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FAS Military Affairs


European Military Aircraft

Alpha Jet
The Dassault-Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet is a twin seat subsonic fighter bomber that due
to its conception and versatile characteristics is particularly suitable for supporting air
offensive operations, surface forces operations as well as for the advanced training on
bomber fighters and operational conversion training, with the capability of using different
weapon configurations. Its equipment allows it to obtain great efficiency when planning
and executing missions. The Head Up Display (HUD) saves the pilot from looking down
into the cockpit to read the instruments, by superimposing data on a clear plate mounted
at the pilot's eye level. The navigation and fire control computers are rather precise and
permit a great flexibility on attack missions. The use of "AFA" computer makes it
simpler, quicker and more efficient the planning of a mission.
The Alpha Jet 2 is a development of the training aircraft optimized for ground attack. It
has an integrated weapon system (laser range finder, inertial navigation unit, Head-Up
Display) allowing to fulfill either weapon system training missions or ground attack
missions with a great accuracy. The Alpha Jet ATS (Advanced Training System) , fitted
in particular with state-of-the-art controls and displays (glass cockpit), will allow to train
the pilot for the use of navigation/attack systems of the latest and future fighters aircraft.

Country of Origin France, Germany
Builder Dassault-Breguet-Dornier
Role Light-attack, advanced trainer
Trainer version used by France is Alpha Jet E;
attack version is used by Germany
MS1 close support capable version assembled in
MS2 further improved version;NGEA new avionics;
uprated engine,Magic AAms;Lancier glass cockpit;
Similar Aircraft Hawk, AMX, Mirage F1, AV-8B Harrier II
Wing Span 30 ft (9.14 m)
Length 40 ft, 3 in (12.3 m)
Height 13 ft 09 in ( 04.19 m )
Empty: 7,374 lb ( 3,515 kg )
Max T/O: 17,637 lb ( 8,000 kg )
Engine Two SNECMA/Turbomeca Larzac 04-C6 turbofans
Thrust 5,952 lb ( 26.48 kN ) total
Maximum speed 1,160 Km/h / 0.8 Mach
Cruising speed
In Flight refueling No
Internal Fuel in kg: 1520 kg
Payload: 2200kg
Sensors: RWR
310 L drop tank with 248kg of fuel for 108nm of range
Drop tank
450L drop tank with 359kg of fuel for 157nm of range
Range 1330nm / 2,600 Km (external tanks)
Service Ceiling 13700 meters / 50.000 feet
Takeoff distance 400 m
Landing distance 520 m
Gun pods, bombs, rockets, missiles
Matra F1 pod
AGM-65 maverick
Crew Two pilots in tendem
More than 500 aircraft already ordered by 10 countries
User Countries Belgium, Cameroon, Egypt, France, Germany, Ivory
Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, Portugal, Qatar, Togo.
The AMX, a joint program undertaken by Alenia, Aermacchi and Embraer, is a surface
attack aircraft for battlefield interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance missions.
The AMX is capable of operating at high subsonic speed and low altitude, by day or
night, and if necessary, from bases with poorly equipped or damaged runways. It features
low IR signature, reduced radar equivalent cross section and low vulnerability of
structure and systems guarantee a high probability of mission sucess. The integrated
ECM, air-to-air missiles and nose-mounted guns provide self-defense capabilities.

The AMX-T is a twin seater, high performance transonic turbofan jet, specifically
developed for Advanced and Fighter Lead-In Training. It maintains the operational
characteristics of the AMX - Ground Attack Fighter - already in operation with the
Brazilian (FAB) and Italian (AMI) Air Forces. It is a high subsonic trainer with a low
level dash speed in excess of 500 kt in any armed configuration. The AMX-T was
selected by the Venezuelan Air Force (FAV) to replace the old and venerable T-2A
Buckeyes in the advanced training phase.

The wings of the AMX are mounted high, swept-back, and tapered with square tips.
AAMs are usually mounted on the wings. The engine is one turofan inside the body.
There are two air intakes forward of the wing roots. There is a single exhaust. The
fuselage has a pointed nose and bubble canopy. The body widens at the air intakes and
tapers to the rear. The tail flats are mid-mounted on the fuselage, swept back and tapered
with blunt tips. The tail is swept back and has a tapered fin with a blunt tip.

Countries of Origin
Builder Alenia, Aermacchi and Embraer
Alpha Jet
Similar Aircraft Mirage F1
AV-8B Harrier
Crew One
Light bomber
Span 29 ft (8.84 m)
Length 44 ft, 6 in (13.58 m)
Height 14.92 ft
Wing area 226.0 ft2
Aspect ratio 3.75
Wing sweep (at 25%
Engine Rolls Royce Spey MK 807 turbofan
Take-off thrust 11023 lb
Ceiling 13000 meters
Cruise range 1150nm [480 nm Combat radius]
Internal Fuel 3076kg
500 L drop tank with 399kg of fuel for 75nm range
Drop Tanks
1000 L drop tank with 799kg of fuel for 149nm range
In-Flight Refueling Yes
Operating empty
14638 lb
Max take-off weight 28660 lb
Max external load 8380 lb
FIAR Pointer range-only radar, RWR, Balistic
Cannon: M61A1 20mm Vulcan
AIM-9L Sidewinder,
ELT-555 jamming pod,
M117 750kg bomb
User Countries
The Buccaneer is a two-seater that was originally produced for carrier-based duty with a
low-level strike and attack capability. Following the Suez operation in 1956 the Fleet Air
Arm was on the threshold of another new era with more powerful strike and all-weather
fighters coming along, the Sea Vixen, the Scimitar and the Buccaneer. 1978 saw the end
of conventional fixed wing flying with the withdrawal of HMS ARK ROYAL. A new
generation began with the commissioning in 1980 of the first of three light aircraft
carriers, HMS INVINCIBLE. These carriers are fitted with another British invention, the
ski jump, which enables vertical take off Sea Harriers to carry a much greater load when
taking off with forward thrust. The Buccaneer continued in service with the UK RAF as a
land-based aircraft with maritime missions.

Country United Kingdom (UK)
Similar Aircraft AV-8 Harrier, F-4 Phantom, Jaguar
Crew Two
Length 63 ft, 5 in (19.34 m)
Span 44 ft (13.5 m)
Type Attack, Maritime duties, reconnaissance
Ceiling 12200 meters
Cruise range 1700 nm
In-Flight Refueling Yes
Internal Fuel 5446 kg
Payload 7257kg ext/ 1811kg int
Sensors Blue parrot radar, RWR, FLIR, Balistic bombsight
Slipper tank with 908kg of fuel for 142nm range
Drop Tanks
Int Bay Tank with 1598kg of fuel for 499nm range
Sea Egle, AS.37 Martel, ALQ-101, AIM-9L, BL755,
Armament Green Parrot nuclear Bomb, GBU-10, Pave Spike Pod
User Countries South Africa, UK
Typhoon EF-2000 Eurofighter
Eurofighter is a single-seat, twin-engine, agile combat aircraft which will be used in the
air-to-air, air-to-ground and tactical reconnaissance roles. The design of Eurofighter
Typhoon is optimised for air dominance performance with high instantaneous and
sustained turn rates, and specific excess power. Special emphasis has been placed on low
wing loading, high thrust to weight ratio, excellent all round vision and carefree handling.
The use of Stealth technology is incorporated throughout the aircraft’s basic design.

In September 1998 the Eurofighter was also designated the Typhoon, though this
nomenclature is intended only for use in export markets outside Europe. Eurofighter
remains the offical name in Europe, and Typhoon will not automatically be the EF2000s
name with the four partner air forces when it enters service in 2002/3.

Eurofighter's air dominance supremacy and versatility as a multi-role combat aircraft is

marked by its highly potent and comprehensive air-to-surface attack capability:

 Air Interdiction - capable of delivering a large payload over long distances, by

day or night. Multiple, flexible sensors coupled with passive modes of delivery,
and the retention of a full air-to-air fit ensure a formidable weapon system
 Close Air Support - ability to remain on task for long periods. Its sophisticated
sensor suite allows close co-ordination with ground commanders, and the
identification of individual targets
 Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) - the combination of pinpoint
navigational accuracy, highly sophisticated onboard sensors and dedicated 'fire
and forget' weapons, ensure effective targeting of enemy air defences
 Maritime Attack - dedicated radar modes and datalink enable Eurofighter
Typhoon to operate autonomously, or as part of an offensive force

Eurofighter’s high performance is matched by excellent all round vision and by

sophisticated attack, identification and defence systems which include the ECR 90 long
range radar and Infra Red Search and Track (IRST) system, advanced medium and short
range air-to-air missiles and a comprehensive electronic warfare suite to enhance weapon
system effectiveness and survivability. Eurofighter Typhoon is intentionally
aerodynamically unstable to provide extremely high levels of agility, reduced drag and
enhanced lift. The unstable design cannot be flown by conventional means and the pilot
controls the aircraft via a computerised ‘fly by wire’ system.
The Eurojet EJ200 military turbofan was designed specifically to match Eurofighter
Typhoon’s mission requirements. The overall design ensures a small lightweight engine
with the thrust and strength to match the typically on demand reheat temperatures
generated during combat. The EJ200 engine combines high thrust with low fuel
consumption. To reduce ownership cost over Eurofighter Typhoon’s in-service life of 25
years or 6,000 flying hours, and to ensure maximum availability, the important areas of
Reliability, Maintainability and Testability have been given equal priority to performance
and flight safety.
Since Eurofighter first flew in Germany on 27 March 1994 all seven development aircraft
have flown. Aircraft in the flight test programme have completed over 790 sorties (658
hours). Full carefree handling and a speed of Mach 2.0 have been achieved as have air to
air refuelling and weapons firings of Sidewinder and AMRAAM. Pilots have described
the aircraft as 'exhilarating' to fly.

Eurofighter production will make use of several innovations in production engineering.

These include the use of a modern integrated design, manufacturing and management
systems and the introduction of automated processes for the production of a number of
aircraft components."

Production contract for the first batch of 148 aircraft were placed by the Eurofighter
management agency NETMA (NATO Eurofighter 2000 and Tornado Management
Agency) on behalf of the partner nations. Fixed prices were agreed prior to the
commitment of each contract. The contracts were signed by NETMA, Eurofighter GmbH
and Eurojet GmbH.
British Eurofighter aircraft will be assembled at British Aerospace sites in Lancashire
from components manufactured by companies in the four partner nations. Rolls Royce
will manufacture the engines, mainly in Bristol and Derby. In the other nations the
respective partner companies will have their own assembly lines in Munich, Turin and
Madrid. Some 200 UK companies, including GEC Marconi, Dowty, Lucas, Martin
Baker, Normalair Garrett, Pilkington Thorn Optics, Smiths Industries, Computing
Devices and Ultra Electronics, are involved in the development of a range of equipments
for Eurofighter, including the radar and defensive aids subsystem. In the UK, over 6000
jobs depend on the Eurofighter development phase and this is expected to rise to some
14000 at the peak of production.
The UK intends to procure 232 aircraft to replace the Tornado F3 and the Jaguar.
Deliveries to the Royal Air Force are scheduled to begin in June 2002 and run until the
year 2014. The current estimated total procurement cost of the programme to the UK is

Wing Span 10.95m
Length 14.96m
Height 5.28m
Wing Area 50m²
Foreplane Area 2.4m²
Empty Weight 9750 kg (approx)
Internal Fuel Load 4000 kg (approx)
External Store Load 6500 kg (approx)
Max T/O Weight 21000 kg
2 EJ200 Turbofan Engines
Power 20,000 lbf (90 kN) each with Afterburner
13,500 lbf (60 kN) each without Afterburner
Maximum Speed 2125 km/hr
Time to 10670m 2.5 minutes
Runway 700m
T/O run
air combat mission
ground attack, lo-lo-lo : 601 km
ground attack, hi-lo-hi : 1389 km
Combat Radius
air defence with 3hr CAP : 185 km
air defence with 10-min loiter : 1389 km
G Limits +9/-3 w/ int fuel and two AIM-120
Internally mounted 27mm Mauser gun
Total of 13 external stores stations: 5 (incl one wet)
under fuselage and 4 (incl one wet) under each wing
Mix of Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missiles
(BVRAAM) and Short-Range Air-to-Air Missiles
Weapons & Stores (SRAAM) carried externally
Four BVRAAM under fuselage in semi-conformal
carriage configuration
Laser guided bombs
Advanced anti-armour weapons
Conventionally armed stand-off missiles
Future Offensive Air System (FOAS)
The 1998 Strategic Defense Review [SDR], in recognising that the UK faces a very
different security environment from that of the Cold War, emphasised that risks still
remain to UK security. International instability is likely to become more prevalent. The
combat power of dangerous regimes assumes more significance as democratic countries
reduce their armaments and there is an increasing risk from the proliferation of nuclear,
biological and chemical technologies.
If UK forces are to be effective in this uncertain future, they must be structured and
equipped to conduct force projection and expeditionary warfare. The SDR recognised
that UK forces will normally be involved in multi-national operations based on NATO,
UN, WEU or ad hoc coalitions. As different coalition partners will have varying
capabilities, and US involvement cannot be assumed, the UK will require balanced,
coherent forces, inherently flexible and deployable, and capable of operating effectively
alongside forces from other countries. This balanced capability will also be required to
fulfil the requirements of those exceptional circumstances when the UK will operate
Part of the SDR process was the study of future offensive air power requirements,
balancing the need for FOAS with that for future aircraft carriers and carrier-borne
aircraft. Long-range air attack was found to remain important both as an integral part of
war-fighting and as a coercive instrument to support political objectives.
The system must be flexible, and capable of all-weather, day/night operation at all levels.
It must also be survivable in a high-threat environment. The trend towards more and
more out-of-area operations make it essential that the system is easily supported, without
the need for significant deployment of support equipment and personnel into theatre.
The FOAS requirement might not necessarily be satisfied in full by a single concept.
Studies to define the most cost-effective solution are continuing. Possible solutions
include a "force mix" approach of manned aircraft, UAVs and CALCMs although the
exact nature, numbers and costs of these systems has not yet been decided.
Major milestones in the future are:

 completion of the concept feasibility studies and launch of the Assessment phase
for technology risk reduction and further system definition - 2001;
 solution selection - in about 10 years;
 entry to service - in about 20 years.

The FOAS programme aims to provide the UK with a long-range offensive air capability
to replace that currently provided by Tornado GR4. The FOAS solution should provide
operational flexibility and utility across the range of military tasks outlined in the 1998
Strategic Defence Review (SDR). FOAS is predicted to enter service in about 20 years, at
which point the Tornado GR4 airframes will have been in service for nearly 40 years and
flown more than twice as many hours as their original design life.
Following a number of minor study programmes for generic future combat aircraft dating
back to the late 1980s, the current FOAS Feasibility Studies were launched in October
1997. Since then four major activity streams have been undertaken:

 Requirements development - following the SDR work continues to develop the

concepts for future offensive operations;
 Solution studies - DERA and Industry teams have been examining the feasibility
and cost effectiveness of a wide range of solutions within the various categories
identified so far - manned combat aircraft (new and derivative designs and off-
the-shelf solutions), Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and Conventionally-armed
Air Launched Cruise Missiles (CALCMs);
 Technology Demonstration Programme (TDP) - a joint approach to the
acquisition of technologies for future combat aircraft with the French Government
and UK and French industry has resulted in a set of joint and separate technology
programme proposals with a wide range of UK and French suppliers;
 Business Systems - reflecting MOD's Smart Procurement Initiative, the project is
beginning to implement novel practices and technologies in the areas of systems
engineering, electronic commerce, data sharing and synthetic environments.

FOAS is one of the pilot Integrated Project Teams (IPTs) within MOD's Smart
Procurement Initiative. This IPT includes representatives from all areas of MOD involved
in the project as well as DERA and Industry - by mid 1999 there should be half a dozen
full-time DERA and Industry team members and more part-time support.
Within the Concept Studies there is a loosely-formed FOAS Alliance representing British
Aerospace Military Aircraft and Aerostructures, Marconi Electronic Systems, Rolls-
Royce and Smiths Industries. These companies have teamed strategically to ensure a
consistent approach to the studies and, at working level, have formed IPTs to perform the
study work. The largest of these IPT structures is at British Aerospace's Warton site,
where more than 100 engineers are studying a wide range of both UAV and manned
aircraft concepts along with MOD staff. Additionally there are other contractor teams led
by Logica, Aerosystems International and Matra-BAe Dynamics who are primarily
studying UAV and CALCM concepts. All of the teams, in conjunction with MOD and
DERA staff, are looking into the balance and capabilities of these individual concepts
when they are brought together into a mixed force.
Within the proposed Technology Demonstration Programme there will be a series of
contractor groupings, with a different make-up for each TDP. The members of these
groups range from the large airframe suppliers, through engine and avionics
manufacturers to specialist materials and components suppliers with proportional
representation from UK and French industry.
Hawk - British Aerospace
The British Aerospace Hawk is a light-attack and trainer similar to the Alpha Jet,
M.B.326, AMX, F-5 Freedom Fighter. Through a continuing update and modernization
program, the 20-year old Hawk is still known as one of the world’s best advanced trainers
and light-attack aircraft.
With a crew of two, if features low-mounted, swept-back wings that are tapered with
curved tips. One turbofan engine is located inside the body, with semicircular air intakes
alongside the body forward of the wing roots and a single exhaust. The top line of the
fuselage curves up from the pointed nose to incorporate the long clear cockpit canopy
then slopes down to the jetpipe, giving a humped appearance, with slightly-swept vertical
and horizontal tail surfaces.

The maximum level speed of the Hawk is over 1000 km/h and the aircraft can attain
supersonic speed (M1.2) in a dive. The Royal Air Force bought 175 Hawk Mk T1 aircraft
in the late 70's. RAF Hawks are used in advanced jet and weapons training. US Navy and
USMC train pilots with a T-45 Goshawk derivative of the basic BAe Hawk. Other user
countries include Brunei, Finland, Indonesia, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Oman, Saudi
Arabia, South Korea, and United Arab Emirates.

In the current RAF training programme, the Hawk T1 is the first jet aircraft that a student
pilot will fly. An advanced, and very successful trainer, Hawk is used to teach operational
tactics, air-to-air and air-to-ground firing, air combat and low-level operating procedures.
To supplement the Tornado F3 force, a number of Hawk T1A advanced trainers have an
additional task as point defence fighters. In this role, the aircraft carry two Sidewinder
air-to-air missiles and a 30mm Aden cannon. The RAF's Aerobatic Team, the Red
Arrows, operate the Hawk T1A, and in time of war or crisis would also carry out the
point defence fighter role.

Country of Origin UK
Builder British Aerospace
Role Light-attack, trainer
Similar Aircraft Alpha Jet, M.B.326, AMX, F-5 Freedom Fighter
Wing Span 31 ft (9.42 m)
Length 39 ft (11.94 m)
One Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour Mk 151 turbofan
of 5,200lb st.
Maximum speed 622mph (1,000km/h) at sea level
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Hawk T1
One 30mm Aden cannon pack and
up to 5,600lb (2,540kg) of underwing stores (rockets,
bombs and missiles)
T1A - in addition has inboard pylons for
Sidewinder AIM-9 air-to-air missiles.
Crew Two
Brunei, Finland, Indonesia, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia,
User Countries Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, United Arab
Emirates, UK, USA (T-45 Goshawk).
Saab J35 Draken
The Saab 35 Draken [Dragon] is a second generation supersonic interceptor with a
distinctive double delta wing. The decision to develop the Saab 35 Draken supersonic
fighter, which introduced what was perhaps the most daring chapter so far in the history
of the Swedish aircraft industry, had been taken as far back as 1949. After much research
including flight-testing of a 70 percent scale aircraft, the first prototype of the innovative
double-delta Draken flew in late 1955 and Sweden´s first Mach 2 fighter was a reality,
entering production in 1957.
The J35A Draken entered service in 1959 and was followed by five different versions for
the Swedish Air Force, including the all-weather J35F with its then advanced radar, infra-
red search and track system, and both radar and IR guided missiles. In all, 612 Drakens
were built between 1955 and 1972. Of these, 51 were exported to Denmark, Finland
assembled 12 under license and later bought a number of ex-Swedish aircraft, and Austria
ordered 24 modified Drakens.

The single-seat combat aircraft has, a single engine and is equipped with two 30mm
automatic cannons and Sidewinder air-to-air guided weapons. The fuselage is round with
small canopy, extending beyond the trailing edge of the tail fin, which is small and is
highly swept along both leading and trailing edge. Small oval air intakes are located on
either side of the fuselage. There are several versions of this aircraft and the type can
operate from small airfields.

Country of Origin Sweden
Builder Saab
Role Interceptor
Similar Aircraft Hunter
Wing Span 30 ft 10 in (9.42 m)
Length 50 ft 04 in (15.35 m)
Height 12 ft 09 in (03.89 m)
Weight 15,000 kg
Volvo Flygmotor RM 6C
max. 7900 kp thrust with afterburner
Maximum speed Mach 2.0 @ 11,000 m
Cruising speed Mach 0.9
Range 1,754 nm ( 3,250 km )
Service Ceiling 18,300 m
Bombs, cannon, rockets, missiles
Armament 2x 30mm automatic cannons
Sidewinder air-to-air guided weapons
Crew Single seat (pilot)
Sweden (540 built between 1957 and 1971)
User Countries Denmark and Finland (65 built)
Austria (24 built).
In December 1961 the Swedish Government approved development of Aircraft System
37, the Viggen. The basic platform was the AJ 37 attack aircraft, to be followed by S 37
reconnaissance versions and the JA 37 fighter. The new aircraft had a novel and
advanced aerodynamic configuration to meet the short take-off/landing and other
performance requirements: a fixed foreplane with flaps was mounted ahead of and
slightly above the delta main wing. On 8 February 1967 the first prototype of the Saab 37
Viggen family made its maiden flight. In April 1968 the Government authorized Viggen
production and the first aircraft was delivered in July 1971. A total of 329 aircraft were
eventually built in attack, trainer, two reconnaissance versions and the more powerful
fighter variant that included new avionics, new air-to-air missiles and Europe´s first
pulse-Doppler radar.

The last of 329 Viggens, a JA 37 fighter version, was delivered from Saab in Linköping
to the Swedish Air Force in 1990. Since then, Viggen has undergone several upgrades,
the latest being Mod. D for the fighter version including communication and weapon
systems similar to those in Gripen.

The aircraft's main wings are low-mounted, delta-shaped, extending from the body
midsection to the exhaust. Small, clipped delta wings are forward of the main wings and
high-mounted on the body. There is one turbofan engine in the body. There are
semicircular air intakes just forward and below the secondary wings. There is a large,
single exhaust. The fuselage is short and wide with a pointed, solid nose. There is a
bubble canopy and a small belly fin. There are no tail flats. There is a large, unequally
tapered fin with a small, clipped tip.

