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Maersk Training Centre A/S

Anchor Handling
Simulator Course
Maersk Training Centre A/S

1. Program. Abbreviations
Introduction to Anchor Handling Course

2. MAERSK TRAINER, Technical Specifications

3. Company Policy. Procedures

4. Risk Assessment. Planning. Tool Box

5. Anchor Handling Winches. Chain Wheels

6. Triplex – Shark Jaws

7. Anchor Deployment Procedures – PCP

8. Wire Rope. Guidelines. Maintenance

9. Chains and Fittings


Chasers and Grapnels

10. Anchor Handling Equipment.


Swivel – Socket Bench – Pin Extractor

11. Anchor Systems. Safety Factors

12. Vryhof Anchor Manual 2000

13. Drilling Units / - Operations

14. Ship Handling. Maneuvering

15. Exercises
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course January 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Introduction to the Anchor Handling Course HCA 1/03


1

Introduction to the Anchor Handling Course

Background
A.P.Møller owns and operates a modern fleet of anchor handling vessels.
The vessels are chartered to oil companies, and rig operators, the jobs are anchor handling, tow and
construction jobs.
The technical development of these ships has been fast to meet the increased demands.
The demands to the performance of the ships have been increased too.
A few hours off service can mean large economic losses for the different parties involved.

In the last years an increased focus have been on avoiding accidents, and the frequency of these
accidents are low. To get the frequency even lower, actions to avoid accidents are needed. “Learning by
doing”, on board an anchor handling vessels as the only mean of education, will not be accepted in the
future. Part of this training process needs to be moved ashore, where crew, ship and equipment can be
tested without risc in all situations.
Here we will use the anchor-handling simulator.

A study of accidents and incidents occurred on anchor handling vessels (AHV) during anchor
handling operations reveals that some of the most common causes leading to incidents and/or
accidents are lack of or inadequate:
• Experience
• Planning
• Knowledge
• Teamwork
• Understanding

The keywords for addressing these causes are: “training, training and more training”

The value of on-board, hands-on training is well known and beyond any doubt but the knowledge
and experience gained are sometimes paid with loss of human life or limbs, environmental
pollution and/or costly damage to property.

This simulator course was developed in order to give new officers on AHV’s the possibility of
acquiring the basic knowledge and skills in a “as close to the real thing as possible” environment,
the only thing, however, that might get damaged is “ones own pride”.

The aims of the basic anchor handling course are:


• To promote safe and efficient anchor handling operations by enhancing the bridge teams
knowledge of, and skills in anchor handling operations.

Training Manual

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 1\2.AHcourseintro.doc 


DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course January 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Introduction to the Anchor Handling Course HCA 2/03


1

The objectives of the basic anchor handling course are:


By planning of and, in the simulator, carrying out anchor handling operations under normal
conditions, the participant shall demonstrate a thorough knowledge of and basic skills in:
• Planning of anchor handling operations adhering to procedures and safety rules
• On user level, the design, general maintenance and correct safe use of anchor handling
equipment.
• As conning officer carry out exercises in anchor handling operations
• As winch operator carry out exercises in anchor handling operations
• The use of correct phraseology

The simulator course


The course consists of theoretical lessons alternating with simulator exercises.

1 The theoretical lessons


The theoretical lessons addresses:
• AHV deck lay-out and equipment
• AH winch (electrical and hydraulic) lay-out and function
• Anchor types, chain, wires, grapnels, etc. maintenance and use
• Planning of AH operations
• AH procedures
• Safety aspects and rules

The simulator exercises


The simulator exercises consist of one familiarisation exercise and 3 to 4 AH operations. The
weather condition during the exercises will be favourable and other conditions normal.

The tasks in the AH exercises are:


• Preparing the AHV for anchor handling
• Respooling of the work wire with tension
• Running out an anchor on a water depth of 100 meters
• Retrieving an anchor from a water depth of 100 meters
• Running out and retrieving an anchor on a water depth of 300 meters
• Running out and retrieving an anchor on a water depth of 700 meters
• Operating an anchor system with insert wire

During the simulator exercises the participants will man the bridge. They will be forming a bridge
team, one acting as the conning officer the other as the winch operator. A captain/chief engineer
will act as a consultant.

Before commencing the exercise, the participants are expected to make a thorough planning of
the AH operation. They will present the plan to the instructor in the pre-operation briefing for
verification.

Training Manual

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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course January 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Introduction to the Anchor Handling Course HCA 3/03


1

During the exercises, the simulator operator will act and communicate as all relevant personnel
e.g.:
• Deckhands
• Rig crew
• Crane driver
• Agent
• Owner
• Etc.

The instructor will monitor the progress of the exercises and evaluate the performance of the
team and each individual.

Debriefing
Each exercise will be followed by a debriefing session during which the instructor and the team
will discuss the progress and the outcome of the exercise.

Training Manual

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MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PFR 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Abbreviations HCA 1/01


1

Commonly used abbreviations:


AHTS: Anchor Handling tug supply
PSV: Platform supply vessel
DVS: Diving support vessel
SV: Survey vessel
MODU: Mobil offshore drilling unit
FPU: Floating production unit
FPDSO: Floating production, drilling, storage and offloading
FPSO: Floating production, storage and offloading
FPS: Floating production system
TLP: Tension leg platform
SBM: Single buoy mooring
SPM: Single point mooring
CALM: Catenary anchored leg mooring
SALM: Single anchor leg mooring
SSCV: Semi submersible crane vessel
HLV: Heavy lift vessel
RTV: Rock dumping/trenching vessel
PLV: Pipe laying vessel
SSAV: Semi submersible accommodation vessel
ROV: Remotely operated vehicle
ROT: Remotely operated tool
AUV: Autonomous underwater vehicle
DP: Dynamic positioning
DPO: Dynamic positioning officer
HPR: Hydroaccoustic positioning reference

TW: Towing winch


AHW: Anchor Handling winch
DMW: Dead Man Wire
PCP: Permanent chaser pennant
HHP: High holding power anchors
VLA: Vertical load anchors
SCA: Suction caisson anchor
DEA: Drag embedded anchor
Sepla: Suction embedded plate anchor.
QMS: Quality management system
HSE: Health, safety and environment
ISM: International ships management
WW: Work Wire
VSP: Vertical seismic survey

Weight in water: Weight x 0,85

Training Manual
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 1\Abbreviations.doc
MTC Anchor Handling Course

“MAERSK TRAINER”

Technical Specifications:
LOA: 73,60 m.
Breadth: 16,40 m.

Propulsion: 15600 BHP.


2 Propellers.
2 Spade rudders (Not independent).

Thrusters: Forward: 1 x 1088 BHP, Azimuth.


1 x 1000 BHP, Tunnel.
Aft: 1 x 1000 BHP, Tunnel.

Deck Layout: 2 Tuggers, 15 T pull.


2 Capstans, 15 T pull.

A/H Equipment: 2 sets of Triplex Shark Jaws. SWL: NA


2 sets of Guide Pins.
2 wire lifters.
2 stop pins, 1 each side.

Distance: From centre AHW to Stern Roller: 50 m.


From centre AHW to “visibel” from bridge: App. 20 m.

Breaking load: DMW, WW & Insert Wire: 77 mm and BL= 300 T.


Chain: 77 mm and BL= 600 T.

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 2\Maersk Trainer.doc Chapter 02 Page 1


MTC Anchor Handling Course

”MAERSK TRAINER”

Winch Layout:

AHV01: AHV02:
A/H Drum (1): Max pull, bare drum: 500 T. 250 T.
Static brake: 650 T. 400 T.
Kernal diam.: 1,50 m. 0,90 m.
Width of drum: 3,55 m. 1,225 m.
Flange diam.: 6,50 m. 2,50 m.

Tow Drums (2): Max pull, bare drum: 250 T. 125 T.


(TW2: Starboard) Static brake: 650 T. 400 T.
(TW3: Port) Kernal diam.: 1,50 m. 0,90 m.
Width of drum: 2,05 m. 1,225 m.
Flange diam.: 3,60 m. 2,50 m.

Wildcats fitted on Tow Drums.

Rig Chain Lockers: 1 each side.


Capacity: No limits!!
Bitter end: Between 0 m. and 75 m. each side.

All winches are electrically driven.


Winch computter: SCADA

• No pennant reels fitted.


• Wires and / or chain can`t be stowed on the aftdeck either “in the water” – the
equipment has to be connected up, in the system.
• The winch used for decking the anchor will be “locked” as long as the anchor is
on deck.
• The anchor can not be disconnected from the PCP.

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 2\Maersk Trainer.doc Chapter 02 Page 2


MTC Anchor Handling Course

“Maersk Trainer” Deck Layout:

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 2\Maersk Trainer.doc Chapter 02 Page 3


work group
Training Centre
E-procurement
Maersk A/S Winch Layout: “Maersk Trainer”

Technical Specifications. Ch. 2 Page 4/04


MTC Anchor Handling Course

3. Company Procedures

All operations on board must be performed in accordance with Company


Procedures.
The updated procedures can be found on CD-ROM (QE & SMS) issued by Technical
Organisation in Copenhagen.

Please make sure that the latest version is in use.

Any copies of the procedures used on the Anchor Handling Course are all:

UNCONTROLLED COPIES.

Following procedures can be useful:

• 2, 357: Prevention of Fatigue – Watch Schedules – Records of Hours of Work or Rest

• 8, 20: Salvage (Supply Vessels)

• 11, 15: Bridge discipline (Supply)


• 11, 234: Safe Mooring Peterhead Harbour (Supply)
• 11, 596: DGPS Installations (Supply, Brazil waters)
• 11, 792: DP Operating Procedure (Relevant Supply Vessels)

• 13, 42: Transport of Methanol (Supply Vessels)


• 13, 65: Cargo (“Fetcher”)
• 13, 207: Tank Cleaning. Water/Oil Based MUD, H2S (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 249: Transportation of Tanks Containing Liquid Gases (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 251: Hose Handling Alongside Installations (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 498: Cargo Handling (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 681: Cargo Pipe Systems – Segregation of Products (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 766: Deck Cargo Stowage Procedure for Stand-by Mode (“NORSEMAN”/”NASCOPIE”)
• 13, 812: Cleaning of Hoses after Transfer of Oil, Brine and MUD to or from Rig
(Supply Vessels)

• 7, 14: Communication with Maersk Supply Service (Supply Vessels)


• 7, 176: General Order Letter (Supply Vessels)

• 15, 7: Brattvaag Anchorhandling Winch 250 T (Supply Vessels)


• 15, 9: Aquamaster TAW 2500/2500E (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 10: Aquamaster TAW 3000/3000E (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 16: AH & Towing Wire Maintenance (Supply Vessels)

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

• 15, 19: Towing (Supply Vessels)


• 15, 24: Ulstein Brattvaag AH Winch 450-IT (“Provider”)
• 15, 66: Stern Roller Bearing lubrication (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 82: Deck Lifting Tool (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 142: Wildcat Maintenance (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 252: Wire Spooling (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 256: Diving Support Vessels Assistance (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 258: Working alongside Installations (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 259: Wire Rope Sockets (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 266: Anchor Handling – Deep Water (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 273: Triplex Shark Jaw (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 542: VSP Surveys (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 649: Whaleback Re-enforcement (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 680: AH & Towing Winch gearwheel (open) greasing (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 741: AH & Tow Wires lubrication (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 786: Mono Buoys – Recovery of Hawsers (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 788: Repair of Stern Roller (“Pacer”, “Puncher”, “Promoter”)
• 15, 932: Towing Pin Roller (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 950: AH & Towing Equipment (Supply Vessels)

• 19, 161: Risk Assessment (Supply Vessels)


• 19, 500: Transfer and Personnel and Cargo by MOB Boat (Supply Vessels)
• 19, 538: Safety during Anchor Handling and Towing Operation (All AHTS)
• 19, 764: Transfer and Personnel between Ship and Offshore Installation by Basket.
(Supply Vessels)

• 23, 1092: Welding equipment

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

Planning and Risk Assessment

Job:________________________________________________________

Working process / Plan Risk / Consequence Probability Action to eliminate risk

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 4\Risk Assessment.doc Chapter 04 Page 1


work group
A/S Planning

— Goal Describe the goal-When do we have to be ready


Collect data Check systems
Training Centre

— What What to do to reach the goal

— Who Delegate tasks -make sure everybody knows who are


responsible for each task.
E-procurement

— How Make job descriptions, Describe standard procedures,


make risk assessment

— When When do the t1asks need to be finished?


Prioritising of tasks
Be ready to correct the plan as necessary.
Maersk

— Have status meetings


— work as a team
— Keep The leader informed
Goal
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Be ready for anchor handling at Polaris

— Water depth 500 meter

— Retrieve anchors no.1-4-5-6

— Move rig to position

— Run anchors no. 4-6-3

2
Collecting data
— Rig move reports
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Anchor type

— Pennant wires, length, chaser type.

— Chain / Wire combination.

— Size, length of chain

— Size, length of wire

— Winch drum capacity

— Load calculations, maximum weight of system,


how much force can I use on engines.

— Power consumption engines


3
Collecting Data
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Communications:
– Contact persons
– VHF Channels

— Charts and drawings

4
What to do
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Prepare Deck
– which drums Standard procedures

– Check correct spooling of wires Visual check

– Chain wheels size Correct size in use

– Shark jaws size Inserts, use of wire lifters

– Chain lockers

— Prepare engine room Defects, out of order, limitations

— Power consumption

— Ships stability

— Ballast, Bunkers, trim

— Make Risk Assessment on each job


5
What to do
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Voyage planning
– Precautions when
– approaching,
– working alongside
– Moving off/ on location
– Contingencies

— Prepare checklists

— Brief crew of coming job

6
Who
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Make sure all know their job

— Make sure all know the difficult / risky part of the


operation

7
How
Maersk Training Centre A/S

— Prepare job descriptions and safe job analysis

— Use standard procedures as far as possible

— Appoint responsible person for each job

8
Maersk Training Centre A/S When

— Time consumption for each job

— Time schedule

— Alternative plans,

— Do status, can we reach the goal on time

— The leader to stay on top of the situation


» Have a visual plan

9
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 1/08


5

Electrical winches.
The winches mentioned are based on A-type winches.
The winches are of waterfall type.

Electrical winches are driven via shaft generator or harbour generators through main
switchboard to electronic panel to DC motors.

The winch lay out is with anchor handling drum on top and 2 towing winches underneath
and forward of the A/H winch. The towing winches each has a chain wheel
interchangeable according to required size.

The winch has 4 electrical motors. The motors can be utilised with either 2 motors or all 4
motors for the AH drum depending on required tension or with one or two motors for the
towing drums. The coupling of motors is via clutches and pinion drive.

The clutching and de-clutching of drums is done with hydraulic clutches driven by a power
pack. This power pack is also used for the brake system on the drums, as the band brake
is always “on” when the handle is not activated.

Apart from the band brake there is also a water brake for each electric motor as well as a
disc brake. The disc brake is positioned between the electric motor and the gearbox. The
water brake is connected to the gearbox and within normal working range, 50% of the
brake force is from the water brake and 50% from the electric motor brake.

The drums are driven via pinion shafts clutch able to pinion drives on the drums. Pinion
drives are lubricated continuously by a central lubricating system to ensure a good
lubrication throughout the service. The control handle for the winch activates the
lubrication system, and only the active pinions are lubricated.

Each winch also has a “spooling device” to ensure a proper and equal spooling of wire on
the drum. The spooling device is operated by means of a hydraulic system supplied from
the same power pack as mentioned above.

Finally, separating the winch area and the main deck is the “crucifix” which divides the
work wires in compartments for each winch. It is also part of the winch garage
construction.

Training Manual
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 5\1.Electrical winches.doc
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 2/08


5

Winch operation.
The winches are operated from the aft desks in port side, but can also be operated at the
winch. When operated locally from the winch only ½ speed can be obtained. There are
different bridge lay outs but they are all to some degree based on previous design and
partly identical.

To ensure a good overview for the operator a SCADA system has been installed showing
the winch status. Further there is a clutch panel allowing the operator to clutch drums in
and out according to requirement. On the panel lub. Oil pumps for gearboxes, pumps for
hydraulic system and grease pump for gearwheels are started.
Winch configuration and adjustment is done on the panel which here at Maersk Training
Centre is illustrated by a “touch screen” monitor. The different settings can be done on the
“touch screen”.

Normally the winch drums are not visible from the bridge. Instead the drums are
monitored via different selectable cameras installed in the winch garage. These are
connected to monitors on the aft bridge allowing the operator and the navigator to monitor
the drums.

Training Manual
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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 3/08


5

General Arrangement

Training Manual
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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 4/08


5

A/H-Drum at full Capacity

Training Manual
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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 5/08


5

SCADA : Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition.


This system gives the operator an overview of the winch status as well as a warning/alarm
if anything is about to go wrong or already has gone wrong. The system is PLC governed
– “Watchdog”.

3 types of alarms are shown:


Alarm: A functional error in the system
leads to stop of winch.

Pre alarm: The winch is still operational but


an error has occurred which can
lead to a winch stop/failure if
the operation continues in
same mode.

Warning: Operator fault/wrong or illegal operation

The clutch panel

On the clutch panel the different modes of operation can be chosen. In order to clutch all
functions must be “off”. It is not possible to clutch if the drum is rotating or a motor is
running. Change of “operation mode” can not be done during operation.

Speed control mode

Motors can be operated with the handle in:


manual clutch control.
If no drum is clutched in.
when drums have been chosen.

Tension

Static wire tension: The pull in wire/chain is measured from the braking load. The
drum is not rotating and the band brake is “ON”. The pull is
calculated from “strain gauges”.

Dynamic wire tension: The pull in the wire/chain is measured from the actual torque in the
motor. The drum is rotating or almost stopped but not braked.

Max wire tension: Highest possible pull in the wire/chain that can be handled by the
motor converted from static pull to dynamic pull.

Training Manual
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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 6/08


5

Over speed

Over speed of the motor has been the most frequent cause for winch breakdowns.
Therefore it is of utmost importance to protect the motor against overspending.
Over speed occurs when the load on the wire/chain surpasses what the motor can
pull/hold and the drum starts an uncontrolled pay out.

The winch is protected against over speed in the following way:

1. When pay out speed exceeds 100 %. Full water-brake in stead of 50% electrical
brake. Automatic return to 50% electrical brake and 50 % water brake when speed
less than 100 %.

2. When pay out speed exceeds 105 %. Band brake is applied with 50 % Opens
automatically when pay out speed less than 100 %.

3. When pay out speed exceeds 110 %. Band brake is applied 100 %.

4. When pay out speed exceeds 120 %. Shut down. The disc brake is applied and the
motor remains electrical braked until balance or break down of the winch.

Water brake

The water brake is installed as a supplement to the motor brake in order to prevent “over
speed” of the motors.
Due to the characteristics of the water brake it will work as a brake amplifier when the
braking power of the electrical motor starts to give in.
The winch motor has great braking effect at low rpm whereas the water brake has very
little effect. With higher rpm the braking effect of the water brake increases and the total
outcome of the characteristics is very great.

Training Manual
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 5\1.Electrical winches.doc
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 7/08


5

Electrical brake (Resistor banks)

Resistor banks have been installed to absorb the current generated during pay out. Part of
the current will be supplied to the circuit reducing load on shaft generators but in situations
with too small consumption to absorb the generated current it has to be “burnt off” in the
resistor banks. The shaft generators are protected from return current and can not receive
current from the main switchboard.
The resistor banks are clutches in steps according to requirement.

Band brake

The winch is equipped with a band brake that works directly at the drum. This band brake
ensures that the drum is unable to rotate when the handle is in zero as well as when
changing modes.
If a drum is able to rotate while changing mode it can lead to a break down. 50% of the
brake force comes from springs built in to the brake cylinder and the last 50% from
hydraulic pressure.
The band brake is activated via a hydraulic power pack supplying power to the hydraulic
cylinder of the brake.

“Band brake mode” is used if you want to control a pay-out without damaging the motor
with over speed.
In this mode the drum is de-clutched only being braked by the band brake. The band brake
is set to max. holding power (less 2 %) which closes the brake almost 100 %. Then the
band brake can be adjusted to tension wanted.
The tension controller can be set from 0 % to 100 % where 0 % means brake fully closed
and 100 % means brake fully open in which case the drum is free to rotate.

Spooling of wire

When spooling wire it is of utmost importance that the wire is spooled correct. There is no
automatic spooling device as the wires are of different types and dimensions. Furthermore
care has to be exercised when spooling connections such as shackles on the drum as
these can damage the wires. Care must also be exercised specially when spooling long
wires as it is very important these are spooled on very tight to prevent the wire to cut into
lower layers when tension increases.
The length of the wire is measured with raps on the drum and if the wire is not spooled
correct the figure showing wire length on the SCADA monitor will be wrong.

“The spooling device” can be damaged if the guide rollers are not opened sufficiently when
a connection is passing through. It is very important always to keep an eye on the wire and
the drum.

It may be difficulty to get used to operate the winch using cameras but usually it quickly
becomes natural. Cameras are located in different places in the winch garage giving
opportunity to watch the desired winch drum from different angles.

Training Manual
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter 5\1.Electrical winches.doc
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches PFR 8/08


5

Adjustment of motor torque

The torque of the motors can be adjusted (HT control). This can be utilised when working
with wires of smaller dimensions which can easily be broken by the power of the motors.
The torque can be adjusted to correspond with the breaking load of the wire. It is done
with a pot-meter on the winch control panel. The torque can be adjusted between 0 % and
100 %.
Normally the HT controller is set at 100 %. Care must be exercised when adjusting below
100 % as the holding power is reduced and case the wire is strong enough there is a risk
of over speed or other malfunction – shut down of the system.

Tension control:

To be used during chasing out of anchors.


By pressing “CT ON” once the winch is in chasing mode, and the required tension are to
be set on CT-Potentiometer. During chasing out to anchor the winch will start paying out
when the actual tension is more then the adjusted tension.

QUICK & Full Release

At quick release the following actions will be executed automatically.


Preparation: Quick release (quick release push button pressed).
a) Hydraulic accumulator 1 and 2 (solenoid KY1 andKY2) on.
b) Band brake closed to 100 % and de-energise the active motor(s) in order to get the
active clutch out while the belonging disk brake(s) are lifted. The quick release
procedure will be continued if the winch is clutched out.
Execution quick release when clutch is out (quick release push button remains pressed):
a) Disc brake closed
b) Band brake closed to 7% when pressing the quick release button only.
c) Band brake 100%open when pressing the quick release and the full release button
both.
Stop quick release (quick release push button released):
a) band brake closed to 100% when the hydraulic pump is running or to 50% when the
hydraulic pump is not running. (Spring operation only).

Training Manual
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ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches HCA 1/04


5

Hydraulic winches.
General remarks

There is little difference in running a hydraulic winch and an electrical winch. The winch is
operated with handles for heave in and pay out and for controlling the speed.

The lay out of the winch configuration can vary according to ship’s type. Some ships are
equipped with 2 towing winches and 2 anchor handling winches. (P type)

Latest deliveries (B-type) with hydraulic winches have 1 anchor handling winch and 2
towing winches.

Both types have chain wheels installed on the towing winches.

Lay out (B-type)

The winch is “waterfall type” and consist of 1 anchor handling winch and 2 towing winches.
For running the winches 4 big hydraulic pumps are installed in a pump room. They supply
hydraulic oil to 8 hydraulic motors. The motors transfer power to close clutches which
again transfer the power to a drive shaft. The drive shaft is common for the towing
winches.
The anchor-handling winch is not clutch able but is clutched in permanently. It is possible
to route the hydraulic oil round the anchor-handling winch by remote controlled switches
on the control panel. The winch has 4 gearboxes. 2 gearboxes for the anchor handling
winch and 1 for each of the towing winches.

Clutch arrangement

In order to clutch and de-clutch winch-drums a power pack is installed to supply all
clutches.
the following options exist for clutching. Either the anchor-handling drum or a towing drum.
2 winches can be clutched at the same time.
“High speed” or “low speed” clutching is not an option as one some ships.
Clutching is done at the panel on the bridge. From there clutching and de-clutching is done
as well as choosing routing of the hydraulic oil for either anchor handling winch or towing
winches.

Before clutching the brake must be “ON”. A passive surveillance will warn if trying to
perform an illegal act.

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Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches HCA 2/04


5

Brake arrangement

The hydraulic winch has 2 braking arrangements. The hydraulic brake acts via the motors
and the mechanical band brake, which is manually operated.

The hydraulic brake is activated when the oil is passing discs in the motors. A certain
slippage will. Always exist in the hydraulic motors giving a slight rotation with tension on
the wire. It is therefore quite normal to observe the winch paying out slightly even though
the handle is not activated.

If the operation demands the wire to be 100 % secured it is necessary to put the band
brake “ON”.

Tension control

The max. Tension which can be applied to the wire/chain depends on the pressure in the
main hydraulic system.
This can be adjusted by a potentiometer installed in the control panel for each winch. If the
tension raises to a higher value than the adjusted, the winch will pay out.
This is very useful when chasing for an anchor, as it can avoid breakage of chaser collar
and PCP.

Emergency release and ultimate release

When the emergency release button is pushed, the band brake is lifted and the pressure in
the hydraulic system is reduced to a minimum, causing the winch to pay out. The normal
over speed protection is active.
If a winch drum which is not connected to a motor is emergency released, a small brake
force will be applied by the band brake, just enough to prevent the wire from jamming on
the drum.

The ultimate release button has the same function, the only difference is that the over
speed protection system is not active. This might lead to serious damage of the winch
motors.

Training Manual
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SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches HCA 3/04


5

Hydraulic winch, “B-type”

Training Manual
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SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Winches HCA 4/04


5

TOWCON

TOWCON 2000 is a control system for controlling and monitoring all towing functions,
shooting the tow wire, towing the towed object and hauling the tow wire.

The system handles both dynamic towing, hydraulic braking and static towing with brakes.

All data as wire lengths, adjusted max tension, actual wire tension, wire speed, motor
pressure, motor temperatures and motor R.P.M. is presented on a high resolution LCD
graphical monitor.

The system alarms the user in case of unexpected occurrence, or to warn about special
conditions.

Alarm limits, wire data and control parameters can easily be programmed. Several
functions can be simulated, and there is a system for error detection. statistical data can
also be read.

The system has small mechanical dimensions, and is easy to mount.

Training Manual
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Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Spooling of Wire Ropes PFR 1/02


5

Instruction for use of Wire Drums


Following text and sketches are from the instruction books for the hydraulic winches
delivered to the “B – type”. The instructions are issued by: Sales & Service, I.P.Huse,
Ulstein Brattvaag, Norway.

Please note the last four lines in section 4.2

Training Manual
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Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Spooling of Wire Ropes PFR 2/02


5

Training Manual
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Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Changing of Chain Wheels PFR 1/01


5

Changing of Chain Wheels (Wildcats / Chain Lifter).

It will occasionally be necessary to change out the chain wheels depending on the size of
chain to be used. As the size of chain wheels has to fit to the size of chain.
Chain wheels are manufactured for chain of a certain size and using it for other sizes can
cause damage to both the chain and the wheels.
It is important that the chain fits exactly in the pockets to prevent the chain from
slipping. A chain which is not fitting in size can wear the chain wheel down in a
short time and is time-consuming to weld and repair.

It can be a troublesome task to change out a chain wheel if it is stuck on the shaft. Which
is often the case when working for a long time with tension of 150 tons or more. Also if
some of the links in the chain did not fit exactly in the pockets and have been slipping
which gives large loads on the chain wheel.

Large hydraulic jacks and heating is not always sufficient to dismantle a chain
wheel. In most cases time can be saved by fitting an I or H girder to support in
one of the kelps of the chain wheels and welded to a Doppler plate on deck to
distribute the weight. The winch is then rotated in “local control” counterwise to
create a load on the chain wheel. This should cause the chain wheel to come
loose allowing the wheel to be dismantled.

Changing of chain wheel can take anything from 8 hours to 24 hours depending
on where and who changes the chain wheel and is often subject to discussion
between charter and company as time used is often for charters account.

It is still the responsibility of the ship to ensure that safety rules and procedures
are adhered to even when shore labor is assisting. Emphasizing the need to
observe that pulling devices are used in a correct manner to avoid damage to
threads. Likewise it is important to supervise the use of hydraulic tools to prevent
damage to winch motors and anything else which might be used as a “foundation” for the
hydraulic tool.

When the chain wheel has been changed often the changed out wheel is stored
at shore. Before sending ashore it is imperative to preserve it in a satisfactorily
way. Lots of chain wheels have been stored out doors without proper protection
and supervision. These chain wheels have to be scrapped. It is the responsibility of the
ship to ensure the proper preservation and storing .

NOTE.

A return advice must always be filled out for chain wheels being landed.

Training Manual
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MTC Anchor Handling Course

TRIPLEX - SHARK JAW SYSTEM.


This equipment has been installed with the objective of safe and secure handling of wire and
chain and to make it possible to connect/disconnect an anchor system in a safe way.
Most vessels are provided with a double plant, - one at the starboard side and one at the port
side of the aft deck.
The largest plants installed in the vessels today have an SWL of 700 tonnes and they are able
to handle chains of the size of 7” or wires with diameter up to 175 mm.
Two control panels are installed in the aft part of the bridge console close to the winch operating
panels. The panels are located in port side and in starboard side referring to the respective
plant. The port side panel serves the port side TRIPLEX shark jaw and pins and the starboard
side serves the starboard side TRIPLEX.
Before any operation of these panels it is most important that the operator has studied the
manuals and made himself familiar with the functioning of the plant and that any operation
complies with the navigator’s instruction. If an order has been indistinct or ambiguous the
operator MUST ask for correct info to avoid any doubt or misunderstanding of the operation to
take place.
This instruction of the TRIPLEX plant has been adjusted to comply with the latest layout and to
describe exactly the plants as they appear in the latest and future new buildings and where the
company has decided to modify the existing plants in order to comply with safety.
The layout is mainly TRIPLEX but APM has added quite some changes to the plant in order to
improve and optimise the safety and reliability.
The manufacturer, TRIPLEX, has not implemented this modification as a standard version in
their basic plants. The development of this modification was prepared and completed by APM
based on experience.
The Danish Maritime Authorities have approved this improvement.

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Operation
To oblige accidents most possible an operating procedure has been prepared.
The operator must carefully study this procedure in order to obtain and ensure full
understanding of the function of the plant.
The marks welded on the links indicate whether the jaws are locked or not. The links MUST
pass 180 degrees to achieve “Locked position”.
If any irregularity in this respect should occur due to e.g. wear down it will be indicated clearly,
as the marks are no longer aligned.
It is as a fact ALWAYS the deck crew who make the final decision if the jaws are locked or not.
As they have to convince themselves by visual check and upon this turn a lever (See page 21)
in the cargo rail as a confirmation to the operator on the bridge. When this has been performed
the jaws are to be considered “Locked”.
After the acceptance from the deck the bridge operator can not operate any part of the shark
jaws.
The only option for overruling this condition is the “Emergency release”- buttons!

Emergency operation
In cases of power failure (Black Out) it is still possible to operate the shark jaws as the plant is
supplied from the vessel’s emergency generator.
Should even the emergency power supply fail it is possible to release the jaws by the
“Emergency Release” system. In this case the system is powered by nitrogen loaded
accumulators located in the steering gear room and from the vessel’s 24 volt battery supply.
The accumulators are reloaded at each operation of the hydraulic power pack for the TRIPLEX-
system.

Maintenance and inspections

The maintenance and frequent inspection of the shark jaws system is very important and should
be complied by the vessel’s programmed maintenance system.
Defects or damages are often revealed during inspections or lubrication.
Special attention should be shown to the lower part of the shark jaws – trunk. In spite of
drainage from this compartment the environment is rather harsh and tough to the components
located at the bottom of this area. Hydraulic hoses and fitting are constantly exposed to salt
water as well as the suspension of the shark jaws components.
A procedure concerning the treatment of the hydraulic hoses and fittings has been issued, -
Densyl tape.
The shark jaws trunk is often used as “garbage bin” for various items such as mud from
anchors, used rags, mussels from chains, chopped off split pins, remains of lead and much
more. Due to that fact it is very important to clean this compartment frequently.

