Active Radar
Single-shot hit
C-201 / HY-4
The HY-4 variant of the C-201 is a mid-range ground-, air-, and ship-launched cruise
missile. Development of the C-201 HY-4 is believed to have started in the mid-1970s,
replacing the C-201 HY-2 liquid propellant sustainer motor with a small turbojet engine,
and adding a the monopulse active radar seeker. Apart fromt the substitution of the
turbojet engine, the overall configuration of the HY-4 variant of the C-201 missile is
similar to the HY-2 variants of the C-201, with two delta wings and triform rudder and
tail. The missile has a radio altimeter which allows the cruise height to be varied between
70 and 200 m altitude, followed by a steep dive onto the target. Reports suggest that an
improved version of the HY-4, known as XW-41 is no in development.
An improved version of the HY-4, known as the XW-41 is, in development. This missile
is said to feature a 300km range with GPS guidance.

CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] Electro-
Mechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Entered Service
Total length 7.36 m
Diameter 0.76 m
Wingspan 2.4 m
Weight 1740 kg
Warhead Weight 500 kg
one turbojet engine and
Propulsion one solid rocket booster
Maximum Speed
Maximum effective [HY-4 up to 150km]
Guidance mode autocontrol + homing
Single-shot hit
> 70%