Country of Origin Sweden.
Similar Aircraft
Mirage III/5.

gun pods
Length 53 ft, 6 in (16.4 m)
Span 34 ft, 9 in (10.7 m)
User Country Sweden
JAS 39 Gripen
The JAS 39 Gripen is the result of a joint development by Saab Military Aircraft,
Ericsson Microwave Systems, Volvo Aero Corporation and Celsius Aerotech. It is a
fourth generation, multi-role combat aircraft. The Gripen fighter combines new
knowledge-based, software-controlled avionics systems; modern materials; advanced
aerodynamic design; a well-proven engine and fully-integrated system to produce a
highly-capable, true multi-role combat aircraft. The Gripen is the first Swedish aircraft
that can be used for interception, ground-attack and reconnaissance (hence the Swedish
abbreviation JAS -- Fighter (J), Attack (A) and Reconnaissance (S) in Swedish) and is
now successively replacing the Draken and the Viggen.

In 1978 the Swedish Government decided that the Swedish Air Force needed a new
multirole aircraft for the turn of the century. At the same time as the Swedish aerospace
industry was defining a new project, the Air Force made an evaluation of existing foreign
aircraft such as the American F-16 and F-18. After an evaluation process, Parliament
decided in June 1982 to go ahead with the Swedish project and the Defence Materiel
Administration signed a contract for development of the JAS 39 Gripen, and the final
flight tests were completed in December of 1996.

A total of 204 aircraft in three batches have been ordered for the Swedish Air Force. The
first batch of 30 aircraft has been completed. Deliveries from the second batch are
ongoing, and comprises 96 one-seater and 14 two-seater aircraft. About 60 Gripens are in
service with the Swedish Air Force. In June 1997, a third batch of 64 Gripens was
approved by the Swedish Government and ordered by the Defence Materiel
Administration (FMV). This will take the total for the Swedish Air Force to 204 aircraft,
including 28 two-seaters. Production of batch thre is scheduled for 2002-2007.

Gripen offers high agility, advanced target acquisition systems - including a powerful
multi-role radar, modern weapons, low environmental signatures and a comprehensive
electronic warfare (EW) suite. The JAS39 Gripen system is designed to counter all
current and future threats. The aircraft has been developed for the Swedish Air Force by
the Industry Group JAS (SAAB, Ericsson, Volvo Aero and FFV Aerotech) in close co-
operation with the Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV). In partnership with
Sweden’s Saab, British Aerospace is engaged in a number of marketing campaigns for
the highly capable Gripen fourth generation combat aircraft. Engineering activity
associated with improving the operability of the aircraft in the export market is now

In 1995 Saab and British Aerospace (BAe) signed an agreement for the joint marketing of
the Gripen. Hereby, Saab gained access to the global sales organization of British
Aerospace, as well as to its governmental support in international marketing. British
Aerospace will adapt the export version of the Gripen to NATO standards, and also
produce certain subsystems for the aircraft. The agreement, which followed on more than
a decade of cooperation between the two companies, became the basis for a consolidation
between Saab and British Aerospace. It also paves the way for SaabCs deepened
integration with the European aerospace industry. Saab intends to be an active player
along with British Aerospace, Aerospatiale (France), DASA (Germany) and CASA
(Spain) in the creation of an integrated European defense and aerospace industry -

In November 1998, South Africa announced that it will probably buy 28 Gripens. The
value of the order is 12 billion SEK (1.5 billion USD) and the contract was expected to be
signed in May or June of 1999. During the coming 10-15 years, Saab hopes to export at
least 400 aircraft, on a total market for fighter aircraft estimated at 2,000 aircraft. The
Gripen is currently being offered to Chile, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary,
Austria and Brazil. Another candidate, Poland, recently announced that it will chose the
Boeing F 18 Hornet.

An important factor when offering the Gripen for export, is the aircraft missile system.
Currently, the Gripens used by the Swedish Air Force are armed with AIM-120
AMRAAM, AIM-9 Sidewinder, the Saab Dynamics RBS 15 for ship targets, and the
Maverick ground attack missile. Saab Dynamics cooperates with the major European
missile manufacturers in the development of new air-to-air missiles for the Eurofighter,
the Rafale and the Gripen. The two main projects currently underway are the Meteor and
the IRIS-T. The Meteor is a radar-guided, medium range (10-120 km.) air-to-air missile,
which will compete with future versions of the Raytheon AIM-120 AMRAAM. The
Meteor program features Matra BAe Dynamics, Saab Dynamics, Alenia Difesa, Marconi
and German LFK. The IRIS-T is an IR-guided, short-range air-to-air missile, primarily
funded by Germany for the Eurofighter. The project group includes Bodenseewerk
Geratechnik and Saab Dynamics.

Wing span 8,0 m
Length overall 12,0 m
Weight Approx. 6.500 kg
Max take off weight Approx. 12500 kg
Gun, Missiles, Bombs, Rockets and Stand off dispenser
internally-mounted 27mm gun
Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles
Sidewinder or new generation Short Range Air-to-
Armament Air Missiles (SRAAM).
Sea-Skimming anti-ship missiles.
Advanced dispenser weapon systems (DWS).
Air-to-Ground weapons (Maverick, Rocket pods).
Active/passive Electronic Warfare (EW) systems.
Internal and external reconnaissance systems.
Three external fuel tanks.
Powerplant Volvo Aero RM 12 (General Electric F404J)
Thrust 80,0 kN (18.000 lbs)
Max Speed Supersonic at all altitude
Maximum Speed Mach 1 15 at low altitude, Mach 2.0 at high altitude.
Less than 2 minutes from brake release to 10km
(33,000ft), approx. 3 minutes to 14km (46,000ft),
Approx. 30 seconds from Mach 0.5 to Mach 1.1 at low
Level Acceleration
Sustained - approx. 20 4eglsec. Instantaneous - approx.
Turn Performance
30 deg/sec.
Max. Load Factor 9g maximum sustained Nz
Produced to meet a joint Anglo-French requirement in 1965 for a dual-role
advanced/operational trainer and tactical support aircraft, the Jaguar has been
transformed into a potent fighter-bomber. The RAF originally intended to use the aircraft
purely as an advanced trainer, but this was later changed to the offensive support role on
cost grounds.
Starting in the early 1960's, the French Air Force began looking for aircraft to replace its
Lockheed T 33 and Fouga Magister trainers as well as its Mystère IV tactical fighters. In
April 1964, the Aeronautics Technical Bureau invited French aeronautics companies to
respond to a preliminary design in a programme for a twin-engined aircraft to equip
ECAT (Ecole de combat and d’appui tactique, or School of Combat and Tactical
Support). The ECAT programme resulted in the companies Dassault, with the Cavalier,
and Breguet, with the Br 121, entering into competition. On 30th June 1964, the
engineering offices of Breguet, headed by Georges Ricard, submitted to the competent
authorities the project Br 121, a version of the Br 1001 Taon, with twin Rolls Royce RB
172-45 engines. The project Cavalier was finally abandoned following the choice of the
Breguet aircraft.
It quickly became apparent that the RAF also needed an aircraft that corresponded rather
closely to the characteristics of the Br 121. On 17th May 1965, the two countries
concluded a protocol agreement for the study and joint manufacture of a low-altitude
combat and training aircraft. Responsibility fell to Breguet Aviation and the British
Aircraft Corporation, under the management of the Franco-British joint-company
SEPECAT (Société européenne de production de l’avion d’école de combat and d’appui
tactique, or European Company for the Production of Aircraft for the School of Combat
and Tactical Support). Breguet Aviation was acquired by the company Dassault in 1967.
The first prototype, Jaguar A, flew from Istres (Bouches-du-Rhône, France), on 08
September 1968.
Difficulties in cooperation, due to the lack of a true main contractor, and changes in the
definition delayed the Jaguar entering service until 1972. Originally a program for a
trainer aircraft, it ended up as a ground attack aircraft with little in common, either in
terms of size or cost, with the model initially foreseen. The French and British versions
also were not identical, since each country had imposed, for its own models, nationally-
sourced equipment.
In the end, a total of 573 aircraft were ordered. France and Britain purchased 403 to
which were added 54, exported to three countries (Oman, Ecuador and Nigeria), and 116
to India of which 70 were produced under license in that country.

The first RAF aircraft took to the air in October 1969, and each air force placed orders for
200 aircraft - the RAF opting for 165 single-seat and 35 two-seat aircraft. Deliveries to
No 226 OCU at Lossiemouth began in 1973, and at its peak the Jaguar equipped 8 front-
line and 1 training squadron; Nos 14, 17, 20 and 31 Sqn at Bruggen (strike/attack),
II(AC) Sqn at Laarbruch (reconnaissance) as well as the three Coltishall based squadrons
(6, 41 and 54) and Lossiemouth based 16(Reserve) Sqn.
A variety of weapons including cluster, freefall, retard and laser guided bombs, as well as
rockets can be carried on the four wing and one fuselage stations. Two 30mm cannon are
mounted internally. To mark targets for laser-guided weapons, the aircraft carries the
thermal imaging and laser designation (TIALD) pod. For self-defence, overwing
Sidewinder infra-red missiles are carried and the aircraft is fitted with a comprehensive
suite of electronic countermeasures. Perhaps the Jaguar's most impressive feature is its
navigation and attack system. With mission data fed into the computer, all the necessary
information for a pinpoint attack is relayed to the head-up display. From the display, the
pilot knows exactly where the target is located and precisely when to release his weapons
for maximum effect.
The fleet is currently undergoing an upgrade program, and this will see aircraft fitted with
new cockpit displays, helmet-mounted sights, the ability to carry the new Advanced Short
Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM) and other system improvements to further extend
the life of the aircraft well into the next century.

The Jaguar has a long sleek fuselage with a large swept tail fin and rudder. The fuselage
features a long, pointed, chiseled nose, and the body widens at the air intakes rectangular
to the exhausts. Relatively short-span swept wings are shoulder-mounted on the fuselage.
The internal jet engines, mounted to the rear of the cockpit, have rectangular air intakes
either side of the fuselage behind the cockpit, with their top surfaces forming an
extension of the wing. The engine exhausts show prominently under the forward portion
of the tail. The rear jetpipes are located forward and below the tailplane which has
marked anhedral. The raised bubble canopy is set above the sharply-pointed nose. The
twin mainwheels of the undercarriage retract into the fuselage.

India acquired the Jaguar strike fighter to meet the IAF's Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft
(DPSA) requirement to replace the Canberra and Hunter aircraft. After many years of
evaluation and negotiation, the Anglo-French fighter was contracted for, an interim batch
of ex-RAF Jaguars being accepted to re-equip No. 14 Squadron. IAF pilots and
technicians received conversion training with the RAF and British Aerospace in
Lossiemouth, Coltishall and Warton before ferrying the first Jaguars to India in July
1979. These were followed by a batch of U.K. built Jaguars to re-equip No. 5 Squadron
even as simultaneously, HAL prepared for production of the aircraft, its powerplants,
avionics and accessories in India. By the mid-1980s, the Jaguar was in service with Nos.
5, 14, 16 and 27 Squadrons while a flight of No.6 Squadron was equipped with the
Maritime Jaguar carrying the new generation Sea Eagle anti-ship sea-skimming missile.
The Jaguar strike fighter was equipped also with Magic air-to-air missiles on unique
overwing pylons, featured advanced nay-attack systems and able to carry formidable
warload till the far ends of the sub-continent.

Builder team : Anglo-French co-operation Dassault / BAe
Typical mission Close Air Support (CAS), Battlefield Air Interdiction
First flight : March 1969
In-service in the May 1969
French Air Force :
F-4 Phantom II
Mitsubishi F-1
Similar Aircraft
MiG-27 Flogger
Two Turbomeca/Rolls-Royce Adour 104 turbofans of
7,305lb st.
Span 28ft 6 in (8.69m)
Length 55ft 2.5in (16.83m)
Height : 4.80 m
Weight : empty / 7.5 t / 15 t
maximum at takeoff :
Fuel capacity : 4,200 l internal / 7,800 maximal / In-flight refuelling
Power plant / 2 Rolls-Royce / Turboméca Adour MK 102 jet engines
Thrust : / 2x3,3 t with afterburner
Max Speed Mach 1.35 990mph (1,593km/h) at 36,000ft (11,000m).
Operational ceiling : 40,000 ft
GR1B pilot only
T2: pilot and pupil in tandem.
Two 30mm Aden / DEFA 553 guns
up to 10,000lb (4,500kg) stores including
Matra Magic R550 air-to-air missile ;
Armament AS 30 laser air-to-surface missile,
laser guided bombs
Martel rockets
laser-guided bombs.
Special equipment : Electronic counter measures, photo recce capacity with
Omera 40 camera, and gyroscopic guidance
NATO In-flight refuelling by NATO aircraft, armament and
interoperability : ammunitions in accordance with NATO standards
Number of units More than 450
produced :
User Countries France
French Air Force 40 aircraft in 2 squadrons
inventory :
Following on the Mirage F-2, which was a revival of the classic arrow-wing design with
stabilizers, the Mirage F-1 is a defense and air superiority single-seater plane. This
revival was made possible by technological advances which permit manufacture of ultra-
thin but robust wings, enabling at supersonic speeds flight performance equivalent to that
of delta wings. The integrity of the fuselage structure allows the aircraft to carry a
maximum amount of fuel. The Mirage F-1 prototype made its maiden flight with René
Bigand at the controls, 23rd December 1966, at Melun-Villaroche (the Seine-et-Marne
region of France). Commissioned by the French Air Force in 1973, more than 700 Mirage
F-1's have been sold to some 11 countries. The Dassault Mirage F-1C was the standard
French fighter before Mirage 2000 entered service in the air force in 1984.

The wings are high-mounted, swept-back, and tapered. Missiles are usually mounted at
the wing tips. There is one turbojet engine in the body. There are semicircular air intakes
alongside the body forward of the wing roots. There is a single exhaust. The fuselage is
long, slender, pointed nose and a blunt tail. There are two small belly fins under the tail
section and a bubble canopy. The tail is swept-back and tapered fin with a blunt tip. The
flats are mid-mounted on the fuselage, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips.

Country of Origin France
Builder team : Dassault Aviation, SNECMA, Thomson-CSF
Mirage F1 CT - Close Air Support (CAS) / attack /
Role fighter
Mirage F1 CR - Tactical reconnaissance / fighter
First flight : November 1981
1992 for the new weapons system (F1 CT version)
In-service in French 1983
Air Force :
Super Etendard
Mitsubishi F-1
Similar Aircraft
AV-8B Harrier II
Fantan A
Length 49 ft (14.94 m) 15.33 m
Span 27 ft, 7 in (8.4 m)
Height : 4.50 m
Weight 8.1 t empty
15.2 t maximum at takeoff
Power plant / SNECMA Atar 9K50 jet engine / 4.7 t and 6.8 t with
Thrust : afterburner
Ceiling 52,000 ft [20,000 meters ?]
Maximum speed : Mach 2.2
Cruise range 1160 nm
In-Flight Refueling Y
Internal Fuel 3435 kg
Fuel capacity : 4,100 l internal / 6,400 l maximal / In-flight refuelling
Payload 6300 kg
Sensors Cyrano IVM radar (-200 has IWMR), RWR
1160 L drop tank with 927kg of fuel for 157nm of
Drop Tanks
2300 l drop tank with 1837kg of fuel for 310nm of
Armament 2 30mm DEFA 553 cannon
2 Matra Magic R550
free fall and parachute drag bombs
Special equipment : Radar Thomson-CSF Cyrano IV-MR (air-to-air, air-to-
ground), inertial navigation system, panoramic camera
Omera 40, vertical camera Omera 33, IR thermographic
captor Super Cyclope, lateral radar Raphael,
electromagnetic emissions detector Astac, photographic
pod RP35P, Desire digital video recce pod, electronic
counter measures
NATO In-flight refuelling by NATO aircraft, armament and
interoperability : ammunitions in accordance with NATO standards
User Country France
South Africa
Number of units 740 (all types of Mirage F1 included)
produced :
French Air Force 40 aircraft in 2 squadrons
inventory :

Reconnaissance sensors of the Mirage F1 CR

Raphael TH Airborne
electronic imagery
radar with radio

600-kg pod for

radar imagery
(SLAR : Side
Looking Airborne
Radar) up to 100-
km inside enemy
Astac ASTAC is an
system designed
for detection,
identification and
localisation of
radars of all types.
It is suitable for
medium and high
altitude stand-off
missions, or at low
altitude on the
battlefield and in
penetration, where
it can collect data
for avoidance or
destruction of anti-
air defenses. The
ASTAC tactical
analyserpod is a
light supersonic
pod that is easy to
install under any
combat aircraft. It
is currently in
operation on
French Air Force's
Mirage F1CRs and
the Japanese Air
Force's RF-4E
Desire Electro-optical

Pendular pod for

digital video
including 610-mm
stabilised optics.
The pod is linked
with the ground
station SARA and
with the
interpretation aid
system (SAIM)
Super cyclope Thermographic
sensor (infrared
whose information
can be sent in real
time or at a later
time to a ground
Pod RP35P Includes 75, 150,
200 and 600-mm
focal length
Omera 33 Camera taking
shots vertically at
altitude (150, 300
and 600-mm focal
Omera 40 Panoramic camera
taking 180°
downwards shots
Mirage III
Mirage 5
Mirage 50
Both the Mirage III and Mirage 5 have been built in very large numbers and are in
service in many countries. The two airframes are basically the same, except the Mirage 5
has a longer nose. The aircraft has low-mounted delta wings with pointed tips. There is
one turbojet engine inside fuselage, with semicircular air intakes forward of the wing
roots below the canopy and a large, single exhaust. The fuselage is long, slender, and
tubular with a pointed nose and a bubble cockpit. The tail is large, swept-back, and has a
tapered tail fin with a square tip. There are no tail flats.

Country of Origin France
Similar Aircraft Kfir C-2
MiG-21 Fishbed
A-4 Skyhawk
Fantan A
Crew One
Designation Mirage IIIE Mirage 5 Mirage 50
Role Intercept Ground-attack Attack
Length 49 ft, 3 in (15.02 m) 51 ft (15.55 m)
Span 27 ft (8.24 m)
Ceiling 17000 meters 17000 meters 18000 meters
Cruise range 900 nm 1040 nm 1150 nm
In-Flight Refueling No No No
Internal Fuel 2350 kg 2720 kg 2720 kg
Payload 4000 kg 4500 kg 4000 kg
Sensors Cytano II radar, Aida II and Laser Agave or
RWR RF or Agave radar Cyrano IVM
(dependes on radar (depends
customers) on customer),
Drop Tanks 625 L drop tank 1200 L drop tank 1700 L drop
with 499kg of fuel with 959 kg of fuel tank with
for 96nm of range for 183 nm of range 1358kg of fuel
1300 L drop tank for 287 nm
with 1038kg of fuel range
for 199 nm of range
1700 L drop tank
with 1358 kg of
fuel for 260 nm of
Cannon: 2 30mm Cannon:2 30mm Cannon; 2
DEFA 552 DEFA 553 30mm DEFA
R.530 R.550 1 AS.30 or AS.37 552A
Magic, AS.37 and EU3 450 kg 1 AS.30 or
Martel, bombs (936 nm) AS.37 and 2
EU3 450Kg 1 AS.30 or AS.37 EU3 450kg
bombs, and 2 1200L drop bombs (936
AN52 nuclear tanks (1265 nm) nm)
bombs 2 Matra 155 1 AS.30 or
rocket pods, 2 EU3 AS.37 and 2
450kg bombs, 2 1200 L drop
R.550 Magic tanks (1265
Armament 2 1200 L drop nm)
tanks, 2 R.550 2 Matra 155
Magic (1265 nm) rocket pods, 2
8 EU3 450kg EU3 450g
bombs (936 nm) bombs, 2 R.550
2 1200L
Drop tanks, 2
R.550 magic
(1265 nm)
8 EU3 450
kg bombs (936
User Countries Argentina Chile (Mirage 5 Venezuela
Brazil and 50) (Mirage 50)
South Africa
Mirage III

Mirage 5
The Mirage 2000 is very similar to the Mirage III/5 and 50, though it is not a variant of
the Mirage III/5 or 50 but an entirely new aircraft with advanced interceptor controls. In
its secondary ground-attack role, the Mirage 2000 carries laser guided missiles rockets
and bombs. There is a two-seat version of this aircraft, the 2000N (Penetration) which has
nuclear standoff capability.

The wings are low-mounted delta with clipped tips. There is one turbofan engine
mounted in the fuselage. There are semicircular air intakes alongside the fuselage
forward of the wings. There is a large, single exhaust which protrudes past the tail. The
fuselage is tube-shaped with a pointed nose and a bubble canopy. There are no tail flats.
The fin is swept-back and tapered with a clipped tip.

The Mirage 2000-5 is a multi-role single-seater or two seater fighter. It differs from its
predecessors mainly in its avionics; its new multiple target air-to-ground and air-to-air
firing procedures linked to the use of RDY radar and its new visualization and control
system. As a multi-role combat aircraft with versatile air-to-air mission capabilities, the
Mirage 2000-5 integrates the state-of-the-art of the know-how based on the experience
gained from the previous Mirage 2000 versions (Mirage 2000 DA, Mirage 2000 E,
Mirage 2000 D) and is designed for the most-advanced armaments.

The Mirage 2000 D, derived from the Mirage 2000N operated by the French Air Force, is
a two-seater air-to-ground attack aircraft. The Mirage 2000D tactical penetration two-
seater fighter carries air-to-ground high precision weapons which can be fired at a safe
distance, by day or by night. Its navigation and attack system enable it to fly in any
weather conditions, hugging the terrain at a very low altitude. Beyond the nuclear-
weapons capabilities adopted for the Mirage 2000 N, the Mirage 2000 D armament
includes laser-guided weapons, low-drag bombs, and the aircraft can also carry the
APACHE cruise missile. The Mirage 2000 D geometrical characteristics and the main
performance data are the same as those of the Mirage 2000-5.