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

Check of “Lock”- position

It is very important to make sure that the shark jaws links are able to reach the correct position
when in “Lock”- position. The links have been provided with indication marks that have to be
aligned when locked and a special ruler is included in the spare parts delivered along with the
equipment. This ruler is used to check that the links are well above 180o.
Ref. Chapter 1, Section 7.2.4, - drawing B-2209 section C.
Also refer to wooden model for demonstration.
This check has to be performed frequently and should be comprised by the Programmed
Maintenance System on board the vessel. If the equipment has been exposed to excessive load
or at suspicion of damage check must always take place and the result entered in the
maintenance log.
The shark jaws may often be exposed to strokes and blows from anchors tilting or other objects
handled.

Safety

It is most important to oblige safety regulations and guide lines connected to the operation of
the plant.
Ensure that all warning signs are located as per instructions - ref. Chapter 1, section 1.
If maintenance or repair work has to be performed inside the shark jaws compartment the plant
MUST be secured in order not to operate the unit unintended or by accident. This includes the
emergency operation as well.
To eliminate the risk of emergency release of the system the accumulators have to be
discharged by opening the return flow valve to the power pack. This will ensure safe access to
the shark jaws compartment.

In case repair or check is performed inside the trunk and the jaws are in upper position it must
not be possible to lower the jaws as the compartment leaves no room for both the jaws and a
person. This may require mechanical fastening of the jaws. (No former accidents reported).

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

Guide Pins / A-pins


Together with the shark jaws plant two guide pins are provided. These pins are to ensure
guidance of wires and chains.
The guide pins are hydraulic operated from the power pack common with the shark jaws.
The rollers on the guide pins may be manufactured as single roller or divided into two rolls.
To ensure proper operation of the guide pins it is very important that they are well greased at all
time. In case the rollers are not able to rotate they will be damaged very fast and they will
damage e.g. wires as well. Good maintenance and greasing is essential to ensure good and
safe performance.

A central lubricating plant has been installed in the steering gear room for the greasing of both
the shark jaws, guide pins and the stern roller. Daily check of this greasing unit is important to
ensure sufficient lubricant in the reservoir.
Rather too much lubrication than too little.

Wire Lifter

The wire lift is located just in front of the shark jaws and is a part of the same unit.
This item is used to lift a wire or chain if required in order to connect or disconnect.

Stop Pins / Quarter Pins

The stop pins are located on the “whale back” in order to prevent a wire or chain to slide over
the side of the cargo rail. They function exactly as hydraulic jacks controlled from the shark jaws
panel on the bridge.
The stop pins are often exposed to wear and strokes from the wires and the wear may
sometimes cause need for repair. Especially the collar and bushing may require repair as a wire
could have ground the bushing and created burrs which prevents the hydraulic piston from
proper operation. Due to that fact it is important to frequently check the functioning of the stop
pins and to ensure proper greasing. If these pins are not used for a period they easily get stuck.

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

2. OPERATION:
2.1 OPERATION OF THE SHARK JAW CONTROL PANEL BUTTON AND
SWITCHES.

PUMP START: Starts hydraulic pump.


The pump works at constant high pressure. It is equipped with a time
relay which will let the PUMP START LAMP start flashing if it has
been switched on but not used for a set period of time.

NOTE! Ensure that valves on suction line are opened before starting up.

PUMP STOP: Stops hydraulic pump.

WIRE LIFT UP: Raises the wire lift pin.

WIRE LIFT DOWN: Lowers the wire lift pin.

The following controls of the panel are arranged so that those on the right side of the panel are
connected to port and those on the left side to starboard.

LOCK-O-OPEN: Each of these two switches raises locks and opens one Jaw of the
Shark Jaw respectively. These switches can be operated
simultaneously or individually.
When in the central "0" position each switch stops its respective
Jaw of the Shark Jaw in whatever position it has reached. This is the
normal off position for the switches when the Shark Jaw is not in use.
When turned to the LOCK position each switch raises and locks its
respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw. When turned to the OPEN
position each switch lowers its respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw.

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

LOCK-O-OPEN: When full lock pressure is obtained the LOCK PRESSURE lamps
comes on, and when the locking cylinders are in the extended
position, the JAW IN POS. lamps comes on. The work deck-operator
inspects the marks on the link joints, and if the marks indicate that
the jaws are locked, he turns the lever located in the JAW POS.
ACCEPT box to the JAWS LOCKED POSITION ACCEPTED (See
page 21).
On the control panel the ALARM light goes out and the JAWS
LOCKED light comes on.
The jaws are completely locked when the link joints passes 180
degrees, and marks on link joints are on line.
When the Shark Jaw is locked, both switches remain at the LOCK
position. If the lock pressure falls on either one or both jaws or the
locking cylinders are not in the extended position the respective LED
goes out. Then the JAWS LOCKED -right goes out and the ALARM
LIGHT comes on. Under JAWS LOCKED conditions the PUMP
STOP cannot be operated.

QUICK RELEASE: Before operating the quick release GUIDE PINS and WIRE LIFT
PIN must be in level with the deck.

Two push buttons.


To operate the QUICK RELEASE with only the jaws in raised
position both OPEN-O-LOCK switches must first be moved to the
central "0" position and the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever turned to
READY FOR OPERATION. The alarm light goes out and the buzzer
and alarm on deck comes on when the QUICK RELEASE button
cover is opened. Then both QUICK RELEASE buttons must be
pressed at the same time.

The system is reset by pressing and reset the E-STOP button.

EMERGENCY RELEASE: Two push buttons on the emergency release panel. For
retracting of Guide Pins, wire lift pin first and then the jaws.
To operate the EMERGENCY RELEASE the both buttons
must be pressed at the same time. The buzzer comes on
when the EMERGENCY RELEASE button cover is opened.
When the buttons are pressed the lights above them will
come on. The system is reset by pressing the E-STOP button.

GUIDE PIN UP: Two buttons, which when pressed raise the respective guide pins.

GUIDE PIN DOWN: Two buttons, which when pressed lower the respective guide pins.

EMERGENCY STOP: E-STOP button. When pressed the current to all functions of
the control panel is cut.

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OIL LEVEL LOW If the oil level in the hydraulic oil tank becomes too low
-TEMP HIGH: or the oil temperature gets too high , the OIL LEVEL LOW / TEMP
HIGH. lamp comes on.

LAMP TEST: When the lamp test button is activated, all lamps on the panel will
light up.

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Marks for Locked on Hinge Link


The marks welded on the links indicate whether the Jaws are locked or not. The links MUST
pass 180 degrees to achieve “Locked Position”

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

2.2- OPERATION OF THE "JAW IN POSITION ACCEPT" LEVER:


"Jaw In Position Accept Box" placed on the work deck with lever
inside for operation to JAW READY FOR OPERATION or JAWS
LOCKED POSITION ACCEPTED. (See page 21).

JAWS LOCKED When the OPEN-O-LOCK switches on the main control


POSITION panel are in LOCK position and all lamps for JAW IN
ACCEPTED: POSITION and LOCK PRESSURE light, the work deck operator
inspects the marks on the link joints. When the marks indicate that
the jaws are locked he turns the lever to position: "JAW LOCKED
POSITION ACCEPTED". On the control panel the JAWS LOCKED
lamp then comes on.
The Shark Jaw is now ready to hold the load. When the lever is in the
JAW LOCKED POSITION ACCEPTED the LOCK-O-OPEN and
QUICK RELEASE buttons cannot be operated without first turning
the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever to the READY FOR
OPERATION position.
The EMERGENCY RELEASE operate even with the lever in
position: "JAW LOCKED POSITION ACCEPTED".

Before operating the Shark Jaw the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever
has to be turned to JAW READY FOR OPERATION.

If the pump stops when the jaws are in locked position and JAW
LOCKED POSITION ACCEPTED the JAWS LOCKED lamp goes
out and alarm lamp comes on. Procedure for control of the jaws in
locked position then have to be repeated, marks on the link joints
inspected and confirmed with operating JAW LOCK POSITION
ACCEPTED.

2.3 OPERATION OF THE CONTROL PANEL AT EMERGENCY


POWER.

2.3.1 Emergency power to the bridge Control Panel.


Functions to be operated at emergency power.
• Only the buttons for moving jaws and pins down.
• Pump start.
• Emergency release.

2.3.2 Emergency power to the Main Junction Box.


All functions to be operated as on normal power.

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

3. ELECTRIC AND HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM.


3. 1. ARRANGEMENT OF SYSTEM.
Refer to enclosed hydraulic diagram (section D).
A variable displacement hydraulic pump supplies the system.
The oil is distributed to the various electrically operated solenoid valves. When
activated these valves supply the oil to the hydraulic cylinders, which power the
Jaws, Wire Lift Pin, Guide Pins and Stop Pins.
The pump is connected to accumulators, which are charged as soon as the
system reaches maximum working pressure.

As shown in the hydraulic diagram, all the necessary relief valves over centre
valves and check valves are fitted to enable the system to function efficiently.

The electric system is powered from 220 or 110 Volt AC and is transformed /
rectified to 24 Volt DC.

The system must have a 24 Volt Direct Current emergency power supply.

3.2. FUNCTIONING OF QUICK RELEASE - JAWS ONLY.


Wire or chain held by the Shark Jaw can be released by turning the OPEN-O-
LOCK switches to the OPEN position, or by operating the QUICK RELEASE.

When required the QUICK RELEASE system can be used to open the jaws.
QUICK RELEASE is operated by turning both OPEN-O-LOCK switches to the
central "0" position and the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever turned to READY FOR
OPERATION. The alarm light goes out and the buzzer comes on when the
QUICK RELEASE button cover is opened. Then both QUICK RELEASE buttons
must be pressed at the same time.
The need to operate two sets of controls to activate the QUICK RELEASE system
is a safety device to prevent the QUICK RELEASE from being operated by
accident.

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

3.3. FUNCTIONING OF EMERGENCY RELEASE


A separate control panel on the bridge operates the EMERGENCY RELEASE.

When the EMERGENCY RELEASE is operated, solenoids nos. 42 and 35 are


activated (refer to hydraulic diagram)

The solenoid valve pos. 11 then releases pilot pressure from the accumulators,
supplying high pressure oil to the Wire Lift Pin and Guide Pins hydraulic cylinders,
to retract WIRE LIFT PIN and GUIDE PINS to deck level before the Jaws open.

Following this, even if the WIRE LIFT PIN or GUIDE PINS do not fully retract for
any reason, the Jaws will automatically open and reach deck level in 4-7 seconds.

- Pressing the E-STOP button can stop the whole procedure -

3.4. EMERGENCY RELEASE UNDER "DEAD SHIP" CONDITIONS.

The EMERGENCY RELEASE system can also operate under "dead ship"
conditions and under load. This is possible because the accumulators are
charged at the same time as the jaws are locked and the system reaches
maximum working pressure.

Should "dead ship" condition occur and the pump stop the emergency current from
the battery makes it possible to release with. power from the accumulators in the
same way as described above. Even under "dead ship" condition, with no power
from the pump, a load can safely be held in the Jaws, as the link joints are
"locked" past 180 degrees.

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

4. Testing program for the Triplex Shark Jaw H-700.


Recommended and approved by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate.

4.1. Triplex Shark Jaw.

The Triplex Shark Jaw and central manoeuvring components have been tested by
manufacturer with 240 bar oil pressure.

4.2 Test without Load.

To be carried out on board after installation and start up.


a) The jaws to be closed and opened separately and simultaneously.
b) The wire lift to be moved to up and down positions.
c) QUICK RELEASE for jaws to be tested with the wire lift down.
d) EMERGENCY RELEASE to be tested when jaws have been locked and the pump is
disconnected.
e) Check marks on link joints when Jaws are locked. If marks are not in line the Shark
Jaw must be repaired before use.

4.3 Test with Load.


Wire of necessary strength to be locked in the Shark Jaw and a static load test to
be carried out by pulling with a load corresponding to the ships bollard pull.

5. General Maintenance
For Triplex Shark Jaw Type H-700
Triplex Guide Pins Type S-300

5.1 Accumulators Depressurising

Important!
Before maintenance work on Shark Jaw it is important to empty the accumulators
for oil by opening of the ball valve on the power unit.

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5.2 Shark Jaw Unit

Check regularly before use, that link joints and jaws have no wear and tear or damages
that can cause any danger.

All bearings and bolts in all joints should be tight.


Check tightness of all bolts and nuts regularly or minimum two times per year.

The inside of the Shark Jaw housing and the moveable parts must be cleaned regularly.

Lubricate according to the lubricating chart.

Shark Jaw Unit Service / Inspection Safety Device:

Before service or inspection of parts inside the Shark Jaw with the jaws in locked position
the jaws must be secured by welding a clamp on top of the Jaws. Remember to remove
the clamp before starting pump.

5.3 Guide Pins Units

Check torque on bolts for the top hats and guide plates on the lower end of the guide
pins, regularly minimum two times per year.

Recommended torque for M24 bolts 10.9 qualities black and oiled is 108 kpm.
Recommended torque for M30 bolts 10.9 qualities black and oiled is 175 kpm.

Check and clean regularly the inside of the guide pin housing.

Lubricate according to lubrication chart.

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Guide Pins Service / Inspection Safety Device:

Before service or inspection of parts on Guide Pins with the pins in upper position the
pins must be secured with a support inside.
Remember to remove the clamp before starting pump.

5.4 Hydraulic System

The filter element for the H.P. – and return line filter on power pack have to be changed
when indicators show blocked filter or minimum one time per year.

Check regularly all high pressure hoses inside the Shark Jaw and Guide Pins.

Ensure that spare high pressure hydraulic hoses are always carried on board.

Hydraulic oil according to lubrication chart.

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5.5 Electric System

5.5.1 With Power Switched off.

Tighten every screw connection for electrical termination. Check all cables for damage.

5.5.2 With Power Switched on.

Check that all operations from the control panel are functioning.

The same procedure shall be followed, also for the emergency release box.

5.6 Control of Operation with Current from the Emergency Power Supply.

Switch off the automatic fuse inside the junction box and check the operation of the
Shark Jaw from the control panel.
Check also the alarm functions.

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6. Control Measurements / Adjustments.

6.1 Control Measure in Lock Position:

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MTC Anchor Handling Course

6.2 Adjustment of inductive proximity switches on lock cylinders.

1. Change inductive proximity switch if defect.


2. Dismantle cover on link joint.
3. Move jaws to LOCK position.
4. Adjust proximate switch until light on sensor comes on. Tighten contra nut on
proximate switch.
5. Open and lock jaws to check that light on sensor comes on.
6. Check that adjustment of proximate switch lamp goes out before link joints reach
minimum over centre measurement.

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6.3 Adjustment of Pressure Switches for Lock Pressure.

1. Adjust pressure to 115 bar.


Use horizontal adjusting screw on pump pressure compensatory valve.
2. Adjust pressure switch until green lamp on control panel comes on.
Use alternative voltmeter and measure on cables for pressure switches.

7. Test Program – Periodical Control

Triplex Shark Jaw Type H-700


Triplex Guide Pins Type S-300

7.1 The Triplex system is installed and used under rough conditions. Due to mechanical
stress, vibrations and aggressive atmosphere and the equipment needs to be maintained
carefully for safe operation.
The owner is responsible for all maintenance on the Triplex equipment. He must
perform his own routines and schedules after the following guidelines.

7.2 Checking List – Periodic Control Mechanical / Hydraulic.

Procedure for Personal Safety See Section 1; Have to be Followed!

A: After 1 month operation of vessel.


B: Yearly control.

1. Dismantle manhole cowers on Shark Jaw and Guide Pins.


2. Check H.P.hoses, pipes and fittings. Poor H.P.hoses to be changed.
3. Check that all bolts are properly tightened.
4. Check that link joints are over centre when jaws are in locked position. See
drawing B-2209.
5. Check wears on jaws, rollers and bearings. Repair and change where necessary.
6. Movement of bolts and link joints to be controlled under the function test.
Look carefully for cracks and deformations.
7. Check sea water drain pipes from Shark Jaw and Guide Pins.
8. Check oil lever in hydraulic oil tank.
9. Starts pump and check that hydraulic pressure raise to max. working pressure
(175 bar).
10. Check accumulator nitrogen pressure: 35 Bar.
It’s important first to empty the accumulators for oil by opening the ball valve on
the power unit. Then connect gas-filling equipment according to accumulator
precharging procedure.
11. Auxiliary equipment as lubrication system to be checked according to the grease
system manual. (LINCOLN)
12. Check that gaskets for manhole covers are in good condition.
13. Fit all manhole covers.

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7.3 Checking List – Periodic Control Electrical

Procedures for Personal Safety see Section 1. Have to be followed!

A: After 1 month operation of vessel


B: Yearly control

1. Switch power off.


2. Perform Visual inspection for mechanical damage on:
- Junction boxes, control panels and cabinets.
- Cables.
- Indicators and switches.
- Electrical components mounted on the entire Triplex equipment / delivery.
3. Open every electrical cabinet, panel and boxes one by one, inspect for damage
and heat exposure.
4. Control that all components are firm fastened, and relays are firm in their sockets.
5. Screw connections for every electrical termination to be carefully tightened.
6. Damages and other un-regularities must corrected immediately.
7. Power on, and perform complete functional test programs:
- Normal operation of all functions.
- Quick release.
- Emergency release.
8. Check emergency power (24 V) to junction box.
9. Remount all panels and doors / covers.

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7.4 Testing without Load – Yearly Testing.

Checklist Control Motor/pump


(Accept with OK) Panel Bridge starter
1 Remote pump start -
2 Remote pump stop -
3 Local pump start -
4 Local pump stop -
5 Pump lamp auto flicker
6 Emergency stop
7 Wire lift pin up
8 Wire lift pin down
9 Starboard jaw close
10 Starboard jaw open
11 Port jaw close
12 Port jaw open
13 Jaws close simultaneously
14 Jaws open simultaneously
15 Alarm light jaws open JAW
16 Lock pressure lights POSITION
17 Jaw in position lights ACCEPTED
18 Jaw in position accepted -
19 Jaws locked light
20 Guide pins up
21 Guide pins down
22 Towing pins up
23 Towing pins down
24 Emergency release
25 Quick release (Jaws only)
26 Reset Quick release buttons
27 Oil temperature high alarm light
28 Oil level alarm light
29 Emergency power supply junction box
connection (193-194)
30 Emergency power supply control panel
bridge connection (77-78)
31 Jaw in lock position marks in line check,
starboard
32 Jaw in lock position marks in line check, port

7.5 Load Test – Emergency Release – 5 Year Control.

Wire with required strength to be locked in the Shark Jaw. Make emergency
release with a load of 90 tons on the wire (Jaws).
First test: With the pump running.
Second test: With the pump stopped and accumulators fully loaded.

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E-procurement
Maersk work group
Training Centre A/S

Maersk Training Centre A/S


“Jaw In Position Accept Box”

Anchor Handling. Chapter 6 Page 21


Anchor deployment procedures

DANMARK

Polaris

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The Maersk Trainer will back up to rig.
• Rig passes over PCP to deck of the Maersk
Trainer using rig crane.

AHTS backs up
to rig to recieve
PCP on deck
POLARIS DANMARK

POLARIS
AHTS
PCP MAERSK TRAINER
15 mt (w/ chaser)
Stewpris anchor

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures

POLARIS DANMARK

POLARIS
AHTS
MAERSK TRAINER

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The rig will commence paying out all chain.
• The Maersk Trainer will be instructed to increase
power to prevent mooring chain from rubbing on
the rig’s anchor bolster.

~ 573 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance)

~57 mt

POLARIS DANMARK

~75 mt ~77 mt
@ fairlead @ stern

41.18° Maersk
Polaris
Trainer

3 9⁄16" dia. x 609 m


rig chain

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The Rig will pay out additional 500 meters of
mooring wire and stop while AHTS keeps wire
off bolster.

~ 1727 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance)

~58 mt

POLARIS DANMARK

~91 mt ~118 mt
@ fairlead @ stern

~41.74° AHTS
Polaris
Maersk
Trainer

3 1⁄2"dia. rig wire


(~1000 m outboard)

3 9⁄16 dia. x 609 m


rig chain

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The Maersk Trainer pays 500 meters of work wire
and keeps tension on system.

~ 1727 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance)

~58 mt

POLARIS DANMARK

~91 mt ~118 mt
@ fairlead @ stern

~41.74° AHTS
Polaris
Maersk
Trainer

3" dia. work wire


3 1⁄2"dia. rig wire (~500 m outboard)
(~1000 m outboard)

3 9⁄16 dia. x 609 m 15 mt


Stewpris anchor
rig chain

5A

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The Maersk Trainer will reduce power and pay out
additional work wire equal to a total of 1.3 times the
anchors water depth.

POLARIS DANMARK

AHTS
Polaris
Maersk
Trainer

3" dia. work wire


3 1⁄2"dia. rig wire
(~1638 m outboard)
(~1981 m outboard)

3 9⁄16 dia. x 609 m


rig chain

15 mt
Stewpris anchor

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The Maersk Trainer will again increase power sufficiently to
stretch mooring line to appox. 91 mt bollard pull.
• When the Rig has determined the mooring line has been
stretched, the AHTS will be instructed to reduce power rapidly,
thereby setting the anchor on bottom.

~ 3341 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance)

POLARIS DANMARK

AHTS
Polaris
Maersk
Trainer

3" dia. work wire


(~1638 m outboard)
3 1⁄2"dia. rig wire
(~1981 m outboard)
Water Depth
1300 m

3 9⁄16 dia. x 609 m


rig chain

15 mt
Stewpris anchor

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• The Maersk Trainer returns to the rig with the
PCP

POLARIS DANMARK

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures

POLARIS DANMARK

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


Anchor deployment procedures
• Pee Wee anchor pandant socket.

10

JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995


MTC Anchor Handling Course

“Good Advises and Guidelines” in use of NON rotation-resistant steel wires.

First of all it is recommended to read the Technical Information regarding steel wires by Fyns
Kran Udstyr / Randers Reb. These information make the foundation for the following “Good
Advises and Guidelines”.

The wire-thread, which is used in the production of a steel wire, has a very high tensile strength
compared by ordinary steel.

Trade steel (“Steel 37”) has a tensile strength at app. 37 kp/mm2 (362 N/mm2)
Wire steel has a tensile strength from app. 140 to 220 kp/mm2 (1370 – 2160 N/mm2)

The fact that the wire-thread is so strong has the disadvantage that the bending strength will be
reduced. The wire-thread breaks easily, if it is bent – especially under the circumstances as a
“Work wire” is working under.

Below different subjects concerning or are used in connection with steel wire will be covered.
Especially the negative influence on the steel wire will be covered.

Swivel: The breaking load will locally be reduced by app. 30%

When a steel wire is under load it opens and at the same time it will be
extended. The swivel “makes” it easier for the wire to open, stress failure
will occur and the life expectancy will be reduced.

Working Load: A steel wire must maximum be loaded with 50% of the breaking load.
The material reaches the yield point at 50% of the breaking load. The wire-
threads get stiff and will break when they are bent. The life expectancy will
be reduced.
If the load constantly is about the 50%, the steel wire will break.

Loops / kinks: Gives a reduction in the breaking load at app. 50%


The steel wire will be heavily deformed, when e.g. a kink is straightened out
by applying of a load.
A kink is formed due to extraction of a loop.

Fleet angel: Does not matter on ships with spooling devices.


But the steel wire has to run straight into a block.

Running in Steel Wire Rope:


Is recommended, if time. In this way the steel wire will gradually become
accustomed to the new conditions.

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Fitting to Drum: Fundamentally you ought to follow the recommendations made by the
manufacturer.
But this does only matter with the first layer of steel wire. It doesn’t matter
on drums with several layers of steel wire.
If it isn’t possible to fit the steel wire at the right side due to the construction
of the drum, you must subsequent keep away from the first layer on the
drum.

Spooling: Care must be taken to ensure that the reel and the drum are running in the
same direction. That means from under-turn to under-turn and from over-
turn to over-turn. If this isn’t done correctly, the steel wire is subjected to
torsion.

In order to achieve problem-free spooling on multi-layer drums it is


extremely important that the steel wire is spooled on with tension. If the
layers are too loose; the upper layers can damage or cut into the layers
below when tension is applied, resulting in damage to the steel wire.

Spooling from drum to reel: All tension / torsion must first be released by
deploying the wire into the water – at sufficient water depth – before the
steel wire is spooled on to the reel.

The best-recommended way of doing this transferring; is first to deploy the


steel wire into the water, secure it in the Shark Jaws and afterwards spool
the steel wire directly from the water onto the reel.
It is of course a demand, that the reel is able to lift the weight of the
deployed steel wire.

Bending around a mandrel: (Can be compared with a U-lift.)

When the steel wire “works” on the stern roller or is spooled on the drum
this is “Bending around a mandrel”. How big / small this proportion is,
depends on the diameter of the “drum” (Winch drum, stern roller, guide
pins) and the diameter of the wire which is supposed to “work” on the drum.

Depending on the proportion between mandrel diameter and steel wire


diameter, reduction in the breaking load will be:
(d = diameter of the steel wire)

Mandrel, diam.: Breaking load, reduced:


40 d 5%
15 d 10%
5d 20%
4d 25%
3d 30%
2d 40%
1d 50%

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A few examples: 3000 mm drum / 76 mm wire = app. 40 d


3000 mm drum / 86 mm wire = app. 35 d
1500 mm drum / 86 mm wire = app. 17 d
900 mm drum / 76 mm wire = app. 12 d

The same is also valid, when the steel wire makes a big change in the run-
direction.
E.g. when the steel wire is forced round a guide pin, the proportion will only
be app 4 d (300 mm guide pin / 76 mm wire = 4 d).

For steel wires 6x36 and 6x41 a minimum of 20 d is recommended.


The bigger – that better. Some suppliers of steel wires recommend a
minimum of 40 d.

E.g. a 44-mm steel wire “demands” a sheave with a minimum diameter at


880 mm

A more essential fact is the stress, which will occur when a steel wire runs
round a drum, roller and sheaves or change run of direction due to a guide
pin or a spooling device. This stress will give a shorter life of the steel wire
and the steel wire will be worn down before time as well.

When a steel wire is fed over e.g. a winch drum, stern roller, guide pin or a
sheaf, certain complex tensions (a combination of bending, tensile and
compression stress) are generated in the steel wire.
The greatest tension occurs in the wire threads furthest away from the steel
wire’s bending centre. After repeated bends, stress failure will occur in
these wire threads.

These stress failures occur due to many factors. E.g. the steel wire rope
construction, tension applied, the ratio (d), use of a swivel, wear and tear of
guide pins, spooling devices and stern roller together with martensite
formation.

Martensite: Martensite formation.


Martensite is a structural change in the wire material causes by a very
sudden cooling of the steel wire after a strong local heating generated by
friction. E.g. bad spooling of the steel wire on the winch drum may cause
the friction.
This structure change gives a hard and brittle surface and may cause
fractures during normal operation or when spliced, even though the steel
wire doesn’t show any visible signs of external wear

If a steel wire carries a current or the steel wire is wound on a drum in


several layers, there will often be sparks. The surface temperature where
the sparks appear will be over 800° C, making it quite probable that
martensite will be formed. If there are many sparks, fracture on wire threads
will happen and the wire may break.

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Precautions against martensite:

• The blocks, guide pins, stern roller and spooling devices must not be
worn down and should turn easily. Must be kept in good condition.
If equipment is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that
hardness of the welding material is maximum 300 Brinel.
• When a steel wire is wound on a drum, it should be in tight wraps
without the layers crossing each other in order to prevent the top layer
from cutting into the underlying layers.
• The steel wire should be lubricated at regular intervals in order to
minimise the friction between wires and strands. The best would be to
make a sort of continuously lubricating.
• The steel wire should be checked at regular intervals for crushing, minor
cracks and mechanical damages, all of which might indicate martensite
spots.
• Use of wires with less contents of carbon in the wire. (Are used in the
fishing industry for trawl wires).

Re-socketing of steel wire:

• The old steel wire is cut of at the socket base.


• The steel wire piece is pressed out by use of a mandrel / jack.

When heated:
• Only slowly and equably.
• Only up to maximum degrees – depending on the product.

Do “bend / break – test” on the wire from the piece of steel wire, which is
leading into the socket. If the wire threads break, they have been exposed
to martensite. The steel wire will break in the area around the socket base
because the steel wire works heavily in this area.

After Re-socketing remember to:

• The socket base to be filled with grease or oil. To be re-filled, when the
steel wire isn’t in use over a long period, as the steel wire will dry out.
• The re-greasing is very important, when the socket in hanging down.

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Recommendations:

• You must aim at a working load of maximum 1/3 of the Breaking load.
In this way the steel wire can be loaded with peaks up to 50% of the
original breaking load. You will also have room for using the swivel
without complications.

• Guide pins, blocks, spooling devices and stern roller must be kept in a
good condition. If equipment is repaired by welding, care should be
taken to ensure that hardness of the welding material is maximum 300
Brinel.

• Avoid that the steel wire is slipping across the connections between the
two stern rollers.

• The ratio of “d” to “D” must be as big as possible – and always at least
20, when we are dealing with a steel wire under load.

• The steel wire must be lubricated in order to minimise the martensite


formations.

• Martensite formations must generally be avoided – if possible.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-1

1. STÅLTOVETS GRUNDELEMENTER 1. THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF STEEL WIRE ROPE

Et ståltov består normalt af tre komponenter (fig. 1): A steel wire rope normally consists of three components
(fig. 1):
· Ståltråde der danner en dugt.
· Dugter der slås omkring et hjerte. - Steel wires that form a strand.
· Hjerte. · Strands that are wrapped around a core.
· The core.
Disse elementer udføres i forskellig udformning/design
afhængig af, hvilke fysiske krav der stilles til ståltovet These elements are available in various models/designs,
samt hvad det skal anvendes til. Én dugt kan i visse depending on the physical requirements of the steel wire
tilfælde med fordel anvendes som et ståltov. rope and its intended application. A single strand can in
certain cases be used quite properly as a steel wire
En fjerde komponent, der er lige så vigtig som udform- rope.
ningen og kvaliteten af de tre basiskomponenter, er
indfedtningen af hjerte og dugter (se afsnittet A fourth component, that is equally as important for the
"Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet"). Fig. 1. steel wire rope's performance as the design and quality
of the three basic components, is the lubrication of the
Ståltråd core and the strands (see "Maintenance of Steel Wire
Der findes mange forskellige materialetyper og kvaliteter Rope").
af tråde. Randers Reb kan levere de fleste af disse kvaliteter.
Steel Wire
De stålkvaliteter, som Randers Reb anvender til fremstilling af stan- There are many different types of material and qualities of wire.
dard ståltove, leveres fra få af Europas førende trådproducenter og Randers Reb can supply most of these qualities - contact us to find
opfylder som minimum internationale standarder (EN 10264). Herved out how Randers Reb can meet your own particular needs.
opnår Randers Rebs ståltove en høj grad af ensartethed.
The qualities of steel that Randers Reb uses in the production of
Minimum brudstyrken på tråden angiver klassifikationen af ståltovet. standard steel wire rope are supplied by a select few of Europe's
Randers Reb anvender bl.a. følgende trådtyper: leading wire manufacturers and as a minimum requirement meet
international standards (ISO 2232). In this way Randers Reb's steel
· Ugalvaniserede tråde (primært elevatortove) 1.370 wire ropes achieve a high degree of uniformity.
N/mm2 (140 kp/mm2). The minimum tensile strength of the wire defines the classification of
· Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært fiskeri) 1.570 the steel wire rope. The tensile strength of wires in Randers Reb's
N/mm2 (160 kp/mm2). standard product range is as follows:
· Zink/aluminium-galvaniserede tråde (primært fiskeri) 1.570
N/mm2 (160 kp/mm2). · Ungalvanised wires (mainly elevator cables) 1,370
· Rustfrie tråde (brudstyrken er dimensionsafhængig) 1.670 N/mm² (140 kp/mm²).
N/mm2 (170 kp/mm2). · Zinc galvanised wires (mainly fishing) 1,570
· Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært industri) 1.770 N/mm² (160 kp/mm²).
N/mm2 (180 kp/mm2). · Zinc/alum. galvanised wires (mainly fishing) 1,570
· Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært industri) 1.970 N/mm² (160 kp/mm²).
N/mm2 (200 kp/mm2). · Rustproof wires, tensile strength dependent on size 1,670
N/mm² (170 kp/mm²).
Randers Reb kræver, at alle trådleverancer ledsages af et · Zinc galvanised wires (mainly industry)
trådcertifikat. 1,770 N/mm² (180 kp/mm²).
· Zinc galvanised wires (mainly industry)
Dugter 1,970 N/mm² (200 kp/mm²).
En dugt er fremstillet (slået) af minimum 3 tråde, der er lagt i én af
mange forskellige designs (geometrisk opbygning). Dugten er næs- Randers Reb always demands that all wire consignments are
ten altid opbygget omkring en centertråd. Som regel er trådene af accompanied by a wire certificate.
stål, men de kan også være af fiber (natur- eller kunstfiber) eller af
en kombination af stål og fiber. Strands
A strand is laid by a minimum of three wires that are arranged in
Antallet, størrelsen og materialet af de enkelte tråde kendetegner many different designs (geometric patterns). The strand is almost
tovet og dets egenskaber. Få og tykke tråde giver stor slidstyrke, always arranged around a centre wire. The wires are made from

10
10
FKU LIFTING A/S Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
Jan 2002
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 2

TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-2

hvorimod mange og tynde tråde giver stor fleksibilitet (se også afsnit- either steel or fibre (natural or man-made), or a combination of
tet "Dugttype/dugtdesign"). these.The quantity, size and material from which the individual wires
are made characterise the rope and its qualities. Fewer, thicker wires
Hjerte create greater abrasion resistance, whereas a greater number of
Næsten alle ståltove har et hjerte. Hjertets funktion er at understøtte thinner wires creates greater flexibility (see also section 2: "Types of
og fastholde dugterne i deres relative stilling under brugen. Strand").