Countries of Origin France
Builder team : Dassault Aviation, SNECMA, Thomson-CSF
First flight : March, 1978 [Mirage 2000C]
February, 1991 [Mirage 2000D]
In-service in the French Summer 1983 [Mirage 2000C]
Air Force : April, 1993 [Mirage 2000D]
Mirage III/5
Similar Aircraft
Crew Mirage 2000N & 2000D -- two [ 1 pilot + 1
navigation and weapon officer]
Interceptor [Mirage 2000C]
Role All weather night and day missions such as
Battlefield Air Interdiction (BAI) [Mirage 2000D]
[Mirage 2000D]
Automated terrain following at very high speed and
Major operational very low altitude
capabilities : All-weather night and day bombing capability
High precision all weather day/night bombing with
Thomson-CSF PDL-CT
Length 50 ft, 3 in (14.36 m)
Span 29 ft, 5 in (9.13 m)
Height 5.30 meters
Empty Weight 7,600 kg [Mirage 2000C]
Maximum Weight 16,500 kg
Maximal armament 5,900 kg [Mirage 2000C]
weight : 6,200 kg (9 store stations) [Mirage 2000D]
Power plant / Thrust : SNECMA M 53 P2 jet engine / 9.7 t with afterburner
Mach 1,2 [low altitude]
Maximum Speed
Mach 2,2 [high altitude]
Rate of Climb 17,000 m/min
Ceiling Above 50,000 ft / 16,500 m
800 nm (1,475 km) w/
4 250-kg bombs
1,000 nm (1,850 km) w/
Combat Radius
2 1,700-liter drop tanks
1,800 nm (3,335 km) max fuel w/
2 1,700-liter + 1 1,300-liter drop tanks
In-Flight Refueling Yes
Fuel capacity : [Mirage 2000C]
3,950 l internal / 8,000 l maximal / in-flight

[Mirage 2000D]
3,1 t internal / 6,2 t maximal / In-flight refuelling
Sensors RDI radar (interceptor), RWR, Advanced bombsight
1700 L drop tank 1358 kg of fuel for 188 nm of
Drop Tanks
1300 L drop tank 1038 kg of fuel for 144 nm of
Cannon : 2 GIAT DEFA 554 de 30 mm
Air-air : missiles MICA, Magic 2, Super
530F,Super 530D Sky Flash.
Air-ground bombs : BGL 1000, BM400, BAP 100
Air-ground missiles : Durandal, Belouga, Armat,
Apache, Scalp, AS30L, AM39, ASMP
Armament 2 AM.39 Exocet, 1 1300 L drop Tank (855 nm)
1 1300 L drop tank, 2 ARMAT, 2 R.550 Magic (885
1 1300 L drop tank, 2R.500 Magic, 2 R.530D (885
4 Belouga, 2 1700 L drop tank, 2 R.550 Magic (1094
18 EU2 250 kg bombs (756 nm)
Special equipment : [Mirage 2000C]
Thomson-CSF RDI radar (pulse doppler), look
down-shoot down capacity, integrated electronic
counter-measures, fly-by-wire, automatic pilot,
inertial guidance system

[Mirage 2000D]
Fly-by-wire system, 2 inertial navigation systems,
Thomson-CSF Antilope 5 terrain following radar,
Icare digital map, integrated GPS, integrated
countermeasures, laser designation pod with thermal
camera (PDL-CT)
NATO Protected radiocommunications, identification friend
interoperability : or foe, in-flight refuelling by NATO aircraft,
armament and ammunitions in accordance with
NATO standards
Number of units 526 (all types of Mirage 2000 included)
produced :
French Air Force 80 aircraft in 4 squadrons [Mirage 2000C]
inventory : 60 aircraft in 3 squadrons [Mirage 2000C]
User Countries Egypt
(all types of Mirage 2000 France
included) Greece
United Arab Emirates
The Rafale program is composed of three versions of multi-purpose twin-engine combat
aircraft -- the single-seater air version Rafale C, two-seater air version Rafale B and
single-seater navy version Rafale M. These three versions are fitted with the same engine,
the same navigation and attack system, the aircraft management system and the flight
control system. They are all able to perform all types of missions from ground attack to
air superiority.
The first production aircraft Rafale B1 flew for the first time 04 December 1998 and was
delivered to the French Air Force. Firm orders by the French Government are now up to a
total of 61 aircraft to be delivered from 1998 to 2005. The total programme for France,
Air Force and Navy, is set at 294 aircraft.
Directly derived from the slightly smaller RAFALE A demonstrator, the three versions of
the RAFALE retain all those qualities which have today been proven in flight : 750 kt, 9
g/-3.6 g, 32° maximum angle of attack, 115 kt approach speed, take off and landing in
less than 400 meters. These qualities and performances stem from the "delta-canard"
aerodynamic concept combining a delta wing and an active foreplane judiciously located
in relation to the wing so as to optimize aerodynamic efficiency and stability control
without impeding the pilot's visibility. Moreover, shapes and materials have been
continuously selected to minimized the aircraft observability to both electro-magnetic and
infra-red sensors.
The Rafale C is a multirole fighter with a fully integrated weapons and navigation
systems, making use of the latest technology and is capable of outstanding performance
on multiple target air-to-air missions and air-to-surface missions deep behind enemy

The two-seater Rafale B retains most of the elements of the single-seater version, and its
weapon and navigation system is exactly the same; the Rafale B can perform any
operational mission with a lon pilot or with a crew consisting of two pilots or of one pilot
and a weapons system operator.

The Rafale M, a single-seater designed for seaborne use, carries the same weapon and
navigation system. Its airframe has been designed for aircraft-carriers but retains most of
the elements of the other versions.

Country France
Type Intercept

Crew Single or twin seater

Engine 2 x 16550 lb.
BME 20950 lb.
Max ramp weight 49560 lb.
Ceiling na
Take-off landing < 1300 ft
Cruise range 1000 nm
In-Flight Refueling Yes
Internal Fuel 4250 kg
External stores 13215 lb. to 17620 lb.
Air version 14 hard points
Navy version 13 hard points
RDX LD/SD radar, FLIR, LRMTS, RWR, Advanced
Drop Tanks 2000 L Drop tank with 1598 kg for 188nm of range
Cannon: 1 30mm DEFA 554
Mica, R.550 Magic 2, BGL 400
The Super Etendard is a carrier-based single-seat strike fighter first introduced into
service in 1978. It is an updated version of the Etendard IVM. Based on experience
gained during the Korean war (1950-53), French authorities drew up specifications for a
light interceptor. This definition was rapidly assimilated into a program for a light tactical
bomber that could also fulfil an air superiority mission. At the same time, NATO
published its requirements for the LWTSF (Light Weight Tactical Strike Fighter). In
response, the Dassault company presented its Mirage and Etendard aircraft.
To meet the needs of both national and NATO programs, Dassault carried over the
aerodynamic design of its Super-Mystère, applying it to smaller aircraft equipped with
power plants that could reach transonic speeds without afterburners. This led to the
design of the Mystère XXII (Etendard II), Mystère XXIV (Etendard IV) and Mystère
XXVI (Etendard VI), developments which were remarkable for improving lift so that
take-off and landing became possible at reduced speeds.
The Etendard IV M was the first naval aircraft developed by Dassault. The Etendard IV
M made its maiden flight 21st May 1958 at Melun-Villaroche (the Seine-et-Marne region
of France). The wings of the aircraft are mid-mounted, swept-back, and tapered with
blunt tips there are sawtooth in the leading edges. There is one turbojet engine inside the
body. There are semicircular air intakes below the canopy and a single exhaust. The
fuselage has a long, pointed nose. The body bulges at the air intakes and tapers to the
rear. There is a bubble canopy well forward on the nose. The dorsal spine extends from
the cockpit to midbody. The tail is large, swept-back, and tapered tail fin with curved tip.
The flats are low- to mid-mounted on the tail fin, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips.
Between 1961 and 1965, the French Navy took delivery of 69 Etendard IV M's and 21
Etendard IV P's. The Etendard IV M continued in service in the French Navy until July
1991. These aircraft logged a total of 180,000 flying hours and made 25,300 carrier
landings. Even today, there are still several Etendard IV P's and IV PM's in service.

The naval single-seater combat aircraft, Dassault Super-Etendard, is a modernized

version of the Etendard IV M. Main modifications include updating of the weapons
system through the installation (a first for a French production aircraft) of a modern
navigation and combat management system. The aircraft prototype made its maiden flight
28 October 1974 at Istres (the Bouches-du-Rhône region of France).

The French Navy commissioned the plane for the first time in 1977 and 71 aircraft are
now in service on the aircraft carriers Foch and Clemenceau. This plane, armed with
Exocet missiles and flown by Argentinian pilots (14 aircraft), proved its combat
effectiveness during the Malvinas [Falklands] war with Britain in 1982.
The Super-Etendard will be replaced by the naval version of the multi-role combat
aircraft Rafale at the beginning of the 21st century.
Country of Origin France
May 1958 Etendard IV
First flight
October 1990 (Upgraded Super Etendard)
In-service in the 1964 Etendard IV
French Navy June 1993 (Upgraded Super Etendard)
Fantan A
Mitsubishi F-1
Similar Aircraft
Mirage F1
Yak-38 Forger
Crew One
Span 31 ft, 6 in / 9.60 meters
Length 47 ft / 14.31 meters
Height 3.85 meters
Range 750-1080 nautical miles
Endurance 1h45 to 2h15 with réservoir supplémentaire
Mach 1,3 (@ 11 000 m)
Mach 0,97 (@ low altitude)
Ceiling 45,000 feet / 13700 meters
Weight 11.90 tonnes (6.25 à vide).
In-Flight Refueling Yes
Internal Fuel 2612 kg
Payload 2100 kg w/full int fuel
Power plant / Thrust SNECMA 8 K50 jet engine / 5 t
Armament two 30-mm guns
Air-to-ground middle range missile (ASMP)
Exocet air-to-surface Aerospatiale missile
Matra Magic 2 air-to-air missile
AS30 air-to-surface laser-guided missile
free fall and parachute drag bombs
laser-guided bombs
Systems radar Anémone
nacelle Atlis
détecteur Sherloc
brouilleur Barracuda
Drax radar detector
Barracuda and Phimat jamming pods
leurres Alkan 5081
rear flare dispenser
Special equipment 6 Oméra 31 cameras (100, 150, 200 and 600 mm)
600 L drop tank with 479kg of fuel for 99nm of
625 L drop tank with 499kg of fuel for 103nm of
Drop Tanks
1100 L drop tank with 879kg of fuel for 182nm of
Engine 1 SNECMA 8K50 @ 5 tonnes thrust
Sensors Agave radar, RWR, ballistic bombsight
User Country
Number of units
85 (all types of Super Etendard included)
French Navy 52 Super Etendard in two squadrons
inventory 5 Etendard IV P
Designed and built as a collaborative project in the UK, Germany and Italy, the Tornado
is in service with all three air forces and the German Navy. Tornado is also in service in
Saudi Arabia and Oman. It is a twin-seat, twin-engined, variable geometry aircraft and is
supersonic at all altitudes. The design authority for the Tornado is Panavia, the tri-
national consortium which comprises British Aerospace, DASA of Germany and the
Italian firm Alenia.

The wings of the the aircraft are high-mounted, variable, swept-back, and tapered with
angular, blunt tips. There are two turbofan engines inside the body. The air intakes are
diagonal and box-like alongside the fuselage forward of the wing roots. There are twin
exhausts. The fuselage is solid and has a needle nose. The body thickens midsection and
tapers to the tail section. There is a bubble cockpit. The tail is tall, swept-back, and has a
tapered fin with a curved tip and a step in the leading edge. The flats are large, mid-
mounted on the body, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips.

The Tornado GR1 strike/attack aircraft is capable of carrying a wide range of

conventional stores, including the JP233 anti-airfield weapon, the ALARM anti-radar
missile, and laser-guided bombs. The reconnaissance version, designated the GR1A,
retains the full operational capability of the GR1. The GR1B, equipped with Sea Eagle
air-to-surface missiles, undertakes the anti-surface shipping role. For self-defence, the
Tornado carries Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and is fitted with twin internal 27mm

The GR1 originated from a UK Staff Requirement in 1969, calling for a medium-range,
low-level, counter-air strike aircraft, with the further capabilities of interdiction and
reconnaissance. The Tornado first saw action during the Gulf conflict of 1991, when
several were lost as a result of daring ultra-low-level missions to close Iraqi airfields. The
proliferation of anti-aircraft defences in Iraq, Bosnia and elsewhere that the UK might be
called on to operate has meant that the standard GR1 is in danger of not being able to
fulfil the covert deep penetration operations that it was designed for. Furthermore the
advance of air-delivered weapons has meant that strike aircraft need to become ever more
sophisticated, especially given the fears of ‘collateral damage’ or accidentally hitting
civilian targets.

The Tornado F3 air defence fighter has an 80% commonality with the Tornado GR1
strike/attack aircraft. The Tornado F3 is optimised for long-range interception, for which
it carries four Skyflash radar-guided missiles and four AIM 9-L Sidewinder infra-red
homing air-to-air missiles, plus an internally-mounted 27mm Mauser cannon. Tornado
F3s are being equipped with the new Joint Tactical Information Distribution System.
Operating in conjunction with E-3D Sentry airborne early warning aircraft and other
allied fighters, the system gives an unprecedented picture of the air battle, including
information obtained by other sensors in other fighters or AEW aircraft. The crew can
thus select its own target and move to within 'kill' distance without using the fighter's
own search radar with its position-revealing signature until the very last moment.
The Tornado GR1A is a world leader in the field of all-weather, day and night tactical
reconnaissance. The GR1A has no cannons mounted in the forward fuselage. Replacing
these are a Sideways Looking Infra-Red system and a Linescan infra-red surveillance

Originally intended for use in Central Europe, interdicting Warsaw Pact armoured
columns and operating in the counter-air role against enemy airfields, the GR1 is now
facing a more challenging future, with improved air defences to face and more difficult
targets to engage. The GR1 Mid-Life Update (MLU) is intended to enhance the
capabilities of many of the GR1 fleet, allowing a wider range of missions in all weathers
and permitting the use of the advanced, so-called ‘smart’ munitions now available. The
new version will be known as the Tornado GR4.

A mid-life update program was completed by the end of 1998 which, as well as
enhancing survivability and operational effectiveness, to give the aircraft the capability to
carry advanced weapons such as the anti-armor weapon 'Brimstone' and the stand-off
attack missile 'Storm Shadow'. The updated aircraft is designated Tornado GR4. The last
of the updates is scheduled for early 2003. The MLU will allow the RAF’s Tornados to
serve well into the next century until they are eventually replaced by the Future Offensive
Air System (FOAS). The airframe’s life is to be extended as a result of more advanced
technology and this will avoid the necessity of expensive refits or the acquisition of new

Both offensive and defensive capabilities will be enhanced on the GR4, including a new
Forward-Looking Infra Red (FLIR) system and Night Vision Goggles (NVG), laser
designation facilities to allow the precision bombing that characterised the recent Gulf
conflicts, plus a Defensive Aids sub-system to protect the aircraft from Surface to Air
Missiles and radar-directed anti-aircraft guns. New avionics improve navigation and
flight performance, including the installation of a Global Positioning System. In addition
to the existing range of weaponry, such as laser-guided bombs and anti-radar missiles, the
GR4 will be able to operate new and development equipment such as the Storm Shadow
stand-off attack missile.

The GR4s will all be capable of using the Sea Eagle anti-shipping missile, whereas only
the relatively small numbers of Tornado GR1Bs are presently fitted for maritime strike.
The actual payload, speed, altitude and other performance characteristics of the GR4 will
remain much the same as for the GR1. What will change, however, is the overall
capability of the aircraft. The ability - literally - to see in the dark when using FLIR and
NVG will permit GR4s to fly at terrain-following height, in close formation, without
navigation lights or radar emissions. In effect the GR4 is a more stealthy aircraft,
enhancing its chances of covert deep penetration and surviving the mission. It is now an
all-weather strike aircraft, an important factor in Europe.
The overall cost of the Tornado MLU is currently estimated to be £850 million. The first
delivery was achieved on time on 31 October 1997 and the aircraft formally entered
service on 30 September 1998. As of February 1999, 26 GR4s had been delivered to the
RAF, from a total number of 142 planned updates. Thirty-two of this number will be
training variants, capable of the range of missions that the standard GR4s carry out, but
fitted with dual flight controls. Some 26 GR4s will be designated GR4A, being dedicated
reconnaissance aircraft equipped with sophisticated equipment built into the airframe.
Since only the RAF currently intends operating GR4, the actual MLU work is undertaken
within the UK. The RAF at St Athan in Wales carries out preliminary work and then the
main conversion is undertaken at BAe Warton in Lancashire.

Country Germany, Italy, United Kingdom
Manufacturer Panavia Aircraft GmbH, Am Söldnermoos 17, 85399
Hallbergmoos, Germany
Phone: 0049/811/801238, Fax: 0049/811/801386
Crew Pilot, WSO
Armament Two internal 27-mm Mauser cannon with 180 rounds per gun
plus more than 9000 kg of external stores on seven
hardpoints, including Sidewinder
Texas Instruments HARM
Hughes AGM-65 Maverick
British Aerospace ALARM
Laser guided bombs like Paveway
Bombs up to 450 kg
MW-1 munitions dispenser
Matra Apache
Nuclear freefall bombs
Power plant 2 x Turbo-Union RB199-34R turbofans
Thrust: 38,7 kN (8700 lbs) dry and 66 kN (14480 lbs) with
Dimensions Length: 16,72 m
Height: 5,95 m
Span: 13,91 m fully forward, 8,60 m fully swept
Wing area: 26,6 sqm
Weights Empty weight: approx. 13890 kg
Max. external load: over 9000 kg
Max. fuel: 4660 kg (5100 kg in RAF and Saudi AF aircraft)
Max. take-off weigth: approx. 28000 kg
Performance Max. speed : 1,452mph (2,336km/h) at 36,000ft (11,000m)
Max. speed : Mach 2.2 at altitude
Max. speed with external stores: Mach 0.92 (1110 km/h)
Rate of climb: Time to 30000 ft (9150 m) less than 2 min
Take-off field length: 900 m or less
Landing run: 370 m
Ferry range: approx. 3900 km
Radius of action: 1390 km (750 NM) with heavy load, hi-lo-lo-hi
g-limit (g-Limit): + 7,5
Customers The IDS (interdictor-strike) version of Tornado is in service with
the Royal Air Force, Luftwaffe, German Navy, Italian Air Force
and Royal Saudi Air Force.
A400M Future Large Aircraft - FLA
Avion de Transport Futur - ATF
The A400M is a military transport aircraft designed to meet the requirements of eight
European Air Forces (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and the
United Kingdom) to replace their fleets of C-130 Hercules and C-160 Transall. These
aircraft are currently in service and will become obsolete in the next century. With the
A400M, the goal is to standardize Europe's fleet of tactical transports. The relatively
larger production run allows greater production rates which will then reduce the prices
per aircraft for airframe, engines and spare parts. Moreover, this will provide for an
improved interoperability level and the option of consolidating major maintenance
operations in a joint industrial consortium. The harmonized military requirements of eight
countries have been published in the "European Staff Requirement" (ESR). The total
number of aircraft required by these countries amounts to approx. 300.

CASA, Aerospatiale, Airbus, Alenia, British Aerospace, DASA, Flabel, Ogma and TAI
are taking part in A400M (anteriormente FLA, Future Large Aircraft) programme under
the management of Airbus Military. The new company's responsibility is to manage the
development program of the Airbus A400M military transport, formerly known as the
FLA (Future Large Aircraft). The new designation denotes that the aircraft is the first of a
new series of military transports, complementary to the existing range of civil airliners
produced by Airbus Industrie.

The A400M has a classic high wing configuration, fuselage with ramp and large rear
door, high flotation retractable landing gear and "T" tail. Its four turboprops provide it
with a cruise speed of 0.72 mach at altitudes of up to 40,000 feet. Its cabin is 22.65 m
long, including the ramp, 4 m wide at floor level and 3.85 m high, making it suitable for
the transport of bulky cargo like helicopters, heavy vehicles, missile batteries and light
vehicles placed side by side.
The A400M will offer longer range, higher payload and capacity, faster cruise speed, and
improved levels of tactical performance compared to the aircraft it will replace. Through
the use of proven advanced technology developed by Airbus Industrie and its partner
companies, the A400M will also bring commercial levels of reliability and cost-
effectiveness to military airlift operations.
In June 1999 the M138 engine won in Airbus Industrie's downselect on engines to power
its emerging A400M military transport. The M138 is jointly developed and manufactured
by Snecma (France), MTU München (Germany), FiatAvio (Italy) and ITP (Spain). The
M138's core is identical to that of Snecma's M88, which powers the French Rafale
combat aircraft. The M138 also incorporates technologies matured under the Advanced
Ducted Propfan (ADP) demonstrator project.
Delivery of the first series aircraft could be made in the year 2005. An important
argument in favor of the A400M is the changed geopolitical situation on account of
which crisis-oriented and quick-reaction air transport increasingly gains in importance.
As a result, the demand for transport aircraft for humanitarian and military applications,
as for instance for UNO and NATO missions, continues to grow. Another reason lies in
the fact that transporters such as the Transall C-160 and the Hercules C-130 which today
are in operation throughout Europe will gradually have to be replaced with new aircraft.

The Strategic Defence Review (SDR) issued by the British Government in July 1998
made a very strong case for the need for a dramatically improved air transport capability
to support the proposed Joint Rapid Reaction Forces. However, as of early 1999 the
French Air Force was considering a range of options for a new military transport aircraft,
including the Airbus Future Large Aircraft, the Russian An-70 and a mix of C-17s and C-
130Js. Lockheed Martin has proposed the C-130J-30 to Belgium, France, Spain and the
UK in competition with the proposed European Airbus A400M. The European home
market for FLA represents some 300 aircraft. Outside Europe a sizeable market can be
identified for a military transport aircraft in the FLA category.

Length 42.00 m 137´ 9"
Wing Span 41.40 m 135´ 10"
Cabin Length 22.65 m 74´ 4"
Cabin Height 3.85 m 12´ 8"
Cabin Width 4.00 m 13´ 1"

Maximum Take-off Weight 110.850 kg 244,378 lb
Maximum Landing Weight N/A
Maximum Payload 25,000 kg 55,115 lb
Maximum Fuel N/A
Number of Fully Equipped Troops 105
Number of 88"x108" Pallets 9

Maximum Speed 422 ktas<
Maximum Cruising Speed Mach 0.68
Take-off Distance (S/L, ISA, MTOW at 50ft) < 1,067 m < 3,500´
Landing Distance (S/L, ISA, MTOW at 50 ft) < 1,067 m < 3,500´
Maximum Range 7,593 km 4,100 nm
Range with Full Load 4,000 km 2,100 nm

Power Plant
Number and Model 4 (BR700-TP)
Power per unit 9500 SHP / 10,000 CV
The Transall C-160 first flew in 1963. Production was completed in 1972, but in 1977 the
program was reinstated to produce a “new generation” C-160 for France. The last of
these new generation aircraft entered service in 1987. The wings are high-mounted and
equally tapered outboard of the engines with blunt tips. Two turboprop engines are
mounted under and extend beyond the wings’ leading edges. The fuselage is long, thick,
and tapered to the rear with a round, solid nose, stepped cockpit and upswept tail section.
The tail flats are mid-mounted on a thinned body, equally tapered with blunt tips. The fin
is tall and tapered with a blunt tip and a fairing in the leading edge.

C-160 Gabriel

The C-160 Gabriel configures an ELINT subsystem provided by Thomson-CSF Radars

& Contre-Mesures for detection, analysis and location of radar sources with a COMINT
subsystem provided by Thomson-CSF Communications for detection, interception,
classification, listening-in, analysis and location of radio transmitters. Thomson-CSF
Radars & Contre-Mesures has developed complete SIGINT electronic intelligence
systems for integration on board aircraft such as DC-8, Boeing 707, C-160, Transall and

Typical mission Electronic and

C-160 Gabriel photo
Builder team : Aerospatiale /
First flight : April 1981
In-service in 1989
French Air 1 intelligence
Force : fleet with 2 C-
160 Gabriel
Maximum 515 kph at
speed : 16,000 ft
Crew : 14 including 9
Special Electromagnetic
equipment : intelligence
Main user No
countries : authorisation
for exportation
interoperability :

Country of Origin France, Germany
Builder team : Transall : French-German co-operation Aerospatiale -

New Transall : Aerospatiale / Atelier Industriel de

l’Aéronautique de Clermont-Ferrand
First flight : February, 1962 (first batch) / April, 1981 (second
In-service in French August, 1967 for the C 130 F (first batch) / April, 1982
Air Force : for the C 130 NG (second batch)/ May, 1994 for the C
160 R (retrofited avionics for both batches)
Transport, cargo (93 equipped troops, tactical vehicles),
airdrop, EW, surveillance, airborne command
G.222, C-123 Provider, Aviocar C-212, C-130
Similar Aircraft Hercules, An-12 Cub
Wing Span 131 ft, 3 in (40 m)
Length 106 ft, 3 in (32.4 m)
Height 11.67 m
Net weight / 29 t / 51 t
Maximum weight at
takeoff :
Fuel capacity : 19,500 l at takeoff / 26,000 l after in-flight refuelling
Power plant / Turbo-prop Rolls-Royce Tyne 22 / 2 x 5,665 HP
Thrust :
Maximum speed 515 kph at 16,000 ft
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling 26,000 ft
Armament Usually none
Special equipment : Computer-operated navigation with inertial navigation
system and GPS, communication system with central
Crew : 2 pilots, 1 navigator, 1 engineer, 1 cabin operator
Major operational Night tactical flights at low altitude with night vision
capabilities : goggles

Transport of passengers and freight to short and ill-

prepared fields
NATO Protected radiocommunications, identification friend or
interoperability : foe
User Countries France, Germany, South Africa, Turkey
Number of units 122 (including 66 retrofited for France)
produced :
French Air Force 66 (including 42 in 4 tactical transport squadrons)
inventory :
The CASA C-212 AVIOCAR 100 is a two turbo propeller engine aircraft, for light
transportation, with a metal structure, high wing, with a fixed tricycle landing gear and
propellers with a variable and reversible pitch. The AVIOCAR may use short runways, at
both take off and landing: Short Take-off and Landing (STOL). The C-212 is CASA's
answer to the needs of different Air Forces in the field of light military transport and can
operate in areas lacking in infrastructure and on unpaved runways. The C-212 was
designed with high-wing configuration and fixed landing gear, and is fitted with turbo-
prop engines, STOL characteristics and incorporates simple and reliable systems.

The wings are high-mounted and unequally tapered from midwing to the square tips. Two
turboprop engines are mounted in pods under the wings’ leading edges. The thick, cigar-
shaped fuselage has a flat bottom and upswept rear section, with a stepped cockpit. The
fuselage comprises two areas: the cockpit and the cargo compartment. The cargo
compartment can carry 18 passengers and their luggage, or 16 parachutists fully equiped,
or 2.000 Kg of diversified cargo, including road vehicles. For medical evacuations, 12
stretches and two seats can be mounted. The tail fin is equally tapered with a square tip
and straight fairing in the leading edge. The flats are mid-mounted on the body and
tapered with square tips. Its cabin, open along the whole of the length of the plane, is
complemented by the rear ramp which enables different logistic transport tasks to be
carried out. The rear ramp can be opened, while on the ground, to load and unload, or in
flight, for the launching of cargo, survival equipment or parachutists.

The CASA C-212 AVIOCAR 300 is a high wing, twin engine, totally metallic and with a
non retractable tricycle landing gear. It is equipped to fly under VMC conditions (visual
flight) or IMC conditions (flight by instruments). It has similar characteristics to those of
the CASA C-212-100 AVIOCAR, being, however, longer and more powerful. When in
operations of maritime surveillance, and due to it's on board equipment, these aircraft are
equipped to detect any illegal activities and, simultaneously, any signs of ocean pollution.
In addition to those activities, they can still carry out the direct electronic measurement of
the water surface temperature for economical and scientific purposes as well as aerial
photography missions.

The new C-212-400 is fitted with a the latest version of the Allied Signal TPE-331-12JR
engine which improves the aircraft's hot and high performance levels. Its cargo capacity -
2,950 kg. or 25 paratroopers or 12 stretchers and 4 medics, combat aircraft engines,
helicopter blades, etc. - mean that the plane can be fully integrated into the logistical
transport system of any air force. New avionics incorporate electronic flight instruments
system (EFIS) on four screens along with presentation of engine parametres and, in order
to improve maintenance, the control of the most important of these systems via the
Information and Engine Data System (IEDS) which controls and also displays the old
warning panel. The C-212 is a platform for developing and integrating a wide variety of
versions such as the Maritime Patroller (Patrullero), Electronic Warfare (ESM/ECM and
ELINT/COMINT), Navigation School, Photogrammetry, etc.
The C-212 PATRULLERO was designed to meet the diverse mission needs of Armed
Forces worldwide. For operation from remote areas equipped with short and unpaved
airfields, the PATRULLERO incorporates simple yet highly reliable systems, a high-
wing, fixed landing gear, and a rear cargo door and ramp. The success of this design is
sustained by the 54 maritime version aircraft operated by 14 customers in 10 countries.

Country of Origin Spain
STOL, light-utility transport (18 equipped troops, light
tactical vehicles), airdrop
Similar Aircraft C-160 Transall, C-123 Provider, G.222
Wing Span 62 ft, 4 in (19.12 m) / 20,3 m (212-300)
Length 49 ft, 9 in (15.18 m) / 16,1 m (212-300)
Height 6,29 m
4.200 Kg base weight
Weight 6.500 Kg Max. takeoff weight
8.100 Kg Max. takeoff weight (212-300)
Two turbo propeller engines supplying 715 HP each, at
sea level
Engine 2 GARRETT turbo propeller engines, supplying a
power of 925 HP each, at sea level (212-300)
Maximum speed 370 Km/h
Cruising speed 275 Km/h
Endurance 05 Hr 40 min
Service Ceiling 9,900 m
Distance of takeoff 400 m / 895 m (212-300)
Landing distance 300 m / 865 m (212-300)
Armament Usually none
Crew Two
Angola, Chad, Equatorial New Guinea, Ghana, Mexico,
User Countries Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Portugal, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Venezuela
The CN-235 is a high-wing, pressurised, twin turbo-prop plane with STOL performance
that can carry a maximum payload of 6,000 kg. Its maximum cruising speed is 240 Ktas
and it has a range of 2,250 nautical miles with a payload of 3,550 kg. The CN-235 has
been conceived for tactical military transport and is capable of operating from unpaved
runways and has excellent low level flying characteristics for tactical penetration. Its
large cargo hold and hydraulically operated rear ramp allow easy access for vehicle
transport, standard 88´´ x 108´´ pallets, making it the ideal complement to the Hercules
C-130. It can carry most combat aircraft engines and may also be subjected to a quick
change configuration. The CN-235 can be used to transport up to 48 paratroopers who
may jump out either of the two side doors or the rear ramp. The CN-235 is able to carry
out high and low altitude (HAD, LAPES) in-flight drops distribution of up to four tons of
supplies to forward troops. On medical evacuation missions, the plane can transport up to
21 stretchers, with four medics.
Although the CN-235 was initially the result of cooperation between CASA and ITPN of
Indonesia, CASA has developed its own series and versions, with increases in weights,
ground performance improvements, etc. CASA's aircraft is therefore the product of
continuous development, not just in the military sphere, but also in civil areas and this is
illustrated by the fact of having been approved by the FAA, FAR-25, JAR-25 and the
Australian CAA among others. The CN-235 is the ideal platform for the development and
integration of a wide variety of versions like the Maritime Patrol Version (PERSUADER)
Electronic Warfare (ESM/ECM and ELINT/COMINT), Early Warning, Navigation
School, Photogrammetry, etc. The CN-235 is a leader in its class, with more than 220
aircraft sold to 29 operators and about 500,000 flight hours

Country of Origin
Length 21.40 m 70´ 2"
Wing Span 25.81 m 84´ 8"
Cabin Length 9.65 m 31´ 8"
Cabin Height 1.90 m 6´ 3"
Cabin Width 2.70 m 8´ 11"

Maximum Take-off Weight 16,500 kg 36,376 lb
Maximum Landing Weight 16,500 kg 36,376 lb
Maximum Payload 6,000 kg 13,227 lb
Maximum Fuel 5,220 l 1,378 US Gall
Number of Fully Equipped Troops 57
Number of 88" x 108" Pallets 4

Maximum Cruising Speed 246 ktas
Take-off Distance (S/L, ISA, MTOW at 50 ft) 745 m 2,475´
Landing Distance (S/L, ISA, MTOW at 50 ft) 603 m 1,979´
Maximum Range 5,000 km 2,700 nm
Range with Full Load 1,300 km 700 nm

Power Plant
Number/Model 2 General Electric CT7-9C3
Power per unit 1,750 CV
The CASA C-295 retains the basic characteristics of the CN-235 while providing for
50% more payload (9,700 Kg) over the same range and is able to transport up to 78
troops, five 88´´ x 108´´ standard pallets or up to 27 stretchers for medical evacuation.
The basic modifications are the addition of six new frames so that the total length of the
cabin is increased by 3 m., now reaching 12.69 m. and the wing fuel capacity has been
increased and the wing structure has also been strengthened to bear the new weights.
From a performance point of view, the CASA C-295 has a cruising speed of 260 KTAS,
a cruising altitude of 25,000 and a range of 730 nautical miles with a maximum payload
of 9,700 kg. The landing gear are modified to sustain additional weight so that the take-
off and landing maximums are equalised in order to allow immediate landing after an
aborted take-off. In addition, the twin-wheeled nose gear provides operational
improvements on unpaved runways. CASA markets an entire family of transport aircraft
that goes from the C-212 with 3 tons, through the CN-235 at 6 tons, up to the C-295 with
9.7 tons.

Country of Origin
Length 24.45 m 80´ 3"
Wing Span 25.81 m 84´ 8"
Cabin Length 12.69 m 41´ 7"
Cabin Height 1.90 m 6´ 3"
Cabin Width 2.70 m 8´ 11"

Maximum Take-off
23,200 kg 51,146 lb
Maximum Landing
23,200 kg 51,146 lb
Maximum Payload 9,700 kg 21,385 lb
Maximum Fuel 7,650 l 2,019 US Gal
Number of Fully
Equipped Troops
Number of 88´ x 5
108´ Pallets


Maximum Cruising 260 ktas

Take-off distance
(S/L, ISA, MTOW at 962 m 3,156´
50 ft)
Landing Distance
(S/L, ISA, MTOW at 774 m 2,541´
50 ft)
Maximum Range 5,278 km 2,850 nm
Range with full 1,333 km 720 nm
Multi Role Transport (MRT)
Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT)
The Airbus A310 MRT for the German Air Force is a joint project of DaimlerChrysler
Aerospace Airbus GmbH and Lufthansa Technik. The MRT - Multi Role Transport - can
fulfil a wide range of different transport tasks with just one aircraft type. The concept is
based on conversions of Airbus A310-300 commercial aircraft, which are already in
worldwide operation. Standardized kits - including all systems for transport tasks - are
used for the conversion in accordance with customer requirements.
The Multi-Role Transport (MRT) version will be realized by the conversion of Airbus
passenger aircraft by means of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Airbus conversion kits. In
three versions, the aircraft can fulfil the tasks passenger/personnel transport, combined
cargo and passenger/personnel transport, or conduct ambulance flights for ill, hurt or
wounded persons (MEDEVAC). All versions offer the advantages of modern, economic
and proven medium-to-long-range widebody aircraft and are capable of performing
transport tasks at favorable operating costs. At the same time, the fleet of transport
aircraft is harmonized by having only one single aircraft type - including VIP versions.
With this cargo combi version, a wide range of transport tasks can be covered:
transporting personnel and cargo as well as conducting ambulance flights. The first order
of this kind will be an A310 Multi-Role Transport (MRT) performed for the German Air
Force in 1998. The integration of a tanker kit for air-to-air refueling by means of Airbus
Industrie conversion kits will also be possible at a later date.
The Multi-Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) concept provides for the use of the twin-jet
A310 as a multi-purpose military transport and tanker. It is planned to enhance the MRT
into a Multi Role Tanker Transport for the German Air Force through the installation of a
tanker kit.

Country of Origin
Similar Aircraft
Length 144 ft 43.90 m
Wingspan 153 ft 46.66 m
Height 51 ft 15.80 m
Fuselage diameter 18 ft 5.64 m²
MTOW: Maximum 346100 lb 157 t
takeoff weight
Operating weight, 174150 lb 79 t
Fuel capacity
incl. one additional
tank 120800 lb 54.8 t
Max. cruise speed
(MMo) 0.84 Mach
Max. cruise altitude 41000 ft 12500 m
Range with 214
passengers 4450 nm 8250 km
Range of combi
-57 pass./ 30 t cargo 3400 nm 6300 km
-57 pass./ 10 t cargo 5100 nm 9450 km
Max. range 5700 nm 10560 km
Power Plant GE-CF6-
Armament none
User Countries
Airborne Stand-Off Radar (ASTOR)
Airborne Stand-Off Radar (ASTOR) is a ground surveillance system designed to provide
information about the deployment and movement of enemy forces. It will use state-of-
the-art radar technology to obtain high resolution imagery of static features and,
operating in an alternate mode, it is capable of identifying and tracking moving vehicles.
Imagery gathered will be transmitted in near-real-time to a network of distributed Ground
Stations deployed with the front-line forces. Facilities within the Ground Stations will
permit the display and analysis of imagery, thus ensuring that the tactical commanders
are aware of the latest developments on the ground.
Under the mid-1980s Staff Requirement (Land/Air) 925, an existing commercial business
jet aircraft was to be modified to carry the radar and air-to-ground data links. The aircraft
is to be based on a modern, class-leading, large business jet. It will be able to operate
above 40,000 ft and have an endurance in excess of nine hours. The aircraft identified as
suitable candidates for ASTOR were the Bombardier Global Express and the Gulfstream
In June 1999 the UK Ministry of Defence selected Raytheon Systems Ltd, the UK
subsidiary of Raytheon Corporation, to build ASTOR. The deal, worth £800 million ($1.3
billion), is one of the most intensely competed and thoroughly analyzed multi-mission
programs in business aviation history. Two UK-based teams, led by Lockheed Martin
Tactical Systems UK and Raytheon Systems Ltd, were in competion following receipt of
the 1995 MoD project definition contracts. They were joined by a bid from Northrop
Grumman for a deiravtive of the E-8 JSTARS mission systems package on a Gulfstream
Major components of Raytheon's ASTOR program include the use of five Global Express
business jets produced by Bombardier/Shorts. The aircraft are equipped with an advanced
version of the ASARS-2 radar technology, used on U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The
Global Express offers numerous advantages over competing aircraft in its category and
sets new standards in business aviation. These include the longest non-stop range in
corporate aviation and a top cruise speed that reaches nearly the speed of sound, as well
as the largest cabin of any corporate aircraft. It also features the highest United Kingdom
content by far – 36 per cent of the aircraft is manufactured in the United Kingdom.
Bombardier Aerospace Shorts unit designs and manufactures 25 per cent of the Global
Express airframe in Belfast Motorola, the world's leader in advanced tactical ground
stations, will provide ground systems. Motorola plans to build two types of ground
stations for the ASTOR project: Operational Level Ground Stations (OLGSs) for large,
centralized headquarters facilities and Tactical Ground Stations (TGSs) for highly
mobile, tactical platforms.

The dual mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)/Moving Target Indicator (MTI) is the
main sensor in the ASTOR system, enabling radar data to be available in near real time
for processing and exploitation both on the platform and the ground. This provides
monitoring of land-based targets to assess military capability and behaviour patterns.
Targets can be classified at long range for interdiction, with wide area MTI surveillance
used to determine the position of a variety of vehicles travelling over a wide range of
radial velocities. The ASTOR Dual Mode Radar (DMR) is a developed version of the
ASARS 2 radar, Enhanced ASARS, which is currently in use with the U-2R.

ASTOR is not an airborne battle management or command and control system, such as
JSTARs, although operators can analyze the imagery on board the aircraft, in the ground
stations and at other military sites as ASTOR passes the information in near real-time.
The system will provide a 24-hour, all weather, battlefield surveillance capability. The
radar range is such that the aircraft will be able to operate successfully at a safe 'Stand-
off' distance behind the forward-edge-of-battle, greatly reducing the risk of loss to enemy
action. ASTOR will be able to interface with the proposed military communications
architecture and to be interoperable with other NATO forces. It will be a new capability
for the UK Armed Forces, and the most advanced system of its kind anywhere in the
world when it enters service. It will be a vital force multiplier in the modern conflict,
where speed of battle is such that up-to-date information is crucial if troops are to be
deployed effectively.

The ASTOR system is expected to comprise five aircraft and eight Ground Stations,
together with comprehensive training and maintenance facilities at the main operating
base. The equipment procurement costs will be approximately £800 million. The in-
service date [ISD] will be 2004/5, assuming contract award late 1999. Bids for the
ASTOR contract have been received from Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and
Raytheon. The bids are currently under review and an announcement is expected in April.
All the proposed system solutions make extensive use of commercially available
equipment to minimise risk and cost. Irrespective of the choice of eventual contractor,
there will be a substantial UK industrial participation in the execution of the contract.

Country of Origin UK
Builder Raytheon Systems Ltd [Hughes]
Role battlefield surveillance
Similar Aircraft Gulfstream IV SRA
Wing Span 94 ft
Wing Area 1,022 ft
Sweep 35 deg
Wing Aspect Ratio 8.55
Fuselage Maximum 8.83 ft
Length 99.42 ft
Height 24.83 ft
Maximum Ramp Weight 93,750 lbs
Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight 93,500 lbs
Weight Maximum Landing Weight 78,600 lbs
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight 56,000 lbs
Engine 2 BMW Rolls-Royce BR710 @ 14,750 lbst
Maximum speed Mach 0.89
Cruising speed Mach 0.80
Range 6,500 nm
Service Ceiling 51,000 ft
Armament none
User Countries UK
Br 1150 Atlantique
Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA 2000)
The Dassault-Breguet Atlantique is the long-range reconnaissance aircraft of the French
Navy. This long-range naval patrol aircraft is a European collaboration, built under the
supervision of Dassault Aviation. The Atlantique is the standard sea reconnaissance
aircraft and sub hunter in many NATO countries. It is fitted with antiship-missiles, ASW-
weapons, sonar buoys and a magnetic anomaly detector [MAD].

Atlantic 1
The Atlantic is an aircraft with a take-off weight of 43.5 metric tons, powered by two
Tyne turboprop 5,500 hp engines. Its 12-man crew conducts missions that can last up to
18 hours over flight distances of approximately 8,000 km, covered at a maximum speed
of 650 km/h.
On 14th December 1956, the members of the NATO Council stipulated that, as a
successor to the American aircraft Lockheed P 2V-7 Neptune, they needed a long-range
maritime reconnaissance and antisubmarine warplane. On 30th January 1959, the NATO
Armaments Committee unanimously selected, out of the 21 projects presented, the
Breguet Br 1150 Atlantic program. This aircraft is remarkable for being the only
maritime patrol aeroplane in the world specially designed for its mission and not just a
derivative of a commercial civil aircraft.
Manufacturing work was divided between the four participating countries:

 Breguet and Sud-Aviation in France;

 Fokker in the Netherlands;
 Dornier and Siebel in West Germany;
 SABCA, Fairey et Fabrique Nationale (FN) Herstal in Belgium.

The Tyne turboprop engines were supplied by the partner companies Rolls-Royce,
Snecma Hispano, FN and MTU, while electronics came from the United States. The
assembly line and flight preparation of aircraft were located in Toulouse (Haute-Garonne,
France) at Breguet.
The official purchase order for the first lot was communicated on 06 June 1963: 20
aircraft for France, ultimately increased to 40 aircraft, and 20 for West Germany. The
final aeroplane out of the 60 was delivered at the end of 1968 at the moment that the
Netherlands decided to procure nine. The French Navy immediately sold them four,
while the five others would come from a second production series launched in January
1972. On 25 October 1968, Italy decided in turn to purchase the aircraft and became an
associate in the European consortium through Aeritalia and Alfa-Romeo. Production was
relaunched for 18 aircraft, plus 4 intended to replace those sold by France to the
Netherlands. In 1976, the French Navy sold three of its aircraft to Pakistan.
Atlantic 2
The Atlantic 2 long range maritime patrol aircraft, specifically designed for anti-
submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface warfare (ASUW), is derived from the NATO
Atlantic Mk 1 (ATL 1). This new variant of the Atlantique family aimed at all
international, and especially European, programs for the acquisition or replacement of
naval patrol airfleets. It features advanced sensors (Radar, ESM, Acoustic, FLIR and
MAD), supported by a distributed data processing system architecture (redundant
mutiplex data bus, digital computer, multipurpose displays). A total of 28 ATL 2s have
been ordered for the French Navy; 23 of these were in service as of 1999.

Atlantic 3
Updated manufacture of new aircraft integrates the latest technology both in platform
design and in weapons systems: the ATLANTIC 3.

Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA 2000)

The Maritime Reconnaissance Aircraft BR 1150 Atlantic is in service with the German
and Italian armed forces since several years. According to plans of the German and
Italian ministries of defense, this type of aircraft is to be replaced by a modern aircraft by
the year 2007. Dasa's Military Aircraft Business Unit, which has been proposed as the
German systems leader, is on talks with Alenia Aerospazio, the proposed Italian systems
leader. The MoU is to harmonize concepts of both companies for a possible mission
equipment. Additionally both companies will share their experiences in definition,
integration, and maintenance of the MPA 2000 aircraft.
Besides a re-design of the aircraft, a major role plays the the realization of a modern
mission equipment. Core element is to be the so-called Tactical Command System (TCS).
TCS bases on most modern computer technology. It eases the work of the on-board
specialists by automatization of the sensor control and surveillance and increases the
mission efficiency of the whole reconnaissance system and its flexibility in the face of
changing situation by a modern, ergonomic man-machine-interface. TCS is supported by
a stationary ground system, the Maritime Air Operations Center, as well as its
transportable version, the Transportable Air Operations Center. Both systems are part of
the planning, surveying and evaluating process of a mission as well as the interpretation
of retrieved information in order to form a situation synopsis.