Hjertematerialet kan enten være stål eller fiber eller en kombination Core
af disse (se fig. 2). Hjertet er normalt af typen: Almost all steel wire ropes have a core. The core's function is to sup-
Fig. 2 port and retain the strands in their respective positions while the
· FC (natur- eller kunst steel wire rope is being
fiber, Fibre Core). used.
· WSC (stålhjerte, Wire The core may be made of
Strand Core). WSC'et either steel, fibre, or a com-
er en dugt og af bination of the two. The
samme konstruktion core is usually one of the
som ståltovets dugter. following types:
· IWRC (stålhjerte,
Independent Wire
Rope Core). IWRC'et er et selvstændigt - FC (natural or man-made fibre, Fibre Core).
ståltov med et fiberhjerte eller WSC. · WSC (steel core, Wire Strand Core). The WSC is a strand and is of
exactly the same construction as the strands in the steel wire rope.
· IWRC (steel core, Independent Wire Rope Core). The IWRC is an
2. STÅLTOVSKONSTRUKTIONER independent steel wire rope with a fibre core or a WSC (see also
section 2: Types of Core).
Et ståltov bestemmes ikke kun ud fra dets grundelementer (tråde,
dugter og hjerte), men også ud fra hvordan de enkelte tråde er slået 2. STEEL WIRE ROPE CONSTRUCTIONS
sammen for at danne en dugt samt hvordan dugterne er slået
omkring hjertet m.m. Ståltovets konstruktion er fastlagt, når følgende A steel wire rope is defined not only by its basic elements (wires,
er defineret: strands, core), but also by the way in which the individual wires are
laid together to create a strand and the way in which the strands are
· Antal tråde i dugt. laid around the core, etc. The steel wire rope's construction is
· Dugttype (dugtdesign). defined when the following criteria have been determined:
· Antal dugter.
· Hjertetype. · Number of wires in a strand.
· Slåningsretning (ståltov og dugt). · Type of strand (strand design).
· Formlægning. · Number of strands.
· Type of core.
Ståltove er benævnt efter antallet af dugter, antallet af tråde i hver · Lay direction (steel wire rope and strand).
dugt, designet (typen) af dugten og hjertetypen. F.eks.: · Pre-forming.
· 6x7 Standard med FC (fiberhjerte).
· 8x19 Standard med WSC (stålhjerte). The steel wire rope is designated according to the number of
· 8x19 Seale med IWRC (stålhjerte). strands, the number of wires in each strand, the design (type) of the
· 6x36 Warrington Seale med FC (fiberhjerte). strand, and the type of core.

Antal tråde i dugt · 6x7 Standard with FC (fibre core).


Antallet af tråde i en dugt varierer fra 3 til ca. 139, mest almindeligt · 8x19 Standard with WSC (steel core).
er 7, 19, 24 eller 36 tråde. Trådenes antal og tykkelse afhænger af · 8x19 Seale with IWRC (steel core).
dugtdesignet og har indflydelse på ståltovets egenskaber. · 6x36 Warrington Seale with FC (fibre core).

Number of Wires in a Strand


The number of wires in a strand varies between three and approx.
139, although there are most commonly 7, 19, 24 or 36 wires. The
number of wires and their thickness depend on the design of the
strand and affects the characteristic of the steel wire rope.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-3

Dugttype (dugtdesign) Types of Strand (Strand Construction)


Dugttypen er karakteriseret ved, hvordan trådene i dugten er arran- The type of strand is characterised by the way in which the wires in
geret. Der findes fire grundtyper af dugtdesign: the strand are arranged. There are four basic types of strand design
that are used in all steel wire ropes, either in their original form or as
· Standard. a combination of two or more types. The four basic types are:
· Seale.
· Filler. · Standard.
· Warrington. · Seale.
· Filler.
Disse indgår i alle ståltove, enten rene eller i kombinationer af to · Warrington.
eller flere typer.
Standard
Standard The Standard construction (fig. 3) is characterised by the fact that all
Standard konstruktionen (fig. 3) er kendetegnet ved, at alle tråde er wires are of equal thickness, although the core wire may be thicker.
lige tykke, dog kan hjertetråden være tykkere. Desuden er trådene The wires are also laid together in such a way that all of them, with
slået således sammen, at alle - med undtagelse af centertråden er the exception of the centre wire, are of equal length. In this way all
lige lange. Herved belastes alle trådene ligeligt under lige træk. the wires are subjected to an equal distribution of load when pulled
straight.
Den geometriske trådfordeling er én centertråd, hvorpå der Fig. 3
lægges ét eller flere lag. Hvert lag fremstilles i hver sin opera- The geometric wire distribution consists of one centre wire, onto
tion. Antallet af tråde sti- which one or more layers are
ger med 6 for hvert lag. laid. Each layer is produced
in a separate operation. If
Betegnelsen for en there are several layers, the
Standard dugt med number of wires increases by
f.eks. 7 tråde er (6-1), six for each layer.
dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 The designation for a
tråde udenom i én Standard strand with e.g.
operation. Ved 37 tråde er betegnelsen (18/12/6-1), dvs. 1 centertråd seven wires is (6-1), i.e. one centre wire with six external wires in
med 6 tråde uden om som første operation, 12 tråde lægges herefter one operation. If there are 37 wires it is known as (18/12/6-1), i.e.
uden på i anden operation og 18 tråde i tredje operation. one centre wire with six external wires from the first operation, 12
from the second operation and 18 from the third operation.
Centertråden erstattes til tider Fig. 4
af flere tråde eller et fiberhjer- The centre wire may be
te (fig. 4). replaced by several wires or a
fibre core (fig. 4).

Fig. 5
Seale Seale
Seale konstruktionen (fig. 5) er kendetegnet The Seale construction (fig. 5) is characteri-
ved, at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet sed by the way in which the strand consists
i én operation. Desuden er antallet af tråde i of two layers of wire produced in one opera-
første og andet lag ens. tion. Also, the number of wires in the first
and second layer is identical.This construc-
Denne konstruktion er noget stivere end en tion is somewhat stiffer than a correspon-
tilsvarende Standard konstruktion (med ding Standard construction (with the same
samme trådantal). Dette skyldes, at ydertrå- number of wires). This is because the outer
dene i Seale konstruktionen er væsentlig wires in the Seale construction are conside-
tykkere. rably thicker.

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Betegnelsen for en Seale dugt med f.eks. 19 tråde er (9-9-1) dvs. 1 A Seale strand with e.g. 19 wires is known as (9-9-1), i.e. one centre
centertråd med 9 tråde i første og 9 tråde i andet lag. wire with nine wires in the first layer and nine wires in the second
layer.
Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 6) eller et Fig. 6
fiberhjerte. The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a fibre
core (fig. 6).
Filler
Filler konstruktionen (fig. 7) er kendetegnet ved, at dugten Filler
består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation. Desuden er The Filler construction (fig. 7) is characterised by a strand
antallet af tråde i andet lag dobbelt så stort som første lag. consisting of two layers of wires produced in one operation.
Dette er dog kun muligt, når der indlægges fyldtråde Also, the number of wires in the second layer is twice the num-
mellem første og andet lag for at forhindre, at dugten bliver ber in the first layer. This is, however, only possible if filler wires
kantet. are inserted between the first and the second layers, to prevent
the strand becoming hexagonal in shape.
Fig. 7
Denne konstruktion er mere
bøjelig end en tilsvarende This construction is
Standard konstruktion og more flexible than a
væsentligt mere bøjelig end corresponding Standard
en tilsvarende Seale kon- construction and consi-
struktion (med samme trå- derably more flexible
dantal ekskl. fyldtråde). than a corresponding
Seale construction (with
Betegnelsen for en Filler the same number of
dugt med f.eks. 25 tråde (inkl. 6 fyldtråde) er (12-6+6F-1), dvs. 1 wires excluding filler wires). A Filler strand with e.g. 25 wires
centertråd med 6 tråde i første lag og 12 tråde i andet lag. Mellem (including 6 filler wires) is known as (12-6F-6-1), i.e. one centre wire
første og andet lag ligger 6 fyldtråde. with six wires in the first layer and 12 wires in the second layer.
There are six filler wires between the first and the second layers.
Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 8) Fig. 8
eller et fiberhjerte. The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a
fibre core (fig. 8).
Warrington
Warrington konstruktionen (fig. 9) er kendetegnet ved, Warrington
at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation. The Warrington construction (fig. 9) is characterised by a
I andet lag (yderlag) indgår to forskellige tråddimen- strand consisting of two layers of wire produced in one
sioner, og antallet af tråde i andet lag er dobbelt så operation. The second (outer) layer contains wires of two
stort som det første. dimensions, and the number of wires in the second layer
is twice the number in the first.
Denne konstruktion er meget kompakt og bøjelig.
This construction is very compact and flexible.
Betegnelsen for en Warrington dugt med f.eks. 19 tråde er (6+6-6-1), A Warrington strand with e.g. 19 wires is known as (6+6-6-1), i.e.
dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 tråde i første lag og i alt 12 tråde fordelt på one centre wire with six wires in the first layer and a total of 12 wires
to tråddimensioner i andet lag. of two dimensions in the second layer.

Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere Fig. 9 The centre wire may be replaced by
tråde (fig. 10) eller et fiberhjerte. several wires or a fibre core (fig. 10).

5+5-5-1 6+6-6-1 7+7-7-1


Warrington Warrington Warrington

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-5

Andre dugttyper Other Types of Strand


Som tidligere nævnt findes der også dugter, der er en kombination af As previously mentioned, there are also strands that are a combina-
én eller flere af ovenstående fire dugtgrundtyper. En af disse er tion of one or more of the above four basic types of strand. One of
Warrington Seale (fig. 11). Denne konstruktion er opbygget som these is the Warrington-Seale (fig. 11).
en Warrington med et lag mere og Fig.10 This construction is one of the most
hører til en af de mest udbredte. widely-used and most flexible construc-
Desuden er den mest bøjelige kon- tions compared to the four basic types.
struktion i sammenligning med de The Warrington-Seale construction is
fire grundtyper. characterised by a strand consisting of
three layers of wire produced in one
Warrington Seale konstruktionen er operation. The number of wires in the
kendetegnet ved, at dugten består third (outer) layer matches the number of
af tre trådlag fremstillet i én opera- wires in the second layer. Also, the layers
tion. Antallet af tråde i tredje lag below the outer layer are built as a
(yderlag) svarer til antallet af tråde i Fig. 11 Warrington construction.
andet lag. A Warrington-Seale strand with e.g. 36
Betegnelsen for en Warrington wires is known as (14-7+7-7-1), i.e. one
Seale dugt med f.eks. 36 tråde er centre wire with seven wires in the first
(14-7+7-7-1), dvs. 1 centertråd layer, 14 wires made up of two dimen-
med 7 tråde i første lag, 14 tråde sions in the second layer, and 14 wires in
fordelt på to tråddimensioner i the third layer.
andet lag og 14 tråde i tredje lag.

The strands and the wires in the strands do not necessarily have to
Dugten samt dugtens tråde behøver ikke nødvendigvis at være be round. Examples of this are shown in fig. 12. The strands are
runde. Eksempler på dette ses af fig. 12. Dugterne er special- special strands (i.a. with profiled wire), designed to meet extremely
dugter (bl.a. med profiltråde) konstrueret til at opfylde helt spe- Fig. 12 unusual requirements.
cielle krav.

Triangular Strand constructed of Strand constructed of


Antal dugter wires including profiled wire profiled wire
strand
Antallet af dugter i et ståltov varie-
rer fra 3 til ca. 36, mest almindeligt er 6 dugter. Desto flere dugter et
ståltov indeholder, desto rundere og mere fleksibelt bliver ståltovet Number of Strands
(mindre slidstyrke). The number of strands in a steel wire rope varies between three and
approx. 36, although most commonly there are six strands. The more
Hjertetype strands a steel wire rope contains, the more rounded and flexible it
Som nævnt i afsnittet "Hjerte" findes der to typer hjerter til ståltove: is, although the wires in the strand are also thinner (less durable).
· Fiberhjerte (natur- eller kunstfiber).
· Stålhjerte (WSC eller IWRC). Types of Core
As mentioned in section 1: "Core", there are two types of core for
Fiberhjerte steel wire ropes:
Fiberhjerte er det mest anvendte, da det udover at give dugterne et · Fibre core (natural or man-made).
godt fjedrende underlag også muliggør smøring af ståltovet indefra, · Steel core (WSC or IWRC).
idet der under fremstillingen af fiberhjertet kan tilsættes olie og/eller
fedt. Desuden reduceres risikoen for rustangreb indefra. Fibre Core
Fibre cores are the most commonly used, as not only do they provi-
de a good, elastic base but also enable lubrication of the rope from
the inside, since it is possible to add oil and/or grease to the fibre
core during production.

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Fiberhjertet fremstilles normalt af Polypropylen (PP) eller Sisal. PP This reduces the risk of rust attacking from the inside.
kan modstå svage syrer og alkalier, og det rådner ikke. Fordelen ved The fibre core is normally produced from polypropylene (PP) or sisal.
et sisalhjerte er, at det i større grad kan optage olie/fedt for smøring PP can withstand weaker acids and alkalis and it does not rot. The
af ståltovet indefra, og at ståltovet kan anvendes ved en højere tem- advantage of a sisal core is that it can absorb oil/grease to a greater
peratur i forhold til PP-hjerte. degree for lubrication of the steel wire rope from the inside.

Anvendelsestemperatur for ståltove med fiberhjerte ses af afsnittet The maximum operating temperatures for steel wire ropes with a
"Ståltovets anvendelsestemperatur". fibre core can be seen in section 9: "Maximum Operating
Temperature" and " Minimum Operating Temperature".
Stålhjerte
Et stålhjerte er udformet enten som en af dugterne (WSC) eller som Steel Core
et selvstændigt ståltov (IWRC). A steel core is formed as either one of the strands (WSC) or as an
Randers Reb anbefaler at anvende stålhjerte, hvis det ikke er sikkert, independent steel wire rope (IWRC).
at et fiberhjerte giver dugterne en tilfredsstillende understøtning,
f.eks. hvis ståltovet opspoles på en tromle i flere lag under stor Randers Reb recommends the use of a steel core, in the event that
belastning eller ved høje temperaturer. it is not certain that a fibre core will provide satisfactory support for
the strands, e.g. if the steel wire rope is spooled on to a drum in
Et stålhjerte forøger ståltovets brudstyrke med ca. 10%. several layers under a considerable load, or at high temperatures.

Slåningsretninger (ståltov og dugt) A steel core increases the steel wire rope's tensile strength by
Ordet slåning bruges i flere betydninger. Dels om selve processen, approx. 10%.
der snor tråde og dugter om hinanden, dels for at beskrive det færdi-
ge ståltovs udseende. De fire mest Lay Directions (Steel Wire Rope and
almindelige betegnelser for ståltoves Fig. 13 Strand)
slåninger er: The word "lay" has more than one mea-
ning in this context. It is used to describe
Højre krydsslået ståltov. Her er trådene the process of interweaving the wires
i dugterne slået modsat retningen af and strands and also to describe the
dugterne i tovet. Trådene ligger venstre appearance of the finished steel wire
i dugterne, mens dugterne ligger i en rope. The four most common terms to
højreskrue i ståltovet (se fig. 13). describe the lay of a steel wire rope are:
Right hand regular lay steel wire rope
Venstre krydsslået ståltov. Trådene lig- Right hand regular lay steel wire rope. In
ger højre i dugterne, mens dugterne this instance the wires in the strand are
ligger i en venstreskrue i ståltovet (se Fig. 14 laid in the opposite direction to the
fig. 14). strands in the rope. The wires are laid
helically left, while the strands are laid
Højre Lang's Patent ståltov. Her er trå- helically right (see fig. 13).
dene i dugterne slået i samme retning
som dugterne i tovet. Trådene i dug- Left hand regular lay steel wire rope.
terne samt dugterne ligger i en højres- Here the wires in the strand are laid heli-
krue (se fig. 15). cally right, and the strands helically left
Left hand regular lay steel wire rope (see fig. 14).

Right hand Lang lay steel wire rope. Here


Fig. 15 the wires are laid in the same direction as
the strands in the rope. The wires in the
strands and the strands are laid helically
right (see fig. 15).

Right hand Lang lay steel wire rope

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Venstre Lang's Patent ståltov. Trådene i dugterne samt dugterne lig- Left hand Lang lay steel wire rope. The wires in the strands and the
ger i en venstreskrue (se fig. 16). strands are laid helically left (see fig. 16).
Fig. 16

Venstre Lang's Patent ståltov Left hand Lang lay steel wire rope

Andre benævnelser er f.eks.:


· Spiralslået ståltov (snoningssvagt/-frit ståltov). Other terms used are e.g.:
· Sildebensslået ståltov. Dette ståltov er en kombination af krydsslået · Multi layer steel wire rope (low rotation/rotation resistant). Here
og Lang's Patent. there are usually two layers of strands, the inner layer as a rule a
· Kabelslået ståltov. Dugterne er normalt 6-slåede ståltove med fiber- left hand Lang lay, while the outer layer is a right hand regular lay.
eller stålhjerte. Hjertet kan enten være et fiberhjerte eller et 6-slået · Alternate lay steel wire rope. This steel wire rope is a combination
ståltov med fiber- eller stålhjerte. of regular lay and Lang lay.
· Krydsflettet ståltov. · Cable laid steel wire rope. The strands are normally 6-lay steel wire
· Fladflettet ståltov. Dette ståltov er fladflettet af dugter eller af paral rope with a fibre or steel core. The core is a fibre core or a 6-lay
lelle dugter/ståltove, der er sammenholdt ved syning (bæltestrop). steel wire rope with a fibre or steel core.
· Square braided steel wire rope. The steel wire rope is square brai
Højre slået ståltov kaldes også Z-slået og venstre slået S-slået. ded from strands or steel wire ropes.
Tilsvarende kaldes en højreslået dugt z-slået og venstre slået s- · Flat braided steel wire rope. This steel wire rope is flat braided from
slået. Fig. 17 viser hvorfor. strands or consists of parallel strands or steel wire ropes that are
bound together by sewing (belt strap).
Af de nævnte slåninger er højre krydsslået (sZ) den
Fig. 17
mest almindelige. Right hand lay steel wire rope is also known as Z-lay, and
left hand as S-lay. Similarly, a right hand lay strand is
Formlægning known as Z-lay and left hand as S-lay. Fig. 17 shows why.
I formlagte ståltove har dugterne ved slåningen fået
en blivende formændring (se fig. 18), således at de Of the types of lay described, right hand regular lay is the
ligger fuldstændig spændingsfrie i det ubelastede most common.
ståltov.
Pre-Forming
Hvis man tager en dugt ud af ståltovet, vil dugten "Pre-formed" refers to steel wire ropes in which the strands
bevare sin skrueliniefacon, som den havde, da den have been permanently formed during the laying process
lå i ståltovet. (see fig. 18), so that they are completely stress-free within
the unloaded steel wire rope. If a strand is removed from
Fordelene ved et formlagt ståltov er Z-lay and S-lay the steel wire rope, it will retain its helical shape, as though
steel wire ropes
mangfoldige. Bl.a.: it were still in the steel wire rope.

· Ved kapning springer ståltovet ikke op. There are many advantages in a pre-formed steel wire
Fig. 18
· Lettere at installere, da formlagte ståltove er spæn rope, such as:
dingsfrie (døde) - herved ingen tendens til kinke-
dannelse. · The steel wire rope will not untwist during cutting.
· Kan løbe over mindre skiver. · It is easier to install, as pre-formed steel wire ropes are
· Mindre tilbøjelighed til at dreje omkring sin egen stress-free. No tendency to form kinks.
akse - herved mindre slid. · It can run over smaller sheaves.
· Bedre fordeling af belastningen mellem dugter og · Less tendency to turn on its own axis. Less wear and
tråde. tear.
· Ved trådbrud har trådene mindre tilbøjelighed til at Pre-forming · Better load distribution between strands and wires.
rejse sig fra dugten - herved mindre tilbøjelighed til · In the event of a wire breaking, less tendency to protrude
at ødelægge nabotråde og skiver. from the strand. Less tendency to damage adjacent wires
and sheaves.
Alt i alt opnår man en længere levetid med formlagte
ståltove i forhold til ikke formlagte ståltove. All in all, pre-formed steel wire ropes can offer a longer life expectan-
cy than steel wire ropes that are not pre-formed.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-8

Alle Randers Reb ståltove leveres formlagte som standard - på nær All Randers Reb steel wire ropes are supplied pre-formed, with the
nogle enkelte specialkonstruktioner (f.eks. rotationssvage/-frie tove). exception of certain individual special constructions (e.g. low-rota-
tion/rotation resistant).
3. SPECIELLE STÅLTOVE
3. SPECIAL STEEL WIRE ROPES
Som det fremgår af det forudgående er opbygningen/designet af
ståltove mangfoldig, hvorfor det er muligt at designe et ståltov, der As has previously been mentioned, there are many types of con-
opfylder specielle krav til anvendelsen. struction/design of steel wire ropes, which is why it is also possible to
design a steel wire rope that meets the particular requirements for a
Randers Reb er specialist i at udvikle specielle ståltove, der opfylder given application.
netop dine specielle krav. Kontakt os og forhør om mulighederne.
Randers Reb has specialised in the development of special steel
Gennem tiderne har Randers Reb fremstillet/udviklet mange speciel- wire ropes that can meet such special requirements. Get in touch
le ståltove. Nogle af disse ståltove har vi optaget i vores standard with us and find out how we can help solve your problems.
program.
Through the years Randers Reb has produced/developed many spe-
· Compacted ståltov. cial steel wire ropes. Some of these special steel wire ropes are now
· Kabelslået ståltov. part of our standard product range.
· Rotationssvage/-frie ståltov.
· Forhudet ståltov. · Compacted steel wire rope.
· Taifun. · Cable lay steel wire rope.
· Bloktov. · Low rotation and rotation resistant steel wire rope.
· Ormtov. · Coated steel wire rope.
· Combination rope.
Compacted ståltov · Sisal/Danline clad wire rope.
Før slåningen af selve ståltovet bliver dugternes dimension reduceret · Cobra.
(compacted), se fig. 19. Der findes forskellige metoder til at reduce-
re dugtens dimension: Fig. 19
Compacted Steel Wire Rope
· Trække gennem ruller (Compacting). In compacted steel wire ropes the strand's
· Trække gennem dyser (Dyform). dimensions are reduced (compacted) before
· Hamre (Hammering). the actual laying of the steel wire rope. There
are different ways of reducing the dimension
I enkelte tilfælde udføres compacteringen først, of a strand:
når ståltovet er slået. Herved bliver kun den yder- · By drawing between rollers (compacting).
ste del af ståltovet compacted. · By drawing between dies (Dyform).
Compacted steel wire rope with fibre core · By beating (hammering).

De forskellige metoder giver ikke helt samme kvalitet. Den proces In individual cases the compacting process is only carried out after
der efter Randers Reb's mening giver den bedste kvalitet er trækning the steel wire rope has been laid. In this instance only the outer part
af dugter gennem ruller (compacting), hvorefter slåningen af ståltovet of the steel wire rope is compacted (fig. 19).
foretages.
The various methods do not all produce the same level of quality. In
Compactede ståltove har større slid- og brudstyrke i forhold til ikke the opinion of Randers Reb, the best quality is achieved by drawing
compactede ståltove i samme dimension. the strands between rollers, after which the laying process is carried
out.
Kabelslået ståltov
I et kabelslået ståltov består dugterne af et 6-slået ståltov med WSC Compacted steel wire ropes have greater abrasion resistance and
(f.eks. 6x7 + WSC eller 6x19 + WSC). Hjertet i det kabelslåede stål- tensile strength than corresponding non-compacted steel wire ropes.
tov kan enten være FC eller IWRC (se fig. 20).
Cable Laid Steel Wire Rope
Det samlede antal tråde i en 6x(6x19 + WSC) + IWRC er 931 tråde. In a cable laid steel wire rope the strands consist of a 6-lay steel wire
De mange tråde bevirker, at ståltovet er utroligt smidigt/fleksibelt og rope with WSC (e.g. 6x7 + WSC or 6x19 + WSC). The core in the
gør det meget velegnet til stropper. cable laid steel wire rope can be either FC or IWRC.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-9


Fig. 20

A 6x(6x19 + WSC) + IWRC contains a total of 931 wires. The high


number of wires has the effect of making the steel wire rope
incredibly pliable/flexible and thus ideal for slings.

Cable laid steel wire rope

Rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov Low-Rotation and Rotation-Resistant Steel Wire Rope


Ved et rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov forstås et specielt ståltov, der er A low-rotation or rotation-resistant steel wire rope is a special steel
designet til ikke at dreje op eller rotere, når wire rope designed not to turn or rotate when bearing a load.
det belastes (se fig. 21 og 22). Fig. 21 Fig. 22

Examples of low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes

Examples of rotation in ordinary steel wire rope and in low-rota-


Der leveres to typer af rotationssvage/-frie ståltove: tion and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes

· Ståltove med ét lag dugter. Antallet af dugter er normalt tre. There are two types of low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire
Ståltovet er uden hjerte eller med et fiberhjerte. ropes available:

· Ståltove med to eller flere lag dugter (spiralslået). Antallet af yder · One layer of strands. There are three or four strands. The steel wire
dugter er normalt mellem 8 og 20. Hjertet kan være af fiber eller rope has either no core or a fibre core.
stål. · Spiral lay, i.e. two or more layers of strands. The number of outer
strands is normally between eight and 20. The core may be either
Disse ståltove anvendes normalt i enstrengede anlæg eller som fler- fibre or steel.
strenget ved tunge byrder og/eller store løftehøjder. Det specielle
design gør, at anvendelsesmulighederne for tovene er begrænsede. These steel wire ropes are normally used in single-strand units, or in
Desuden kræves specielle håndteringskrav f.eks.: multi-strand units for heavy loads and/or significant lifting heights.
The special design results in limited applications for this type of rope
· Større skiver end ved normale ståltove. and imposes special handling requirements, such as:
· Mindre fladetryk. · Larger sheaves than for normal steel wire ropes.
· Optimale spor i skiver. · Less surface pressure.
· Lille indløbsvinkel på spil. · Optimal grooves in sheaves.
· Helst ét lag på spiltromlen. · Small fleet angle on winch.
· Anvendelse af svirvler ofte nødvendigt. · Preferably one layer on the drum.
· Større sikkerhedsfaktor. · Use of swivels is often necessary.
· Ståltovene er normalt ikke formlagte, hvorfor disse skal brændes · Increased safety factor.
over (tilspidses) eller takles før overskæring for at undgå, at stålto- · The steel wire ropes are normally not pre-formed. Consequently the
vet springer op og ødelægger balancen i ståltovet. wire rope has to be seized before cutting (alternatively welded
· Under installationen skal man være meget opmærksom på, at der ends) to avoid the steel wire rope unwinding (destroying the balan-
ikke tilføres ståltovet spændinger, f.eks. hvis tovet drejes/twistes. ce in the rope).

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Hvis du er i tvivl om anvendelsen af rotationssvage/-frie ståltov, så · During installation great care must be taken not to subject the steel
kontakt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling. wire rope to tension, e.g. caused by turning/twisting.

Forhudet ståltov If you are in any doubt as to the use of low-rotation and rotation-
Ved et forhudet ståltov forstås et ståltov, der er belagt (coated) med resistant steel wire ropes, please contact your local salesman or our
et plastmateriale f.eks. PP, PE, PVC eller PA alt efter anvendel- Technical Department.
sesområde (se fig. 23).
Fig. 23 Coated Steel Wire Rope
Forhudningen beskytter ståltovet mod rust og slid. A coated steel wire rope is one that has been coated
Andre fordele er f.eks., at levetiden ved kørsel over ski- with a plastic material such as PP, PE, PVC or PA,
ver forlænges væsentligt. Desuden vil eventuelle tråd- depending on its intended application (fig. 23).
brud ikke ødelægge ting, som ståltovet kommer i nær-
heden af. The coating protects the steel wire rope against rust
and wear and tear. Other advantages are e.g. that its
Taifun Coated Steel Wire Rope life expectancy when running over the sheaves is
Taifun er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et spe- increased significantly. Furthermore, any wires that
cielt ståltov, hvor ståldugterne er omviklet med fibergar- might break will not cause damage to objects in the
ner (se fig. 24). Taifuner fremstilles med FC eller proximity of the steel wire rope.
IWRC.
Combination Rope
Taifuner forener egenskaber fra fibertove og ståltov: Fig. 24 Taifun is Randers Reb's trade name for a special
Styrke og lille forlængelse fra ståltovet, "blød" overflade combination rope, in which the steel strands are
og fleksibilitet fra fibertovet. wrapped up in fibre threads. Combination rope is
produced with FC or IWRC.
Taifunen anvendes primært som forstærkning i fiskenet,
men kan også anvendes til gyngetove, klatrenet og hvor Combination rope combines the properties of fibre
der i industri eller landbrug bl.a. stilles specielle krav til ropes and steel wire ropes: The strength and minimal
Combination rope with FC
slidstyrken. elongation of the steel wire rope, and the "soft" surfa-
ce and flexibility of the fibre rope.
Taifuner fremstilles normalt som et 6-slået tov, men kan
også laves med 3, 4 eller 8 dugter. Combination rope is used primarily for strengthening
fishing nets, but may also be used for swings, clim-
Bloktov Fig. 25 bing ropes and for applications in industry/farming
Bloktov er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et that require particularly durable ropes.
specielt ståltov, hvor ståldugterne er omviklet dels med
fibergarner (Danline), dels med sisalgarner. Bloktovet Sisal/Danline clad wire rope
fremstilles primært med FC (se fig. 25), men kan også Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is a special steel wire
fremstilles med IWRC. rope in which the steel strands are wrapped in a
Sisalgarnerne udvider sig, når de bliver våde, hvorved combination of fibre threads (Danline) and sisal thre-
Bloktovet i større grad kan fastholde ting/emner, der er Sisal/Danline clad wire rope ads. Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is produced primari-
bundet til tovet. Ellers har Bloktovet samme egenskaber ly with FC, but can also be produced with IWRC.
som Taifunen.
The sisal threads expand when wet, causing the Sisal/Danline clad
Bloktove anvendes som forstærkning i fiskenet. wire rope to have increased ability to secure objects/materials that are
tied to the rope. In other respects the Sisal/Danline clad wire rope has
Bloktove fremstilles normalt som et 6-slået tov, men kan også laves the same properties as the combination rope.
med 3, 4 eller 8 dugter.
Fig. 26
The Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is used to streng-
Ormtov then fishing nets.
Ormtov er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et spe-
cielt kabelslået ståltov, hvor dugterne er et 6-slået tov Cobra
med FC. Tre af dugterne er af stål og de resterende tre Cobra is Randers Reb's trade name for a special
dugter er af fiber. Ormtovet fremstilles primært med FC spring lay wire rope in which the strands are 6-lay
(se fig. 26), men kan også fremstilles med IWRC. rope with FC. Three of the strands are steel, and the
Cobra other three strands are fibre rope. Cobra is produced

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Den specielle opbygning af dugterne gør, at tovet har en noget stør- primarily with FC, but can also be produced with IWRC.
re brudforlængelse end almindelige ståltove og Taifuner, hvilket gør The special construction of the strands means that the rope has a gre-
Ormtovet velegnet som træktove på slæbebåde. ater tensile elongation than standard steel wire ropes and combination
rope, which makes Cobra ideal as a mooring rope on a tug boat.