Country of Origin
In-service in the 1989
French Navy :
Builder Dassault-Breguet
Role naval patrol
Similar Aircraft
Major operational Working out of the surface and underwater tactical
capabilities : situation

Support to the strategic ocean force

Support to a maritime force in operation

Security of the operation zones

Wing Span 119' / 36,3 m
Length 104'
Height 37'
Weight : empty / 25 t / 46.5 t
maximum at takeoff :
Fuel capacity : 16 t
2 TYNE MK 21 Turboprop engines
5,500 hp each / ( 6106 hp each) 12212 hp
Maximum speed 355 kts (650 km/h)
Cruising speed 315 Kn (580 km/h)
8 hours on station at 600 NM with standard armament
Range 18 hours - maximum flight time
4200-4859 NM - maximum range
Service Ceiling 33,000 ft [39,300 ft ?]
Crew : 2 pilots, 1 aircraft commander, 2 observers, 1 navigator,
1 radio operator, 1 electronic warfare operator, 1
computer scientist, 1 tactical co-ordinator, 3 anti-
submarine detection operators
Special equipments : Digital bus ‘digibus’, Iguane radar, Crouzet DHAX3
magnetic anomaly detector, forward-looking infrared
system, Tango thermal camera, acoustic detection and
analysis system, Arar 13radar detector and analyser,
photographic equipment, GPS receiver, 2 inertial
navigation systems
72 acoustic buoys and
9 U-Jagd-Torp. or
Armament 8 MU 90 or Mk 46 torpedoes or
4 Lenkwaffen AS12 or
2 Aerospatiale air-to-surface AM39 Exocet missiles
NATO Protected radiocommunication, identification friend or
interoperability : foe, ‘link 11’ data transmission
Crew 12
User Countries
French Navy 28 aircraft in 2 squadrons
inventory :
Canberra PR9 / PR7 / T4
The first jet bomber to serve with the
Royal Air Force, the English Electric
Canberra was designed with no
defensive armament, relying instead on
high speed, an operational ceiling of
48,000 feet, and great manoeuvrability
to avoid opposing fighter aircraft. The
fact that the Canberra is still in service
today is testimony to the quality of the
original design. Currently the RAF operates three versions of the aircraft, the T4 is a dual
control trainer, and dedicated reconnaissance missions are undertaken by the venerable
Canberra PR7 and PR9, specialist aircraft that contribute significantly to meeting the
RAF's reconnaissance task.

The Canberra's photo-reconnaissance role was, ultimately, to prove its most important
and long-standing duty. The first RAF reconnaissance version, the PR3, first took to the
skies on 19 March 1950. The main difference between other Canberra versions was a 14-
inch extension to the forward fuselage to accommodate an additional fuel tank, a camera
bay and a flare bay. Deliveries to the first squadron, No. 540 at RAF Benson began in
December 1952. Shortly after this, the squadron moved to RAF Wyton and was joined by
the two other Bomber Command reconnaissance squadrons, Nos. 58 and 82, which were
equipped with Mosquitos and Lancasters respectively. In the space of the next two years,
all three squadro4ns had initially re-equipped with PR3s, but an improved version, the
PR7, was soon to replace these aircraft.

2 TAF in Germany also saw the arrival of PR3s and PR7s during 1954 to replace its
Venoms and Meteors. Four squadrons based at Wildenrath, Laarbruch and Bruggen took
part in many exercises, with the most success being enjoyed at low-level where the crews
could evade 'enemy' radar cover. However, during the course of 1956, two UK-based
squadrons, Nos. 82 and 540, disbanded, leaving No.82 Sqn, along with Valiant-equipped
No. 543 Sqn, as Bomber Command's only reconnaissance assets. Both of these squadrons
spent much of their time photo-mapping likely approach routes for the RAF's strategic
deterrent so that accurate fixes could be made prior to release of the Blue Steel stand-off
missile, and updating of the V-Force navigational charts. No. 13 Sqn based in Cyprus
received its first PR7s in 1956, and shortly after joined other RAF squadrons involved in
Operation Musketeer. During 1962, PR7s were reportedly used to photograph Russian
shipping movements during the Cuban crisis.

In early 1960, the definitive Canberra reconnaissance version, the PR9, made its debut
with No. 58 Sqn. The PR9 featured uprated Avon engines and a larger wing span, which
it was hoped would allow the aircraft to fly at 60,000 feet (18,298m), but initial trials
with the PR9 proved that this was feasible. By early 1963, No. 58 Sqn had handed over
its aircraft to No. 39 Sqn in Malta, and disbanded. The squadron remained based at Luqa
until September 1970 when it moved to RAF Wyton, and finally disposed of its ageing
PR3s. The Germany-based squadrons flew their PR7s until they were replaced by
Phantoms during 1969-71, and some airframes were refurbished and subsequently sold to
overseas air arms. Throughout the 1960s, those aircraft with No. 13 Sqn were involved in
many operational flights over the Middle East. Conflicts between Iraq and Kuwait (1962-
64) and Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi (1970) saw the squadron photographing disputed
areas and troop movements from various forward operating bases in the Mediterranean.

When the RAF withdrew from its remaining bases in the Gulf during 1971, No. 13 Sqn
moved to Malta and replaced No. 39 Sqn who disbanded. Now assigned to NATO, it
provided the only high altitude reconnaissance squadron on its southern flank until 1978
when it moved to RAF Wyton before disbanding in 1981. The last remaining PR9s
remained on the strength of No. 39 Sqn until it was disbanded in June 1982 and replaced
by No. 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (PRU) also at Wyton under the control of
No. 18 Group. However, rationalisation of the RAF in the early 1990s resulted in No. 1
PRU assuming the numberplate of No. 39 Sqn (although officially its title is No. 39 (1
PRU) Squadron) in 1992, and it is with this squadron that the Canberra PR9 continues to
perform its duties today.

Powerplant: Two Rolls-Royce Avon 206 turbojets of 11,250lb st

Span: 67ft l0in (20.66m)

Length: 66ft 5in (20.36m)

Max Speed: 547mph (876km/h)

Accommodation: Crew of 2

Recognition: The PR9 has a long 'pencil' fuselage with a distinctive single-seat cockpit
offset to the port side. Deep-chord wings taper towards the tips. Engines mounted in the
wings and projecting forward. Angular fin and rudder, with the dihedralled tailplane set
on top of the fuselage cone.

39 (1 PRU) Squadron, RAF Marham - 5 Canberra PR9, 2 x PR7 and 2 x T4
DC8 Sarigue
Thomson-CSF work in communication electronic warfare includes realization of the
major listening-in and electromagnetic intelligence collection systems for the French
forces, realization of interception and counter-measures tactical systems for numerous
international customers on all continents. The company has contributed - in cooperation
with Thomson-CSF Detexis - to the realization of French airborne intelligence programs,
such as Sarigue and Transall Gabriel. France monitors radio communications of
neighboring countries using the Gabriel and Sarigue intelligence planes.

The DRM (Direction du renseignement militaire) collection network consists of a small

electro-magnetic interception unit aboard a Hélios spy satellite, and listening stations
aboard Sarigue and Gabriel aircraft as well as aboard the Berry, a naval vessel.

Country of Origin France
Similar Aircraft Phalcon
Builder team : McDonnell Douglas / Thomson-CSF
First flight : 1976
In-service in the 1977
French Air Force :
Wingspan / Length / 43.53 m / 45.95 m / 11.67 m
Height :
Weight : empty / 67.6 t / 142.9 t
maximum at takeoff :
Fuel capacity : 87,500 l
Power plant / 4 Pratt and Whitney JT3D - 3B jet engines / 4x8,15 t
Thrust :
Operational ceiling : 40,000 ft
maximal speed : Mach 0.8
Crew : Maximum 34 for 16 operators
Special equipments : Electromagnetic intelligence collecting device
Major operational Airborne electronic warfare intelligence system
capabilities :
Number of units 1
produced :
Main user nations : No authorisation for exportation
BN2T-4S Defender 4000 Multi-Sensor
Surveillance Aircraft (MSSA)
The Pilatus Britten-Norman multi-sensor surveillance aircraft (MSSA) offers a
Westinghouse APG-66R multi-mode radar in the nose of a Britten-Norman Defender
4000 airframe. Pilatus and Westinghouse are marketing MSSA internationally. Low
acquisition and operating costs make the Defender a natural choice for maritime
surveillance, border patrol and electronic intelligence applications. The compact nature of
modern electronics enables the Defender to accommodate highly capable mission suites
which previously required much larger aircraft. Westinghouse Electronic Systems Group
based its jointly developed and Multi-Sensor Surveillance Aircraft (MSSA) on the BN2T
Defender. In 1989 Baltimore-based Westinghouse selected the BN2T Defender as a
platform for the powerful Westinghouse multi-mode radar originally developed for the F-
16. The BN2T Islander - a successor to the piston-engined Defender first introduced in
1971 - was launched in 1981 to meet the demand for increased payload and performance.
The turbine engines, flat rated to 320 shp, boost climb rate, increase ceiling and cruise
speed and give greater payload.
The Defender 4000 was launched at the Farnborough International Air Show in 1994.
Designed to meet the most demanding surveillance requirements Defender 4000
maintains the traditional benefits of low operating costs and durability. Design evolution
includes an extended fuselage giving increased cabin space, nose cone to accommodate a
360" rotating antenna, larger wing and an enhanced visibility cockpit. The new aircraft's
payload is double that of the standard Islander/Defender, and it features a 30in longer
cabin. The 4ft extended span of the "wet wing" enables Defender 4000 to fly up to eight
hours or 1000 miles between refuellings. The aircraft is designed for prolonged operation
at low level in all weather. Despite higher performance conferred by an extra 200
installed horsepower, the slow flying and turning capabilities of the basic
Islander/Defender, important for direct observation, are not compromised. Defender 4000
can loiter at around 80-100 kts and stalling speed is 50 kts.

Country of Origin UK
Builder Pilatus Britten-Norman
Role surveillance
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
Weight 7000 Ib (3175 kg) Maximum take-off weight
Engine Allison 250-B17F-1 flat rated to 400 shp (298 kW)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed 176 kt Max cruise speed at10,000 ft
Range 1006 nm (1863 km)
Service Ceiling 25,000 ft (7622 m)
Armament none
Crew 2
User Countries
Grob G520T Egrett
Senior Guardian
LAPAS (Airborne Stand-off Primary
Reconnaissance System)
The Egrett series of aircraft was originally
developed by Grob Flugzeugbau GmbH &
Co KG (Germany) and E-Systems Inc.
(USA) as a low-cost (in military terms)
high altitude reconnaissance platform for
the German and US Air Forces. Egrett, a
high-altitude long endurance manned
aircraft made out of composites, is
powered by a single turboprop engine, it
has a wingspan similar to that of a commercial Boeing 737. The program was known as
Senior Guardian in the United States, and as LAPAS (Airborne Stand-off Primary
Reconnaissance System) in Germany. Although the mission of the Senior Guardian
project is publicly portrayed as focused environmental monitoring and treaty verification,
a similar cover story was used during the early years of the U-2 program.

A total of five airplanes were built, the single-seater Proof-of-Concept aircraft, three
production single seaters and one two-seater trainer. After an evaluation period, the two
Air Forces decided that the aircraft did not fit their requirements. Since then, some of the
single seaters have been successfully used as ad-hoc high-altitude research platforms (for
example by Aurora Corporation in the USA and by the Weltrauminstitut in Berlin).

The Egrett is capable of carrying about 750kg of payload to a maximum altitude of

50,000ft (15km) and stay there for around 8 hours, depending on the mission profile.
Normal cruising speed (indicated air speed, IAS) at altitude is 130-150kts (65-75m/s)
with a true air speed (TAS) of about Mach 0.45. Its maximum range at altitude is about
1500NM (2800km). The aircraft can operate from most sealed runways. No special
airport infrastructure is required. It is powered by a single Garrett turboprop engine and is
certified as a normal aircraft under Australian, German and US regulations for flight
under all-weather conditions (IFR/icing). The normal crew consists of a pilot occupying
the front seat and a systems operator/scientist occupying the rear seat.
As the Egrett was originally designed as a reconnaissance aircraft, its modular fuselage
structure offers ample and simple options for a large number of down- or sidewards
looking apertures in the fuselage. The whole lower section of the forward fuselage is non-
structural and modifications to this part are rather simple. Upwards looking apertures do
not exist currently, but will be retro-fitted once required.
Country of Origin Germany
Grob Flugzeugbau GmbH & Co KG (Germany)
E-Systems Inc. (USA)
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
Engine 1 turbo-prop engine
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Range 2,500km - 8hrs
Service Ceiling 6 - 15km
Payload 800kg
User Countries
SA 330 Puma
AS 532 Cougar
The Puma medium lift helicopter was in production until 1987 featuring many roles
including military and civilian. Used in the army as a troop carrier it could seat twelve
occupants. As a civilian based helicopter the Puma could seat twenty passengers. A total
of 696 Puma's had been sold by the end of manufacture although they are still produced
in Romania. The Puma was built by the EUROCOPTER Group, owned 70% by
AEROSPATIALE France and 30% by Daimler Aerospace (DASA) of Germany.

The Cougar name was adopted for all military variants, and in 1990, all Super Puma
designations were changed from AS 332 to AS 532 to distinguish between civil and
military variants. The Cougar was designed to provide high performance, ease of
deployment, low operating cost, comfort, plus high mission readiness. For military use
and adapting to modern battlefield conditions, it features survivability, suitability for
tactical flight thanks to exceptional manoeuvrability, low observability, low vulnerability
to projectiles, crashworthiness. A multirole helicopter, the Cougar can be armed with
machine-guns and pod-mounted cannons, with rockets, or with antisubmarine or
antisurface weapon systems to suit different mission requirements. Additional missions
include: VIP transport, electronic warfare, and anti-submarine warfare.

The large, four-blade main rotor is mounted above center of fuselage on a hump. Two
turboshaft engines are mounted on top of the fuselage midsection, giving the helicopter a
humpbacked appearance. The fuselage is long, rectangular, upswept, with a tapered rear
section, a rounded, stepped-up, glassed-in cockpit and retractable landing gear. Swept-
back and tapered tail fin mounts a rotor on the right and a tapered, single flat on left top
of the fin.

The Turbomeca Makila 1A1 turboshafts engines, of modular design and low specific fuel
consumption, endows the Cougar with impressive power (2 x 1877 shp). Coupled with
exceptionally short response times, contributing to the machine's tactical flight capability.
The rotors blades are made of composite materials throughout. By comparison with
blades incorporating metallic components, this makes for unsurpassed serviceability, low
vulnerability, an unlimited useful life and imperviousness to marine corrosion. Other
innovations include a simplified main rotor hub, a main gearbox of modular design and a
high-energy-absorption landing-gear contributing to the machine's crashworthiness.
The Cougar can also be equipped with jet diluters for protection against heat-seeking
missiles, with infrared and electromagnetic countermeasures, crashworthy seats for pilot
and military personnel, armorplate for crew seats and vital parts of the machine, a 4.5
metric-ton capacity sling and a winch capable of hoisting 245 kg.

The Cougar name was adopted for all military variants, and in 1990, all Super Puma
designations were changed from AS 332 to AS 532 to distinguish between civil and
military variants. The “5” denotes military, “A” is armed, “C” is armed-antitank, and “U”
is utility. The second letter represents the level of “upgrading”.

 SA 330 Puma: Developed in the late 1960s by Aerospatiale in France. Others

were built in the UK, Indonesia, Romania.
 AS 532 Cougar Mk I UC/AC is a military version with a short fuselage capable of
carrying 21 commandos, which can be fitted with equipment for maximum
efficiency in all theaters of operation: radar or missile detector, decoy-launcher.
Moreover, its optional equipment make it truly multi-purpose: winch, projector,
specific equipment for SAR missions, or, for instance, crashworthy seats, IR
camera, NVG compatible cockpit for special missions. The AC version is the
armed version and can be equipped with side-mounted machine-guns and axial
pods fitted with either 20-mm guns or 68-mm rocket-launchers.
 AS 332 Super Puma: Differs from the SA 330 Puma through an improved rotor
system, upgraded engines, stretched fuselage, and a modified nose shape.
 AS-532 Cougar Mk I UE is the basic version with long fuselage of the military
Cougar MK1 range. The aircraft can transport 25 commandos in addition to the
crew (1 chief of stick + 24 troop seats). For tactical transport and logistical
support missions the Cougar UE is offered "ready for use". Its standard
configuration includes a minimum of radio (2 VHF/AM,TRANSPONDER,
ICS...) and navigation (VOR, ADF, D.M.E., GPS...) equipment performing tasks,
military operators normally require.
 AS 532 Cougar Mk I UL/AL is the "long" version which can carry up to 25
commandos or 6 injured passengers lying down and 10 other people. Like the
other versions, it is capable of lifting 4.5 tons on a sling. The Horizon battlefield
ground surveillance system can be installed on the AS 532 UL.
 AS 532 Cougar Mk I SC is the naval version of the Cougar, and its main missions
are the following: anti-surface unit warface (ASUW) fitted with AM 39 missiles,
anti-submarine warfare (ASW) with a variable-depth sonar and torpedoes, and
search and rescue and sea patrols.
 AS 532 Cougar Mk II U2 A2 helicopter has the biggest cabin volume in its
category : 29 commandos or 12 stretchers with medical equipment, and is capable
of carrying 5 tons on the sling. This 1992 version is the longest variant of the
Cougar line. It has an improved Spheriflex rotor system with only 4x tail rotor
blades, and 2x 2,100-shp Turbomeca Makila 1A2 turboshaft engines that allow an
increased cargo carrying capability. It can transport 29 troops or 12 litters, or an
external load of 5,000 kg. Primarily used for combat search and rescue, and as an
armed version. It may be armed additionally with a 20-mm cannon or pintle-
mounted .50 caliber machine guns. Its basic design with screens in the cockpit
and a 4-axis autopilot with built-in coupler makes it possible to reduce the crew
workload and increase its safety for tactical flight by the same degree.
 AS 535 Cougar Mk II A2 RESCO : The main mission of the A2 RESCO is to
recover aircrews downed in combat areasplant (RESCO is the French acronym for
Combat Search and Rescue or CSAR). For very long range operations, the CSAR
Cougar Mk 2 can operate at a higher alternate gross weight of 11,200 kg
compared to its normal maximum mission weight of 9,750 kg. With this enhanced
capability, the Cougar can rescue two crew members 400 nautical miles away.

AS 532UL Cougar Mk I UL/Horizon

The Horizon system (Helicoptre d'Observation Radar et d'Investigation sur Zone)
consists of the AS 532UL Cougar and a ground station. The Cougar helicopter operates
behind the front line at an altitude of up to 4000 meters to survey the battlefield with the
Thomson-CSF Target radar. This X-band radar with a swivelling antenna below the rear
fuselage has a range resolution of approximately 40 meters and a target velocity accuracy
of +/- seven km/h. In snapshot mode the radar can scan 20000 sq km in ten seconds.
Horizon is able to survey the movements of up to 4000 wheeled or tracked vehicles at
distances of up to 200 km. The French Army procured a total of four helicopters and two
ground stations, which were delivered in 1996 and 1997. This represented a major
reduction from the original 1980s plan in which 20 aircraft were to be procured uner the
Orchidée program, which was canceled after the first flight of the fully equipped
prototype in 1990. Following test missions during the Gulf War, the program was
reactivated on a reduced scale in 1993.
First flight : 1994 ( demonstrated
during the operations
in the Gulf in 1991)
In-service in the Deliveries between
French Army : 1996 and 1998
Special Moving Target
equipment : Indicator radar
scanning a 20,000 km²
zone in 10 seconds

High jamming
Major Detection and
operational localisation of
capabilities : vehicles, boats and
helicopters up to 200

In real time, protected

transmission of data to
the ground and on-
board exploitation

Air deployable ground

NATO Proposed system for
interoperability : the future NATO
Ground Surveillance

interoperability with
French Army 4 helicopters and 2
inventory : ground stations
Typical mission Radar recce of mobiles
(detection of vehicules
moving in Kosovo),
transmitted in real time
to the command

Variants in “( )”
Country of Origin France/Germany
Role Armed transport
Similar Aircraft Super Frelon, HH-3E Jolly Green Giant, SH-
3 Sea King, CH-53 Sea Stallion, Mi-8 Hip,
UH-60 Black Hawk
Date of Introduction 1981
Blades Main rotor: 4
Tail rotor: 5, 4 (U2/A2)
Rotor Diameter Main Rotor : 14 m (Puma) 15.6-16.2 m
Tail Rotor : 3.1-3.2 m (U2/A2)
Length 18.7-19.5 m (U2/A2) (rotors turning)
15.5 m (UC/AC), 16.3 m (UL/AL), 16.8 m
(U2/A2) (fuselage)
Height 4.6 m
Width 3.6-3.8 m (U2/A2)
Cargo Compartment Floor Length: 6.5 m (AC/UC), 6.8 m
(UL/AL), 7.9 m (U2/A2)
Width: 1.8 m
Height: 1.5
Weight Maximum Gross: 9,000 kg (Mk I), 9,750 kg
(Mk II)
Normal Takeoff: 8,600 kg (Mk I), 9,300 kg
(Mk II)
Empty: 4,330 kg (UC/AC), 4,460 kg
(UL/AL), 4,760 kg (U2/A2)
Standard Payload Internal load: 3,000 kg
External on sling only: 4,500 kg
Transports 20-29 troops or 6-12 litters
(variant dependant), or cargo.
Engine 2x 1,877-shp Turbomeca Makila 1A1
Maximum speed 275 km/h (Mk I), 325 km/h (Mk II)
Cruising speed 249-270 km/h
Range 769 km-416 n.m.
800 km-432 n.m AS 532 UL/AL
Normal Load: 620 km (UC/AC), 840 km
(UL/AL), 800 km (U2/A2)
With Aux Fuel: 1,017 km (UC/AC), 1, 245
km (UL/AL), 1,176 km (U2/A2)
Fuel Internal: 1,497 liters (UC/AC), 2,000 liters
(UL/AL), 2,020 liters (U2/A2)
Internal Aux Tank: 475 liters ea. (4x Mk I,
5xMk II)
Service Ceiling 4,100 m
Hover out of ground effect: 1,650 m (Mk I), 1,900
m (Mk II)
in ground effect: 2,800 m (Mk I), 2,540 m
(Mk II)
Vertical Climb Rate 7 m/s
Armament 7.65-mm MG
2 - 20-mm twin gun pods
2 - 68-mm rocket pods (22 each)
2 - 2.75-in rocket pods (19 each)
600 liters External fuel tanks
The Mk I variants may employ 2x 7.65-mm
machine guns on pintle-mounts in the cabin
doors when employed in a transport role. The
armed versions have side-mounted 20-mm
machineguns and/or axial pods fitted with 68-
mm rocket launchers.
Survivability/Countermeasures Main and tail rotor blades electrically deiced.
A radar warning receiver is standard, while a
laser warning receiver, missile launch
detector, missile approach detector, infrared
jammer, decoy launcher, and flare/chaff
dispensers are optionally available.
Special equipment Armour plates for the cargo, PLS (Personal
Locator System), GPS (Global Positioning
System), chaff/flare dispensers, RWR (radar
warning receiver), MWS (Missile approach
warning system)
AVIONICS The aircraft is NVG compatible, and through
its instruments, avionics, full autopilot, and
nav computer, is capable of operation in day,
night, and instrument meteorological
Crew 2 (pilots)
User Countries At least 38 countries : Algeria, Argentina,
Belgium, Brazil, Chad, Chile, China,
Djibouti, Ecuador, France, Gabon, Germany,
Iceland, Indonesia, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jordan,
Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malawi,
Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Nigeria, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Portugal,
Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain,
Sudan, Switzerland, Togo, United Arab
Emirates, UK, Zaire

Puma / Cougar Mk I UC/AC

Super Puma / Cougar
Nimrod MR2
The Nimrod MR2, based at RAF
Kinloss in Scotland, is a maritime
patrol aircraft used primarily in the
roles of maritime surface surveillance,
anti-submarine warfare, and search and
rescue. Carrying a crew of 13, the
aircraft is fitted with radar, magnetic
and acoustic detection equipment. The
Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft can
also assist in search and rescue (SAR)
operations by searching for survivors, giving guidance to rescue craft at the scene, and
dropping survival equipment if needed.