4. EKSEMPLER PÅ ANVENDELSE AF STÅLTOVE Fig. 27 4. USE OF STEEL WIRE ROPE

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5. VALG AF DET RETTE STÅLTOV 5. SELECTING THE RIGHT STEEL WIRE ROPE

Ved valget af det rette ståltov til et givent formål skal der tages hen- In selecting the right steel wire rope, the properties of the various
syn til de forskellige ståltoves egenskaber, som f.eks.: types of steel wire rope must be considered, e.g.:

· Brudstyrke. · Tensile strength.


· Slidstyrke. · Abrasion resistance
· Fleksibilitet/bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke. · Bending fatique resistance
· Korrosionsmodstand. · Corrosion resistance.
· Forlængelse. · Elongation.
· Rotationsmodstand. · Rotation resistance.
· Knusningsmodstand. · Crushing resistance.
· Vibrationsudmattelsesstyrke. · Vibration resistance.
· Pulsationsudmattelsesstyrke. · Pulsation resistance.
· Krydsslået eller Lang's Patent. · Regular lay or Lang lay.

Ved udvælgelsen af det rette ståltov er det vigtigt at fastlægge, hvor In selecting the right steel wire rope, it is important to determine how
vigtige de forskellige egenskaber er for anvendelsen og derefter få important the various properties are in relation to the application and
dem prioriteret. Desuden er det også vigtigt, at man er opmærksom then to assign priorities to these. It is also important to be aware of
på relevante standarder og regulativer. the relevant standards and regulations. If you are in any doubt, plea-
se contact our sales consultants or our Technical Department.
Hvis du er i tvivl, så kontakt din konsulent eller vores tekniske
afdeling. Tensile Strength
The tensile strength of the steel wire rope depends on the rope's
Brudstyrke dimensions, the tensile strength of the wires and the construction.
Brudstyrken på ståltovet afhænger af tovets dimension, trådbrudstyr- The minimum guaranteed tensile strength for the different kinds of
ke og konstruktion. Minimum garanteret brudstyrke for de forskellige rope is shown in the Randers Reb product catalogue.
tovtyper er angivet på vores datablade.
A steel wire rope should never be subjected to a load exceeding
Belast aldrig et ståltov til mere end 50% af brudstyrken. 50% of its breaking load.

Selve designet af dugterne påvirker ikke brudstyrken væsentligt The design of the steel wire rope does not significantly affect the ten-
(max. ca. 5%). En ændring af hjertetypen fra fiber til stål giver lidt sile strength (up to approx. 5%). A change of core from fibre to steel
større ændring (ca. 10%). Den største ændring fås ved at ændre makes slightly more difference (approx. 10%). The greatest change
dimension eller trådbrudstyrke (se også fig. 28). is achieved by changing the dimensions or the tensile strength of the
wires (see also fig. 28).
Ståltove må kun belastes til en given SWL-værdi (Safe Working
Load), også kaldet WLL-værdi (Working Load Limit). Hermed forstås It is often required that the steel wire rope must have a specific SWL
ståltovets brudstyrke divideret med den for anvendelsen krævede value (Safe Working Load), also known as a WLL value (Working
sikkerhedsfaktor (se tabel 1). Load Limit). This means the steel wire rope's tensile strength divided
Tabel 1 by the safety factor required for the relevant application.

Forskellige sikkerhedsfaktorer Table 1 Various safety factors.


De angivne faktorer er kun vejledende NB: These factors are only intended as guidelines

Til mange formål er der udarbejdet nationale og internationale normer NB: There are a number of national and international norms and
og standarder, der fastsætter minimumskravet til sikkerhedsfaktoren. standards that define the minimum requirements for the safety factor.

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Slidstyrke Abrasion resistance


Ståltove med tykke ydertråde (f.eks. 6x7 Standard eller 6x19 Seale) Steel wire ropes with thick outer wires (e.g. 6x7 Standard or 6x19
giver en god slidstyrke. Lang's Patent tove giver bedre slidstyrke end Seale) provide good abrasion resistance. Lang lay ropes provide bet-
krydsslåede ståltove (se også fig. 28). Desuden kan slidstyrken øges ter abrasion resistance than regular lay steel wire ropes (see also fig.
ved at anvende større trådbrudstyrke. 27). Abrasion resistance can also be increased by using wires with
greater tensile strength.
Bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke
Desto flere tråde der er i dugten, desto større bliver bøjningsudmat- Bending fatique resistance
telsesstyrken og fleksibiliteten. Lang's Patent tove giver bedre bøj- The greater the number of wires in the strand, the greater the ben-
ningsudmattelsesstyrke end krydsslåede ståltove. Desuden kan bøj- ding fatique resistance and flexibility. Lang lay ropes provide better
ningsudmattelsesstyrken øges ved at anvende formlagte ståltove bending fatique resistance than regular lay steel wire ropes. Bending
(se også fig. 28). fatique resistance can also be increased by using pre-formed steel
wire ropes (see also fig. 28).
Korrosionsmodstand
Galvaniserede og rustfrie tråde giver en glimrende beskyttelse mod Corrosion Resistance
korrosion. Indfedtning med specielle fedt- eller olietyper vil også øge Galvanised and rustproof wires provide excellent protection against
korrosionsmodstanden. Hvis ståltovet er udsat for kraftig korroderen- corrosion. Lubrication with special types of grease or oil will also
de påvirkning, anbefales det at anvende dugter med tykke ydertråde. increase resistance to corrosion. If the steel wire rope is subjected to
significant corrosive influences, it is recommended that strands with
Forlængelse thick outer wires are used.
Ståltove med få tråde (f.eks. 1x7 Standard og 1x19 Standard) for-
længer sig mindst (har størst elasticitetsmodul). Denne type ståltov Elongation
er velegnet til barduner, men egner sig ikke til at køre over Steel wire ropes with fewer wires (e.g. 1x7 Standard and 1x19
skiver/blokke. Hvis der ønskes lille forlængelse samtidig med kørsel Standard) are subject to the least elongation (have the greatest elas-
over skiver, bør ståltovsklasse 6x7 eller 6x19 (begge med stålhjerte) ticity modulus). This type of steel wire rope is ideally suited for guy
eller visse specialkonstruktioner anvendes. Ved større ståltovsdi- ropes, but is not suitable to be run over sheaves/blocks. If only a
mensioner kan ståltovsklasse 6x36 med stålhjerte også anvendes small degree of elongation when running over sheaves is required,
(se også afsnittet "Ståltovsforlængelse"). 6x7 or 6x19 steel wire rope should be used, in each case with a
steel core or with certain special constructions. For larger dimen-
Rotationsmodstand sions, 6x36 steel wire rope with a steel core can also be used.
Almindelige 6- og 8-slåede ståltove vil dreje op, når de hænger frit
under belastning. Krydsslåede ståltove giver mere modstand mod Rotation Resistance
opdrejning end Lang's Patent ståltove. Et ståltov med stålhjerte drej- Standard 6-lay and 8-lay steel wire ropes will rotate when they hang
er mindre end et ståltov med fiberhjerte. Den type ståltove, der har free and carry a load. Regular lay steel wire rope provides greater
størst modstand mod opdrejning, er rotationsfrie/-svage ståltove resistance to rotation than lang lay steel wire rope. A steel wire rope
(specialkonstruktioner, se også afsnittet "Rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov). with a steel core rotates less than a steel wire rope with a fibre core.
The type of rope that provides greatest resistance to rotation is, as
Knusningsmodstand the name suggests, low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire rope
Et stålhjerte giver bedre understøtning til dugterne end et fiberhjerte, (special constructions, see also section 3:"Low-Rotation and
hvorfor risikoen for fladtrykning er mindre på et ståltov med stålhjer- Rotation-Resistant Steel Wire Rope").
te. Dugter med tykke og få tråde har større modstand mod flad-
trykning/knusning. Desuden har et 6-slået ståltov større knusnings- Crushing resistance
modstand end et 8-slået (se også fig. 27). A steel core provides better support for the strands than a fibre core,
which is why the risk of flattening is less in a steel wire rope with a
Vibrationsudmattelsesstyrke steel core. Strands with fewer, thicker wires have greater resistance
Vibrationer, hvor end de kommer fra, sender chokbølger gennem og to flattening/crushing. Also, a 6-lay steel wire rope has greater crus-
absorberes af ståltovet, hvorved der er mulighed for lokalt at øde- hing resistance than an 8-lay rope (see also fig. 28).
lægge ståltovet (ikke nødvendigvis udvendigt på ståltovet). Der er
her tale om steder, hvor f.eks. ståltovet har kontakt med en Vibration resistance
skive/blok eller går ind på spiltromlen eller ved fastgørelsen. Vibrations, from wherever they might come, send shock waves
through the steel wire rope, which will be absorbed by the steel wire
rope at some point, and in some cases they may cause localised
destruction of the steel wire rope (not necessarily on the outside).

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Generelt har ståltove med størst fleksibilitet også størst vibrationud- This may, for example, be at places where the steel wire rope comes
mattelsesstyrke. into contact with a sheaf/block, or enters the drum, and by the end
terminals.
Pulsationsudmattelsesstyrke
Vekslende træk i et ståltov vil nedsætte levetiden på ståltovet, dog In general, those steel wire ropes with the greatest flexibility also
afhængigt af kraften og frekvensen. have the greatest vibration resistance.

Generelt kan ståltove med størst fleksibilitet bedre optage den pulse- Pulsation resistance
rende belastning. Man bør være meget opmærksom på, hvilke ende- Changes in the tension of a steel wire rope, depending on the size
terminaler eller fittings der anvendes, idet disses pulsationsudmattel- and frequency, will reduce the rope's life expectancy.
sesstyrke er lige så vigtige som valget af det rette ståltov.
Fig. 28

Abrasion resistance, crushing resistance, tensile strength and bending fatique resistance of various steel wire ropes

Forskellige ståltovs slidstyrke, knusningsmodstandsevne, brudstyrke, In general, steel wire ropes with the greatest flexibility can cope bet-
bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke ter with intermittent loading. Great care should be taken in the use of
end terminals or fittings, as their pulsation resistance is equally as
Krydsslået eller Lang's Patent important as the selection of the right steel wire rope.
Lang's Patent ståltove er den ståltovstype, der bedst kan tåle at køre
over skiver samt har den bedste slidstyrke. Men for at kunne anven- Regular Lay or Lang Lay
de et Lang's Patent ståltov kræves tre ting: Lang lay steel wire ropes are the ones most suited to running over
sheaves and are the most durable, but if they are to be used, three
· Ståltovet skal være låst i begge ender, da det ellers vil dreje op. things must be observed:
Ståltovet har næsten ingen modstand mod opdrejning.
· Ståltovet må kun køre op i ét lag på spiltromlen, da det ellers let - Lang lay steel wire ropes must be secured at both ends, otherwise
ødelægger sig selv. the rope will rotate. The steel wire rope has no resistance to
· Ståltovet må ikke køre over små skiver, da konstruktionen herved rotation.
kommer i ubalance. · Lang lay steel wire ropes may only be reeled on to the drum in a
single layer, as they can easily destroy themselves.
· Lang lay steel wire ropes may not run over small sheaves, as the
construction will become unbalanced.
Fig. 29

Wear marks on a regular lay (on the left) and a Lang lay (on the right) steel wire rope respectively

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Lang's Patent ståltoves gode slid- og bøjeegenskaber skyldes, at trå- The reason for Lang lay steel wire ropes' excellent qualities of abra-
dene påvirkes/belastes anderledes og har en større bæreflade end sion resistance and pliability is that the wires are affected/loaded in a
krydsslåede ståltove (se fig. 29). different way and have a larger load-bearing surface than a regular
lay steel wire rope (see fig. 29).
Slidmærker på henholdsvis krydsslået (til venstre) og Lang's Patent
(til højre) ståltov Note that the largest wearing surface is on the Lang lay steel wire
rope.
Den største slidflade er på Lang's Patent slået ståltov.

6. BESTILLING AF STÅLTOVE 6. ORDERING STEEL WIRE ROPE

Ved bestilling af ståltove er det vigtigt at gøre beskrivelsen af stålto- When ordering steel wire rope, it is important to describe the steel
vet så nøjagtig som mulig. En korrekt bestilling bør indeholde følgen- wire rope as accurately as possible.
de: A correct order should contain the following information:
Description of steel wire rope:
· Diameter.
· Konstruktion. · Diameter.
· Slåningsretning. · Construction.
· Slåningstype. · Direction of lay.
· Hjerte. · Type of lay.
· Trådbrudstyrke og/eller ståltovets brudstyrke. · Core.
· Tråd overfladebeskyttelse (galvaniseret/ugalvaniseret). · Wire tensile strength.
· Indfedtningstype. · Surface protection of wire (galvanised/ungalvanised)
· Længde. · Type of lubrication.
· Specielle tolerancekrav. · Length.
· Antal enheder. · Quantity.
· Bearbejdning af ståltovsenderne (endebefæstigelser). · Processing of steel wire rope ends (end fittings).
· Emballage (kvejl, kryds, tromler mm.). · Packaging (coil, crosses, reels, etc.).

Kontakt os, hvis du er i tvivl om, hvilken type ståltov der skal anven- If you are in any doubt as to the type of steel wire rope to be used,
des. please contact us and we will try to find the best solution.

Hvis slåningsretning og/eller specifik hjertetype ikke er aftalt mellem If the direction of lay and/or specific type of core is not agreed bet-
kunde og Randers Reb, leverer Randers Reb et kryds højreslået ween the customer and Randers Reb, Randers Reb will supply a
ståltov med en hjertetype, der er standard for Randers Reb. Typen right hand regular lay steel wire rope with a core type that is stan-
vil fremgå af ordrebekræftelsen. dard for Randers Reb. This will be indicated on the order confirma-
tion form.

7. STÅLTOVSTOLERANCER
7. STEEL WIRE ROPE TOLERANCES
Længdetolerancer
Indtil 400 m: - 0 + 5%. Length Tolerances
Over 400 m og til og med 1.000 m: - 0 + 20 m. Up to 400 m: - 0 + 5%
Over 1.000 m: - 0 + 2%. Over 400 m up to and including 1,000 m: - 0 + 20 m
Over 1,000 m: - 0 + 2%
Hvor der kræves mindre længdetolerancer, skal dette specificeres i
ordren. For steel wire ropes requiring smaller length tolerances, agreement
must be reached between the customer and Fyns Kran Udstyr.

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Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet Dimension tolerances and ovalness


Tabel 3

Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet på ståltove


Dimension tolerances and ovalness of steel wire ropes

Ovenstående er gældende, hvis intet andet er aftalt mellem kunde NB: The above figures apply unless otherwise agreed between the
og Fyns Kran Udstyr eller angivet på datablad. Værdierne er baseret customer and Fyns Kran udstyr, or otherwise specified on a data
på et forslag til EN-norm. Randers Reb arbejder i øjeblikket på at til- sheet. The values are based on a proposed EN standard. Randers
passe alle ståltove dette forslag. Reb is currently working on adapting all steel wire ropes to conform
to this proposal.
Måling af ståltovsdimension og ovalitet se afsnittet "Kontrol af dimen-
sionen". Measurement of steel wire rope dimension and ovalness. (See sec-
tion:"Inspection of Dimensions").
Vægttolerancer
De i katalogbladene angivne vægte er teoretiske værdier. Weight Tolerances
Vægttolerancen er ca. +/- 5%. The weights mentioned in the catalogue are theoretical values. The
weight tolerance is approx. ± 5%.

8. HÅNDTERING OG INDKØRING
8. HANDLING, INSPECTION AND INSTALLATION
Modtagelse, kontrol og opbevaring
Ved modtagelsen kontrolleres om produktet svarer til det bestilte. Receiving, Inspection and Storage
Hvis ståltovet ikke skal anvendes med det samme, skal ståltovet On receipt the product should be inspected to confirm that it corres-
opbevares tørt. Ved længere tids opbevaring skal man ind imellem ponds to the one ordered. If the steel wire rope is not to be used
kontrollere, om ståltovet skal eftersmøres (se også afsnittet immediately, it must be stored in a dry place. If it is to be stored for a
"Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet"). longer period, it must be checked regularly to determine whether it
requires lubrication (see also section: "Maintenance of Steel Wire
Kontrol af dimensionen Rope").
Inden installeringen skal dimensionen på ståltovet kontrolleres og
dimensionen skal passe til det udstyr, som ståltovet skal anvendes i Inspection of Dimensions
(se også afsnittet "Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet"). It is important that the steel wire rope's dimension is checked before
installation, and that it is checked that the dimension matches the
Korrekt måling af dimensionen (ISO 3178) foretages med skydelære, equipment with which the steel wire rope is to be used (see also sec-
tion 7: "Dimension Tolerances and Ovalness").

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-17

der er forsynet med brede kæber, der skal dække over mindst to Correct measurement of dimensions (ISO 3178) is undertaken with a
dugter (se fig. 31). calliper gauge equipped with a broad enough jaw to cover at least
two strands (see fig. 31).
Målingen foretages to steder Fig. 31
med mindst en meters afstand The measurement is undertaken at two
på et lige stykke uden belastning. places at least one metre apart on a
Hvert sted foretages to målinger straight section without any load. At each
90° forskudt. Gennemsnittet af place two measurements are made at 90°
disse fire målinger angiver dia- angles. The average of these four measu-
meteren på ståltovet. Ståltovets rements defines the diameter of the steel
ovalitet er største forskel mellem wire rope. The degree of ovalness in the
de fire målinger angivet som % steel wire rope is the greatest difference
Korrekt udstyr og måling af ståltov
af ståltovets nominelle diameter. between the four measurements, expres-
Correct equipment and measurement of steel wire rope
sed as a percentage of the nominal dia-
Kontrol af føringsudstyr meter of the steel wire rope.
Inden ståltovet monteres, er det
vigtigt at sikre sig, at alle dele, som ståltovet kommer i kontakt med, Inspection of Guidance Equipment
er i orden og passer til ståltovet. Ting som f.eks.: Before the steel wire rope is fitted, it is important to ensure that all
parts that will come into contact with the steel wire rope are in good
· Spiltromle. condition and match the steel wire rope, e.g.:
· Afstand mellem spiltromle og første skive/ledeskive.
· Styreruller. · Drum.
· Skiver. · Distance between drum and first sheaf or lead sheaf.
· Guide roll.
Hvis udstyret ikke er i orden, er der stor risiko for, at ståltovet får et · Sheaves.
unormalt stort slid og derved en kort levetid.
If the equipment is not suitable, there is a significant risk that the
Spiltromle steel wire rope will suffer unusually great wear and tear and will thus
Undersøg om tromledimensionen og eventuelle tovriller passer til have a shorter life expectancy.
ståltovet samt standen af tromlen.
Drum
Randers Reb anbefaler, at korrekte riller på tromlen skal have føl- Check that the drum dimensions and possible rope grooves match
gende udseende (se fig. 32): the steel wire rope, and check the condition of the drum.

B = rillediameter = 1,06 x d. Randers Reb recommends that correct rope grooves are as follows:
A = stigningen på rillesporet = 1,08 x d.
C = rilledybden = 0,30 x d. B = diameter of groove = 1.06 x d
R = topradius = ca. 0,15 x d. A = elevation of groove = 1.08 x d
C = depth of groove = 0.30 x d
hvor d = ståltovets nominelle diameter. R = upper radius = approx. 0.15 x d

Hvis tovrillerne ikke passer til ståltovet, får ståltovet et Fig. 32 where d = steel wire rope's nominal diameter
unormalt stort slid og der tilføres spændinger.
If the rope grooves do not match the steel wire rope,
Vær opmærksom på, at der ofte stilles specielle the rope will suffer unusually high wear and tear,
krav til tromlediameter m.m. i normer og standar- stresses will be introduced and the grooves will have
der. to be repaired.

Levetiden på ståltovet er bl.a. meget afhængig af Rope grooves on the drum Please note that norms and standards often impose
dimensionen på tromlen. Desto større tromle, special requirements in respect of drum diameters,
desto længere levetid (se også afsnittet "Skiver og etc.
blokke"). The steel wire rope's life expectancy depends to a
great extent on the drum's dimensions, among other things. The lar-
ger the drum, the longer the life expectancy (see also section 6:
"Sheaves/Blocks").

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-18

Afstand mellem spiltromle og første skive/ledeskive Distance between Drum and First Sheaf or Lead Sheaf
Afstanden fra spillet til den første skive eller ledeskive har betydning The distance from the winch to the first sheaf is of importance for the
for ensartetheden af opspolingen samt utilsigtet tilførsel af spænding- consistency of the winding process.
er i ståltovet.
Fig. 33 Randers Reb recommends that
Randers Reb anbefaler, at the distance L or the fleet angle
afstanden L eller indløbsvinklen ß should be:
b skal være (se fig. 33):
- For drums without rope
· For tromler uden sporriller: grooves:
Lmax = 115 x tromlebredde. Lmin = 115 x drum width.
Lmin = 15 x tromlebredde. Lmax = 15 x drum width.
· For tromler med sporriller : - For drums with rope grooves
Lmax = 115 x tromlebredde. Lmin = 115 x drum width.
Lmin = 20 x tromlebredde. Lmax = 20 x drum width.
Distance between drum and lead sheaf (L), and fleet angle (ß)

(115 x tromlebredde ~ b = 0,25°, 15 x tromlebredde ~ b = 2° og 20 x


tromlebredde ~ b = 1,5°). (115 x drum width ~ ß = 0.25º, 15 x drum width ~ ß = 2º, and 20 x
drum width ~ ß = 1.5º).
Hvis afstanden ikke passer, får ståltovet et unormalt stort slid, hvorfor
afstanden skal ændres. If the distance does not match these figures, the steel wire rope will
be subject to unusually significant wear and tear; the distance should
Styreruller therefore be changed.
Undersøg om styreruller er slidt, f.eks. på spillet. Hvis de er, får stål-
tovet et unormalt stort slid, hvorfor styrerullen skal udskiftes eller Guide Rolls
repareres. Check whether the guide rolls, e.g. those on the winch, are worn. If
they are, the steel wire rope will be subject to unusually significant
Hvis styrerullen repareres ved svejsning, skal man sørge for, at hård- wear and tear; the guide rolls should therefore be replaced or repai-
heden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, således at man få slid- red.
det på styrerullen i stedet for på ståltovet.
If the guide roll is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensu-
Skiver/blokke re that the hardness of the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel,
Undersøg om skivediameteren og skivespor passer til ståltovet. and that it is the guide roll that is worn, and not the steel wire rope.
Desuden skal skiverne let kunne dreje.
Sheaves/Blocks
Når et ståltov bøjes over f.eks. en skive, opstår der nogle ret kompli- Check that the sheaf diameter and sheaf groove match the steel wire
cerede spændinger (kombination af bøje-, træk- og trykspændinger) i rope. The sheaves must also be able to turn freely.
trådene. De største spændinger forekommer i de tråde, der ligger
længst væk fra ståltovets bøjningscenter. Efter gentagede bøjninger When a steel wire rope is fed over e.g. a sheaf and bends, certain
vil der opstå udmattelsesbrud i disse tråde. complex tensions (a combination of bending, tensile and compres-
sion stress) are generated in the wires. The greatest tensions occur
Hvornår der opstår udmattelsesbrud i trådene afhænger bl.a. af kon- in the wires furthest away from the steel wire rope's bending centre.
struktionen, belastningen samt hvor store skiverne er. Nedenstående After repeated bends, stress failure will occur in these wires.
kurve (fig. 34) viser skiveforholdet DSk/d (skivediameter/ståltovsdia-
meter) indflydelse på ståltovets levetid for forskellige ståltovskon- The steel wire rope construction and the size of the sheaves are
struktioner. decisive in determining when wire fracture occurs. The curve below
shows the influence of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/nominal steel
wire rope diameter) on the life expectancy of steel wire rope of diffe-
rent types.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-19

Fig. 34

Levetidsfaktor

Skiveforholdet DSk/d

Ståltovets levetid som funktion af skiveforholdet DSk/d Life expectancy of steel wire rope of different types expressed as
(skivediameter/ståltovsdiameter) for div. konstruktioner a function of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter

Please note that norms and standards often impose special require-
Vær opmærksom på, at der ofte stilles specielle krav til skive-/tromle- ments in respect of sheaf/drum diameters. If this is not the case, a
diameter i normer og standarder. Hvis dette ikke er tilfældet, anbefa- minimum D/d = 25 is recommended for 6x7 steel wire ropes, and a
les minimum DSk/d = 25 for 6x7 ståltovsklassen og minimum DSk/d minimum D/d = 20 for 6x19 and 6x36.
= 20 for 6x19 og 6x36 ståltovsklasserne.
If at all possible, S-bends (where the steel wire rope runs from the
Hvis det er muligt, skal man undgå S-bøjning dvs. fra f.eks. undersi- lower side of one sheaf to the upper side of the next) should be avoi-
de på én skive til overside på den næste skive. S-bøjning giver tidli- ded. Such bends result in premature damage. The sheaf ratio (see
gere udmattelsesbrud, hvorfor skiveforholdet (se nedenfor) bør øges below) should thus be increased by at least 25% in relation to the
med mindst 25% i forhold til samme retningsændring. Problemet er same change of direction. The problem is particularly great when the
specielt stort, når skiverne er tæt på hinanden. sheaves are placed close to each other.

Sporet i skiven har også stor indflydelse på levetiden af stål- The groove in the sheaf also has a significant influence on the steel
tovet. Sporet må hverken være for stort eller for lille - sporet Fig. 35 wire rope's life expectancy. The groove must be neither too large nor

Correct groove diameter Groove diameter too small Groove diameter too large

skal passe til ståltovsdimensionen (se fig. 35). Fig. 36 too small - the groove must match the steel wire
rope's dimensions.
Randers Reb anbefaler, at et korrekt skivespor
understøtter ståltovet på ca. 1/3 af omkredsen Randers Reb recommends that a correct sheaf gro-
(~ 120°) og har en spordiameter på DSp = ove should support approx. 1/3 of the circumference
1,06 x ståltovets nominelle diameter (se fig. of the steel wire rope (~120 °C) and have a groove
36). Spordiameteren må under ingen omstæn- diameter of Dsp = 1.06 x the steel wire rope's nomi-
digheder være under aktuel ståltovsdiameter. nal diameter (see fig. 36). The groove diameter may
under no circumstances be less than the relevant
steel wire rope's diameter.
Correct figure of groove in sheave

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-20

Nedenstående kurve (fig. 37) viser sporforholdet DSp/d (spordiame- The curve in the diagram below indicates the effect of the D/d ratio
ter/ståltovsdiameter) indflydelse på ståltovets levetid. (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter) on the steel wire rope's life
expectancy.
Fig. 37
Inspicér løbende skiver/blokke for Always check whether the sheaf
bl.a. slidte lejer, slidte skivespor og groove is worn at the base and
slid på kanter. Hvis disse forhold along the edges. If it is not, the
ikke er optimale, slides ståltovet steel wire rope will be subject to
unormalt hurtigt, og ståltovet tilfø- unusually significant wear and
res spændinger. Defekte tear and stresses will be introdu-
skiver/blokke skal udskiftes eller ced into the rope. Defect shea-
repareres omgående. ves/blocks should therefore be
replaced or repaired immediately.
Hvis sporet repareres ved svejs-
ning, anbefaler Randers Reb, at If the groove is repaired by wel-
hårdheden på svejsematerialet er ding, Randers Reb recommends
ca. 300 Brinel, således at man får that the hardness of the welding
sliddet på skiven i stedet for på material is approx. 300 Brinel, so
ståltovet. Life expectancy as a function of the Dsp/d ratio that it is the sheaf that is worn,
(sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter) and not the steel wire rope.

Størrelsen af ståltovets anlægsvinkel a (vinkelændring) på skiven har The size of the steel wire rope's contact angle a (angle change) on
også indflydelse på ståltovets levetid (se fig. 38). the sheaf also has an effect on the steel wire rope's life expectancy
Fig. 38 (see fig. 38).

Life expectancy as a function of the contact angle a

Hvis det er nødvendigt at ændre retningen på ståltovet, anbefaler If the steel wire rope has to change direction, Randers Reb recom-
Randers Reb at undgå retningsændringer mellem 5° og 45°. mends avoiding changes in direction between 5° and 45°.

Installering af ståltovet Installation of Steel Wire Rope


Randers Reb ståltove er fremstillet på en sådan måde, at de i ube- Steel wire rope from Randers Reb is produced in such a way that in
lastet tilstand er spændingsfrie. Ståltovet leveres enten på tromler an unloaded state it is tension-free. The steel wire rope is supplied
eller i kvejl. For at undgå at tilføre ståltovet spændinger og kinker either on reels or in coils. To avoid creating tension or kinks in the
under installationen, er det nødvendigt at anbringe tromlen/kvejlen steel wire rope during installation, it is necessary to place the
på en drejeskive eller i en buk. Hvis dette ikke er muligt, kan stålto- coil/reel on a revolving platform, or as shown in fig. 39. If this is not
vet rulles ud på jorden, mens ståltovsenden fastholdes (se fig. 39). possible, the steel wire rope can be rolled out on the ground while
the end of the rope is held in place.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-21

Fig. 39

Correct ways to remove steel wire rope from a coil or reel

Husk at sikre ståltovsenden mod opdrejning uanset om ståltovet er Remember to secure the end of the steel wire rope against opening,
formlagt eller ej. Dette kan f.eks. gøres ved overbrænding (tilspids- regardless of whether or not it is pre-formed. This can be done by
ning), påsvejsning af trækøje eller omvikling med ståltråd/jernbindsel such means as tapered and welded ends, beckets, or seizing with
(se også afsnittet "Kapning og takling af ståltov"). soft or annealed wire or strand (see also section 6: "Cutting and
Seizing of Steel Wire Ropes").
Under afspolingen må ståltovet ikke:
During the unwinding of the steel wire rope, it must not:
· På nogen måde aftages over kanten på tromlen eller tages fra en
kvejl, der ligger på jorden, idet der herved opstår kinker på ståltovet · In any way pass over the edge of the reel or be taken from a coil
(se fig. 40). on the ground, as this will create kinks in the steel wire rope (see fig.
40).
· Slæbes hen over en hård overflade, der kan beskadige trådene. · Be dragged over a hard surface that can damage the wires.
· Be dragged through earth, sand or gravel, as abrasive particles will
· Trækkes gennem jord, sand og grus, idet slidpartikler vil fæstne attach themselves to the greased surface of the steel wire rope.
sig til den fedtede ståltovsoverflade. Fig. 40

Incorrect ways to remove steel wire rope from a coil or reel

Spoling fra tromle til spiltromle Winding from Reel to Drum


Når ståltovet under installeringen kører direkte fra tromle til spiltrom- During installation, when the steel wire rope is running directly from
le, skal man sikre sig, at afløbstromlen løber samme vej som opta- the reel to the drum, care must be taken to ensure that the reel is
gertromlen (se fig. 41). running in the same direction as the drum.
Fig. 41
Hvis det gøres forkert, tilfø- Correct Incorrect If this is done incorrectly, the steel
res ståltovet spændinger. wire rope is subjected to tension.

For at opnå en problemløs In order to achieve problem-free


opspoling ved flerlags- winding in multi-layer winding, it is
opspoling er det af stor vig- extremely important that that the
tighed, at ståltovet køres op steel wire rope is under tension
på tromlen med forspæn- when applied to the drum. If the
ding. Hvis lagene er for løse, layers are too loose, the upper
Correct/incorrect winding from Reel to drum
kan ovenliggende lag under layers can damage or cut into the
belastning trække/skære sig layers below when tension is appli-
ned i underliggende lag, hvorved ståltovet ødelægges. Ståltovet skal ed, resulting in damage to the steel wire rope. The rope must be
køres på tromlen med minimum 2% af ståltovets brudstyrke. wound onto the drum at a tension corresponding to at least 2% of
the tensile strength of the rope.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-22

Afbremsningen af aftagertromlen kan gøres på flere måder (se af fig. Braking of the drum can be done in several ways (see fig. 42).
42). Man må under ingen omstændigheder forsøge at klemme stålto- Please note: Steel wire rope should never be pressed between two
vet mellem to træplader, idet ståltovet herved bliver varigt ødelagt. wooden plates, as this will result in permanent damage to the rope.
Fig. 42

Correct Correct Incorrect

Examples of correct/incorrect ways to brake a reel

Korrekt montering på spiltromlen Correct Fitting to Drum


Nedenstående figur (fig. 43) illustrerer korrekt fastgørelse og opspo- Fig. 43 below illustrates the correct way of installing and winding on
ling på spiltromlen af henholdsvis højre- og venstreslået ståltov. to the drum for right and left hand laid steel wire rope respectively.
Fig. 43

Kapning og takling af ståltov Cutting and Seizing of Steel Wire Rope


Forudsat at ståltovet ikke brændes over (tilspidses), anbefaler Randers Reb recommends that, as long as the steel wire rope does
Randers Reb, at ståltovet takles inden kapning. Følgende metode til not have welded ends, it has to be seized before being cut. The fol-
takling skal anvendes (se fig. 44): lowing seizing method must be used:
Fig. 44
Rotationssvage/-frie ståltove Please note that low-rota-
skal mindst have fire taklinger tion and rotation-resistant
på hver side af kappestedet. steel wire ropes must have
at least four seizings on
each side of the cutting
point.

Correct cutting and seizing of steel wire rope

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Indkøring af ståltovet Running in Steel Wire Rope


Efter montering af ståltovet anbefaler Randers Reb, at ståltovet After the steel wire rope has been installed, Randers Reb recom-
køres gennem anlægget flere gange under lav hastighed og moderat mends that it is run through the system several times at low speed
belastning (f.eks. 5% af brudstyrken). Herved tilpasser ståltovet sig and moderate loading (e.g. 5% of tensile strength). In this way the
gradvist de nye forhold. Dugterne sætter sig, ståltovet forlænger sig. steel wire rope will gradually become accustomed to the new condi-
Desuden formindskes diameteren lidt, da dugterne og hjertet presses tions. The strands will settle, the steel wire rope will lengthen and the
sammen. Ståltovet vil således være mindre udsat for skader, når diameter will decrease a little due to the fact that the strands and the
maksimal belastning anvendes. Den tid, der benyttes til indkøringen core are compressed. The steel wire rope will thus be less suscepti-
af ståltovet, bliver tjent ind igen mange gange, idet ståltovet får ble to damage when maximum load is applied. The time spent "run-
længere levetid. ning-in" the steel wire rope will be earned many time over, as the
steel wire rope will thus have a longer life expectancy.
Vedligeholdelse af føringsudstyr
Ordentlig vedligeholdelse af udstyret, som ståltovet har kontakt med, Maintenance of Guidance Equipment
har stor betydning for ståltovets levetid. Slidte skivespor, styreruller Thorough maintenance of the equipment that the steel wire rope will
mm., skæve skiver og fastsiddende lejer resulterer bl.a. i chokbelast- come into contact with is of great significance for the steel wire rope-
ning og vibrationer i ståltovet, hvilket har en ødelæggende effekt på 's life expectancy. Worn sheaf grooves, guide rolls, etc., crooked
ståltovet med unormalt slid og udmattelse til følge. sheaves and jammed bearings all result in such effects as shock
load and vibrations in the steel wire rope, which have a destructive
Udstyr, som ståltovet har kontakt med, skal inspiceres regelmæssigt. effect on the steel wire rope, resulting in exaggerated wear and tear
Hvis udstyret ikke er i orden, skal det omgående udskiftes evt. repa- and fatigue.
reres. Ved reparation af føringsudstyret ved svejsning skal man
sørge for, at hårdheden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, såle- Equipment that the steel wire rope comes into contact with must be
des at man får sliddet på føringsudstyret i stedet for på ståltovet (se inspected regularly. If there is a problem with the equipment, it must
også afsnittet "Kontrol af føringsudstyr"). be replaced or repaired immediately. If the guidance equipment is
repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that hardness of
the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel, so that it is the sheaf that
9. KONTROL OG VEDLIGEHOLDELSE is worn, and not the steel wire rope (see also section 6: "Inspection
of Guidance Equipment").
Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet
Den olie/fedt, som ståltovet tilføres under fremstillingen, beskytter
kun ståltovet under opbevaringen og den første tids brug. Ståltovet 9. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
skal derfor eftersmøres regelmæssigt.
Maintenance of Steel Wire Rope
Ordentlig eftersmøring er meget vigtig for ståltovet levetid, idet smø- The oil/grease that is added to the steel wire rope during production
ringen har til formål dels at beskytte ståltovet mod rust, dels at redu- is only sufficient to protect the steel wire rope during the storage
cere friktionen mellem trådene og dugterne i ståltovet. Desuden ned- period and initial use. The steel wire rope must be lubricated regular-
sættes friktionen mellem ståltovet og de flader, som ståltovet berører. ly.

Smøremidlet, der skal anvendes til eftersmøringen, skal være fri for Thorough lubrication is extremely important for the steel wire rope's
syrer og må ikke have skadelig indvirkning på hverken ståltråde life expectancy, as the purpose of lubrication is partly to protect the
og/eller fiberhjertet samt miljø. Smøremidlet skal have en konsistens steel wire rope against rust, and partly to reduce friction between the
som gør, at smøremidlet trænger ind i hjertet og dugten. Ståltovet wires and the strands in the steel wire rope. Friction is also thereby
skal rengøres før eftersmøringen. reduced between the steel wire rope and the surfaces with which it
comes into contact.
For opnåelse af maksimal eftersmøring skal smøremidlet påføres
under kørsel og ved en skive eller på tromlen, idet ståltovet her vil The lubricant used must be free of acids and must not have a
åbne sig. Smøremidlet kan herved lettere trænge ind. destructive effect on the steel wires, the fibre core and the environ-
ment. The lubricant must have a consistency that enables it to pene-
Randers Reb har udviklet en speciel eftersmøringsolie - Randers trate the core and the strands. The steel wire rope must be cleaned
WIRE OLIE type 01- der tilfredsstiller de specielle krav, der stilles til before lubrication.
eftersmøring af ståltove. Olien har en god indtrængnings- og smøre-
evne. Desuden er olien vandfortrængende og tilsat additiver, der er To achieve maximum lubrication effect, the lubricant should be appli-
rustopløsende og stopper yderligere rustdannelse under lagring og ed during operation, at a sheaf or on the drum, as this is where the
brug. steel wire rope opens up and makes it easier for the lubricant to
penetrate.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-24

Olien kan let påføres med pensel. Randers Reb has developed a special lubricating oil, Randers WIRE
OIL Type 01, which satisfies the special requirements for lubrication
Se også vort Produktinformation's blad "Smøring og vedligeholdelse of steel wire ropes. The oil has excellent penetrative and lubrication
af ståltove". qualities. It is also water-resistant and contains additives that dissol-
ve rust and prevent further formation of rust during storage and
Kontrol af ståltovet operation. The oil is easily applied with a brush.
Følgende er en vejledning på mulige kontrolpunkter i forbindelse See also our Product Information leaflet, "Lubrication and
med inspektion/kontrol af et ståltov - ikke en komplet manual eller Maintenance of Steel Wire Ropes".
erstatning for krav angivet i tilhørende normer og standarder.
Inspection of Steel Wire Rope
Slid The following guidelines cover possible points that should be chec-
Ståltovet skal udskiftes,, når den nominelle diameter er reduceret ked in conjunction with the inspection of steel wire rope. This is not a
med 10%. complete manual, nor is it an alternative to the relevant norms and
standards.
Forlængelse
Alle ståltove forlænger sig ved belastning (se også afsnittet Wear and Tear
"Ståltovsforlængelse"). Ståltovets forlængelse over levetiden kan As a rule, a steel wire rope should be replaced when the outer wires
opdeles i tre faser. are worn down to 1/3 of the original wire dimension.
· Fase 1: Under den første tids brug forlænger det nye ståltov sig
helt naturligt. Dels p.g.a. belastningen, dels p.g.a. at ståltovet sæt- Elongation
ter sig. All steel wire ropes become elongated when loaded (see also sec-
· Fase 2: Når ståltovet har sat sig. Under det meste af sin levetid for tion 9: "Steel Wire Rope Elongation"). The elongation of a steel wire
længer ståltovet sig ikke ret meget. Forlængelsen under denne fase rope during its lifetime can be divided into three phases:
skyldes primært slid. - Phase 1: The new steel wire rope becomes longer quite naturally
· Fase 3: Under denne fase nedbrydes ståltovet hurtigt og forlænger during its initial period of use. This partly because of the loading,
sig uden yderligere påvirkning, hvilket bl.a. skyldes fremskredent and partly because the steel wire rope settles.
slid. Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. - Phase 2: When the steel wire rope has settled and for most of its
lifetime, the steel wire rope does not become much
Reduktion af dimensionen longer.Elongation during this phase is mainly due to wear.
Enhver mærkbar reduktion af ståltovsdimensionen i forhold til den - Phase 3: The steel wire rope suddenly becomes longer very
oprindelige dimension indikerer nedbrydelse af ståltovet. quickly. This means that the steel wire rope is deteriorating rapidly
Reduktionen kan bl.a. skyldes: due to such causes as advanced wear and fatigue. The steel wire
rope must be replaced immediately.
· Udvendigt/indvendigt slid.
· Sammenklemning af dugt og/eller hjerte. Reduction of Dimensions
· Udvendig/indvendig rustdannelse. Every noticeable reduction of the steel wire rope's dimensions in
· Forlængelse. comparison with its original dimensions indicates a deterioration in
the steel wire rope. The reduction may be due to such causes as:
Rust
Rust er mindst lige så vigtig en faktor som slid i forbindelse med vur- - External/internal wear and tear.
deringen af ståltovets stand. Rust stammer normalt fra dårlig vedlige- - Compression of strands and/or core.
holdelse af ståltovet og bevirker hurtigere udmattelse af trådene - External/internal formation of rust.
(skørhed/revnedannelse). - Elongation.

Kinker Rust
Kinker forårsager permanent ødelæggelse af ståltovet. Kinker dan- Rust is just as important a factor as wear and tear in terms of evalu-
nes pga. udtrækning af løkker. ating the steel wire rope's condition. Rust is normally caused by poor
Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. maintenance of the steel wire rope and promotes quicker fatigue in
the wires (fragility/creation of cracks).

Kinks
Kinks cause permanent damage to the steel wire rope. Kinks are for-
med due to extraction of loops.
The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-25

Fuglerede Bird's Nest


En fuglerede (dugterne rejser sig samme sted) opstår bl.a., hvis stål- A "bird's nest" (the strands rising in the same place) is created by
tovet f.eks. er tilført torsion (drejet op), oplever pludselig aflastning, such actions as the steel wire rope being subjected to torsion (rota-
køres gennem for små skivespor og/eller spoles op på for lille tromle ted), sudden unloading, running through sheaf grooves that are too
(fig. 44). small and/or winding on a drum that is too small.

Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. Fig. 44 The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.

Lokalt slid/ødelæggelse Local Wear and Tear/Damage


Lokalt slid på ståltovet skyldes som oftest dårlig Local wear and tear is most often caused by poor
spoling. Alle fittings og splejsninger skal undersø- winding. All fittings and splicings must also be
ges for slid eller trådbrud, løse eller knækkede inspected for wear or broken wires, loose or split
dugter, slid eller revner på/i fittings mm. strands, wear or cracks in fittings, etc.

Brandskader Fire Damage


Efter brand eller påvirkning af høje temperaturer After a fire or exposure to high temperatures,
kan der opstå metalskader, tab af olie/fedt og Bird's nests metal damage, loss of oil/grease and destruction of
ødelæggelse af stål- eller fiberhjerte mm. fibre core, etc., may occur.

Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.

Hjertet kommer ud mellem dugterne Core Protruding between the Strands


Uafhængigt af årsagen til at hjertet kommer ud mellem dugterne, Regardless of the cause of the core protruding between the strands,
skal ståltovet udskiftes omgående. the steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.

Trådbrud Wire Fracture


Trådbrud kan opstå af mange forskellige årsager. Nogle alvorlige, A wire fracture may result from many different causes, some serious,
andre ubetydelige. others insignificant.

Hvis trådbruddene er alvorlige, skal ståltovet udskiftes omgående. If the wire fractures are serious, the steel wire rope must be replaced
immediately.
Hvis du er i tvivl om, hvorvidt ståltovet skal kasseres eller ej, så kon-
takt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling hurtigst muligt. If you are in any doubt as to whether the steel wire rope should be
scrapped or not, please contact your local salesman or our Technical
Department as soon as possible.
10. FORLÆNGELSE OG FORSTRÆKNING

Ståltovsforlængelser 10. ELONGATION AND PRE-STRETCHING


Når et ståltov belastes, forlænger det sig. Forlængelsen består af to
typer forlængelser - sætningsforlængelse (blivende) og elastisk for- Steel Wire Rope Elongation
længelse. Forlængelse p.g.a. overbelastning (f.eks. flydning) eller When a steel wire rope is loaded it becomes longer. This elongation
opdrejning vil ikke blive omtalt. consists of two types of elongation - construction elongation (perma-
nent) and elastic elongation. Elongation due to overloading (yielding)
Sætningsforlængelse or due to rotation are not dealt with here.
Når et nyt ståltov belastes, bliver dugter og hjerte mindre (komprime-
res). Desuden klemmer dugterne hårdere på hjertet - konstruktionen Constructional Elongation
sætter sig. Dette medfører, at ståltovsdimensionen bliver lidt mindre, When a new steel wire rope is subjected to a load, the strands and
hvorved ståltovet forlænger sig. Denne forlængelse kaldes sætnings- the core decrease in size (are compacted). In addition, the strands
forlængelse og vedbliver, indtil ståltovet flere gange har været belas- are squeezing more tightly around the core. The construction settles.
tet ved normal drift. Hvis ståltovet på et senere tidspunkt belastes This means that the steel wire rope's dimension becomes slightly
med en større kraft end under normal drift, vil ståltovet sandsynligvis smaller, causing the steel wire rope to become longer. This elonga-
forlænge sig yderligere. tion is known as constructional elongation and remains in place until
the steel wire rope has been subjected to loads several times in nor-
mal operation. If the steel wire rope is at a later date subjected to a

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-26

Sætningsforlængelse er afhængig af: greater force than that experienced under normal operating condi-
tions, the steel wire rope will probably become a little longer.
· Hjertetype.
· Ståltovskonstruktionen. Constructional elongation is dependent on:
· Slåstigningen. · Type of core
· Materialet. · Steel wire rope construction
· Belastningen. · Elevation (the length a strand passes to wrap once around the
core)
Ståltove med stålhjerte har mindre sætningsforlængelse end ståltove · Material
med fiberhjerte. Da ståltoves sætningsforlængelse er afhængig af · Load
flere faktorer, kan en entydig sætningsforlængelse ikke angives.
Tabel 4 er vejledende: Steel wire ropes with steel cores have less constructional elongation
Tabel 4 than steel wire ropes with fibre cores.

Since the construction elongation of steel wire


ropes is dependent on a number of factors, it
is not possible to give a clear definition of con-
struction elongation. Table 4 is intended to
provide guidelines.

Guidelines for constructional elongation in steel wire ropes

Elastisk forlængelse (E-modul). Elastic Elongation (Modulus of elasticity)


Elastisk forlængelse er ikke kun afhængig af belastningen, men også Elastic elongation is not only dependent on the load on the steel
af konstruktionen, hvorfor ståltove ikke følger Young's E-modul. Tabel wires, but also on the construction, which is why steel wire ropes do
5 angiver forskellige ståltovskonstruktioners E-modul. Tabellen er not follow Young's modulus. It is therefore not possible to produce an
vejledende. unequivocal Modulus of elasticity for steel wire ropes. Table 5 is
intended as a guide only.

Tabel 5

Guidelines for Modulus of elasticity on steel wire ropes

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-27

Den elastiske forlængelse på ståltovet beregnes ud fra følgende for- The elastic elongation in a steel rope is calculated according to the
mel: following formula:

Elastisk forlængelse (mm) = W * L / (E * A), Elastic elongation (mm) = W x L / (E x A)


hvor: Where
W = belastningen (kp) W = Load (kp)
L = ståltovets længde (mm) L = Length of steel wire rope (mm)
E = E-modulet (kp/mm2) E = Modulus of elasticity (kp/mm²)
A = stålarealet (mm2) A = Steel area (mm²)

Hvis et mere præcist E-modul er nødvendigt, skal man måle E-mod- If a more accurate Modulus of elasticity is required, it must be mea-
ulet på det aktuelle ståltov. sured in the actual steel wire rope in question.

Varmeudvidelse Heat Expansion


Et ståltov ændrer længde, når temperaturen ændres. A steel wire rope will change its length when the temperature chang-
Længdeændringen beregnes ud fra følgende formel: es. Changes in length are according to the following formula:

Længdeændring (m) = a * L * Dt Change in length (m) = a x L x Dt

hvor: Where:
a = Lineære varmeudvidelseskoef. = 11 x 10-6 m/m pr. ° C i områ- a = linear heat expansion coefficient = 11 x 10-6 m/m per °C in area
det 0° C til ca. 100° C. 0 to approx. 100° C.
L = Ståltovets længde (m). L = Length of steel wire rope (m).
Dt = Ændring af temperatur (° C). Dt = Change in temperature (°C).

Når temperaturen falder, bliver ståltovet kortere. Når temperaturen When the temperature drops, the steel wire rope will become shorter,
øges, forlænges ståltovet. whereas it will become longer if the temperature rises.

Forstrækning Pre-stretching
Ved forstrækning belastes ståltovet indtil flere gange med ca. 45% af By pre-stretching, the steel wire rope is loaded to approx. 45% of its
ståltovets nominelle brudstyrke, hvorved ståltovets sætningsforlæng- nominal tensile strength, during the course of which the steel wire
else fjernes. rope's construction elongation is removed.

Fjernelsen af sætningsforlængelse forudsætter, at ståltovet ikke The removal of the construction elongation pre-supposes that the
yderligere håndteres. Ved yderligere håndtering falder wiren mere steel wire rope is not subjected to further treatment! If there is further
eller mindre tilbage til dens oprindelige form, men forstrækning er i treatment, the steel wire rope will more or less return to its original
mange tilfælde alligevel en god ting, idet ståltovet væsentlig hurtige- form. However, pre-stretching is in many cases a good idea anyway
re stopper sin sætningsforlængelse. Dette medfører, at ståltovet ikke as it means that the steel wire rope more rapidly ceases its construc-
skal efterspændes så mange gange. tional elongation.

However, in many instances pre-stretching can still be beneficial, as


11. ANVENDELSESTEMPERATURER the steel wire rope's constructional elongation will thus be completed
much more quickly. This in turn means that the steel wire rope does
Maksimum anvendelsestemperatur not need to be re-tightened many times.
· Zinken på galvaniserede tråde smelter ved 419° C. Ved 300° C
begynder zinken at blive blød.
· En opvarmning selv på et relativt kort stykke af wiren til over 11. OPERATING TEMPERATURES
300° C - samtidig med at opvarmningen sker et stykke inde i wiren
- bevirker, at wiren kommer i ubalance og evt. låses. Tråd-/wirebrud Maximum Operating Temperature
opstår herefter hurtigere. · Zinc on galvanised wires melts at 419 °C. At 300 °C the zinc
begins to soften.
· Trådenes mekaniske egenskaber, f.eks. brudstyrke og bøjestyrke, · If a relatively short piece of cable is heated to more than 300 °C,
ændrer sig ved opvarmning. Opvarmning i f.eks. en time ved 200° the heating affects the inside of the wire rope, the wire rope will
C bevirker et fald i trådenes bøjestyrke. become unbalanced and may become locked, causing fractures in
the cable/wires to occur more quickly.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-28

· Et kunstfiberhjerte begynder at blive blødt ved 80° C - 100° C. Et · The wires' mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength and bending
blødt hjerte bevirker, at understøtningen for dugterne forsvinder og strength, change when the temperature rises. A temperature of e.g.
stålwiren kommer i ubalance. Tråd-/wirebrud vil hurtigere forekom- 200 °C for 1 hour will reduce the wires' bending strength.
me. · An artificial fibre core starts to soften at 80-100 °C. A soft core
· Sisalhjerter kan tåle væsentligt højere temperaturer end ståltov means that the support for the strands disappears and the steel
med kunstfiberhjerte. wire rope will become unbalanced, causing fractures in the
cable/wires to occur more quickly.
Da brudstyrke og bøjelighed/fleksibilitet ofte er vigtige mekaniske · Sisal cores can tolerate significantly higher temperatures than steel
egenskaber for et ståltov, kan Randers Reb ikke anbefale, at: wire rope with artificial fibre cores.

· Ståltov med stålhjerte opvarmes til over 200° C gennem Since tensile strength and pliability/flexibility are often important
længere tid. mechanical properties for a steel wire rope, Randers Reb does not
· Ståltov med sisalhjerte opvarmes til over 200° C gennem recommend that a steel wire rope with:
længere tid.
· Ståltov med kunstfiberhjerte opvarmes til over 75° C gennem · A steel core is subjected to temperatures above 200 °C for a longer
længere tid. period of time.

Overfladetemperaturen kan i en kort periode accepteres at stige til · A sisal core is subjected to temperatures above 200 °C for a longer
400° C. period of time.

Minimum anvendelsestemperatur · An artificial fibre core is subjected to temperatures above 75 °C for


Stålet, der anvendes i ståltovet, kan anvendes ned til meget lave a longer period of time.
temperaturer (minus 200° C evt. lavere), uden at stålets egenskaber
forringes væsentligt. Derimod vil olie/fedt ved minus 25° C - 50° C For a short period of time it can be acceptable for the surface tem
miste sin smørende og rustbeskyttende virkning. Desuden vil fiber- perature to reach 400 °C.
hjerter let kunne knuses ved lave temperaturer.
Minimum Operating Temperature
Forudsat at stålwiren ikke indeholder fiberhjerter og at eventuelt The steel that is used in steel wire rope can be used at extremely
olie/fedt ikke skal rustbeskytte og/eller have en smørende virkning, low temperatures (minus 200 °C or less) without any significant
kan ståltovet anvendes ned til ca. minus 200° C. I modsat fald ned til effect on the characteristics of the steel. However, at temperatures of
ca. minus 25° C. only minus 25-50 °C oil and grease will lose their ability to serve as
lubricants and protect against rust. This makes the fibre cores easy
to damage.
Provided that the steel wire rope does not have a fibre core and that
oil and grease are not required as protection against rust or as lubri-
cation, such rope can be used in operating temperatures of approx.
minus 200 °C. If these conditions cannot be met, the minimum tem-
perature is approx. minus 25 °C.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-29

12. MARTENSIT 12. MARTENSITE FORMATION

Martensitdannelse Martensite formation


Martensit er en strukturændring, der sker i trådmaterialet ved høj frik- Martensite is a structural change in the wire material caused by a
tionsvarme (se fig. 45) som f.eks. ved dårlig spoling på spil, hvor de very sudden cooling of the rope after a strong local heating genera-
yderste ståltovslag presses ned i de underliggende lag under en ted by friction. The friction may be caused by e.g. bad winding of the
sådan belastning, at gnistdannelse opstår med efterfølgende hurtig wire rope on winches.
afkøling (se fig. 46).
Fig. 45

Martensite spots in fishing rope which has been used under bad conditions

Fig. 46 Fig. 47

Flattened wire showing martensite structure The brittle layer of martensite shows clearly

Denne strukturændring giver en hård men skør overflade, og under The martensite structure is very brittle and may cause fractures
normal belastning eller ved splejsning kan trådbrud opstå, selvom during normal operation or when spliced, even though the wire rope
der ikke har været nævneværdigt ydre slid (se fig. 47). does not show any visible signs of external wear.

Forholdsregler mod martensitdannelse: Precautions against martensite:

· Blokkene må ikke være nedslidte og bør kunne dreje let. · The blocks must not be worn down and should turn easily.
· When a wire rope is wound on a drum, it should be in tight wraps
· Spoling på tromlen bør ligge i tætte vindinger uden krydsninger, så without the layers crossing each other in order to prevent the top
det overliggende lag under belastning ikke skærer sig ned i de layer from cutting into the underlying layers.
underliggende lag.
· The wire rope should be lubricated at regular intervals in order to
· Ståltovet bør eftersmøres, således at friktionen mellem tråde og minimise the friction between wires and strands.
dugter er mindst mulig.
· The wire rope should be checked at regular intervals for crushing,
· Kontrollér ståltovet for sammentrykninger, små revner og minor cracks and mechanical damages, all of which might indicate
mekaniske skader, som kan være tegn på martensitdannelse. martensite spots.

Hvis en stålwire er strømførende, eller ståltovet spoles op i flere lag If a steel cable carries a current, there will often be sparks. The sur-
under stor belastning, vil der ofte opstå gnister. Overfladetempe- face temperature where the sparks appear will be over 800 °C,
raturen, hvor gnisten opstår, er over 800° C, hvorfor sandsynlighe- making it quite probable that Martensite will be formed. If there is a
den for dannelse af martensit er relativ stor. Hvis forekomsten af strong probability of sparks appearing, wire and cable fractures may
gnister er stor, opstår der hurtigt trådbrud og evt. wirebrud. occur quickly.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-30

13. ENDEBEFÆSTIGELSER 13. END TERMINATIONS

Endebefæstigelser. End terminations

I fig. 48 ses eksempler på endebefæstigelser. Type of end terminations. Degree of efficiency


Fig. 48

Wire rope socket, resin poured


Wedge socket

Wire rope socket, swaged Clips

Mechanical splice with thimble and Talurit Hand-spliced with thimble

Eksempler på endebefæstigelser på ståltove


Examples of end terminations on steel wire ropes

En endebefæstigelse nedsætter normalt brudstyrken på ståltovet. End terminations normally reduce the tensile strength of steel wire
Tabel 6 angiver virkningsgrad (tilnærmet) for de forskellige typer rope. Table 6 shows the approximate effect of the different types of
endebefæstigelser. end terminations.
Tabel 6

Clips

Wedge socket
Hand-spliced

Mechanical splice with ferrule


Wire rope socket, swaged

Wire rope socket, resin poured

Degree of efficiency for different types of end terminations

Fig. 49 viser eksempler på rigtig og forkert montering af wirelås. Fig. 49 Examples of correct and incorrect attachment of wire rope
clips.
Fig. 49

Right way

Wrong way

Wrong way

Examples of correct and incorrect ways of attachment of dead end on


different kinds of wedge sockets

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-31

Fig. 50

14. ISTØBNING MED WIRELOCK 14. SOCKETING (WIRELOCK)

Istøbning (Wirelock) Unless otherwise agreed between the customer and Fyns Kran
Hvis intet andet er aftalt mellem kunde og Fyns Kran Udstyr, så Udstyr, Fyns Kran Udstyr will undertake socketing with Wirelock.
udfører Fyns Kran Udstyr istøbning af tovpære med Wirelock - er en Wirelock is an especially strong twin-component moulding material.
speciel stærk 2-komponent støbemasse. Wirelock anvendes i større Wirelock is increasingly being used instead of zinc, e.g. because:
og større grad i stedet for zink bl.a. p.g.a. :
· Heat generation is much lower than with a zinc seal. The risk of
· at varmeudviklingen er væsentlig lavere i forhold til zinkstøbning. hardening of the steel wires, causing stress fractures, is thus elimi-
Herved elimineres risikoen for hærdning af ståltrådene med udmat- nated. The disappearance (melting away) of grease is also avoided
telsesbrud til følge. Desuden undgår man at fedtet forsvinder (bort- at the junction by the base of socket.
smelter) i overgangszonen ved tovpærehalsen. · Wirelock does not require heating of the rope socket, as long as its
· Wirelock kræver ikke opvarmning af tovpære forudsat, at denne temperature is not below 10 °C.
ikke har en temperatur på under 10 °C. · Wirelock permits full loading 1-2 hours after the sealing process.
· Wirelock tillader fuld belastning 1 - 2 time efter støbningen. · Wirelock does not require any special ancillary tools in connection
· Wirelock kræver ingen specielle hjælpemidler i.f.m. istøbningen. with the sealing process.
· Wirelock er modstandsdygtig overfor syre, saltvand, olie og fedt. · Wirelock is resistant to acid, salt water, oil and grease.
· Wirelock tåler chokbelastning og stød. · Wirelock tolerates shock loading and impact.
· Wirelock kan anvendes til alle former for istøbning. · Wirelock can be used for all types of seal.
· Wirelock trænger bedre ind mellem trådene end zink. · Wirelock penetrates further in between the wires than zinc.
· Wirelock kan anvendes op til 115 °C · Wirelock can be used in temperatures of up to 115 °C.

Wirelock er bl.a. godkendt af Arbejdstilsynet, Det Norske Veritas og Wirelock has been approved by such bodies as the Danish
Lloyd's Register of Shipping. Directorate of Labour Inspection, Det Norske Veritas and Lloyd's
Register of Shipping.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-32

Vejledning for istøbning af ståltove Fig. 1 Guidelines for Socketing with Wirelock
1. Ståltovsenden indføre i tovpæren, hvoref 1. Insert the end of the steel wire rope into
ter ståltovet takles. Afstanden fra toven- the rope socket, and fasten the steel wire
den til den øverste kant af taklingen (L) rope. The distance from the end of the
skal svare til længden på den koniske del rope to the uppermost part of the rigging
af tovpæren minus ståltovsdiameter (d). (L) must correspond to the length of the
Længden på taklingen (l) skal være mini- conical part of the rope socket minus the
mum 1,5 x d. diameter of the steel wire rope (d). The
length of the rigging (l) must be at least
1.5 x d.
2. Opsplitning af de enkelte tråde i dugterne
kan herefter ske. Hvis ståltovet indehol- 2. The individual wires in the strands can be
der et stålhjerte skal dette også splittes split after this. If the steel wire rope con-
op. Eventuelle fiberhjerter kappes over Placing and size of rope sockets tains a steel core, this must also be split
taklingen. Opsplitningen skal være open. If there are any fibre cores, they
ensartet og gå helt ned til taklingen. may be cut above the rigging. The split
Fig. 2 must be clean and go as far down as the
rigging.
Hvis ståltovet kun består af 19 tråde eller
mindre, skal trådene i toppen ombukkes. If the steel wire rope only consists of 19 wires
HUSK at tillægge længden af ombukket til or less, the wires at the top must be doubled
længden af det opsplittede stykke. up. Remember to add the length of the dou-
bled section to the length of the split section.
1) Den opsplittede del af ståltovet (kosten)
rengøres/affedtes f.eks. i en sodaopløs- 1) Clean/de-grease the split section of the
ning. Ved afrensningen og en efterfølgen- steel wire rope (the brush), e.g. in a soda
de skylning skal ståltovet vende nedad solution. When being cleaned and then rin-
således, at væsken ikke trænger ned stål- Splitting the steel wire rope and sed off, the steel wire rope must be facing
tovet. removing the fibre core downwards so that the solution does not
penetrate the rope.
2) Træk tovpæren op over kosten indtil trå
dene er i niveau med overkanten af tov- 2) Pull the rope socket over the brush until
pæren. Kontroller, at et stykke (ca. 0,5 x the wires level with the upper edge of the
d) af den øverste del af taklingen befinder rope socket. Check that a part (min. 0.5 x
sig i den koniske del af tovpæren. d) of the upper section of the rigging is in
Fig. 3 the conical part of the rope socket.
Ståltovet fastgøres, så det
står lodret samtidig med, at Fasten the steel wire rope so that it
et stykke (ca. 25 x d) af is vertical, while a piece (approx. 25
ståltovet hænger lodret. x d) of the steel wire rope is hanging
Herefter tætnes tovpære- vertically. Pack the base of socket
halsen med f.eks. kit for at with e.g. putty to prevent any
forhindre udtrængning af Wirelock escaping during the sealing
Wirelock under istøbingen. process.