The MR2 fleet will be replaced by Nimrod 2000 in a refurbishment programme managed
by British Aerospace. The Replacement Maritime Patrol Aircraft (RMPA) competition
was won by BAe with their Nimrod 2000 proposal. The RAF has formerly declared that
the aircraft will be known as Nimrod Maritime Reconnaissance & Attack (MRA) Mark 4.
The contract for the delivery of 21 Nimrod MRA4 aircraft training systems and initial
support was signed with BAe in December 1996. The refurbished aircraft, to be delivered
between 2001 and 2006, will have new wings, BMW/Rolls Royce fuel efficient engines,
modern control systems, 'glass' cockpit instrumentation, and a comprehensive suite of the
latest sensor, computer and communications equipment.

As of March 1999 the estimated cost of procurement of Nimrod MRA4 was #2.4 billion
(at September 1998 economic conditions), an increase of 0.5% since the contract was
placed in December 1996. When the contract was placed, BAe undertook to meet an ISD
of April 2003. Resource and technical difficulties with the early phases of the program at
BAe mean that the company did not expect the aircraft to enter service with the RAF
before early 2005. The precise slippage was the subject of negotiations between MoD and

Powerplant: Four Rolls-Royce RB168-20 Spey 250 turbofans of 12,140lb st.

Span: 114ft 10in (35.00m)

Length: 126ft 9in (38.63m)

Max Speed: 575mph (926km/h)

Accommodation: Crew of 12

Armament: Internal bay for up to nine torpedoes, bombs and depth charges; Sidewinder
AAMs can be carried on underwing pylons for self-defence.
Recognition: Resembles the DH Comet, from which it derived. Long 'double bubble'
fuselage with the cockpit built into the steeply raked nose. The fuselage tailcone extends
well beyond the fin and rudder to house a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) unit. The
low-set wings are slightly swept on the forward edge. The four turbofans are buried in the
inboard section of the wings. Bullet-shaped wing fairings project from the leading edges
towards the wingtips. The Nimrod's fin, which has a large dorsal section extending well
forward, is surmounted by an elliptical-shaped fairing. An in-flight refuelling probe
projects from the fuselage above the cockpit.

RAF Units

 120 Squadron, RAF Kinloss - 8 Nimrod MR2

 201 Squadron, RAF Kinloss - 8 Nimrod MR2
 206 Squadron, RAF Kinloss - 7 Nimrod MR2
 42 (Reserve) Squadron, RAF Kinloss - 3 Nimrod MR2
Nimrod AEW3
This airborne early warning aircraft was developed from the Nimrod MR2 which was
developed from the Comet airliner. All three of which can be similarly recognized,
although the AEW has the bulbous nose and tail boom that houses radar equipment.
Manufacturing AEW aircraft is extremely challenging. Britain, for example, found it too
challenging, and canceled its Nimrod AEW program in favor of purchasing US systems.
This indigenously developed aircraft was passed over in favor of acquisition of the E-3D
AWACS by the Royal Air Force.

Country of Origin UK
Similar Aircraft Nimrod, P-3C Orion
Wing Span 114 ft, 8 in (35 m)
Length 126 ft, 7 in (38.6 m)
Engine 4 Rolls-Royce Spey 25
Maximum speed 926 Km/h
Cruising speed 370 Km/h
Service Ceiling
Crew Twelve
User Countries
Nimrod MRA4
Replacement Maritime Patrol Aircraft
The RAF needs a replacement for the Nimrod MR Mk 2 aircraft, its ground support
systems and synthetic training equipment. Wartime roles comprise Anti-Submarine
Warfare (ASW), Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW) and Search and Rescue (SAR). The
Requirement was endorsed and an initial data gathering phase authorised in November
1992. Procurement responsibility was then passed to the Procurement Executive (now
DPA). A Request for Information (RFI) was issued to 17 potential prime contractors who
had registered an interest. Analysis of the responses allowed a competitive procurement
strategy to be pursued with a high probability of success. A competitive tendering phase
was initiated in January 1995. Four companies submitted proposals.

British Aerospace was selected as the prime contractor in July 1996 to supply a complete
package of 21 mission-equipped Nimrod 2000 aircraft, together with a training system
and initial logistic support. A fixed-price contract was awarded in December 1996, under
which existing MR Mk 2 aircraft fuselage and empennage structure would be re-lifed and
reassembled, with redesigned wings and current technology BR710 turbofan engines.
Although some of the systems are retained, the majority of the air vehicle systems are
replaced, including the flight deck, which will accommodate a reduced cockpit crew
complement of two, facilitated by automated flight systems using modified Airbus A340
technology. The mission system, which is the heart of the weapon system, is entirely
new. The cabin interior is totally refitted to suit the new mission systems layout. Again,
the mission crew numbers have reduced from ten to eight.

This is therefore a new aircraft, not a refurbished one. In early 1998 the aircraft was
renamed from Nimrod 2000 to Nimrod Maritime Reconnaissance and Attack Mk4 -
Nimrod MRA4. Technical and resourcing difficulties encountered during 1998 led to a
re-baselining of the program which delayed the introduction of the first aircraft into
service. The delay enabled certain enhancements in capability to be included.

Under the Smart Procurement Initiative, the Nimrod MRA4 was identified as one of the
pilot Integrated Project Teams (IPTs) in November 1998, led by Air Commodore Barry
Thornton. Although the project was established around an integrated team concept from
the outset, both at Abbey Wood and in industry, the latest initiative enabled the Nimrod
Integrated Project Team to re-focus and embrace other personnel who work full time on
Nimrod MRA4 from other areas which were previously outside the IPT.
Wing Span 38.71m
Length 38.63m
Weight Empty 46,500kg
Max Operating Mach No 0.77
Service Ceiling 12,800m
Range more than 6,000 n miles
Endurance more than 15 hours
Procurement cost approximately £2 billion
First Flight end December 2001
First Aircraft delivered to the RAF - August 2004
In Service Date March 2005
Total 21 Aircraft
Prime Contractor British Aerospace
Major Sub-
Boeing Defence and Aerospace Group
S 100B Argus
The Saab 340 is a Swedish twin-engined turboprop aircraft. An AEW version with a
phased-array radar in a rectangular pod on top of the fuselage was developed in the early
1990s. In 1994 the first Saab 340 AEW & C was delivered and radar integration work
was begun. In 1995 the Saab 340 AEW & C was re-designated S 100B (S = Spaning =
Reconnaissance) and given the official name Argus. The Swedish air force ordered six
aircraft, four of will be fitted with radar, two fitted for, but not with, radars to be used as
tranports until a need for more airborne radars materialises. Some are used by Japan as
Search-and-Rescue aircraft.
The Ericsson PS-890 Erieye radar uses an active array with 200 solid state modules. The
range of the S-band, 3 GHz, side looking radar is 300 km. The 1,985-lb (900-kg) dorsal
antenna is housed in a 29-ft 6.3-in (9-m) long box radome mounted atop the fuselage.
Utilizing adaptive side lobe suppression, the look angle on each side is about 160
degrees. From its standard operational altitude of 6000 meters (19,685 feet, or FL200) the
radar has a maximum range of 450 km (279 miles). Against a fighter-sized target
effective range is approximately 330 km (205 miles). Seaborne targets can be detected at
320 km (1998 miles), though this is a function of the aircraft's cruising height. The
electronically scanned antenna can scan sectors of interest frequently while others are
monitored, and asingle sector can be scanned in different modes at the same time. The
aircraft does not carry controllers (although it's large enough to do so), but functions as
an an airborne radar integrated with the total air defence network.
The Saab 340 Cityliner, with its 33-seat capacity, is a passenger aircraft operated on
secondary air routes with moderate traffic volume. It offers a means of providing
scheduled air services to regions where current demand would not warrant the
deployment of larger aircraft. Despite its small size, the Cityliner has all the facilities one
would expect of an aircraft today, including advanced avionics and a fully-equipped

Country of Origin Sweden
Builder Saab-Scania Aktiebolag, Aerospace Division
Role airborne early warning
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span 21.44 m
Length 19.73 m
Height 6.97 m
13,155 kg Maximum takeoff weight 12,930 kg
Maximum landing weight
Engine 2 General Electric GE CT7-9B 1870 shp
Maximum speed 530 km/h
Cruising speed 160 knots
Range 1,300 km Maximum range with full payload
Endurance 5-7 hours
Service Ceiling 7,620 m
Patrol altitude 6-7000 m
1,290 m Minimum takeoff distance
1,035 m Minimum landing distance
Armament none
Crew two to five
User Countries Sweden, Japan
Tornado GR1A
The Tornado GR1A is a world leader
in the field of all-weather, day and
night tactical reconnaissance. The
GR1A has no cannons mounted in the
forward fuselage. Replacing these are a
Sideways Looking Infra-Red system
and a Linescan infra-red surveillance
system. This is the major point of
identification between the GR1 and
GR1A, because the systems require a small window in the side of the fuselage, just below
the cockpit. The standard Tornado GR1 and the Jaguar can also fulfil tactical
reconnaissance tasks when equipped with a Vicon camera pod.

Powerplant: Two afterburning Turbo Union RB199-103 turbofans of 15,800lb st.

Span: 45ft 7.25in (13.90m) - wings fully spread; 28ft 2.5in (8.59m) - 68° sweep

Length: 54ft 9.5in (16.70m)

Max Speed: 1,452mph (2,336km/h) at 36,000ft (11,000m)

Accommodation: Pilot and navigator in tandem seating

Armament: Up to 18,000lb of ordnance.

Recognition: Short fat fuselage with a very large swept fin and rudder. Shoulder-
mounted variable geometry wings of delta shape when fully swept. Bubble two-seat
tandem cockpit and a short nose cone. All moving tailplane on the sides of the twin

RAF Units

 2(AC) Squadron, RAF Marham - 13 Tornado GR1A

 13 Squadron, RAF Marham - 13 Tornado GR1A
Several military versions of the Hirundo A109 have been developed for army, naval, and
patrol use. The four-blade main rotor is mounted on hump above the body midsection,
while weapon-carrying platforms at bottom midsection. Two turboshaft engines are
mounted on the top of the fuselage, with exhaust ports protruding upward and to the rear.
The fuselage is rectangular with a flat belly and retractable landing gear and an upswept,
tapered rear section.. The tapered, rounded nose section features a stepped cockpit. The
swept-back and tapered tail fin with angular tip. Swept-back and tapered belly fin with
angular tip. Small rotor on left side attached to the tapered tail boom.

Country of Origin Italy
Utility, ECM, ambulance, scout, attack, air defense,
Rotor diameter 36 ft (11.02 m)
Length 42 ft, 10 in (13.06 m)
Weight 2.850 Kg
Maximum speed 305 Km/h
Cruising speed 265 Km/h
Range 500 Km
Service Ceiling
Armament Machine guns, rockets, pods, HOT or TOW missiles
Crew One, two
User Countries Argentina, Greece, Italy, Mexico, UK, Venezuela
The A129 Mangusta [Mongoose], armed with anti-tank and area-suppression weapons
systems, is intended primarily as an attack helicopter to be used against armored targets.
The aircraft can operate during day, night, and all-weather conditions. The A129
Mangusta claims to be a proven 'hot climate' operator, as demonstrated during its
peacekeeping operations. The A129 was succesfully employed in Somalia where it
proved highly reliable and extremely flexible. The A129 MANGUSTA is manufactured
in Italy by the Agusta aircraft company. Agusta developed the A129 Mangusta anti-tank
helicopter, the first attack helicopter to be designed and produced wholly in Europe,
which demonstrated Agusta's capacity to satisfy the most complex technical
requirements. Italy is the only country with this helicopter in its inventory, with the
Italian Army.

An escort/scout version of the Mangusta is under development for deployment with

airmobile units. The ship would also be armed for air-to-air combat. The A129
International, developed from A129 Mangusta, responds to the requirements of today's
armed forces for a multi-role combat helicopter that combines high performance and
survivability with low support costs. The new 15-passenger AB139 utility helicopter is
designed around the transmission of the A129 Mangusta attack helicopter.

The four-blade main rotor is mounted on the top center of the cabin, while weapon-
carrying wings are short, stubby, and mid-mounted on the fuselage. The fuselage is
slender and tapered to the rear, with fixed landing gear. The tandem cockpit is glassed-in
and flat-plated, and tapered from the cockpit to the blunted nose. The tail boom tapers to
the rear, with a high, swept-back fin with square tip. The flats are unequally tapered with
a square tip, while the belly fin has the rear landing wheel attached. The tail rotor is
mounted on the left side.

Two turboshaft engines with semicircular air intakes are mounted alongside the top of the
fuselage. The Rolls-Royce Gem 1004, the powerplant in the Agusta A129 attack
helicopter, is derived from the Gem family of engines originally designed as military
engines to meet British Ministry of Defence requirements. The Gem 1004 achieved type
approval in 1986 and entered service with the Italian Army in 1989. It incorporates
features to enhance the mission capability of attack helicopters in all phases: simple
engine controls with automatic engine management, fast start-up, high power for fast
transit, low specific fuel consumption for endurance, low signatures, fast engine response
for agility, robust design and emergency rating for battlefield survivability, low fuel
consumption for secure return and low maintenance.

Country of Origin Italy
Builder Agusta
Role Light-attack, antiarmor, scout
Similar Aircraft AH-64 Apache, Mi-28 Havoc, Ka-50 Hokum
Rotor diameter 39 ft (12 m)
Length 46 ft, 10 in (14.3 m)
Engine 2 ROLLS ROYCE GEM @ 900 HP
Maximum speed 265 Km/h
Cruising speed
Endurance 2h 30'
Service Ceiling
Gun pods; rockets; missiles; TOW-, Hellfire-, or HOT-
Crew Two
User Countries Italy
Alouette 2 was the first turbine-powered helicopter in the world to go into production.
First produced in 1957, the Alouette II has gone through a series of upgrades. All of the
aircraft of this type are similar, including the SA-315B Lama which is equipped with the
Alouette II airframe and the Alouette III engine. The three-blade main rotor is high-
mounted to the rear of the cockpit. The single turboshaft engine with an upturned exhaust
is high-mounted on the fuselage to the rear of the cockpit and main rotor shaft. The
fuselage is an oval, transparent, bubble cockpit with a tadpole-like appearance and fixed-
skid landing gear. The tail boom is an open framework. The tail is small and rectangular,
with square-tipped flats forward of a small, right side-mounted rotor.

Country of Origin France
Role Observation, liaison, light-attack
Similar Aircraft Alouette III, Gazelle, Scout/Wasp, OH-13 Sioux
Rotor diameter 36 ft (11 m)
Length 33 ft, 8 in (10.28 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Armament Machine gun, rockets, missiles
Crew One
Algeria, Belgium, Djibouti, Ecuador, France, Germany,
User Countries India (Cheetah), Indonesia, Pakistan (Lama), Portugal,
Togo, Tunisia, Turkey
The Alouette 3, production of which ended in 1979, was to have 1437 units built, to
which must be added nearly 500 built under licence in India and Romania. The Alouette
3 initially used a Turbomeca Artouste 3 gas turbine that is greatly derated, i.e. that was
utilized well below its nominal rated power of 880hp. Intended for high-altitude flight, it
retains its full performance up to an altitude of 5000 meters. Later, under the designation
SA319B, it was equipped with the Astazou 3, a less fuel-thirsty engine of identical
power. The three-blade main rotor is mounted on the top of the fuselage to the rear of the
cockpit. The single turboshaft engine is mounted above and to the rear of the cockpit and
rotor shaft. The fuselage consists of an oval-shaped, glassed-in cockpit with fixed landing
gear. The tail consists of rectangular flats with small, oval fins on tips. The rotor on the
right has a prominent tail rotor guard.

Country of Origin France
Light-attack, transport (six equipped troops), general
Role purpose
Alouette II, Gazelle, Scout/Wasp, OH-13 Sioux, BO
Similar Aircraft
Rotor diameter 36 ft (11 m)
Length 32 ft, 10 in (10.02 m)
1 Turbomeca Artouste 3 @ 880hp or
1 Astazou 3 @ 880hp
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Armament Machine guns, cannon, antitank missiles, rockets
Crew One
Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Austria, Burkina-Faso,
User Countries Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chile, Congo, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Ghana,
Greece, Guinea-Bissau, India (Chetak), Iraq, Ireland,
Ivory Coast, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico,
Nepal (Chetak), Netherlands, Nicaragua, North Yemen,
Pakistan, Peru, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, South
Africa, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Suriname,
Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates,
Venezuela, Zaire
AS 550 Fennec
The AS 550 C3 is the combat version of the single-engine Fennec. It is fitted with sliding
doors, a raised landing gear, an instrument panel adapted to tactical flight and provisions
for night flight with night vision goggles. It can be fitted with axial weapons such as a 20-
mm gun, pod-mounted rocket launchers, a gun, a side-firing machine gun, or in the anti-
tank or air-air version, it can carry 4 missiles. The AS 555 UN and AS 555 AN are the
land versions of the twin-engine Fennec. The AS 555 UN is particularly intended for
reconnaissance/observation missions, IFR training. The AS 555 AN is the armed version.
It can be fitted with the same weapons equipping the AS 550 C3. The AS 555 MN and
AS 555 SN are the navalized versions of the twin-engine Fennec. Fitted with a 360-
degree radar, the AS 555 MN performs surveillance and observation missions. The AS
555 SN, intended for anti-submarine warfare, carries a torpedo.

Country of Origin
 UN-Utility,Reconaissance
 AN-Armed Battlefield Reconaissance
Role  MN-Naval
 SN-Anti-Submarine

Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
2,250 kg/4,960 lb Maximum
Weight 2,800 kg/6,172 lb Maximal with external load
Maximum useful
1,046 kg/2,306 lb (including mission fuel)
Sling load capacity 1,400 kg/3,086 lb
Engine 2 Turbomeca Arrius TM 319 1 A1 Engines
Maximum speed 136 mph
Cruising speed 245 km/h-133 kts ( at maximum weight)
Range 650 km-350 n.m.
Service Ceiling
AN - Cannon, rocket-launchers, machine guns
Armament SN - Torpedo
User Countries
AS 565 Panther
SA 360 Dauphin 2
The Dauphin 2 is a medium weight multipurpose civil twin-engine helicopter. The
Dauphin 2 is the military version of the Dauphin series. It is a complete redesign of the
civilian Dauphin with only tail similarities remaining. The Dauphin 2 also has retractable
landing gear as opposed to the fixed gear on the civilian Dauphin. It is built by the
EUROCOPTER Group, owned 70% by AEROSPATIALE France and 30% by Daimler
Aerospace (DASA) of Germany.

First flown in 1973, this single engined utility helicopter was used in a variety of roles
including helicopter gunship/attack. Designed for transporting passengers (Offshore,
corporate or VIP) and for carrying out missions in the Public Services (Police, Fire-
fighting). The AS 565 Panther is the military version of the Dauphin, capable of
transporting 8 to 10 commandos to the combat zones, casualty evacuation and logisitic
support. The AS 565 SB is the armed version of the shipborne Panther. It can be carried
on board a combat vessel to improve the vessel's observation, reconnaissance and attack
capabilities well beyond the range of the vessel's detection system.

With a four-blade main rotor, two turboshaft engines are ounted side by side on top of the
cabin with an air intake on side of motor hump and exhausts at the rear of the hump. The
teardrop-shaped body features a tapered boom to the tail fin, a rounded nose and stepped-
up cockpit, and retractable gear and flat bottom. The tail flats feature swept-back tips
forward of the swept-back and tapered fin with a blunt tip. The rotor is inside a housing at
the bottom of the fin. A weapons carrying platform is installed on some models.

Country of Origin France
Role Assault-transport (8 to 10 troops), utility, attack
Similar Aircraft Lynx, Gazelle, Hirundo A109
Rotor diameter 39 ft, 2 in (11.94 m)
Length 37 ft, 6 in (11.43 m)
Weight 4,300 kg/9,480 lb
Maximum speed
Cruising speed 275 km/h-148kts
Range 814km-440 n.m.
Service Ceiling
Rockets, antitank missiles on SA 365M model
4 Aerospatiale AS 15 TT missiles on AS 565 SB
Crew Normally two. Three with crew chief
France, People’s Republic of China (Z-9), USA
more than 600 of the Dauphin/Panther family of
User Countries
machines have been sold to more than 170 customers in
50 different countries
EC 635 - Light Utility Helicopter (LUH)
The EC 635 - Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) is the military version of the EC 135 and
applies the same technology. It is built by the EUROCOPTER Group, owned 70% by
AEROSPATIALE France and 30% by Daimler Aerospace (DASA) of Germany. The EC
635 is a light-weight twin-engined, eight seats multi - role helicopter with wide use of
composite material and crashworthy designed seats and fuel system. New generation high
set main rotor and shrouded tail rotor systems (Fenestron type) provide low noise and
safe operation. High operational efficiency, adverse weather day / night operations, high
performance with power reserve and an advanced maintenance concept are among the
key features of the EC 635.
The military EC 635 is offered with two powerplant options. The FADEC controlled
Turbomeca Arrius 2B1 or the Pratt & Whitney 206B engines provide fast cruising speed
and long range. Utilising the aircraft's inherent multi - role capability the EC 635 is suited
for military and para - military operations as utility, training, troop transport,
reconnaissance and SAR. The helicopter's cabin is accessible through side sliding doors
and two large rear clam-shell doors, is particularly suited for disaster relief missions and
humanitarian aid.