Correct location of the rope socket and packing with putty


3) Bland de to komponenter
sammen i en plasticspand eller lignende 3) Mix the two components together in e.g. a plastic bucket. The
(komponenterne skal have en temperatur på mellem 10 °C og components must have a temperature of 10-25 °C. Stir the mixtu-
max. 25 °C). Blandingen omrøres grundigt i ca. 2 minutter. Ved en re thoroughly for around two minutes. If the air temperature (sea-
lufttemperaturer under 10 °C bør een pose "booster" (accelerator) ling temperature) is below 10 °C, a bag of "booster" (accelerator)
tilsættes før omrøring. should be added before stirring.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-33

På posen er angivet, til hvilken mængde Wirelock den skal anven- The bag provides instructions about how much Wirelock must be
des. Under 3 °C bør to poser booster tilsættes. Istøbingen kan godt used. Below 3 °C two bags should be added. The sealing process
foretages i frostgrader, blot man sørger for, at Wirelock massen ikke can be undertaken at temperatures below 0 °C, as long as measu-
kommer under 10 °C under hele istøbningsprocessen. res are taken to ensure that the Wirelock putty itself does not come
under 10 °C at any time during the process.
BEMÆRK : Blandingsforholdet mellem de enkelte komponenter er
nøje afstemt og må ikke deles. NB: The mix ratio between the individual components is precisely
calculated and should not be divided.
Forbruget af Wirelock ses af tabel 1.
The following table shows how Wirelock should be applied.
Tabel 1

Number of seals per litre Wirelock

4) Blandingen hældes i tovpæren, indtil tovpæren er fyldt helt op. 4) Pour the mixture into the rope socket until the rope socket is full.
For at forhindre dannelsen af luftbobler skal en let "piskning" med To prevent air bubbles forming, a piece of steel wire should be
et stykke ståltråd foretages nede mellem ståltovets tråde. Flere used to "whip" gently between the wires in the steel wire rope.
istøbninger kan godt foretages forudsat, at ihældning sker lige Several applications may be made at a time, provided that they
efter hinanden.Evt. overskydende Wirelock kan ikke gemmes, are done in quick succession. Any surplus Wirelock must be dis-
men skal kasseres. posed of.

BEMÆRK : Blandingsmassen starter med at være tykflydende. NB: At the outset the mixture has a thick, liquid consistency. It then
Herefter bliver massen tyndere og tyndere indtil et vist punkt, hvoref- becomes thinner until a certain point at which the hardening process
ter selve hærdeprocessen går igang. Wirelock skal ihældes, inden begins. The Wirelock must be poured before the mixture reaches its
massen når sit tyndeste punkt. thinnest state.

5) Wirelock er fremstillet således, at hærdetiden er 10 minutter i tem 5) Wirelock is produced in such a way that its hardening time is 10
peraturområdet 18 °C til 24 °C. Det bør dog bemærkes, at pro- minutes in the 18-24 °C temperature range. It should, however, be
duktets hærdetid er meget følsom overfor temperaturen på noted that the product's hardening time is very sensitive to the
Wirelock, f.eks. er hærdetiden kun ca. 5 minutter ved 30 °C og ca. temperature of the Wirelock, e.g. it is only approx. 5 minutes at 30
20 minutter ved 10 °C. Hærdetiden har ingen indflydelse på kvali- °C and approx. 20 minutes at 10 °C. The hardening time has no
teten af hærdningen. effect on the quality of the hardening.
Tovpæren må belastes 1 time efter, at Wirelock er hård i overfla- Loads can be applied to the rope socket one hour after the
den (se også afsnit 9.8.2). Wirelock is hard on the surface.

6) Kit fjernes. Specielt når tovpærehalsen hænger opad under bru- 6) Putty must be removed. Particularly in cases where the unit is to
gen, anbefaler Fyns Kran Udstyr, at tovpærehalsen fyldes op med be used with the base of socket upwards, Fyns Kran Udstyr
vandfortrængende olie/fedt for at minimere risikoen for rustdan- recommends that the base of socket be filled up with water-repel-
nelse på dette kritiske sted (hulrummet fyldes med vand). lent oil/grease in order to minimise the risk of rust at this critical
point due to penetration of water.
Kontrol af istøbning
a) Hvis man ridser med en skruetrækker i støbemassen i tovpæreåb Seal Inspection
ningen, og der fremkommer en hvid stribe, er hærdningen foregå- a) If a screwdriver is used to scratch the Wirelock at the opening of
et, som den skal. the rope socket and a white stripe appears, the hardening process
has been completed correctly.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-34

b) Desto mørkere Wirelock er, desto højere temperatur har hærde b) The darker the Wirelock, the higher the temperature during the
processen opnået. Den mørke farve opnås p.g.a korrekte tempe- hardening process. The dark colour is achieved due to correct
raturforhold. Hvis farven er blågrøn, er dette ensbetydende med hardening conditions. If the colour is bluish-green, it indicates a
en "kold" støbning/hærdning. Istøbningen kan kun godkendes, "cold" sealing/hardening process. The sealing process may only
hvis skruetrækkerprøven er O.K. (se punkt a). be approved if the screwdriver test has been passed.

Genbrug af tovpærer Re-use of sockets


Fjernelse af Wirelock i brugte tovpærer kan ske ved opvarmning til Dismantling of Wirelock in used rope sockets can be undertaken by
250 °C i ovn, hvorefter støbemassen krakelerer ved slag og kan fjer- means of heating in a furnace to a temperature of 250 °C, after
nes med dorn. For at undgå opvarmning af tovpæren er det bedre which the seal cracks when struck and can be removed with a man-
blot at presse materialet ud med specialværktøj. drel. To avoid heating up the rope socket, it is recommended that the
material be pressed out using special equipment.
BEMÆRK: Tovpæren må under ingen omstændigheder opvarmes til
mere end 250 °C forudsat, at leverandøren af tovpærerne ikke har
angivet andet. Note:

a) Rope and rope socket must be inspected regularly for fractures,


BEMÆRKNINGER: especially in and around the base of socket.
b) Avoid using an open flame during the mixing and sealing process
a) Tovpære og tov skal jævnligt kontrolleres for brud/beskadigelse, with Wirelock. The hardening agent contains an acid that is flam-
specielt i og ved tovpærehalsen. mable at approx. 30 °C.
b) Undgå brug af åben ild under blandingen og istøbning med c) Protective glasses and gloves must be worn during the sealing
Wirelock. Hærderen indeholder styren, hvis flammepunkt er ca. process. If undertaken indoors, air extraction equipment must be
30 °C. used.
c) Der skal anvendes beskyttelsesbriller og hansker ved istøbning. d) Wirelock must not come into contact with strong alkaline solutions
Hvis det foregår indendørs, skal der være lokal udsugning. such as acetone, as these substances can cause the Wirelock to
d) Wirelock må ikke komme i forbindelse med stærke alkaliske disintegrate.
opløsninger som acetone og lignende, da disse stoffer kan ned- e) If the rope socket has a temperature of below 10 °C, it should be
bryde Wirelock. warmed up, e.g. by placing it in a bucket of warm water.
e) Hvis tovpæren har en temperatur på under 10 °C, bør denne f) The "use before" date presupposes that the Wirelock is stored
opvarmes f.eks. ved at lægge den i en spand varmt vand. at 10-25 °C.
f) En forudsætning for at sidste anvendelsesdato gælder er, at g) Every consignment is accompanied by "Supplier's Directions for
Wirelock opbevares mellem 10 °C og max. 25 °C. Use" of Wirelock.

Ved hver leverance medsendes "Leverandør Brugsanvisning" på Fyns Kran Udstyr will be pleased to carry out the sealing process
Wirelock. with Wirelock either on your premises or in our own splicing shop.
Fyns Kran Udstyr is also a supplier of rope sockets and other types
Fyns Kran Udstyr foretager gerne istøbningen med Wirelock enten of fittings.
hos dig eller i vort splejseri. Fyns Kran Udstyr er også leveringsdyg-
tig i såvel tovpærer samt andre typer fittings.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-35

15. TROMLEKAPACITET 15. DRUM CAPACITY

Max. drum capacity (in metres) is =

A x C x (A + B) x p / d², where

A, B and C are expressed in cm.


D = steel wire rope's diameter in mm.
p = pi = 3.14

Fig. 51

Drum Capacity

16. KLASSIFICERING AF STÅLTOVE 16. CLASSIFICATION AND USE OF STEEL WIRE ROPE

Ståltovsklasser (eksempler på ståltove) Classification of Steel Wire Rope


De forskellige ståltove kan inddeles i forskellige klasser. Inden for The different kinds of steel wire rope can be divided up into distinct
hver klasse er fastlagt antallet af dugter samt antallet af ydertråde i classes. The number of strands and the number of outer wires in
hver dugt. Der findes forskellige systemer/regler for klassificering af each strand is laid down for each class of steel wire rope. The diffe-
ståltovene (ISO, DIN, amerikanske). Randers Reb har valgt at rent systems and sets of rules for this classification include ISO, DIN
anvende den klassificering, der gælder for EU (EN-norm) (se tabel and American. Randers Reb has chosen to employ the set of classi-
2). fications used by the EU (the EN norm).

Tabel 2

Class Number of Number of wires Number of outer Number of layers


outer strands in strand wires in strand of wire in strand

Eksempler på ståltovsklasser (se også fig. 52)


Examples of different classes of steel wire rope (see also fig. 52)

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-36

Eksempler på anvendelse af ståltove Examples of the use of Steel Wire Rope

Fig. 52 viser eksempler på ståltove i de mest anvendte ståltovs- Fig. 52 shows examples of steel wire rope in the most common
klasser. categories of steel wire rope.
Fig. 52

Examples of steel wire rope in the most common categories of steel wire rope

17. TOVVÆRK 17. ROPES

Tabel 8

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-37

Tovværk fremstilles primært af syntetiske materialer som f.eks. PE, Ropes are primarily made of synthetic materials such as PE, PP , PA
PP, PA og polyester. Tovværk af naturfibre som sisal, hamp, manila and polyester. Ropes of natural fibre are still manufactured, but only
og papir produceres stadigvæk, men udbudet er ikke ret stort. Årsa- in small quantities, as synthetic ropes are more wear-resistant and
gen hertil er, at det syntetiske tovværk generelt har en større slidstyr- do not absorb water or rot.
ke, ikke suger vand og ikke rådner. Ropes are primarily manufactured as 3- and 4-strand, crossbraided,
Tovværk fremstilles primært som 3- og 4-slået, krydsflettet, rundflet- roundbraided and plaited.
tet og kvadratflettet.

18. CHAINS AND LIFTING COMPONENTS


18. KÆDER OG KOMPONENTER
Gunnebo - your partner in safe lifting
Gunnebo - din partner i sikkert løft Think Gunnebo when selecting lifting chain and components.
Tænk Gunnebo ved valg af løftekæder og komponenter. Gunnebo Gunnebo has become known for quality, down to the smallest com-
er kendt for kvalitet, helt ned til den mindste komponent som et ponent, as a result of over 200 years experience, systematic quality
resultat af mere en 200 års erfaring, systematisk kvalitetskontrol, control, research and development.
forskning og udvikling. Chain and components are made from quenched and tempered alloy
Kæder og komponenter laves af sejhærdet legeret stål. En garanti steel. A guarantee for very high strength, low weight, high wear resis-
for meget høj styrke, lav vægt, høj slidstyrke og lang levetid. Alle tance and long life. All Gunnebo G8 components are uniformly mar-
Gunnebo G8 komponenter er mærket ensartet med tilsvarende ked with equivalent chain size, grade and manufacturer's designation
kædestørrelse, klasse og producentens betegnelse for positiv identi- for positive identification.
fikation.
Quality to international standards
Kvalitet i henhold til internationale standarder Gunnebo work closely with their steel suppliers to ensure that the
Gunnebo arbejder tæt sammen med sine stålleverandører for at raw material meets their stringent specification.
sikre, at råmaterialerne opfylder de strenge kvalitetskrav. They also work closely with their world markets and have official
Gunnebo arbejder også tæt sammen med sit verdensmarked og har approval by the main national and international authorities including
officielle godkendelser fra vigtigste nationale og internationale myn- MOD, NATO, BG and many others.
digheder inklusiv MOD, NATO, BG og mange andre. Gunnebo G8 Grade 8 chain is manufactured and tested to the
Gunnebo G8 klasse 8 kæde er produceret og testet i henhold til kra- requirements of ISO 1834 & 3076, 1984 and EN 818-1, & 2. All com-
vene i ISO 1834 & 3076, 1984 og EN 818-1, & 2. Alle komponenter ponents match the relevant prEN- and EN-standards.
opfylder de relevante prEN og EN-standarder. All Gunnebo productions units are approved by Lloyds (LRQA) for
Alle Gunnebo's produktionsenheder er godkendte af Lloyd's (LRQA) quality assurance to ISO 9001. This approval also combines the new
for kvalitetssikkerhed i henhold til ISO 9001. Denne godkendelse European standard EN 29001. Their quality management covers all
kombinerer også den nye europæiske standard EN 29001. aspects of production from raw material to delivered product. LRQA
Gunnebo's kvalitetskontrol dækker alle produktionsaspekter fra approval for their system includes design, development, manufactu-
råmateriale til leveret produkt. LRQA godkendelse for systemet inklu- re, marketing and distribution of lifting chains and associated compo-
derer design, udvikling, produktion, markedsføring og distribution af nents.
løftekæder og tilhørende komponenter. Full test certification is supplied on request.
Testcertifikater leveres på forespørgsel.
Gunnebo gives you more options
Gunnebo giver dig flere valgmuligheder Gunnebo G8 is more than just another chain sling system. It is a
Gunnebo G8 er mere end blot endnu et kædeslingsystem. Det er et total lifting concept in high grade alloy steel for heavy lifting.
totalt løftekoncept i legeret stål af høj kvalitet til tunge løft. The chain and components in the G8 and SK ranges are designed to
Kæderne og komponenterne i G8 og SK sortimenterne er designet til give more flexibility, more options to meet almost any lifting problem
at give mere fleksibilitet og flere valgmuligheder og dermed løse involving slings - whether chain, steel wire rope or soft slings.
næsten ethvert løfteproblem, hvor der skal bruges kædesling - hvad When introduced around 30 years ago, the BK Safety Hook dramati-
enten det drejer sig om kæde-, wire- eller kædesling. cally increased industrial safety on sites all over the world.
Da BK sikkerhedskrogen blev introduceret for ca. 30 år siden, blev The new generation safety hooks - OBK/GBK - provide a more com-
den industrielle sikkerhed på arbejdspladser over hele verden forhøj- pact version of the well-known BK-hook. The grip latch modification
et betydeligt. gives better side stability and the hook now has improved riveting.
Den nye generation i sikkerhedskroge - OBK/GBK - er en mere kom- Once again, Gunnebo innovation leads the way.
pakt version af den velkendte BK-krog. Modificeringen af sikkerhed-
spalen giver bedre sidestabilitet og krogen har nu forbedret nagling.
Endnu en nyskabelse fra Gunnebo, der viser vejen.

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-38

Sikkert design ned til lastdetaljen Safe design down to the load detail
BK/OBK/GBK sikkerhedskrogene opfylder to vigtige krav. Det ene er, Gunnebo BK/OBK/GBK Safety Hooks fulfil two important require-
at lasten forbliver i krogen. Palen lukker automatisk, så snart krogen ments. One is that the load stays put in the hook. The latch closes
bliver belastet. Den kan ikke åbnes utilsigtet under last. Udløseren automatically as soon as the hook is loaded. It cannot be opened
kan kun betjenes, når lasten er sikkert afsat. under load accidentally. The release trigger will only operate when
Det andet er, at krogen ikke så let hænger fast under løft p.g.a. dens the load is safely grounded.
bløde profil. The other is that the hook will not easily snag during lifting because
Gunnebo sikkerhedskrogene er designet til arbejde. Det er let at of its smooth profile.
betjene udløseren selv med arbejdshandsker på. Den forbliver åben, Gunnebo Safety Hooks are designed for work. It is easy to operate
så begge hænder er fri til at belaste krogen. the release trigger even with working gloves on. It stays open so that
Sikkerhedskrogene fås fra WLL 1,25 - 25 ton. both hands are free to load the hook.
Gunnebo Safety Hooks are available for Working Load Limits 1.25 to
Anvendelse 25 tonnes.
· Opret et kartotek over alle kæder, der er i brug.
· Løft aldrig med en vredet kæde. Use
· Kædesling skal opkortes med en opkorterkrog - der må aldrig slås · Keep a register of all chains in use.
knuder på kæden. · Never lift with a twisted chain
· Beskyt kæden mod skarpe kanter ved at lægge et mellemlag · Chain slings should be shortened with at shortening hook, never by
imellem. knotting.
· Belast aldrig en krog i spidsen - lasten skal altid ligge korrekt i · Never point load a hook - the load should always seat correctly in
bunden af krogen. the bowl of the hook.
· Brug altid den korrekte størrelse kæde til lasten under hensyntagen · Always use the correct size sling for the load allowing for the inclu
til vinkel og muligheden for ulige belastning. ded angle and the possibility of unequal loading.
· Topøjet skal altid kunne hænge frit i krankrogen. · The master link should always be able to move freely on the crane
· Undgå altid belastning i ryk. hook.
· Avoid snatch-loading at all times.
Vedligeholdelse
Mindst hver 6. måned eller oftere i henhold til lovmæssige bestem- Maintenance
melser, type af anvendelse og tidligere erfaring skal der udføres en Periodic through examination must be carried out at least every six
omhyggelige kontrol. months or more frequently according to statutory regulations, type of
use and past experience.
· Kæder med bøjede, revnede eller udhulede led skal udskiftes, · Chain with bent, cracked or gouged links should be replaced, as
ligesom deformerede komponenter så som bøjede ovalringe, åbne should deformed components such as bent master links, opened up
kroge og enhver komponent, der viser tegn på slitage. hooks and any fitting showing signs of damage.
· Slitagen på kæden og komponenterne må ingen steder overstige · The wear of the chain and components shall in no place exceed
10% af de oprindelige dimensioner. Slitagen på kædeled - max. 10% of the original dimensions. The chain link wear - max. 10% - is
10% - er defineret som den gennemsnitlige diameter af materialet defined as the reduction of the mean diameter of the material mea-
målt i 2 retninger. sured in two directions.
· Overbelastede kædesling skal tages ud af brug. · Overloaded chain slings must be taken out of service.

I Danmark kræver Arbejdstilsynet, at alt løftegrej skal kontrolleres


mindst én gang om året. Fyns Kran Udstyr tilbyder at udføre test
direkte hos kunden (se afsnit 9).

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-39

19. TEKNISKE OMREGNINGSTABELLER 19. TECHNICAL CONVERSION TABLES

Fig. 9

Omsætning mellem diverse enheder

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-40

Testcertifikat for stålwirer Test and Examination Certificate


for Wire Rope

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-41

Certifikat for test af løftegrej Certificate for test of Lifting Gear

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-42

Certifikat for test af Certificate for test of


faldsikringsudstyr Fall Arrest Equipment

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-43

Certifikat for test af El-taljer Certificate for test of Electric


Chain Hoists

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Certifikat for test af Certificate for test of Vacuum


Vakuumløfteåg Lifters

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-45

Certifikat for test af kædetaljer, Repair Certificate for Chain Hoists,


wiretaljer, løbekatte, løftekløer, Pull-Lift Trolleys, Lifting Clamps
spil og donkrafte and Jacks

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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-46

Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S


ISO 9002 certifikat ISO 9002 certificate

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CHAINS & FITTINGS

SECTION 2

CHAINS AND FITTINGS

Introduction
There are currently two types of chain in common use within the marine
industry. Studlink chain which is the most popular is used by the shipping and
the oil Industry. Open link, which has no studs, is generally used in special
mooring applications such as permanent moorings for FPSO’s for the larger
diameter chains and buoy and marine moorings for the small diameters.
Chain is normally supplied in 27.5 metre lengths but the oil industry uses chain
of much longer lengths up to about 1370 feet (4,500 metres). Long lengths of
chain mean no joining links, which may be the weakest links, but shipping and
handling can be a problem.
Chain size is generally expressed as the diameter of the steel at the bending
area. This can mean that steel bars of 78-79mm may be used to manufacture
chain of 76mm diameter. Chain can be fitted with open end links to enable
shackle connections to be made. These end links are normally forged to the
chain using an intermediate link also known as an enlarged link. These links are
larger than the diameter of the chain to take into account the differing radii and
the reduced strength of the links due the end link being studless.
Chain strengths are expressed as grades followed by a number. The letter used
varies with countries but the strength of the chain remains the same. The
United Kingdom used “U”, France and Spain used “Q” and the Scandinavian
countries use “K”. The number relates to the type and hence the strength of
the steel. U1 grade is mild steel, U2 is a high tensile steel and U3 is a special
heat treated steel. These grades are normally only used within the shipping
industry as the oil industry demands even greater strengths for the chain used.
The original grade designed for the offshore industry was ORQ (Oil Rig
Quality). Although this chain is still in use it has been superseded by new
grades such as Rig Quality 3 and Rig Quality 4. These grades were introduced
by the classification societies in order to standardise quality. The same grades
also apply to the joining links that may be used with the chain.
Tables showing the various strengths of chain are shown overleaf.
Offshore Industry dictates that chain must be periodically inspected for wear
and defects. The level of inspection and the intervals of these surveys are laid
down by the classification authorities. Balmoral can carry out such inspections
in line with relevant classification society requirements.

2.1
CHAINS & FITTINGS

STUD LINK MOORING CHAIN

3.6d 4d 4d

6d 6.5d 6.75d

1d 1.1d 1.2d

COMMON LINK ENLARGED LINK END LINK

Common Link Enlarged Link End Link

2.2
CHAINS & FITTINGS

STUD LINK CHAIN


Shot = 90 ft = 27.5 m

U2 U3 ORQ
Weight
Kg/shot P.L. B.L. P.L. B.L. P.L. B.L.
incl. mm in kN kN kN kN kN kN
Kenter

222
A 142019 1240 3/4280 150
935 870 211590 211
30 301
306 22 7/8 200 280 280 401
418
C 172026 1480 1370 278
1129 1040 389720 389
40 556
497 28 1 1/8 321 449 449 642
652
E 210032 18201 1/4530 417
1391 1270 583910 583
65 833
734 34 1 5/16 468 655 655 937
826
H 264036 1 7/16660
2500 523
1815 1660 732
1050 732
75 1050
919 38 1 1/2 581 812 812 1160
1105 42 1 5/8 703 981 981 1400
1209 44 1 3/4 769 1080 1080 1540
1437 48 1 7/8 908 1280 1280 1810
1555 50 2 981 1370 1370 1960 1400 2110
1809 54 2 1/8 1140 1590 1590 2270 1620 2441
1946 56 2 3/16 1220 1710 1710 2430 1746 2639
2100 58 2 5/16 1290 1810 1810 2600 1854 2797
2253 60 2 3/8 1380 1940 1940 2770 1976 2978
2573 64 2 1/2 1560 2190 2190 3130 2230 3360
2742 66 2 5/8 1660 2310 2310 3300 2361 3559
3097 70 2 3/4 1840 2580 2580 3690 2634 3970
3374 73 2 7/8 1990 2790 2790 3990 2846 4291
3681 76 3 2150 3010 3010 4300 3066 4621
4187 81 3 3/16 2410 3380 3380 4820 3453 5209
4832 87 3 7/16 2750 3850 3850 5500 3924 5916
5385 92 3 5/8 3040 4260 4260 6080 4342 6544
5723 95 3 3/4 3230 4510 4510 6440 4599 6932
6613 102 4 3660 5120 5120 7320 5220 7868

9.81 kN = 1 Tonne
P.L. = Proof Load
B.L. = Breaking Load

2.3
CHAINS & FITTINGS

STUD LINK/STUDLESS CHAIN –


OIL INDUSTRY GRADES
Break Load
Weight
Dia R4-RQ4 R3S R3 RQ3-API
Stud and Studless Stud Studless
mm kN kN kN kN kgs/m kgs/m
66 4621 4200 3761 3559 95 87
68 4885 4440 3976 3762 101 92
70 5156 4685 4196 3970 107 98
73 5572 5064 4535 4291 117 107
76 6001 5454 4884 4621 126 116
78 6295 5720 5123 4847 133 122
81 6745 6130 5490 5194 144 131
84 7208 6550 5866 5550 155 141
87 7682 6981 6252 5916 166 151
90 8167 7422 6647 6289 177 162
92 8497 7722 6916 6544 185 169
95 9001 8180 7326 6932 198 181
97 9343 8490 7604 7195 206 188
100 9864 8964 8028 7596 219 200
102 10217 9285 8315 7868 228 208
105 10754 9773 8753 8282 241 221
107 11118 10103 9048 8561 251 229
111 11856 10775 9650 9130 270 246
114 12420 11287 10109 9565 285 260
117 12993 11807 10574 10005 300 274
120 13573 12334 11047 10452 315 288
122 13964 12690 11365 10753 326 298
124 14358 13048 11686 11057 337 308
127 14955 13591 12171 11516 353 323
130 15559 14139 12663 11981 370 338
132 15965 14508 12993 12294 382 348
137 16992 15441 13829 13085 411 375
142 18033 16388 14677 13887 442 403
147 19089 17347 15536 14700 473 432
152 20156 18317 16405 15522 506 462
157 21234 19297 17282 16352 540 493
162 22320 20284 18166 17188 575 525
165 22976 20879 18699 17693 596 545
168 23633 21477 19234 18199 618 564
171 24292 22076 19771 18707 640 585
175 25174 22877 20488 19386 671 613
178 25836 23479 21027 19896 694 634

2.4
CHAINS & FITTINGS

Proof Load
Weight
R4-RQ4 R3S R3 RQ3-API
Dia
Stud Studless Stud Studless Stud Stud Stud Studless
Studless Studless
mm kN kN kN kN kN kN kgs/m kgs/m
66 3643 3238 3036 2935 2631 2361 95 87
68 3851 3423 3209 3102 2782 2496 101 92
70 4064 3613 3387 3274 2935 2634 107 98
73 4392 3904 3660 3538 3172 2847 117 107
76 4731 4205 3942 3811 3417 3066 126 116
78 4962 4411 4135 3997 3548 3216 133 122
81 5317 4726 4431 4283 3840 3446 144 131
84 5682 5051 4735 4577 4104 3683 155 141
87 6056 5383 5046 4878 4374 3925 166 151
90 6439 5723 5365 5187 4650 4173 177 162
92 6699 5954 5582 5396 4838 4342 185 169
95 7096 6307 5913 5716 5125 4599 198 181
97 7365 6547 6138 5933 5319 4774 206 188
100 7776 6912 6480 6264 5616 5040 219 200
102 8054 7159 6712 6488 5817 5220 228 208
105 8478 7536 7065 6829 6123 5495 241 221
107 8764 7790 7304 7060 6330 5681 251 229
111 9347 8308 7789 7529 6750 6058 270 246
114 9791 8703 8159 7887 7071 6346 285 260
117 10242 9104 8535 8251 7397 6639 300 274
120 10700 9511 8916 8619 7728 6935 315 288
122 11008 9785 9173 8868 7950 7135 326 298
124 11319 10061 9432 9118 8175 7336 337 308
127 11789 10479 9824 9497 8515 7641 353 323
130 12265 10903 10221 9880 8858 7950 370 338
132 12585 11187 10488 10138 9089 8157 382 348
137 13395 11906 11162 10790 9674 8682 411 375
142 14216 12637 11847 11452 10267 9214 442 403
147 15048 13376 12540 12122 10868 9753 473 432
152 15890 14124 13241 12800 11476 10299 506 462
157 16739 14879 13949 13484 12089 10850 540 493
162 17596 15641 14663 14174 12708 11405 575 525
165 18112 16100 15094 14590 13081 11739 596 545
168 18631 16560 15525 15008 13455 12075 618 564
171 19150 17022 15959 15427 13831 12412 640 585
175 19845 17640 16538 15986 14333 12863 671 613
178 20367 18104 16972 16407 14709 13201 694 634

2.5
CHAINS & FITTINGS

OPEN LINK MOORING CHAIN

LONG LINK
(MILD STEEL) d
3.5d

6d

Size Weight Proof Load Minimum


Breaking Load
mm ins kg/m kg kg
13 1/2 3.34 3190 7970
16 5/8 5.06 4830 12090
19 3/4 7.14 6820 17050
22 7/8 10.46 10000 24990
26 1 13.38 12770 31940

MEDIUM LINK
(MILD STEEL) d
3.5d

5.5d

Size Weight Proof Load Minimum


Breaking Load
mm ins kg/m kg kg
13 1/2 3.50 3200 6400
16 5/8 5.20 4800 9600
19 3/4 7.40 6800 13600
22 7/8 10.00 9100 18200
25 1 12.80 11800 23600
28 1 1/8 16.50 14800 29500
32 1 1/4 21.00 19400 38700
34 1 3/8 23.50 21800 43600
38 1 1/2 29.50 27300 54600
42 1 5/8 36.00 33300 66600
44 1 3/4 39.50 36600 73200
48 1 7/8 47.00 43500 87000
51 2 53.00 49200 98300

2.6
CHAINS & FITTINGS

OPEN LINK MOORING CHAIN

SHORT LINK
(MILD STEEL)
d
3.5d

5d

Size Weight Proof Load Minimum


Breaking Load
mm ins kg/m kg kg
6 1/4 0.89 700 1400
7 9/32 1.13 900 1800
8 5/16 1.39 1250 2500
10 3/8 1.95 2000 4000
11 7/16 2.67 2240 4480
13 1/2 3.72 3200 6400
16 5/8 5.64 5000 10000
19 3/4 7.96 6820 3640

2.7
CHAINS & FITTINGS

KENTER JOINING LINKS

Size Weight
mm kg
19 1.0
22 1.6
26 2.6
30 3.5
32 4.8
34 6.5
38 8.4
41 11.0
44 13.5
48 16.5
52 20 d
54 24
57 28
60 32
64 39
67 45 4d 6d
70 52
73 60
76 67
79 77
83 86 4.2d 1.5d
86 93 Kenter Joining Link
89 101 Common Link Common Link
92 112
95 123
98 137
102 151
105 158 TYPICAL APPLICATION
108 163
110 171
114 180
120 230

Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ


Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions given are approximate

2.8
CHAINS & FITTINGS

PEAR SHAPE ANCHOR CONNECTING LINK

G
D
J

F C
A

E
H
B
Anchor Shank
Anchor Shackle

Common Links

No Chain size A B C D E F
in mm mm mm mm mm mm mm

4 32-40 298 206 59 40 48 83


5 42-51 378 260 76 51 64 100
6 52-60 454 313 92 60 76 121
7 62-79 562 376 117 79 95 149
8 81-92 654 419 133 92 124 149
9 94-95 692 435 146 98 130 159
10 97-102 889 571 190 121 165 190

No G H J K Weight
in kg

4 40 x 44 56 26 43 13
5 51 x 60 74 32 52 27
6 62 x 73 88 37 64 49
7 85 x 79 111 48 76 94
8 111 x 102 130 x 133 54 79 149
9 124 x 137 141 57 83 236
10 130 181 73 108 386

Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ


Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions given are approximate

2.9
CHAINS & FITTINGS

DETACHABLE CONNECTING LINK

D E C

E B
G

Chain size in mm A B C D E F G weight in Kg

30-32 190.5 127 44 32 35 39 21 4.5


33-35 210 140 49 35 39 42 23 6.0
36-38 229 152 53 38 43 46 25 7.8
40-42 248 165 57 41 50 50 27 10.0
43-44 267 190 62 44 51 56 30 12.5
46-48 286 194 64 48 55 60 31 14.5
50-51 305 197 64 51 59 64 33 16.5
52-54 324 210 67 54 64 67 36 20.0
56-58 343 221 71 57 67 71 38 23.5
59-60 362 234 78 60 70 75 40 27.5
62-64 381 246 79 64 73 78 42 32.0
66-67 400 246 83 67 78 79 44 37.0
68-70 419 275 92 73 83 90 46 45.5
71-73 438 283 94 73 85 93 48 48.5
74-76 457 295 95 76 90 94 50 54.5
78-79 476 308 102 79 92 96 52 62.5
81-83 495 320 103 83 92 103 55 73.0
84-86 514 332 107 86 100 107 57 80.5
87-89 537 350 116 92 105 114 59 93.5
90-92 552 356 119 92 106 116 61 97.5
94-95 571 368 122 95 114 119 62 116.0
97-98 590 381 127 98 117 121 67 123.0
100-102 607 394 132 102 119 122 68 130.0

Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ


Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions given are approximate

2.10
CHAINS & FITTINGS

D’ TYPE JOINING SHACKLES

Size Weight
mm kg
19 1.7
22 2.7
26 4.3
30 7
32 7.8
34 8.5
38 13.8
41 18
44 22
48 27
52 29
54 39
57 46
60 52
64 64
67 74
70 84
73 98
76 110
79 122
3.4d
83 134 7.1d 1.2d
86 144
89 154 1.6d
92 168
95 184 1.4d
1.3d 1.3d 2.8d
98 200 4d
102 220 Enlarged Link Joining Shackle Enlarged Link
105 230
108 264
110 285
114 320
Common Link End Link End Link Common Link
120 340

2.11
CHAINS & FITTINGS

‘D’ TYPE ANCHOR SHACKLES

Size Weight
mm kg
19 2.5
22 3.8
26 6.0
30 9
32 11.3
34 14
38 19.8
41 26
44 32
48 39
52 48
54 57
57 67
60 80
64 93
67 106
70 121
73 141 4d 8.7d
76 159 1.3d
79 172 1.8d
83 189
86 200 1.4d 1.4d
2.4d 3.1d
89 230
5.2d
92 258
95 290 Enlarged Link Anchor Shackle Anchor Shank
98 301
102 344
105 390
108 422
110 431 Swivel End Link Clenched Anchor
114 475 Shackle

120 530

Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ


Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions give are approximate

2.12
CHAINS & FITTINGS

SHACKLES
BOW AND ‘D’ SCREW PIN SHACKLES UP TO 120 tonne SWL

BOW SCREW PIN 'D' SCREW PIN

Size
Inside
Length

Gap Outside Pin Dia


of Eye

O/Dia Inside Weight Weight


SWL Size Pin Dia Gap Eye Length Safety Screw Pin
Tonnes mm mm mm mm mm kg kg
2 13 16 19 32 48 0.36 0.36
3.25 16 19 26 41 61 0.72 0.68
4.75 19 22 32 48 70 1.3 1.0
6.5 22 25 35 54 83 1.8 1.5
8.5 25 29 42 60 95 2.6 2.4
9.5 29 32 45 67 108 3.6 3.4
12 32 35 51 76 118 5.1 3.9
13.5 35 38 57 85 133 6.9 5.9
17 38 41 60 92 149 9.0 7.9
25 44 51 73 111 178 14.2 12.7
35 51 57 83 127 197 21.0 18.7
55 64 70 105 152 267 43 38.0
85 76 83 127 165 330 66 59
120 89 95 140 203 381 114 102

2.13
CHAINS & FITTINGS

BOW AND ‘D’ SAFETY PIN SHACKLES UP TO 100 tonne SWL

O/Dia Inside Weight Weight


SWL Size Pin Dia Gap Eye Length Safety Screw Pin
Tonne mm mm mm mm mm kg kg
2 13 16 19 32 41 0.36 0.3
3.25 16 19 26 41 51 0.67 0.55
4.75 19 22 32 48 60 0.72 0.6
6.5 22 25 35 54 70 1.7 1.4
8.5 25 29 42 60 80 2.4 2.1
9.5 29 32 45 67 89 3.3 3.0
12 32 35 51 76 99 4.7 4.1
13.5 35 38 57 85 111 6.1 5.5
17 38 41 60 92 124 8.4 7.4
25 44 51 73 111 149 13.0 16.0
35 51 57 83 127 171 19.0 16.5
50-55 64 70 105 152 203 38.0 33.7
75-85 76 83 127 165 229 56.0 49.0
100 89 95 149 203 267 99.0 86.0

2.14
CHAINS & FITTINGS

SHACKLES, BOW & ‘D’ SAFETY

BOW SAFETY 'D' SAFETY

Inside Size
Length

Outside
Gap of Eye Pin Dia

GREEN PIN
Inside Weight
SWL Size Pin Dia Gap Length Safety
Tonnes mm mm mm mm kg
120 89 95 146 381 120
150 102 108 165 400 160
200 120 130 175 500 235
250 125 140 200 540 285
300 135 150 200 600 340
400 165 175 225 650 560
500 175 185 250 700 685
600 195 205 275 700 880
700 205 215 300 700 980
800 210 220 300 700 1100
900 220 230 320 700 1280
1000 230 240 340 700 1460

CROSBY
Inside O/Dia
SWL Size Pin Dia Gap Length Eye Weight
Tonnes mm mm mm mm mm kg
120 89 95 133 371 203 120
150 102 108 140 368 229 153
200 108 121 184 394 268 204
250 121 127 216 508 305 272
300 130 152 216 495 305 352
400 149 178 210 571 356 499
500 155 190 219 641 381 704
600 178 210 235 810 432 863

2.15
CHAINS & FITTINGS

JAW & JAW SWIVELS

1.4d 1.3d
Size Weight
mm kg
54 120
57 156 1.3d

60 200 12.7d
7.7d

64 258
68 303
70 330
2.2d
73 361 c 1.7d 1.7d
76 394 5.6d 4d

84 493 Anchor Shank End Link Enlarged Link


90 600 Common Link
95 700 Anchor Shank
102 970 Common Link
105 1060
108 1170
114 1440
Enlarged Link End Link Anchor Shackle
120 1650
TYPICAL APPLICATION

2.16
CHAINS & FITTINGS

BOW & EYE SWIVELS

Size Weight
mm kg
19 2.8
22 4.4
26 6.8
30 9.4
32 12.7
34 17.5
38 22
41 29
44 36
48 43
52 54
54 64
57 75
60 78
64 90
67 104
70 114
3.6d 1.1d 73 134
76 152
79 171
83 189
1.4d
86 196
9.3d
89 217
6.3d
92 256
95 275
98 300
4.7d 1.2d 102 342
3.4d 105 387
Swivel 108 420
End Link
End Link 110 450
114 520
Enlarged Link 120 620
Enlarged Link
End Link Common Link

Enlarged Link Swivel Enlarged Link

TYPICAL SWIVEL ASSEMBLIES

2.17
CHAINS & FITTINGS
MOORING RINGS

Size Weight
mm kg
19 6
25 12
32 24
38 40
44 63
51 98
57 136
64 193
70 252
76 323
83 421
89 518
95 630
102 780

7.5d 2d

TYPICAL APPLICATION

Ring

Shackles
Sinker

2.18
CHAINS & FITTINGS

FISH PLATES

B D
D

Proof Breaking
Chain Size A B C D Load Load Weight
mm mm mm mm mm Tonnes Tonnes kg
38 320 168 50 76 81.2 106 13
48 360 184 60 88 127 181 25
58 430 225 80 102 190 287 50
70 506 266 90 120 270 404 81
76 550 290 90 130 313 472 96
83 600 316 100 142 356 549 127
95 685 361 120 162 508 794 199
102 736 388 120 174 594 910 230

2.19
CHAINS & FITTINGS

PELICAN HOOKS

C
D
E A

Chain

Pelican Hook

Deck Padeye
TYPICAL APPLICATION

Chain Size A B C D E S.W.L. Weight


mm mm mm mm mm mm Tonnes kg
25-28 90 35 38 30 358 10 24
32 100 40 45 35 390 15 35
34-42 110 45 55 42 430 25 50
44-48 120 50 60 50 475 35 70
51-58 135 60 75 60 525 50 98
60-64 150 70 86 70 600 60 150
67-70 170 80 90 80 705 75 230
76-83 200 100 105 100 880 100 430

2.20
CHAINS & FITTINGS

SLIP HOOKS

Size Weight
mm kg
19 4.3
22 6.6
25 10
29 14
32 19
35 27
38 34
41 44
44 55
48 66
51 82
54 98
57 115
60 137 13d
64 159 0.6d
67 183 1.3d
70 208
73 241
2.5d
76 272
79 312
83 348 6.7d
86 394 1.3d 4.4d
89 437
92 483 1.3d
95 532
98 593 4d 10.4d
102 649

2.21
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

‘J’ CHASERS
BEL 101 ’J’ CHAIN CHASER

Safe Working Load: 100 Tonnes


Proof Test Load: 250 Tonnes
Weight: 1882 Kg

4.88
124 86
ø3.38

50
27.
699
96.00
2438

72.00
1829 12.00
305

CHAIN CHASERS
Chain chasers were developed to overcome the problems of
recovering rig anchors when anchor pendant lines failed in service.
The operational sequence of chasing is shown below.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3


Wire Rope from
Anchor Handling
Vessel

Anchor

Chain
Chaser

Mooring Chain

3.2
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

BEL 109 GRAPNEL

Safe Working Load: 100 Tonnes


Proof Test Load: 150 Tonnes
Weight: 1351 Kg

ø3.38
4.50

86
114

4.00

70.00
1778
102

3.00
76
54.00
1372

GRAPNELS
The grapnel was designed as a “fishing” tool primarily for the
purpose of recovering an anchor and chain which has become
detached and has fallen to the sea bed. The operational sequence is
as follows:
Stage 1 Stage 2

Recovery
Wire Rope

Broken Recovery
Chain Wire Rope Broken
Chain

3.3
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

GRAPNELS
BEL 139 GRAPNEL

Safe Working Load: 250 Tonnes


Proof Test Load: 350 Tonnes
Weight: 2630 Kg

66.00
1676
7.88
191
7.5

200 3.94
100
ø5.25
133

5.0
127
1689
1994

66.5
1283
78.5

50.5

ø3.50
89

3.94
216
8.5

1.5 100
Continuous Fillet Weld 38

3.4
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

PERMANENT CHASERS
BEL 102 - 106 - 110

G

A
C

F
D
B E

Proof
Type S.W.L. Test A B C D E F G H
BEL 100 250 in 65.25 45.00 39.00 30.00 12.00 7.50 4.88 3.38
102 Tonnes Tonnes mm 1657 1143 991 762 305 191 124 86
BEL 130 250 in 67.00 46.00 39.00 30.00 15.00 8.00 5.13 3.88
106 Tonnes Tonnes mm 1702 1168 991 762 381 203 130 99
BEL 130 250 in 73.50 49.00 44.50 33.00 13.00 8.00 5.13 3.88
110 Tonnes Tonnes mm 1867 1245 1130 838 330 203 130 99

Weight: BEL 102 1088 Kg


BEL 106 1451 Kg
BEL 110 1433 Kg

Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type.


Specials can be made to suit customer requirements.

3.5
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

DETACHABLE PERMANENT CHAIN CHASERS


BEL 107 - 108 - 111

G

A
C

F
D
B E

Proof
Type S.W.L. Test A B C D E F G H
BEL 100 250 in 74.25 45.00 42.50 30.00 12.00 7.50 4.88 3.38
107 Tonnes Tonnes mm 1886 1143 1080 762 305 191 124 86
BEL 130 250 in 76.00 46.00 42.00 30.00 15.00 8.00 5.13 3.88
108 Tonnes Tonnes mm 1931 1168 1067 762 381 203 130 99
BEL 130 250 in 78.50 49.00 44.50 33.00 13.00 8.00 5.13 3.88
111 Tonnes Tonnes mm 1994 1245 1130 838 330 203 130 99

Weight: BEL 107 1238 Kg


BEL 108 1656 Kg
BEL 111 1742 Kg

Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type.


Specials can be made to suit customer requirements.

3.6
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

PERMANENT WIRE CHASERS


BEL 210 - 213 - 214 - 215

G E


A C

D F
B

Proof
S.W.L. Test
Type Tonnes Tonnes A B C D E F G H
BEL 210 130 250 mm 2073 1245 1203 838 330 432 130 99
BEL 213 130 250 mm 1962 1099 1086 692 330 445 130 99
BEL 214 130 250 mm 2318 1308 1397 902 330 508 130 99
BEL 215 250 400 mm 2051 1168 1060 711 356 445 178 127

Weight: BEL 210 1959 kg


BEL 213 1846 kg
BEL 214 2530 kg
BEL 215 2495 kg

Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type.


Specials can be made to suit customer requirements.

3.7
CHASERS & GRAPNELS

‘J’ LOCK CHAIN CHASERS


BEL 115

12.00 4.88
305 124

3.38
86
82.00
2083
ø28.00
711

21.00 58.50
533 1486

1 1
BEL 115/35 for chain 2 /2 inch to 3 /2 inch.
3 1
BEL 115/45 for chain 3 /4 inch to 4 /2 inch.

Safe Working Load: 100 Tonnes


Proof Test Load: 250 Tonnes
Weight: 1778 Kg

3.8
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Equipment PFR 1/02


10

SWIVEL

As a safety precaution, a swivel is inserted in the system to release stress and turns in
work wires chaser wires.

The swivel is inserted between anchor handling wire and PCP to ensure no stress and
turns in the wire, enabling the deck crew to safely disconnect the systems.

T.O. has delivered a MOORLINK swivel to all AHTS vessels.

Please observe the enclosed table / drawing showing breaking strength when the swivels
are on wire drums and stern rollers.

Training Manual

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 10\1.Swivel.doc


DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Equipment PFR 2/02


10

Training Manual

M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 10\1.Swivel.doc


DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Course Manual May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Equipment PFR 10 1/02

Pin Extractor
When using this tool to take out the pin from a shackle, the safety is considerably
improved.

Occasionally people have been injured when a crowbar has been used for this action, and
in case the wire is twisted, this may be a dangerous situation for the crew.

With this new tool it will be much safer to get the pin out.

The wire from ether the tugger or the capstan is fixed on the Extractor which is hooked to
the bolt on the pin. The pin is now easily pulled out by means of the tugger or capstan.

It is the intention from APM Nautical Department, to put extractor devices for 85, 100 and
120 tons shackles into production.

See the Pin Extractor in use on a 85 T shackle on page 2/02

Training Manual
IM:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 10\2.Pin Extractor.doc
work group
Training Centre
E-procurement
Maersk A/S Pin Extractor in use on a 85 T Shackle

Anchor Handling Equipment, p. 2/02, ch. 10


DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PMZ 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Anchor Handling Equipment PFR 1/01


10

Socket Bench
As mentioned in the APM Procedures 15, 16 and 15, 259, that we now and then have to
re-socket the wires used for anchor handling and towing. These re-socketing are often
carried out by the ship’s crew and in this connection occurs the problem how to clean out
used wire sockets.

The only applicable method for removing the old piece of wire is to squeeze the compound
out of the socket. For this purpose you can use a hydraulic jack. The same method is used
on workshops ashore.

The method with using heat on the socket in order to get the used socket cleaned, is not
applicable for two reasons.
1. You can easily change the steel structure of the socket, which afterwards under load
can brake.
2. There can be a pocket of air inside the socket/compound. When the air pocket
becomes superheated this can result in an unexpected explosion of compound.

The attached picture on page 2/02 shows how a hydraulic jack can be used to squeeze
out the old compound.

Training Manual
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 10\4.Socket Bench.doc
Socket Bench
Hydraulic Jack in use - squeezing out the old compound
work group
Training Centre
E-procurement
Maersk A/S

Anchor Handling Equipment, p. 2/02, ch. 10


vryhof

anchor manual 2000

ACCREDITED BY
THE DUTCH COUNCIL
FOR CERTIFICATION
Reg. No 24

ISO-9001CERTIFICATED FIRM
DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY B.V., THE NETHERLANDS

Copyright
© Vryhof anchors b.v., krimpen a/d yssel, the netherlands 1999.
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, copy
or in any other way without written permission of vryhof.

Vryhof, Stevin Mk3, Stevpris, Stevshark and Stevmanta are registered


trade marks.

Vryhof reserves all intellectual and industrial property rights such


as any and all of their patent, trademark, design, manufacturing,
reproduction, use and sales rights thereto and to any article disclosed
therein.

All information in this manual is subject to change without prior


notice. Vryhof anchors is not liable and/or responsible in any way for
the information provided in this manual.

First edition published 1984. Print run 7,500 copies.


Second edition published 1990. Print run 7,500 copies.
Reprint second edition print run 5,000 copies.
Third edition published 2000. Print run 2,500 copies.
Table of contents

Introduction 6

1. General
Mooring systems 9
Mooring components 11
Mooring line 11
Chain 11
Wire rope 11
Synthetic fibre rope 11
Connectors 12
Shackles 12
Connecting link kenter type 12
Connecting link pear shaped 12
Connecting link c type 12
Swivels 13
Anchoring point 13
2 Dead weight 13
Drag embedment anchor 13
Pile 14
Suction anchor 14
Vertical load anchor 14
History of drag embedment anchors 15
Characteristics of anchor types 16
History of vryhof anchor designs 18

2. Theory
Introduction 23
Criteria for anchor holding capacity 24
Streamlining of the anchor 24
Shank shape 24
Mooring line 25
Criteria for good anchor design 26
Aspects of soil mechanics in anchor design 27
Soil classification 28
Fluke/shank angle 30
Fluke area 31
Strength of an anchor design 32
During proof loading 32
While embedded in the seabed 32
During anchor handling 32
Strength of the shank 33
Table of contents

Strength of the fluke 33


Strength in extremely hard soils 34
Anchor loads and safety factors 35
Anchor behaviour in the soil 37
Drag embedment anchors 37
The set-up and consolidation effect 37
The rate effect 38
Vertical load anchors 38
Proof loads for high holding power anchors 39
Quality control 41
Anchor tests 42
Introduction 42
Reading test curves 43
Test results 44
Norwegian Contractors (1984) 44
Large scale anchor tests in the Gulf of Mexico 45
Uplift 45 3
Cyclic effect factor 46
Tests with Stevmanta anchors 46
Soil table 48

3. Practice
Introduction 51
Soil survey 52
Pile or anchor 53
Setting the fluke/shank angle 54
Introduction 54
Changing the fluke/shank angle on the
Stevpris Mk3 54
Changing the fluke/shank angle on the
Stevpris Mk5 55
Connecting a swivel to the Stevpris anchor 56
Chasers 58
Chasers and their application 58
Chaser types 60
The J-chaser 60
The permanent chain chaser 60
The detachable chain chaser 61
The permanent wire chaser 61
The J-lock chaser 62
Stevpris installation 63
Table of contents

Stevpris deployment for modus 63


Introduction 63
Laying anchors 63
Retrieving anchors 65
Anchor orientation 66
Decking the Stevpris anchor 66
What not to do! 68
Racking the Stevpris 69
Deploying the Stevpris from the anchor rack 69
Boarding the anchor in deep water 70
Ballast in fluke 71
Chaser equilibrium 72
Deployment for permanent moorings 73
Piggy-backing 74
Introduction 74
Piggy-back methods 75
4 Piggy-backing involving hinging anchors 75
Piggy-backing with two Stevpris anchors 76
Piggy-backing by using a chaser 77
Stevmanta VLA installation 78
Introduction 78
Single line installation procedure 78
Installation procedure 79
Stevmanta retrieval 80
Double line installation procedure 82
Stevmanta retrieval 83
Double line installation procedure with
Stevtensioner 84
The Stevtensioner 88
Introduction 88
The working principle of the tensioner 88
Measurement of the tensions applied 90
Duration of pretensioning anchors and piles 91
Handling the Stevtensioner 92
Stevtensioner product range 93
Supply vessels/anchor handling vessels 94
Table of contents

4. Product data
Introduction 97
Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 98
Stevin Mk3 98
Stevpris Mk5 99
Stevshark Mk5 100
Stevmanta VLA 101
Dimensions of other anchor types 102
Proof load test for HHP anchors 104
Dimensions of vryhof tensioner 106
Proof load/break load of chains 108
Chain components and forerunners 110
Connecting links 112
Conversion table 113
Mooring line catenary 114
Mooring line holding capacity 115
Shackles 116 5
Wire rope 118
Wire rope sockets 120
Thimbles 123
Synthetic ropes 124
Mooring hawsers 126
Main dimensions chasers 128
Stevin Mk3 UHC chart 130
Stevin Mk3 drag and penetration chart 131
Stevpris Mk5 UHC chart 132
Stevpris Mk5 drag and penetration chart 133
Stevmanta VLA UPC chart 134
Introduction

A stone and something that looked like a rope. For


millennia this was the typical anchor. Over the last
25 years of more recent history, vryhof has brought
the art to a more mature status. They have grown into
a world leader in engineering and manufacturing of
mooring systems for all kinds of floating structures. In
doing so the company has secured numerous anchor
and ancillary equipment patents, and shared its
experience with others.

The company understands that the needs of the


industry can not be satisfied by the supply of standard
hard-ware only. Universal and tailored solutions
rooted in proven engineering should be based on
long practical experience. Vryhof has been and will be
introducing new and original anchor designs well
6 into the 21st century. With their products, advice and
this manual, it shares this knowledge with those who
are daily faced with complex mooring situations.

This manual is intended as a means of reference for


all who purchase, use, maintain, repair or are in any
way involved with anchors. Though written from one
anchor manufacturer’s standpoint, the information
contained herein is applicable to many types of
anchors. Total objectivity is, of course, impossible.

It is hoped this manual will contribute to the work


and success of all who work with anchors. They are
the only fixed reference point for many of the
floating structures on the world’s often turbulent
waters.
1

General
Mooring systems

Mooring systems have been around just as long as


man has felt the need for anchoring a vessel at sea.
These systems were used, and are still used, on ships
and consisted of one or more lines connected to the
bow or stern of the ship. Generally the ships stayed
moored for a short duration of time (days).
When the exploration and production of oil and gas
started offshore, a need for more permanent moor-
ing systems became apparent. Numerous different
mooring systems have been developed over the
years, of which a short selection is presented here.
semi-sub mooring

Semi-submersible drilling rig - generally the semi-


submersibles are moored using an eight point moor-
ing. Two mooring lines come together at each of the
columns of the semi-submersible.
9
CALM buoy - generally the buoy will be moored
using four or more mooring lines at equally spaced
angles. The mooring lines generally have a catenary
shape. The vessel connects to the buoy with a single
line and is free to weathervane around the buoy.
typical turret mooring
SALM buoy - these types of buoys have a mooring
that consists of a single mooring line attached to an
anchor point on the seabed, underneath the buoy.
The anchor point may be gravity based or piled.

Turret mooring - this type of mooring is generally


used on FPSOs and FSOs in more harsh environments.
Multiple mooring lines are used, which come
together at the turntable built into the FPSO or FSO.
The FPSO or FSO is able to rotate around the turret to
obtain an optimal orientation relative to the prevai-
ling weather conditions.

Spread mooring - generally used on FPSOs and FSOs


in milder environments. The mooring lines are directly
connected to the FPSO or FSO at both the stern and
bow of the vessel.
Mooring systems

When oil and gas exploration and production was catenary system
conducted in shallow to deep water, the most common
mooring line configuration was the catenary mooring
line consisting of chain or wire rope. For exploration
and production in deep to ultra-deep water, the
weight of the mooring line starts to become a
limiting factor in the design of the floater. To over-
come this problem new solutions were developed fig. 1-01

consisting of synthetic ropes in the mooring line taut leg system


(less weight) and/or a taut leg mooring system
(fig. 1-01 and fig. 1-02).

The major difference between a catenary mooring


and a taut leg mooring is that where the catenary
mooring arrives at the seabed horizontally, the taut
leg mooring arrives at the seabed at an angle. This fig. 1-02

10 means that in a taut leg mooring the anchor point has


to be capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical
forces, while in a catenary mooring the anchor point
is only subjected to horizontal forces. In a catenary
mooring, most of the restoring forces are generated
by the weight of the mooring line. In a taut leg
mooring, the restoring forces are generated by the
elasticity of the mooring line.

An advantage of a taut leg mooring over the catenary


mooring is that the footprint of the taut leg mooring
is smaller than the footprint of the catenary mooring,
i.e. the mooring radius of the taut leg mooring will be
smaller than the mooring radius of a catenary
mooring for a similar application.
Mooring components

A typical mooring system can be divided in three dif-


ferent components, the mooring line, the connectors
and the anchor point.

Mooring line

Chain
The most common product used for mooring lines is fig. 1-03

chain which is available in different diameters and


grades. Two different designs of chain are used fre-
quently, studlink and studless chain. The studlink
chain is most commonly used for moorings that have
to be reset numerous times during their lifetime, for
instance semi-submersibles, while studless link chain
is often used for permanent moorings (FPSOs, buoys,
fig. 1-04
FSOs). A chain mooring line can be terminated in eit-
her a common link or an end link (fig. 1-03). 11

Wire rope
When compared to chain, wire rope has a lower
weight than chain, for the same breaking load and a
higher elasticity. Common wire ropes used in offshore
mooring lines are six strand and spiral strand. The
wire rope is terminated with a socket (for instance
open spelter, closed spelter, CR) for connection to the
other components in the mooring system. Generally
wire rope is more prone to damage and corrosion
than chain (fig. 1-04).

Synthetic fibre rope


A recent development is the use of synthetic fibre
ropes as mooring line. Typical materials that can be
used are polyester and high modulus polyethylene
(Dyneema). The major advantage of synthetic fibre
ropes is the light weight of the material and the high
elasticity. The synthetic fibre rope is generally termi-
nated with a special spool and shackle for connection
to the other components in the mooring system.
Mooring components

Connectors

Shackles
The shackle is a connector that is very common in the
offshore industry. It consists of a bow, which is closed
by a pin. Many different types of shackles are availa-
ble, depending on the application. The shackle can be
used in both temporary and permanent moorings fig. 1-05

(fig. 1-05).

Connecting link kenter type


The connecting link kenter type is most commonly
used for the connection of two pieces of chain moor-
ing line, where the terminations of the two pieces
have the same dimensions. The connecting link
kenter type has the same outside length as a chain fig. 1-06

12 link of the same diameter. Generally connecting links


kenter type are not used in permanent mooring
systems, as they have a shorter fatigue life than the
chain (fig. 1-06).

Connecting link pear shaped


The pear shaped connecting link is similar to the con-
fig. 1-07
necting link kenter type, except that it is used for the
connection of two pieces of mooring line with termi-
nations that have different dimensions. Like the con-
necting link kenter type, the pear shaped connecting
links are not used in permanent mooring systems
(fig. 1-07).

Connecting link c type


fig. 1-08
Like the connecting link kenter type, the connecting
link c type is used for the connection of two pieces of
mooring line with terminations that have the same
dimensions. The major difference between the ken-
ter type and the c type is the way that the connector
is opened and closed. This connector is generally not
used in permanent moorings (fig. 1-08).
Mooring components

Swivels
A swivel is used in a mooring system, generally of a
temporary type, to relieve the twist and torque that
builds up in the mooring line. The swivel is often
placed a few links from the anchor point, although it
can also be placed between a section of chain and a
section of wire rope. There are many different types
of swivels available, although a disadvantage of most
common swivels is that they may not function while
under load, which is caused by high friction inside the
turning mechanism. A new development is swivels that
fig. 1-09
are capable of swivelling under load, due to special
bearing surfaces inside the mechanism (fig. 1-09).

Anchoring point

Dead weight 13
The dead weight is probably the oldest anchor in exis-
tence. The holding capacity is generated by the
weight of the material used and partly by the friction
between the dead weight and the seabed. Common
materials in use today for dead weights are steel and
concrete (fig. 1-10). fig. 1-10

Drag embedment anchor


This is the most popular type of anchoring point avai-
lable today. The drag embedment anchor has been
designed to penetrate into the seabed, either partly
of fully. The holding capacity of the drag embedment
anchor is generated by the resistance of the soil in
front of the anchor. The drag embedment anchor is
very well suited for resisting large horizontal loads,
but not for large vertical loads although there are
some drag embedment anchors available on the mar-
ket today that can resist significant vertical loads fig. 1-11

(fig. 1-11).
Mooring components

Pile
The pile is a hollow steel pipe that is installed into the
seabed by means of a piling hammer or vibrator. The
holding capacity of the pile is generated by the fric-
tion of the soil along the pile and lateral soil resist-
ance. Generally the pile has to be installed at great
depth below seabed to obtain the required holding
capacity. The pile is capable of resisting both horizon-
tal and vertical loads (fig. 1-12).

Suction anchor
fig. 1-12
Like the pile, the suction anchor is a hollow steel pipe,
although the diameter of the pipe is much larger
than that of the pile. The suction anchor is forced into
the seabed by means of a pump connected to the top
of the pipe, creating a pressure difference. When
14 pressure inside the pipe is lower than outside, the
pipe is sucked into the seabed. After installation the
pump is removed. The holding capacity of the suction
anchor is generated by the friction of the soil along
the suction anchor and lateral soil resistance. The suc-
tion anchor is capable of withstanding both horizon-
tal and vertical loads (fig. 1-13). fig. 1-13

Vertical load anchor


A new development is the vertical load anchor (VLA).
The vertical load anchor is installed like a convention-
al drag embedment anchor, but penetrates much
deeper. When the anchor mode is changed from the
installation mode to the vertical (normal) loading
mode, the anchor can withstand both horizontal and
vertical loads (fig. 1-14).

fig. 1-14
History of drag embedment anchors

History traces the use of anchors to China as far back


as 2,000 BC, though it is quite probable that they
were used prior to this. At that time the general tend-
ency was to use large stones, baskets of stones, bags
of sand or even logs of wood loaded with lead which
were then fastened to lines. It was this weight as well
as a certain degree of friction on the bottom which
secured a vessel in position.

With the introduction of iron into anchor construc-


tion, teeth or flukes were built on the anchor,
allowing penetration into the seabed, thus offering
additional stability. Yet these primitive anchors were
of poor construction and often broke under pressure.
Curved arms were introduced in 1813, and from 1852,
the so-called ‘Admiralty Anchor’ was used for ships of
the Royal Navy. Another refinement in the 19th 15
century was the elimination of the stock, the crosspiece
at the top of an anchor which ensured that the
positioning of the anchor would allow the flukes to
penetrate the soil. A stockless anchor was invented in
1821 and became popular, primarily as a result of the
ease of handling and stowing, qualities still valued
today.

A large number of anchor types has been designed


and commercialised over the years. Some have
prospered, others not. The most recent designs are
the results of vast experience and extensive testing,
and are far more efficient than their historical
predecessors. A short overview of the anchors in use
today, is presented on the following pages.
Characteristics of anchor types

Based upon certain charateristics such as fluke


area, shank, stabilisers, it is possible to classify
the various anchor types.
To allow a rough comparison of anchor type
efficiency, an indication (*) is provided for a 10 t Class A Stevpris
anchor as (HOLDING CAPACITY = WEIGHT * EFFICIENCY).

Class A efficiency range *33 to 55


slender anchors with ultra-penetration.
Class B Bruce SS
Class B efficiency range *17 to 25
anchors with ‘elbowed’ shank, allowing for
improved penetration.

Class C efficiency range *14 to 26


16 anchors with open crown hinge near the Class C Stevin
centre of gravity and relatively short shank
and stabilisers or built-in stabilisers.

Class D efficiency range *8 to 15


anchors with hinge and stabilisers at the rear
and relatively long shanks and stabilisers. Class D Danforth

Class E efficiency range *8 to 11


anchors with very short, thick stabilisers; hinge
at the rear and a relatively short, more or less
square-shaped shank.
Class E AC14
Class F efficiency range *4 to 6
anchors with square shank, no stock stabilisers.
The stabilising resistance is built-in the crown.