(Sea level, ISA)
Maximum weight 2,835 kg/6,250 lb 2,835 kg/6,250 lb
Alternate gross- Alternate gross-weight
weight 2,900 2,900 kg/6,400 lb
kg/6,400 lb
Capacity 1 pil.+7/8 sold. or 2 1 pil.+7/8 sold. or 2
pil.+6/7 sold. pil.+6/7 sold.
Maximum useful load 1,380 kg/3,042 lb 1,380 kg/3,042 lb
(including mission fuel)
Sling load capacity 1,360 kg/3,000 lb 1,360 kg/3,000 lb
Maximal operational 2,900kg/6,400 lb 2,900kg/6,400 lb
weight with external load
Power plant 2 X Pratt & Whitney 2 X TURBOMECA
Take-off power (A.E.O.) 528 kW/708shp 530 kW/711 shp
Maximal continuous 419 kW/562shp 425kW/570 shp
power (A.E.O.)
Fast cruise speed ( at 260 km/h-140 kts 260 km/h-140 kts
maximum weight)
Maximum range with 685 km-370 n.m. 675 km-365 n.m.
standard tank(s)*

*With take-off at maximal weight

EH101 Merlin
EH101 Cormorant
The EH101, developed jointly by Agusta of Italy and GKN Westland Helicopters,
combines military and civil variants in a single integrated program with an optional rear
loading ramp and full ice protection system. The EH101 is now in full production in both
Italy and the United Kingdom with launch orders for over 80 aircraft. The EH101 is the
only new medium lift helicopter that is in full production and available in four variants.
The Integrated Development Programme (IDP) under which the EH101 was developed
was an Anglo-Italian collaborative program. Each nation is currently procuring variants
of the baseline helicopter. Maritime patrol variants of the aircraft have been ordered by
the British Royal Navy and by the Italian Marina Militare Italiana (MMI). The MMI has
also ordered the utility transport and enhanced air and surface surveillance variants and
the British Royal Air Force has contracted for 22 EH101 SH (support helicopter) military
utility aircraft.
Merlin HM MK1 (formerly Merlin EH101) is an Anti-Submarine (ASW) variant of the
EH101 helicopter. It entered service in December 1998, replacing the ageing ASW Sea
King (Mk6). The collaborative program began in 1979 through EH Industries - the
company formed by Agusta of Italy and GKN Westland in the UK. Designed in Western
Europe, it is the largest collaborative helicopter project in history and the most powerful
helicopter in terms of military capability. The mission system is world-leading and the
weapons system is a significant force multiplier compared with existing capability.
In 1991 the United Kingdom selected IBM-Aerospace Systems Integration Corporation
(ASIC) (subsequently Loral-ASIC, now Lockheed Martin ASIC (LMA)) as prime
contractor to complete Royal Navy development, integration of the Mission System and
production of 44 aircraft. Since then progress has been made on the programme through
the award of the Collaborative Production Investment contract in March 1992 to EH
Industries. Awards were also made to Lockheed Martin ASIC for the Merlin Training
System in July 1994, and the MERLIN Support and Spares Availability System
(MSSAS) in July 1996.
Progress on the project has been hampered by accidents on the collaborative program to
three prototype aircraft in 1993, 1995 and 1996. However, the first flight by a production
MERLIN was on 6 December 1995 and the first mission system fitted Merlin flew in
January 1997. Royal Navy Intensive Flight Trials began on schedule in December 1998.
The aircraft has a state-of-the-art, integrated mission system, which processes data from
an extensive array of on-board sensors, giving Merlin an independent capability to search
for, locate and attack submarine targets. It is this autonomous capability which makes
Merlin unique among ASW helicopters. The aircraft and its mission system are managed
by two computer systems, linked by dual data buses. The cockpit is designed for
operation by a single pilot, with the auto-pilot allowing for hands-off flight for most of
the mission.
Normally flown by a crew of three - pilot, observer and aircrewman - Merlin is equipped
with the Thomson-Marconi active "dunking" sonar which gives enhanced submarine
detection ranges, and the GEC Marconi AQS 903 acoustic processor. All crew stations
can access the management computers and operate the tactical displays. These are fed by
the Marconi Blue Kestrel radar which possesses full 360-degree coverage and an ability
to Track-While-Scan surface contacts. It can also pass tactical information via a datalink
to other participating units; a significant capability which has not been utilised by
maritime helicopters before.
Merlin is designed to operate in all weathers from the flight decks of both large and small
ships (Invincible class aircraft carriers and Type 23 frigates). It is powered by three Rolls
Royce RTM 322 engines, is capable of speeds of up to 150 knots and has a range of 200
nautical miles. It can carry up to four homing torpedoes or depth charges, for use against
threat submarines and can provide targeting information via datalink for the prosecution
of surface threats. The Merlin retains all the secondary role capability of its predecessor,
the Sea King, including loadlifting, casualty evacuation, troop carrying and Search and

The Staff Requirement for the Medium Support Helicopter (MSH) was approved in
March 1994. A submission to the Equipment Approvals Committee (EAC) was approved
in February 1995 followed one month later by an announcement from the Secretary of
State that 22 EH101 Support Helicopters would be procured, together with a smaller
number of Chinooks, to meet the MSH requirement. The SH(EH101) contract was
awarded in June 1995.

SH(EH101), designated the Merlin HC Mk3, fills a capability gap between Chinook and
Puma. It also replaces the obsolete Wessex. Based on the military utility version of the
Anglo-Italian EH101, it is designed to operate by day and night, in hot and high or cold
and icing conditions undertaking a wide variety of roles including troop carrying, small
vehicle and/or cargo carrying capability. It will support ground forces in a wide range of
operational scenarios, including combat search and rescue, in National, NATO and UN
operations. A range of role-fit and portable support equipment is also available to further
tailor the aircraft for special operations.
The Merlin HC Mk3 is a significant advance on the aged Wessex helicopter and also
reflects the progress in both roles and capabilities of support helicopters. The Merlin HC
Mk3 has a single main rotor configuration powered by three uprated Rolls Royce
Turbomeca RTM322 engines. It has an all-up take off mass of 14.6 tonnes, maximum
speed of 167 knots and range on internal fuel in excess of 1000km. The operating range
can be extended by virtue of an air to air refuelling capability and continuous operations
are possible. Designed to carry 24 troops in crash-attenuating seating, fitted with active
noise reduction (ANR) headphones. The seats can be folded away and a range of cargo or
small vehicles loaded via a rear ramp or side door. A cargo winch and roller conveyor for
palletised freight are integrated. Under slung loads can be carried.
The aircraft incorporates the latest technology in composite structures, multiple system
redundancy and enhanced health and useage monitoring to minimise life cycle costs
(LCC). Active control of structural response (ACSR) struts reduce vibration at all speeds.
It is designed to be highly reliable, maintainable and supportable away from its normal
operating bases.
Pilot workload is eased with automated flight control and aircraft management, integrated
GPS/INS based navigation, extensive communication systems and Night Vision Goggle
(NVG) compatible electronic instruments and displays. All the aircraft will be fitted with
a comprehensive Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) that will include a Radar Warning
Receiver (RWR), a Laser Warning Receiver (LWR), Chaff and Flare dispensers and a
Directional Infra-Red Countermeasures (DIRCM) system. A limited number will also be
fitted with Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR). 3G agility and a low noise signature
enhance effectiveness and minimise environmental impact. Wire strike protection,
armoured crash attenuating crew seats, automatic fire protection systems and the
defensive aids provide enhanced survivability.
GKN Westland Helicopters and Agusta SpA assembled several Canadian companies to
work with them to supply the EH101 Cormorant for the Canadian Government's
requirement for up to 15 search and rescue (SAR) helicopters. Operating under the
banner of Team Cormorant the core members include Bombardier, Bristol Aerospace and
CAE. In addition, Canadian Helicopters from St-John's, Newfoundland, joined the team
to provide for a leasing option and follow-on maintenance as outlined by the Canadian
Minister of National Defence. The Cormorant incorporates many of the features
developed for the British and Italian aircraft and has been specifically configured for
search and rescue operations in hazardous environments. The Cormorant is designed to
operate both day and night in the most adverse weather conditions, including known
icing, Cormorant incorporates modern design techniques and advanced technology
features that make it the most capable, long range search and rescue helicopter available.
Cormorant won selection against fierce international competition from the Boeing CH-47
Chinook, Sikorsky S-70 and Eurocopter Super Puma Mk2 (Cougar).

Country of Origin
Similar Aircraft
Dimensions (External)
Overall Length 22.80 m
Rotors Turning
Fuselage Length 19.53 m
Width (excluding
4.52 m
Overall Height 6.62 m
Folded Length 15.75 m
Folded Width 5.20 m
Folded Height 5.20 m
Main Rotor Diameter 18.60 m
Tail Rotor Diameter 4.00 m

Dimensions (Internal)
Cabin Length 7.09 m
Cabin Width 2.49 m
Cabin Height 1.83 m

Cockpit Pilot and Co-Pilot or Observer
Cabin 2 mission system operators
Cabin Volume 29.0 cu m
Cabin Floor Area 17.0 sq m
Rotor System
Main Rotor Type Fully articulated
Main Rotor Blades 5 composite blades
Tail Rotor Type Teetering
Tail Rotor Blades 4 composite blades

Maximum All Up
14600 kg
Cargo Hook Capacity 4535 kg
Standard Fuel (4
3408 kg
User Countries
The Lynx first flew in March 1971 and was developed under an English-French
helicopter agreement. There are two main versions of the Lynx: a wheeled version
primarily for naval use and an army version with skids or skis. Super Lynx is the only
helicopter in its weight class designed specifically for operations from small ships in all
weathers and high sea states. With over 120 aircraft in service, Battlefield Lynx is the
British Army's frontline transport helicopter.

The four-blade main rotor is mounted on a hump on top of the cabin, with two turboshaft
engines mounted on top of the rear of the cabin. The fuselage features an oval, stepped-
up and glassed-in cockpit with a box-like cargo compartment. Landing skids are used on
on army versions, while naval versions have wheels. The high-mounted, tapered tail
boom includes a swept-back fin which is tapered, along with a siingle flat on right side
near top of tail fin and a tail rotor on left side.

Country of Origin UK
Role Utility, attack, antitank
OH-58 Kiowa, Hirundo
A109, UH-1 Iroquois,
Similar Aircraft
UH-1N Model 212,
Dauphin 2
Rotor diameter 42 ft (12.8 m)
Dimensions (External)
Overall Length Rotors
15. 16 m
Fuselage Length 13. 33 m
Width (excluding rotor) 2. 94 m
Overall Height 3. 48 m
Folded Length 10. 85 m
Folded Width 2. 94 m
Folded Height 3. 25 m
Main Rotor Diameter 12. 80 m
Tail Rotor Diameter 2. 36 m
Dimensions (Internal)
Cabin Length 2. 05 m
Cabin Width 1. 78 m
Cabin Height 1. 42 m

Pilot and Co-Pilot or
Cabin Up to 9 passengers
Cabin Volume 4. 85 cu m
Cabin Floor Area 3. 45 sq m
Rotor System
Main Rotor Type Semi-rigid
Main Rotor Blades 4 composite blades
Tail Rotor Type Fully articulated
Tail Rotor Blades 4 composite blades

Maximum All Up Mass 5330 kg
Cargo Hook Capacity 1360 kg
Standard Fuel 786 kg
Auxiliary Fuel Tank 353 kg each

Number 2 2
Make Rolls Royce LHTEC
Model Gem 42-1 CTS800-4N
Take-Off Rating 746 kW each 1015 kW each
Maximum Continuous 664 kW each 945 kW each
Cruise Speed 137 knots
Maximum Range (with
530 nm
auxiliary fuel)
Endurance (with
5. 4 hours
auxiliary fuel)
Cannon, minigun,
Armament rockets, missiles, HOT or
TOW antitank missiles
Crew Two
Brazil, Denmark, France,
User Countries Germany, Netherlands,
Nigeria, Norway, UK
NH 90
The NH 90 is a twin engine, tactical transport and multi-role naval helicopter in the 8-9
ton class. The NH 90 design and development contract was awarded by NAHEMA, the
NATO agency representing the 4 participating governments of France, Italy, Germany
and The Netherlands to NHIndustries the joint venture shared by Agusta, Eurocopter and

The NH90 helicopter is being developed in two variants : the Tactical Transport
Helicopter (TTH) and the NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH) to meet the requirements
expressed by European Armed Forces. The NH90, derived both in the transport and naval
version from a common basic model, has been conceived as a brand new and innovative
weapon system, with technical and technological solutions in line with the future
expectations of the operators. As for technologies and performance, equal consideration
has been given to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Testability and

Country of Origin
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
Engine Twin engine (TTM 322-01/9 or T700-T6E)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
User Countries
PAH-1 BO 105
The BO 105 CBS-5 Army or Navy is a lightweight twin-engine multi-role military
helicopter. It is built by the EUROCOPTER Group, owned 70% by AEROSPATIALE
France and 30% by Daimler Aerospace (DASA) of Germany. The military version of the
BO 105 include the antitank version with weapon-carrying outriggers and the scout
version which has a mast-mounted sight above the main rotor. Missions include: direct
air support, antitank, reconnaissance, search and rescue, and transport. In addition to
reconnaissance, observation and surveillance missions, this helicopter is particularly
suitable for carrying task forces and casualties, thanks to its unpartitioned cabin/cargo
area. The helicopter is powered by two Allison 250-C 20B turbine engines and can easily
be reconfigured for different armed duties, and particularly to support the following
specific weapon systems: anti-tank missiles, rocket launchers, pod-mounted gun, gun
turret, side-firing machine gun.

The Maritime Search & Surveillance BO 105 CBS 5, is the shipborne version of the BO
105, with the same engines. The helicopter features a 360° surveillance and watch
meteorological radar, and has a capability to also support an associated data recorder and
transmitter system, a Doppler/GPS navigation control system, and is NVG compatible.

The four-blade main rotor is mounted above center of cabin. External stores are mounted
on weapons "outriggers" or racks on each side of the fuselage. Each rack has one
hardpoint. The antitank version has short, stubby, weapon-carrying outriggers on lower
midsection. Two turboshaft engines are mounted on the top of the fuselage, which is
short, thick, oval-shaped, and rounded at nose and rear with a glassed-in cockpit and
landing skids. Clamshell doors at rear of cabin area open to access cargo area. The cargo
floor has tiedown rings throughout. The tail features a swept-back and tapered fin with
small rectangular fins mounted at the tips of the rectangular flats and the rotor on the left.

The BO 105 was developed initially by Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm in Germany.
Others are built in Chile, the Philippines, Indonesia (NBO-105), and Spain (CASA BO-

 BO-105CB: The standard production variant.

 BO-105CBS: VIP version with a slightly longer fuselage to accommodate 6
passengers, some used in a SAR role.
 BO-105LS: Upgraded to 2x 550-shp Allison 250-C28 turboshaft engines for
extended capabilities in high altitudes and temperatures. Produced only in
 BO-105M/VBH: Standard reconnaissance version.
 BO-105P/PAH1: Standard antitank version.
Variants in “( )”
Country of Origin Germany
Builder Eurocopter
Date of Introduction 1972
Role Observation, antitank, utility
OH-6 Cayuse, Defender 500MD, Alouette
Similar Aircraft
III, Mi-4 Hound
Main rotor: 4
Blades Tail rotor: 2
Main Rotor Diameter: 9.8 / 32 ft, 3 in
Rotor diameter Tail Rotor Diameter: 1.9
Length (rotors turning): 11.9 m / 39 ft
Length (fuselage): 8.8m
Height 3.0 m
Width 2.5 m
Floor Length: 1.9 m
Cargo Compartment
Width: 1.4 m
Height: 1.3 m
Maximal with external load 2,600 kg/5,732 lb
Maximum Gross: 2,500 kg / 5,512 lb
Normal Takeoff: 2,000 kg
Empty: 1,301 kg, 1,913 kg (PAH1)
Engine 2x 420-shp Allison 250-C20B turboshaft
Internal: 570 liters
Internal Aux Tank: 200 liters ea. (max 2x)
Maximum speed 242 km/h - 131 kts
Cruising speed 205 km/h
Normal Load: 555 km
With Aux Fuel: 961 km
Service: 3,050 m
Ceiling Hover (out of ground effect): 457 m
Hover (in ground effect): 1,525 m
Vertical Climb Rate 7.5 m/s
2 - 2.75-in rocket pods (7 or 12 ea.)
2 - 68-mm SNEB rocket pods (12ea)
2 - 50-mm SNIA rockets (28 ea.)
2 - TOW ATGM pods (4 ea.)
2 - AS-12 ASM pods (2 ea.)
Armament 1 - Stinger AAM pod (4 ea.)
Most Probable Armament:
BO-105P/PAH1: Outriggers carry 6x HOT
antitank missiles, or rocket pods.
CASA BO-105/ATH: The Spanish
produced variant rigidly mounts 1x Rh 202
20-mm cannon under the fuselage.
Internal load: 690 kg
Standard Payload External on sling only: 1,200 kg
Transports 3 troops or 2 litters, or cargo.
Main and tail rotors electrically deiced.
Survivability/Countermeasures Infrared signature suppressors can be
mounted on engine exhausts.
Rotor brake.
The BO-105P has a roof-mounted direct-
view, daylight-only sight to allow firing of
HOT ATGMs. Options exist to fit a thermal
imaging system for night operations, and a
laser designator.
Available avionics include weather radar,
Doppler and GPS navigation, and an
autopilot. It is capable of operation in day,
night, and instrument meteorological condi-
Crew 1 or 2 (pilots)
At least 40 countries -- Bahrain, Brunei,
Chile, Colombia, Germany, Indonesia, Iraq,
User Countries
Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines,
PAH-2 Tiger
The Tiger constitutes an entirely new generation of helicopters for the armed forces of
Germany and France. One of the most advanced combat helicopter in the world today,
Tiger offers flexibility and mission diversity to meet the new challenges facing Western
alliance and United Nations member countries following the collapse of the Warsaw
Pact. Rapid reaction forces, the Franco-German Brigade, Euro-Corps and similar units
can make use of Tiger's inherent multi-mission capabilities which include: dedicated anti-
tank missions, mixed ground-target engagements, escort/combat support missions,
surveillance and reconnaissance missions as well as protection missions for unarmed
transport helicopters flying humanitarian aid missions.

The Germans and French are co-developing the PAH-2 Tiger attack helicopter, which has
many of the capabilities of the American AH-64 Apache. The EUROCOPTER Group,
owned 70% by AEROSPATIALE France and 30% by Daimler Aerospace (DASA) of
Germany, designs and manufactures a wide range of civil and military helicopters in the
2 to 10 ton class. Today, EUROCOPTER is the world's leading manufacturer of civil
helicopters, with more than 11.000 helicopters in service in 126 countries.

Despite the political impetus behind co-operation from the French and German
Governments, the Tiger was subject to a troubled and protracted gestation. Discussions
on a joint program began in the late 1970s, but differences between French and German
requirements delayed formal commitment until 1983. In order to reconcile the different
requirements of the French and German armies, the industrial consortium was required to
produce a common airframe with three separate weapons and equipment fits. And in
1987 rising costs induced a simplified program with the same helicopter to be procured
by both countries.

An initial batch of 160 helicopters, 80 for Germany and 80 for France, will be procured.
The German Army's total requirement of 212 and the French Army's requirement of a
total of 215 Tiger helicopters remains unchanged. Production and final assembly of the
machines will be at the Eurocopter plants in Donauwörth (Germany) and Marignane
(France). Cost and work shares are divided between the two partner countries on a 50:50
per cent basis. Deliveries will commence in 2002.

 The Tiger HAP is an air-to-air combat and fire support medium-weight (6 ton)
helicopter fitted with 2 MTR 390 engines. It is daytime and night combat capable
and is operable in NBC environments. Three basic parameters were taken into
account right from the start of the development phase: low (visual, radar and
infrared) detectability, which provides excellent survivability on the battlefield,
maximum efficiency of the weapons and the associated fire control systems
without heavier workload for the crew, and an optimized logistic concept offering
minimum ownership costs. The Tiger HAP is fitted with a 30-mm gun turret; 68-
mm submunition rokets, and air-to-air Mistral missiles. It also features a firing
sight with 3 sensors: infrared, TV camera and direct optical channel. The
complete avionics suite includes multi-purpose color displays and radar/laser
warning receivers. The MTR390 high technology propulsion system was designed
for the new twin-engined Franco-German Tiger attack helicopter.
 The Tiger UHT is a multi-role fire support helicopter. The Trigat Fire and Forget
missiles and/or the Hot missiles it carries offer anti-tank capability, while 68-mm
rockets ensure air-to-ground fire support. A 12.7 mm air-to-air gun pod and air-to-
air Stinger missiles can also be installed. The helicopter also features a mast-
mounted sight with a second-generation IRCCD infrared channel and a TV
channel, as well as a nose-mounted IRCCD control FLIR for the pilot.
Countermeasures include radar/laser/missiles launch/missile approach warning
receivers and decoy launchers.
 The Tiger HAC is an anti-tank helicopter which supports the same equipments as
the Tiger UHT. Weaponry includes Trigat and/or Hot anti-tank missiles and air-
to-air Mistral missiles.

Country of Origin
Builder Eurocopter
Role Scout, escort, anti-tank, fire support
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
Weight 6,000 kg/13,230 lb
Engine MTR390 turboshaft
Maximum speed 179 mph
HCP (roof sight) 280 km/h-150 kts
Cruising speed
U TIGER (mast sight) 260 km/h-140 kts
Range 800 km-432 n.m.
3 hrs 25 min
Service Ceiling
 Up to 2x22 rockets
 up to 2x12 rocket pods
Armament  up to 2x2 Mistral air-to-air missiles
 up to 2x4 HOT anti-tank missiles
 30 mm turreted gun

User Countries
SA 341 Gazelle
SA 342 Gazelle
The Eurocopter/Aerospatiale SA 341/342 Gazelle is a French built light utility helicopter
which was first flown in 1967. Military missions include attack, antitank, antihelicopter,
reconnaissance, utility, transport, and training. The three-blade main rotor is mounted on
top of the fuselage at the rear of the cabin. The single turboshaft engine, mounted on top
of the fuselage and to the rear of the rotor shaft, features a prominent, upturned exhaust.
The teardrop-shaped fuselage has a round, glassed-in cockpit and landing skids. The
tapering tail boom mid-mounted on the fuselage has a swept-back tail fin which is
tapered with a square tip and rectangular flats with small fins. The fan rotor housing is
built into the lower tail.
External stores are mounted on weapons “outriggers” or racks on each side of the
fuselage. Each rack has one hardpoint. The bench seat in the cabin area can be folded
down to leave a completely open cargo area. Cargo floor has tiedown rings throughout.

 AS 341 Gazelle: Developed by Aerospatiale in France. Others were built in the
UK by Westland, and in Yugoslavia.
 SA 341B/C/D/E: Production versions for the British military. Used in training and
communications roles.
 SA 341F: Production version for the French Army. Upgraded engine to Astazou
 SA 341H: Export variant.
 SA 342K: Armed SA 341F with upgraded 870-shp Astazou XIVH engine, mostly
exported to the Middle East.
 SA 342L: Export light attack variant with Astazou XIVM engine.
 SA 342M: Improved ground attack variant for the French Army. Similar to SA
342L, but with improved instrument panel, engine exhaust baffles to reduce IR
signature, navigational systems, Doppler radar, and other night flying equipment.

Country of Origin France & UK
Date of Introduction 1973
General utility
Gazelle Hot : close air support, destruction
Role of all type of targets (armoured vehicules,
command posts, infrastructure, etc.)
Gazelle Mistral : real time air to air
defense, overall defense operations against
enemy helicopters and slow-moving aircraft.
Alouette II, Alouette III, Scout/Wasp, OH-13
Similar Aircraft
Sioux, Dauphin 2
Main rotor: 3
Tail rotor: 13 (fenestron enclosed in tail)
Main Rotor Diameter: 10.5 meters
Rotor diameter Tail Rotor Diameter: 0.7 meters
rotors turning: 11.9 meters
fuselage: 9.5 metres
Height 3.1 meters
Width 2.0 meters
Cargo Compartment
Floor Length: 2.2 Width: 1.3 Height: 1.2
Dimensions (m)
Internal load: 750
Standard Payload (kg) External on sling only: 700
Transports 3 troops or 1 litter, or cargo
Maximum Gross: 1,800 (SA 341), 1,900 (SA
342K), 2,000 (SA 342L/M)
Weight (kg)
Normal Takeoff: 1,800
Empty: 998
1x 590-shp Turbomeca Astazou IIIB
Internal: 445
Fuel (liters) Internal Aux Tank: 90
Additional Internal Aux Tank: 200
Range (km) Normal Load: 670 (SA 341), 735 (SA 342)
Maximum (level): 310
Speed (km/h)
Cruise: 270
Service: 4,100 (SA 341), 5,000 (SA 342)
Hover (out of ground effect): 2,000 (SA 341),
Ceiling (m) 2,370 (SA 342)
Hover (in ground effect): 2,850 (SA 341),
3,040 (SA 342)
Vertical Climb Rate (m/s) 12.2
Armament Weapon & Armament Types
1 - 7.62-mm MG or
1 - 20-mm GIAT M.621 cannon [100
rounds] or
2 - 7.62-mm AA-52 FN MG pods [1,000
2 - 2.75-in rocket pods (7 ea.)
2 - 68-mm SNEB rocket pods (12 ea)
2 - 57-mm rockets (18 ea.)
4-6 - HOT ATGM
2-4 - AS-11 ASM, or AS-12 ASM
Most Probable Armament:
SA 341F: A GIAT M.621 20-mm cannon
is installed on starboard side of some aircraft.
Rate of fire is selectable at 300 or 740 rpm.
SA 341H: Can carry 4x AT-3 ATGMs, and
2x SA-7, or 128-mm or 57-mm rockets, and
7.62-mm machinegun in cabin.
SA 342K: Armed antitank version with 4-
SA 342L: Either rocket pods or
SA 342M: Armed with 4-6x HOT antitank
missiles, and possibly fitted with Mistral air
to air missiles.
Survivability/Countermeasures IR signature suppressor on engine exhaust.
AVIONICS The SA 342M has a roof-mounted
stabilized direct view/infrared/laser sight to
allow night firing of HOT ATGMs.
The aircraft is NVG compatible; and by its
instruments, avionics, autopilot, and nav
computer, is capable of flight in day, night,
and instrument meteorological conditions.
Crew 1 or 2 (pilots)
At least 23 countries -- Angola, Burundi,
Cameroon, Chad, Cyprus, Ecuador, Egypt,
France, Gabon, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait,
User Countries
Lebanon, Morocco, People’s Republic of
China, Qatar, Rwanda, Senegal, Syria, UK,
The Super Frelon first flew in 1962. The Super Frelon was produced in a civilian
transport version and military transport, anti-submarine, and anti-ship versions. The six-
blade main rotor is mounted above center of fuselage. Of the three turboshaft engines,
two are mounted side-by-side atop the fuselage forward of main rotor; the third is behind
the main rotor. Round air intakes are located above and behind cockpit. Boat-hull type
fuselage mounts stabilizing floats on either side of the body, which has fixed landing gear
and an upswept rear section. The nose is round with glassed-in cockpit. The tail boom
tapers from the main body to the swept-back, tapered fin with a rotor on the left. The
single flat is tapered and and flat-mounted on the right side of the fin.

Country of Origin France
Builder AEROSPATIALE / Eurocopter
First flight : 1965
In-service in the 1966
French Navy :
Assault-transport (38 equipped troops), naval
Major operational Special operations with Navy commandos, maritime
capacities : anti-terrorism, combat rescue, logistic support to
maritime forces, sea rescue, fight against maritime
Typical mission Rescue of aircraft crew on the ground and at sea
Puma, SH-3 Sea King, CH-53 Sea Stallion, HH-3E
Similar Aircraft Jolly Green Giant, Mi-8 Hip
Rotor diameter 62 ft (18.9 m)
Length 75 ft, 7 in (23 m)
Height 6.70 m
Weight 13 tons
Engine 3 Turboméca 3C III turbines / 3x1,200 HP
Maximum speed 270 km/h
Cruising speed
Range 700 km / 3 ½ hr
Service Ceiling 10,000 ft
Armament Torpedoes
Passengers : Up to 27 commandos
Special equipments : Radar ORB-42, Alkan decoy launcher, compatibility
with night vision binoculars, defensive armour plate,
scuttling weapons, PLS (Personal Locator System) and
GPS (Global Positioning System)
NATO Protected radiocommunication, identification friend or
interoperability : foe
Crew Two on flight deck; three in main cabin
France, Iraq, Israel, Libya, People’s Republic of China,
User Countries
French Navy 16 in two squadrons
inventory :
The Scout was first flown in 1958. The UK army took delivery of about 150 Scouts,
which were fitted with a skid undercarriage. The Royal Navy received its first deliveries
of Wasps in 1963. The Wasp has a wheeled undercarriage and a single tail flat on the
right side of the tail boom. The four-blade main rotor is mounted on a shaft behind the
cabin and between the cabin and engine. The single turboshaft engine is mounted
exposed behind rear of cabin. the fuselage features a rounded nose, stepped-up, glassed-
in cockpit, including top, with a slightly tapered rear section and fixed landing gear. The
swept-back, tapered fin features a small rotor on the left. Rectangular flats (Army
version) are mounted to the underside of the boom below the fin.

Country of Origin UK
Role Utility
Similar Aircraft Alouette II, Alouette III, Gazelle, OH-13 Sioux
Rotor diameter 32 ft, 3 in (9.84 m)
Length 30 ft, 4 in (9.26 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Armament Accommodations for antitank missiles, cannon, rockets
Crew One
User Countries Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, UK
The Brevel Kleinfluggerät Zielortung (KZO) of the German forces, is a reconnaissance
and target location UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) being developed by GIE Eurodrone
under contract from the German and French defence ministries. Its main missions are to
provide reconnaissance data and to detect and provide accurate position data on enemy
targets for the artillery. GIE Eurodrone is a management branch of the Franco-British
company Matra BAe Dynamics and the German firm STN Atlas Elektronik.
UAV development efforts in Western Europe have experienced many of the same
problems as their American counterparts, compounded by more serious funding
problems. The Franco-German Brevel program has dragged on in fits and starts over the
past decade due to funding problems and the unsynchronized requirement debates of the
two partners. At the moment, production for France appears to be moribund due to
budget shortfalls, though Germany may acquire the system eventually.
Brevel is a real-time sighting and target localisation system. It is an Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle with very low radar, acoustic and thermal signatures. It has an infra-red imager
mounted on a 3-axis gyro stabilised platform, is ready to launch within 10 minutes
whatever the wind direction, requires a very small area for take-off and landing and has a
jam-resistant data link. Brevel also possesses real-time transmission of pre-compressed
images through a very automated and compact ground station assuring mission planning,
flight control and image interpretation, computer assisted detection and automatic editing
of reports.

Country of Origin France / UK / Germany
GIE Eurodrone
Builder Matra BAe Dynamics (50%)
STN Altas Elektronik (50%)
Similar Aircraft Taifun
Wing Span 11 ft, 1 in (3.4 m)
Length 7 ft, 5 in (2.3 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
User Countries
CL-289 / AN/USD-502
The CL289 system comprises reusable drones which can fly on pre-programmed
missions in the upper sonic range, as well as a fully mobile and rapidly deployable
ground installation. The CL289, as part of the integrated army reconnaissance system as
well as at corps and division level, implements situation reconnaissance, target location
and classification as well as coverage of weapons effect. In March 1987, Canada, West
Germany and France signed the CL-289 surveillance drone production contract, the
largest defence export order ever won by a Canadian company. On November 29, 1990
the CL-289 drone system entered German Army service.
The operational performance of the CL 289 system can be enhanced by the
implementation of an adverse-weather capability and other relevant developments, i.e. for
digital image evaluation, mission planning and GPS-based navigation, guidance and
control systems. Thus, the new objectives can be attained, especially in view of the
system's role within the rapid reaction forces, as is the case with Bosnia. The Defense and
Civil Systems Business Unit of Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG (Dasa/ Munich) at Dornier
GmbH in Friedrichshafen has developed the new SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor
as a miniaturized technology for drones. In this German-French cooperation program,
called Sword (System for All-nweather Observation by Radar on Drone), Dornier's profit
center Reconnaissance and Command Systems is working together with Thompson/CSF.
The first flights with the small sensor (weight approx. 30 kilograms) provided SAR-
images of an outstanding quality, where moving vehicles on the ground could also be

Drone CL 289 : Bombardier, DASA Dornier, Sagem
Builder team :
PIVER ground system : Aerospatiale Matra
In-service in the 1993
French Army :
Breadth / Length : 1.32 m / 3.61 m
Weight : 220 kg
Autonomy : 30 min / 170 km radius
Power plant : Turbo jet engine
Maximum speed : 720 kph
Navigation : Programmed trajectory (inertial guidance, altimetry,
Payload : Stereoscopic camera, infrared analyser, flight recorder,
real time transmission of images from the infrared
analyser to ground operators, from up to 70 km
Composition of the PIVER system : programming and interpretation of
complete system : reconnaissance devices flights

1 launching and programming unit and 1 or several


Possible use of heliborne pods instead of drones, with

the same sensors
Major operational Medium range night and day surveillance of the
capabilities : battlefield by photographic and infrared cameras

Real time analysis of infrared images

Operational even in very poor weather conditions

Main user countries : Germany
French Army 55 drones en 4 units
inventory :
Typical mission 30-mn 400-km flights at very low altitude allowing
rapid and detailed evaluation of targets with
transmission of high quality digital images
Crécerelle (Kestrel)
France has opted for a low-cost, off-the-shelf UAV, the Crecerelle. The Crecerelle has
proven to be attractive to export customers as well, serving as the basis for the new Dutch
Sperwer, and for a new Swedish program. France is focusing on a machine like the
Crécerelle, that is fairly big and meets a specific need in contact zones. The equipment is
already operational in France and could be further developed. Crécerelle is an example of
a project that grew rapidly. The efficiency of the device is good enough so that the
French Army can assess the system and see how it can be used. The French are working
on devices, such as the Vigilant, that are low-cost and flexible, that do not require any
special terrain, but also machines like the Crécerelle, that require bigger operating
facilities but that also have greater capabilities.
The HALE (High Altitude, Long Endurance) belongs to a more strategic field. They are
bigger and more sophisticated. As a result, more compromises are required. Sagem has
signed an agreement with General Atomics to market the HALE. However, engineering a
HALE requires a decision at a whole other level. French authorities are waiting to see
what will happen with the American's Global Hawk before making a decision.
Although the more or less official term for vehicles of this type is UAV (Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle), a French word [from Greek roots] for a plane without a pilot has been
coined - "gnopter". The word comes from the Greek words: "gnosis" meaning
knowledge, "gnome" meaning intelligence and "pteron" meaning wing. This word sums
up the machine's mission. The gnopter is a device that can increase information on, or
knowledge of a given location. The machines can also be adjusted in real-time, to fulfill a
given mission.

Builder : Sagem
In-service in the Summer 1994
French Army :
Breadth / Length : 3.30 m / 2.75 m
Weight : 115 kg
Autonomy : 3 hours
Power plant : 2-stroke engine, rear propeller
Operational ceiling : 10,000 ft
Maximum speed : 240 km/h
Navigation : Self-guided by digital computer using several sensors
(gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS, pressure sensor)
Payload : Panoramic video camera, high definition camera, high
definition infrared analyser, transmission of data to
ground operators from up to 50 km
Composition of a 1 ground control and image reception center, 1
complete launcher, 1 trailer and 6 drones
platoon :
Major operational Mission planning in 40 min ; maps and recce shots on
capabilities : optical disks ; night and day localisation of targets
cost less than $100,000
Main user nations : Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark
French Army 12 drones in 2 platoons
inventory :
Typical mission Observation of refugee columns

Detection and surveillance of adverse positions

MBD's Marvel UAV system is targeted for maritime customers in addition to land-based
missions, given that the Scorpion airframe can operate from areas as small as helipads.
Freewing™'s patented Tilt-Body™ technology creates a new method of vectoring thrust
in airplanes, one which is both inherently stable and mechanically simple, requiring only
three moving parts. The Matra BAe name for its UAV system is the Marvel, which
combines the Scorpion air vehicle with Matra BAe payloads and command & control

Freewing™ has sold to Matra BAe Dynamics of distribution rights for its Scorpion UAV,
a revolutionary unmanned airplane that can take off and land much like a helicopter. The
territory includes all of Europe and the Middle East. The new agreement extends MBD's
exclusivity through 2002 and dramatically expands the territory for which MBD has
distribution rights. Freewing™ retains all manufacturing rights, and acts as air vehicle
supplier for the Marvel system throughout Matra BAe's territory.

France-based Matra BAe Dynamics is the largest missile and UAV manufacturer in
Europe. In 1994 MBD signed a strategic alliance agreement with Freewing™ in order to
use the Scorpion airframe for the Marvel UAV system. At that time Matra bought the
exclusivity only for France, the UK and Germany, for a time period into 1998.
Mirach 26
The Mirach 26 can be operated from a ground control station (GCS) or autonomously. It
is built entirely with composite materials giving it a very low radar signature.

Country of Origin Italy
Builder Alenia
Role Close-range tactical mini-UAV
Similar Aircraft MK-105 Flash, Shaheen, Mastiff, Ranger
Wing Span 15 ft, 5 in (4.73 m)
Length 12 ft, 6 in (3.85 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
User Countries
Mirach 100
The Mirach 100 is controlled by ground control or by automatic navigation. It is an aerial
target used for a wide variety of surface/ship-to-air missile firings with weapon systems
like Patriot, Hawk, Roland, Stinger, Sea Sparrow, Standard Missile and RAM, but can
also be used as a tactical cruise missile launched from aircraft.

Country of Origin Italy
Builder Alenia
Role Target drone, tactical cruise
Similar Aircraft Mirach 150, MQ-2 Bigua, C.22, Marakub 100 (Iraq).
Wing Span 5 ft, 9 in (1.804 m)
Length 13, ft 5 in (4.126 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Armament HE warhead on cruise
User Countries Italy, Iraq, Libya
The MK-105 FLASH is a reusable, low-cost UAV. It can be controlled by ground remote
or can be preprogrammed. Made of composite materials, it has a low-radar cross section.
The FLASH is designed for short field, take-off and landings with conventional tricycle
landing gear.

The wings are high-mounted and forward tapered from midwing to the square tips. The
engine is a four-cylinder, prop driven on rear of fuselage in the opposing position. The
fuselage is round with round, glass nose, an IR bubble sensor on belly, and thin booms.
The tail features back-tapered fins on booms with a square flat on top of the fins.

Country of Origin Germany, USA, France, UK
Brown International Corporation, USA
Builder IAT - International Aerospace Technologies,
Role Short-range multirole UAV
Similar Aircraft Mirach 26, Shaheen, MK III, Mastiff, Ranger ADS 90.
Wing Span 14 ft, 4 in (4.40 m)
Length 10 ft, 9 in (3.34 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling in excess of 10,000 feet
Armament Usually none
User Countries
MK-106 HIT
The International Aerospace Technology MK-106 HIT has excellent maneuverability at
high speeds with its unusual low-radar signature design, compact size, and 24-HP engine.
The HIT uses a trailer mounted, catapult launch and parachute/airbag cushioned landing
systems, which allows precision launch and recovery in extremely confined or rugged

Country of Origin Germany, USA, France, UK
Brown International Corporation, USA
Builder IAT - International Aerospace Technologies,
Role Multirole, reconnaissance/targeting
Similar Aircraft Harry, Donier DAR, Raki, AW-10
Wing Span 6 ft, 8 in (2.1 m)
Length 6 ft, 5 in (2 m)
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
Armament None
User Countries
Phoenix is a real time surveillance and target acquisition Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV)
designed to integrate with the Battlefield Artillery Target Engagement System (BATES)
and indirect fire weapon systems against depth targets. The Phoenix UAV is an all
weather, day or night, real time surveillance and target acquisition system. Pheonix's
surveillance suite is datalinked to a ground station which, in turn, transmits the
intelligence gathered directly to artillery command posts. The Phoenix UAV is almost
entirely made from Kevlar, glass fibre, carbon reinforced plastics and Nomex
honeycomb; and is powered by a 25hp two stroke flat twin engine. The UAV can be
launched within an hour of reaching launch site. Up to 2 UAV's can be controlled from
the same ground contol station. Phoenix is operated by the Royal Artillery.
The contract for Phoenix was placed in 1985 against an In Service Date (ISD) of 1989.
This original ISD slipped continuously and, in March 1995, the Equipment Approvals
Committee ordered an Agreed Program of Work (APW) to be established and a study
into alternative systems. The study concluded that, although there were several UAV
systems that came close to matching the requirement, none did so as closely as Phoenix.
A major contract amendment was negotiated with GMAeS and, in September 1996,
Ministerial approval was secured to return to contract against an ISD of December 1998.
At the time of return to contract it was hoped to bring Phoenix into service in mid-1998,
but some technical difficulties, together with the need for a comprehensive Safety
Statement and a Military Aircraft Release, resulted in exact alignment with the endorsed

Country of Origin UK
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span 5.5m
Weight 177 kgs
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Flight Radius 50 kms
Service Ceiling 2700m (9000 ft)
User Countries
eight troops (two batteries each with three flight troops
and two flight troops at the Royal School of Artillery)
with a total of 198 UAVs and support equipment
Ground Data Terminal (GDT) and Ground Control
System (DCS), Launchers, Recovery Vehicles,
Resupply Vehicles - Troop Command Post (TCP)
Total Costs £259.4 million (estimated)
In-Service Date (ISD) December 1998
Complete Regimental
July 1998
Conversion Training
Achieve Maintenance October 1998
Reserve status
Complete Flight
Section February 2000
Complete War
Maintenance Reserve January 2001
Air Vehicle deliveries
Transfer to Defence
Logistics April 2001
The navy drone Seamos (sea reconnaissance and location system) is an unmanned small
helicopter equipped with two counterrotating rotors and designated for use on the new
corvette K130. The primary tasks of the drone are comprehensive reconnaissance and
target acquisition. It is planned to enter service in the year 2005.
The Seamos technology is based on a proven coaxial rotor system with two
counterrotating two-blade rotors and an autonomous flight guidance system with state-of-
the-art components. The drone has a maximum takeoff weight of approximately 1.1 tons
and a mission payload of approximately 150 kilograms. Radar sensors, electro-optical
sensors, and a data link are planned as payload.
The navy drone Seamos for the German Navy will be developed by the Defense and Civil
Systems Business Unit of Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG (Dasa/Munich) at Dornier GmbH
in Friedrichshafen. This contract for definition activities and also encompassing test
flights, was awarded in October 1998 to Dornier GmbH by the German Office of Defense
Technology and Procurement (BWB). The German Navy is the first customer worldwide
to have ordered the development of a drone system for maritime reconnaissance.
Under the terms of company-own developments of Dornier GmbH and supported by
BWB research funds, it already has been possible to successfully demonstrate automatic
takeoff and landings on a moving platform. Dornier is preparing an advanced variant of
the Seamos technology demonstrator for test flights. This also includes the expansion of
the flight range, the adaptation to the proven hybrid navigation system of Honeywell and
a more powerful engine (Allison 250 C 20).
In order to prepare Seamos for its participation in the NATO "UAV International
Technology Demonstrator Program", the tactical control station will already be in
conformance with the U.S. requirements.

Country of Origin Germany
Builder DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (Dasa, Munich)
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Service Ceiling
User Countries
The Vigilant drone is a pilot-less helicopter for air-to-ground observations within a 30-
kilometer radius. It measures 2.30 meters, totals a takeoff weight of 40 kilograms.
Techno Sud Industries, a small company, engineered the aircraft. Vigilant is a low-cost
and flexible system, that does not require any special terrain for operations. It took ten
years of work and millions of francs from stockholder equity to engineer the now
marketed helicopter. Seventy percent of its market is civil industry and 30 percent, the
military. Thanks to 3 axis (pitch, roll and yaw) automatic stabilization (TSI patent), the
Vigilant was equipped with flight programming engineered jointly with ONERA DCSD.
The Vigilant, marketed by Thomson CSF, and has attracted many customers: the
customs, fishing services, forestry commissions, city services and the police. Security,
surveillance and environmental control are the major areas (not including military
operations) where the Vigilant is highly successful. The Vigilant is the only aircraft of its
kind with a permit to fly over French territory.

In June 1997 the French Army Headquarters decided to acquire from Thomson-CSF,
system and program leader, and TechnoSud Industries, aerial vehicle designer, a Vigilant
F2000 M helicopter UAV system, in order to assess, in the field, the advantages of the
very short range UAV concept and its reconnaissance and scouting capacities in aid of
armoured units. This decision followed a successful French Army / Thomson-CSF
preliminary joint evaluation compaign which took place at Mourmelon, a test field
located in Champagne. The trials proved the high reliability of the system, in addition to
its technical and operational abilities. The delivered system includes a ground control
station and one or two unmanned helicopters equipped with a panoramic camera and a
pan/tilt zoom camera.

The same system, under the responsibility of Thomson-CSF, had carried out several
demonstration flights in France and foreign countries, in particular in Germany for the
Luna program. It raised interest in many military, paramilitary and civilian organizations
which consider its use for various missions, including reconnaissance, surveillance and
observation of dangerous or difficult to reach areas.

Country of Origin
Thomson-CSF, system and program leader,
TechnoSud Industries, aerial vehicle designer
Similar Aircraft
Wing Span
Length 2.30m
Weight 30 kg
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Range 20 km
Service Ceiling
Armament none
User Countries