Class G efficiency range *<6


anchors with small fluke area and stabilisers at Class F US Navy Stockless
the front of the shank.

Class G Single Fluke Stock


Characteristics of anchor types

Stevshark FFTS

Bruce TS Hook

Stevfix Stevmud Flipper Delta 17

LWT Moorfast - Stato - Offdrill Boss

Stokes Snugstow Weldhold

Beyers Union Spek

Stock Dredger Mooring Anchor


History of vryhof anchor designs

A brief chronological summary of the types of Stevin


anchors vryhof has designed for use in the offshore
and dredging industries:

• 1972 - The Stevin anchor: The original design. The


wing was not yet enlarged. The anchor had a
square shank. It is no longer manufactured.

• 1974 - The Hook anchor: originally designed for Hook


permanent moorings. This design was sur-
passed in 1980 by the Stevpris design and is
no longer manufactured.

18

• 1977 - The Stevin Mk3 anchor: is the improved Stevin Mk3


version of the original Stevin anchor. It was
equipped with an enlarged crown and fluke
area and a streamlined shank for more effi-
cient penetration. This anchor is still manu-
factured and in use in offshore and dredging
activities. It has all classification societies
approvals.

• 1978 - The S t e v f i x anchor: this anchor was Stevfix


designed with special fluke points for harder
soils and a larger fluke area than the Stevin,
but has been surpassed by the Stevpris
anchor. It is no longer manufactured.
History of vryhof anchor designs

• 1979 - The Stevmud anchor: the Stevmud is essen- Stevmud


tially the Stevin anchor with a considerably
enlarged fluke area. This anchor type was
also surpassed by the Stevpris anchor and is
no longer manufactured.

• 1980 - The introduction of the Stevpris and Stevpris


Stevshark anchors. The Stevpris anchor is a
deep penetrating anchor with a plough sha-
ped shank, surpassing the performance of all
earlier designs in the vryhof range, and
incorporating the latest experience, research 19
and knowledge of the anchor designer. The
Stevshark anchor is a specially reinforced
Stevpris anchor, equipped with a serrated
shank and cutter-teeth for better penetra-
tion in hard soils, such as coral types or sand-
stone. The fluke points are specially reinfor-
ced to withstand high point loads.
History of vryhof anchor designs

•1990 - The Stevpris Mk5 and Stevshark Mk5 Stevshark Mk5


were introduced. The improved versions of
the original Stevpris and Stevshark anchors.
Improvements have concentrated on two
features: higher holding capacity and easier
handling.

•1996 - I n t r o d u c t i o n
of the Stevmanta VLA Stevmanta
(Vertical Load Anchor). Based on industry
demand for an anchor that could withstand
vertical loads, the Stevmanta VLA was deve-
loped. The Stevmanta VLA is a new design in
20 which a traditionally rigid shank has been
replaced by a system of wires connected to a
plate. The anchor is designed to accept verti-
cal (or normal) loads and is installed as a
conventional drag embedment anchor with a
horizontal load to the mudline to obtain the
deepest penetration possible. By changing
the point of pulling at the anchor, vertical (or
normal) loading of the fluke is obtained thus
mobilising the maximum possible soil resi-
stance. As a VLA is deeply embedded and
always loaded in a direction normal to the
fluke, the load can be applied in any
direction. Consequently the anchor is ideal
for taut-leg mooring systems.
2

Theory
Introduction

Theory

Anchor design used to be based on practical expe-


rience of the anchor manufacturer only. Nowadays,
science has become a major factor in the design
process, complementing the experience of the anchor
manufacturer. Based on test results, both in the labo-
ratory and in the field, a much better understanding
of anchor behaviour has been achieved.

The performance of an anchor is influenced by many


different parameters, of which the following are only
a few: fluke area and design, shank design, soil con-
ditions, load conditions, type of mooring line.

This chapter presents a short overview of how these


parameters influence the performance of the anchor. 23
It is by no means complete, but it will give a better
understanding of how an optimal anchor design can
be achieved. In the last part of this chapter, a few rele-
vant test results are presented.
Criteria for anchor holding capacity

The holding capacity of an anchor is governed by the


following parameters:
• The fluke area, which is limited by the strength of
the anchor design.
• penetration of the anchor. The penetration of
The
the anchor is governed by the soil type (deep pene-
tration in very soft clay and shallow penetration in
sand), the anchor type (design), the type of mooring fig. 2-01

line that is used (chain or wire rope) and the applied


load.
An increase in fluke area or an increase in the penet-
ration depth of the anchor results in a higher holding
capacity.

In the following paragraphs, the influences on the


fig. 2-02
anchor penetration are further clarified.
24
Streamlining of the anchor
A streamlined anchor is very important for optimal
penetration in the soil. As can be seen in fig. 2-01 and
fig. 2-02, an anchor which has protruding parts will
encounter much more soil resistance and consequent-
ly will not penetrate as deep as a more streamlined
fig. 2-03
anchor with the same fluke area.

Shank shape
A square shank, which is common for most older type
single shank anchors, will cause penetration resist-
ance due to the fact that the soil can not pass easily
past the shank. A clod of soil will form underneath
the shank, effectively increasing the resistance of the
fig. 2-04
soil (fig. 2-03). Bevelling the shank allows deeper
penetration.When the single shank is replaced by a
twin shank construction (for instance Stevpris, FFTS),
usually two thin parallel steel plates, the soil can
more easily pass through and past the shank, and
consequently the twin shank anchor can penetrate
deeper (fig. 2-04).
Criteria for anchor holding capacity

Mooring line
An anchor connected to a wire rope mooring line will
penetrate deeper than the same anchor connected to
a chain mooring line (fig. 2-05 and fig. 2-06). This is
caused by the higher lateral resistance (penetration
resistance) along the chain mooring line. This effect is
noticeable in all soil conditions, but especially in very
soft clay where very deep penetration can be obtained. fig. 2-05

The holding capacity of a chain mooring line, due to


friction in and on the seabed, is larger than the
holding capacity of a wire rope mooring line.

When an anchor reaches its ultimate holding capac


ity, i.e. it will not resist any higher loads, at shallow
penetration a wedge shaped piece of soil (in front
and above the anchor) will fail. The holding capacity fig. 2-06

of the anchor can then be described as a combination 25


of the following parameters (fig. 2-07 and fig. 2-08):
• The weight of the anchor (A).
• The weight of the soil in the failure wedge (B). B
E
• The friction of the soil in the failure wedge along
fracture lines (C). D C
A
• Friction between fluke surface and soil (fluke area) (D).
fig. 2-07
• The bearing capacity of shank and mooring line (E).
• The friction of the mooring line in and on the soil (E).

fig. 2-08
Criteria for good anchor design

Anchor parameters can be scaled from geometrically


Scale influence
proportional anchors using the scale rules in table A.
Model Reality Related
There are several attributes of an anchor which are to Weight

crucial in assuring its effective performance: Length L n W 1/3


Fluke area A n2 W 2/3
Weight W n3 W
• The anchor must offer a high holding capacity; a Penetration P n W 1/3
result of the fluke area and shank design in combi-
Moment M n4 W 4/3
nation with penetration and soil type.
Moment of inertia I n4 W 4/3
• The design of the anchor should be such that the Section Modulus S n3 W
anchor is capable of being used successfully in prac-
Bending stress M/S n4/n3=n W 1/3
tically all soil conditions encountered over the
Shear strength F/A n3/n2=n W 1/3
world, ranging from very soft clay to sand, corals
and calcarenites. table A

• The fluke/shank angle of the anchor should be easi-


ly adjustable, allowing the anchor to be quickly
26 deployed in different soil conditions.
• The design must be so conceived and produced that
the high loads common in practice can be resisted
and that the anchor can be easily handled, instal-
led, retrieved and stored.
• The penetration of an anchor depends upon its
shape and design. Obstructing parts on the anchor
should be avoided as much as possible.
• The stability of an anchor encourages its penetra-
tion and, consequently, its holding capacity.
Efficient stabilisers are an integral part of a good
anchor design.
• The shank must permit passage of the soil.
• The surface area of an anchor fluke is limited by the
required structural strength of the anchor.
• The anchor design must have optimal mechanical
strength to fulfil requirements and stipulations of
the classification societies.
• The anchor should be designed to ensure an opti-
mum between structural strength of the anchor
and holding capacity.
• The anchor should be streamlined for low penetra-
tion resistance.
Aspects of soil mechanics in anchor design

Until the nineteen seventies anchor design was large-


ly an empirical process. There was not much science
involved, more use of experience. It is not easy, for
instance, to calculate the Ultimate Holding Capacity
(UHC) of an anchor from the commonly known soil
mechanics formulas. The main problem is the predic-
tion of the volume of soil mobilised by the anchor. To
a large degree, it is this volume which determines the
UHC. Detailed understanding of soil characteristics
and behaviour is essential in the anchor design
process and of increasing benefit in handling at sea. It
is this understanding which is the hallmark of a com-
petent anchor designer and builder.

For anchor design and installation, the availability of


good soil data is of utmost importance as the soil is of
great influence on anchor behaviour. The following 27
are influenced by the soil conditions encountered:
Anchor type - some anchors are more suited for soft
soil conditions (soft clay), while others are more suited
for hard soils (sand and hard clays), although there
are a number of anchor types on the market that are
suited for most soil conditions encountered.
Holding capacity - in hard soil like sand and hard
clay, the maximum attainable ultimate holding capa-
city with a certain anchor type and size is higher than
the attainable ultimate holding capacity in very soft
clay.
Penetration and drag - in very soft clay the anchor
will penetrate deeper than in harder soil like sand. As
a consequence, the drag length of the anchor will
also be longer in very soft clay than in hard soil.
Retrieval forces - when an anchor is installed in very
soft clay, the required retrieval forces will be higher
than in hard soil like sand. For example, in very soft
clay the required retrieval force of an anchor can be
equal to 80%-90% of the installation load while in
hard soil (sand) the retrieval force might only be 20%-
30% of the installation load.
Soil classification

Soil strength is generally expressed in terms of the


Undrained Shear Strength (kPa)
shear strength parameters of the soil. The soil type is
Consistency ASTM BS
classified mainly by grain size distribution.
of Clay D-2488 CP-2004

Very soft 0 - 13 0 - 20
Grain size Soil description
Soft 13 - 25 20 - 40
< - 2 µm Clay Firm 25 - 50 40 - 75
2 - 6 µm Fine Silt Stiff 50 - 100 75 - 150
Very stiff 100 - 200 150 - 300
6 - 20 µm Medium Silt
Hard 200 - 400 300 - 600
20 - 60 µm Coarse Silt Very hard > 400 > 600
60 - 200 µm Fine Sand table B
200 - 600 µm Medium Sand
0.6 - 2 mm Coarse Sand Su UCT SPT CPT
kPa kPa N MPa
2 - 6 mm Fine Gravel
6 - 20 mm Medium Gravel 0 - 13 0 - 25 0- 2 0.0 - 0.2
13 - 25 25 - 50 2- 4 0.2 - 0.4
20 - 60 mm Coarse Gravel
25 - 50 50 - 100 4- 8 0.4 - 0.7
60 - 200 mm Cobbles 50 - 100 100 - 200 6 - 15 0.7 - 1.5
> - 200 mm Boulders 100 - 200 200 - 400 15 - 30 1.5 - 3.0
28
> 200 > 400 >-30 >3.0
table C
In general, the soil types encountered in anchor
design are sand and clay (Grain diameter from 0.1 µm
to 2 mm). However, mooring locations consisting of
soils with grain sizes above 2 mm, such as gravel, cob-
bles, boulders, rock and such, also occur. Clay type
soils are generally characterised by the undrained
shear strength, the submerged unit weight, the
water content and the plasticity parameters. The
consistency of clays is related to the undrained shear
strength. However, American (ASTM) and British (BS)
standards do not use identical values. The undrained
shear strength values Su can be derived in the laboratory
from unconfined unconsolidated tests (UU) (table B).

On site the values can be estimated from the results


of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) or Cone
Penetrometer Test (CPT). An approximate relation
between shear strength and the test values are
shown in table C.
Soil classification

The mechanical resistance of sandy soils is predomi-


Descriptive Relative Angle SPT CPT
nantly characterised by the submerged unit weight term Density ϕ N MPa
and the angle of internal friction, ϕ. These parame-
Very loose < 0.15 < 30 0- 4 0- 5
ters are established in the laboratory. An approxim- Loose 0.15 - 0.35 30 - 32 4 - 10 5 - 10
ate correlation between the angle ϕ and the relative Medium dense 0.35 - 0.65 32 - 35 10 - 30 10 - 15
Dense 0.65 - 0.85 35 - 38 30 - 50 15 - 20
density of fine to medium sand is give in table D.
Very dense > 0.85 > 38 > 50 > 20
The undrained shear strength of clayey soil can also
table D
be estimated based on manual tests.
Descriptive term Compressive
• In soft clay the thumb will easily penetrate several strength qu [MPa]
inches, indicating an undrained shear strength Very weak < 1.25
smaller than 25 kPa. Weak 1.25 – 5
Moderately weak 5 – 12.5
• In firm (medium) clay the thumb will penetrate Moderately strong 12.5 – 50
several inches with moderate effort, indicating an Strong 50 – 100
undrained shear strength between 25 kPa and 50 kPa. Very strong 100 – 200
Extremely strong > 200
• Stiff clay will be easily indented with the thumb but
penetration will require great effort, indicating an table E
29
undrained shear strength between 50 kPa and
100 kPa.
• Very stiff clay is easily indented with the thumbnail,
indicating an undrained shear strength between
100 kPa and 200 kPa.
• Hard clay is indented with difficulty with the
thumbnail, indicating an undrained shear strength
larger than 200 kPa.

The rock strength can generally be described by its


compressive strength (table E).

A classification system for soil based on the carbona-


te content and grain size of the soil (Clark and
Walker), is shown on page 48 of this chapter.
Fluke/shank angle

The penetration of an anchor into a certain soil type


is greatly influenced by the selected fluke/shank
angle. For hinging anchor types (Stevin, Danforth
etc.) the fluke/shank angle is the angle between the
anchor shackle, the hinge and the fluke tip. The
method for measuring the fluke/shank angle for
fixed shank anchors (Stevpris, FFTS, etc.) is not well
defined. Often it is the angle between the anchor fig. 2-09

shackle, the rear of the fluke and the fluke tip, but
not all anchor manufacturers use the same definition.

The recommended fluke/shank angles for different


soil conditions are presented in table F:

Some modern anchors, like the Stevpris Mk5, have an


fig. 2-10
additional intermediate fluke/shank angle of 41 o,
30 which can be used in intermediate or more complex
soil conditions. For instance at a location where the
anchor has to pass through a layer of soft clay before
penetrating into a layer of sand.
If an anchor is used with an incorrect fluke/shank
angle, it will negatively influence performance. This is
the case for all anchor types.

In hard soil, an anchor with a fluke/shank angle of 320


sand angle
will give the highest holding power. If an anchor is
used with the fluke/shank angle set at 500, the anchor mud angle
fig. 2-11
will fail to penetrate into the seabed and will begin to
trip, fall aside and slide along the seabed (Fig. 2-9 and Soil type Approximate
2-10). fluke/shank angle

Very soft clay 50˚


If an anchor is used in very soft clay (mud) with the Medium clay 32˚
fluke/shank angle set at 32o, the anchor will penetra- Hard clay and sand 32˚
te into the seabed, however the penetration will be
table F
less than when a fluke/shank angle of 50o is used.
Consequently the holding capacity will be lower
when the fluke/shank angle is set at 32o, and the drag
length longer (Fig. 2-11).
Fluke area

Because the fluke area of an anchor is of great influ-


ence on the holding capacity, it can be useful to com-
pare the fluke area of different anchor types that are
available on the market today. In general, it can be
stated that two anchors of the same weight but of
different type (for instance a Stevin anchor and a
Stevpris Mk5 anchor), do not necessarily have the
same fluke area. Consequently, two anchors of the
same weight but different type, will have different
holding capacities.

fig. 2-12
Some examples:

Fig. 2-12 shows a Stevpris Mk5 anchor and a Moorfast


anchor, both of identical weight. It demonstrates that
in spite of being the same weight, the fluke areas
differ substantially. The ultimate holding capacity of 31
the Stevpris Mk5 anchor is 4 to 8.5 times higher than
that of the same weight Moorfast anchor.

Fig. 2-13 illustrates the difference in fluke area of the


Stevpris Mk5 anchor in comparison with the Bruce
FFTS Mk4 anchor, both of which have identical fig. 2-13
weight.
Strength of an anchor design

Anchors should be designed to withstand the loads


applied on them in the different loading situations.
Typical loading situations and areas of special atten-
tion for anchors are:
• During the proof loading of the anchors in the fac-
tory, after construction has been completed. On
basis of the proof load results, the classification
societies issue the approval certificate.

While embedded in the seabed


• Depending on the soil conditions, different loading
situations can occur on the anchor. In sands and
clays, the load tends to be spread equally over the
anchor, which generally presents no problems.
Retrieval is also very simple, without excessive loads
placed on the anchor.
32 • In very hard soils, the anchor has to be able to with-
stand the load with only one or two of the fluke
tips buried in the soil, as penetration in very hard
soil conditions is generally shallow.
• very soft clays (mud) penetration of the anchor is
In
uncomplicated. However, recovery of the anchor
can cause high loads, sometimes exceeding the
load that was used to install the anchor.
• Sidewards forces on the top of (shallow) buried
anchors can be so extreme that no anchor is capa-
ble of resisting them.

During anchor handling


• Care should be taken during the handling of the
anchors, as the loads exerted by the winches, ves-
sels and chain can sometimes exceed the structural
strength of the anchor and cause damage. Anchor
designers attempt to design the anchors for these
high loads, however this is not always possible due
to variations in the magnitude of the loads during
handling operations.
• Large forces can be exerted on the anchor when
high winch power is used, the anchor is caught on
the anchor rack or caught behind the stern roller of
the AHV.
Strength of an anchor design

• The use of an improper anchor/chaser combination.


When a chaser is used that is either too small or too
large, the chaser could jam on the shank of the
anchor and cause damage.

The strength of the Stevpris anchor is now more


closely examined in the light of the remarks made
before.

Strength of the shank


The prismatic shape of the Stevpris anchor not only
ensures optimal penetration of the soil but also guar-
antees maximum strength. Although the Stevpris
design also has limitations, it is one of the better
designs to withstand sideward forces on the shank, a
frequent occurrence in practice. When using an
anchor in very soft clay (mud), the bending moment 33
on the shank is low during the installation and when
the anchor is in the soil. However, during the bre-
aking out of the anchor, high bending moments
could be introduced in the shank due to the high
retrieval forces required in very soft clay. In extremely
sticky soils, the breaking out force of the anchor can
rise to 80% or 90% of applied anchor load; in certain
instances, it can even exceed 100%. To reduce these
forces the breaking out procedure is undertaken at
low speed to allow time for the anchor to break out.

Strength of the fluke


The strength of the fluke and especially the fluke
points of an anchor are very important when working
in extremely hard soils such as coral, limestone and
other rock types. It is possible in such instances that
the total holding capacity of the anchor will have to
be sustained by the fluke points alone. This means the
structure must be strong enough to withstand extre-
me bending forces. Loading in normal soil conditions
is not a problem due to the fact that the load is equal-
ly spread over the fluke.
Strength of an anchor design

In fig. 2-14, the different force points are shown for


varying soil conditions. The location on the fluke
where the proofload is applied, is also indicated.

Strength in extremely hard soils


clay sand proofload
In very hard soils such as calcarenite, coral and lime- rock
stone, an anchor will not penetrate very deeply.
Consequently the load applied to the anchor has to fig. 2-14

be held by the fluke tips of the anchor and a small


portion of the fluke. This means that extremely high
loads will be applied to the fluke tips, compared to
normal soil conditions such as sand and clay.

For use in very hard soil conditions, vryhof has


designed the Stevshark anchor, a modified version of
the Stevpris anchor. To create the Stevshark, the
34 Stevpris anchor has been strengthened, consequently
a Stevshark anchor having the same outside dimen-
sions and holding capacity as a Stevpris anchor will be
heavier.

Strength calculations of the Stevshark design have


been made to guarantee sufficient strength in the
fluke points. The Stevshark anchor is designed to
withstand the application of the main part of the
load on just its fluke tips.

To promote penetration, the Stevshark anchor has a


serrated shank and can be provided with cutter
points on the fluke tips. Ballast weight can also be
added inside the hollow flukes of the anchor, up to
35% of the anchor weight. This is important when
working in very hard soil, where the anchor weight
pressing on the fluke tips promotes penetration, i.e.
increased bearing pressure.
Anchor loads and safety factors

The loads in a mooring system are caused by the 4000


3895
wind, waves and current acting on the floater. Total dynamic
3000
Depending on the location of the floater in the Quasi static

Load in kN
2342
world, different metocean conditions will prevail. In 2000

the table below, some extreme metocean conditions


1000
are presented for different areas.
0
8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 9800

The loads induced in the mooring system can be divi- fig. 2-15 Time in seconds

ded into quasi-static loads and total dynamic loads.


The quasi static load is the load due to the swell,
wind, current and the frequency of the system. For
quasi-static loads, the systems tend to move at a low
frequency, generally with a period of 140 to 200
seconds.

On top of this quasi-static load there are the individ-


ual wave forces causing a high frequency motion. The 35
high frequency motion causes dynamic shock loads
with a period of 10 to 14 seconds due to the rolling of
the vessel and the movements of the anchor lines
through the water. The quasi-static load plus the indi-
vidual wave forces is called the total dynamic load.
Generally the quasi-static loads will be equal to 50%
to 90% of the total dynamic load. See Fig. 2-15 for an
example of the difference between the quasi-static
load and the total dynamic load.

Location Waveheight Wave period Windspeed Current


m s m/s m/s

Campos Basin 8 – 10 12 - 15 25 1
Gulf of Mexico 11 14 44 - 48 1
Northern North Sea 15 - 16 15 - 17 38 - 39 0.9– 1.2

Porcupine Basin 16 - 18 16 - 20 39 - 41 1.0 – 1.5


Vorine Basin 14 - 15 16 - 17 37 - 39 1.0 – 1.5
West of Africa 4 - 6 10 - 16 20 1
West of Shetlands 15 - 17 16 - 19 39 - 41 1.0 – 3.0
Anchor loads and safety factors

The quasi-static and total dynamic loads are general-


Permanent Quasi-static Total dynamic
ly calculated for the intact and damaged load condi- mooring load load
tion. The intact load condition is the condition in
which all the mooring lines are intact. The damaged Intact load condition 1.8 1.5
Damaged condition 1.2 1.0
load conditions is the condition in which one of the
table G
mooring lines has broken.

Temporary Quasi-static Total dynamic


From the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load, mooring load load
the required holding capacity of the anchor can be
calculated. This is called the ultimate holding capaci- Intact load condition 1.0 0.8
Damaged condition Not required Not required
ty (UHC) for drag embedment anchors and the ulti-
mate pull-out capacity (UPC) for VLAs. The required table H

holding capacity is calculated by applying the factors


VLA Total dynamic
of safety specified by the classification societies.
load

In the tables G and H, the factors of safety are pre- Intact load condition 2.0
Damaged condition 1.5
36 sented for the different load conditions for drag
embedment anchors (for instance the Stevpris Mk5 table I

anchor), according to API RP 2SK. The factors of safe-


ty used by the major classification societies are gene-
rally similar to those given in API RP 2SK (2nd edition,
1996).

For VLAs, the recently used factors of safety sugge-


sted by ABS, are presented in table I.

The factors of safety for VLAs are higher than the fac-
tors of safety required for drag embedment anchors,
due to the difference in failure mechanisms. When a
drag embedment anchor reaches its ultimate holding
capacity, it will continuously drag through the soil
without generating additional holding capacity, i.e.
the load will stay equal to the UHC. When a VLA
exceeds its ultimate pullout capacity, it will slowly be
pulled out of the soil.
Anchor behaviour in the soil

Drag embedment anchors


Drag embedment anchors are generally installed by
applying a load equal to the maximum intact load.
The anchor will then have penetrated to a certain
depth, but will still be capable of further penetration
because the ultimate holding capacity has not been
reached. The anchor will also have travelled a certain
horizontal distance, called the drag length. After
installation the anchor is capable of resisting loads
equal to the installation load without further penet-
ration and drag. When the installation load is excee-
ded, the anchor will continue to penetrate and drag
until the soil is capable of providing sufficient resi-
stance or the ultimate holding capacity has been
reached.

However, there are certain effects which allow the 37


anchor to withstand forces larger than the installa-
tion load without further penetration and drag.
These are:

The set-up and consolidation effect


Set-up and consolidation mainly occur in clayey soils.
The penetrating anchor disturbs the soil and the soil
temporarily loses strength. With time, the disturbed
clay reconsolidates to its initial shear strength, this
takes from a few hours up to 1 month, depending on
the soil type. Because not all the soil around the
anchor is disturbed, the set-up effect factor is less
than the sensitivity index indicates. The disturbance
mainly reduces the soil resistance parallel to the
fluke. On reloading, the parallel soil resistance gains
strength, it takes a larger load to move the anchor
again. Equilibrium dictates that also the normal load,
i.e. the bearing soil resistance to the fluke, increases;
consequently the load at the shackle increases also
with the set-up factor. Observations on anchors for
drilling rigs and theoretical considerations for a 3 to 4
week consolidation time demonstrate a typical set-up
effect factor =1.5.
Anchor behaviour in the soil

The rate effect 0

Rate effect factor


An increased rate of loading increases the soil 1.2

resistance, consequently the anchor holding capacity 1.1

increases. This must be taken into account with 1

0.9
respect to total dynamic loads. For anchor behaviour
0.8
the rate effect factor indicates how much higher the 0 200 400 600 800 1000

Time factor St
dynamic high frequency load may be without causing
fig. 2-16 Su=10 kPa Su=50 kPa
extra movement of the anchor once installed at the
installation load. The rate of loading influences pore
pressure variations, viscous inter-granular forces and
inertia forces. Typical rate effect factors are 1.1 to 1.3
for total dynamic loads, see Fig. 2-16 where the rate
effect is presented for two different soil conditions
(Su = 10 kPa and Su = 50 kPa).

Using the rate effect and set-up factors, the beha-


38 viour of the anchor after installation can be predicted
more accurately.

Vertical Load Anchors


A VLA is installed just like a conventional drag
embedment anchor. During installation (pull-in
mode) the load arrives at an angle of approximately
45 to 500 to the fluke. After triggering the anchor to
the normal load position, the load always arrives per-
pendicular to the fluke. This change in load direction
generates 2.5 to 3 times more holding capacity in
relation to the installation load. This means that once
the required UPC of the VLA is known, the required
installation load for the VLA is also known, being
33% to 40% of the required UPC.

As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a


direction normal to the fluke, the load can be applied
in any direction. Consequently the anchor is ideal for
taut-leg mooring systems, where generally the load
angle varies from 25 to 450.
Proof loads for high holding power anchors

The proof load according to Classification Societies’


rules is applied at 1/3rd of the fluke length and is car-
ried out immediately on fabrication of the anchor. It
is obtained by placing the anchor in a test yoke in
which a hydraulic cylinder applies the test loads,
controlled by a calibrated manometer (fig. 2-17). The
vryhof anchor types have been approved by the follo-
wing Classification Societies:
• The American Bureau of Shipping
• Bureau Veritas
• Det Norske Veritas
• Germanischer Lloyd fig. 2-17

• Lloyd’s Register of Shipping


Anchor Proof Load Anchor
• Registro Italiano Navale weight factor weight
• USSR Register of Shipping
• Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 1 t 26 t 26 x
5 t 79 t 15 x
• Norwegian Maritime Directorate 7 t 99 t 14 x 39
10 t 119 t 12 x
In the early days there were no specific regulations 15 t 155 t 10 x
20 t 187 t 9 x
regarding the holding power and strength of moor-
ing anchors. The rules which did exist were often fol- table J

lowed regardless of the type of vessel.

Some anchors were approved as ‘high holding power’


anchors. This so-called HHP approval was obtained
after carrying out field tests in various types of soil in
which it had to be shown that an anchor provided a
holding power of at least twice that of a standard
stockless anchor. If an HHP anchor was requested by
the owner, the anchor has proof tested in strict accor-
dance with the rules, nothing more. See table J for
some examples of HHP anchor proof loads. A more
detailed overview of HHP anchor proof loads is given
in the product data section.
Proof loads for high holding power anchors

The use of the specified proof loads for HHP anchors Proofload HHP anchors, UHC=250 t.
can lead to situations where different types of
anchors with the same holding capacity are proof 29 t Danforth

loaded at different loads, see fig. 2-18. From this figu- 10 t Stevin Mk3

re it can be concluded that the proof load of the 4.5 t Stevshark Mk5

anchors should preferably be related to the break- 4 t Stevpris Mk5

load of the mooring line on the vessel. 0 50 100 150 200 250

fig. 2-18 Proofload in t

Nowadays the rules and regulations are far more Balanced mooring system API RP 2SK
rigid, and the requirements have been substantially Breakload chain

Ultimate holding
increased. There are now special rules for ‘mobile capacity anchor
Damaged load floater

offshore units’ and ‘permanently moored structures’. Proofload chain


Pretension
load anchor
Intact load floater
If anchors need mobile offshore units certification, Proofload anchor

the following properties may be required: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

fig. 2-19 Load in %

40 • Proof load of the anchors at 50% of the breaking


load of the chain.
• Submission of a strength calculation of the anchor
to the classification society prior to commencing
anchor production: this includes determining the
mechanical strength of the anchor as well as pro-
ving that the applied material can withstand the
proofload.
• A statement of documented holding power from
the anchor supplier.
• Submittal of a Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Manual.

In fig. 2-19, a mooring system is shown in which all of


the components are balanced. The strength of the
mooring line, holding capacity of the anchor and
strength of the anchor are all in the correct propor-
tion and comply with the rules.
Quality control

The application of more advanced and complex tech-


nology in anchor construction has brought about
requirements for a systematic approach to quality.
Initiated by various authorities they are continuously
refined and followed up by operating companies
such as vryhof anchor. Like other companies, vryhof
has become increasingly aware of the vital importance
of managerial aspects and their influence on the total
quality-assurance and control system.

Design and fabrication of anchors for permanent


moorings are in accordance with the quality require-
ments of the Rules NS/ISO 9001 as described in our
Quality Assurance Manual. Vryhof anchors obtained
the ISO 9001 certificate No. QSC 3189 issued by Det
Norske Veritas for ‘Design, Manufacture of anchors,
and Sales of anchors and mooring components’. 41

Quality control is maintained throughout production.


A compilation of certificates is presented to a client
upon completion of a project.

ACCREDITED BY
THE DUTCH COUNCIL
FOR CERTIFICATION
Reg. No 24

ISO-9001CERTIFICATED FIRM
DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY B.V., THE NETHERLANDS
Anchor tests

Introduction
In addition to practical experience of users and asso-
ciates, anchor tests are one of the most reliable
means of forecasting anchor performance and thus
making a proper choice of anchor type and size.

Examining anchor tests that have been carried out in


the past, certain conclusions can be made:
• Many tests were undertaken in which the results
were recorded accurately.
• Detailed reports, however, have not been very
common.
• Anchor tests of the past are not always easy to
interpret or compare because of different soil and
anchor types.
• Test results have not always been interpreted
42 independently.
• The more tests results are strictly compared to
practical results, the better one can forecast the
holding power and general behaviour in practice.

Vryhof is in the perfect situation of having detailed


test data available together with extensive practical
data obtained during installation and use of anchors
on projects on site.

Research into anchor behaviour and the ultimate


holding capacity of anchors is often carried out by
testing a model anchor, preferably followed by a full-
scale test in the field. The optimal anchor test consists
of model tests with 10 kg anchors, followed by full-
scale tests with 1 t and 10 t anchors. The anchors
should be pulled until the ultimate holding capacity is
reached.

It is obvious that full-scale testing of anchors can be


expensive. Large AHVs, strong winches and strong
mooring lines are required, which are not always
available. For example, a 5 t Stevpris Mk5 anchor,
deployed in sand, is capable of stopping a modern
AHV at its full bollard pull. Testing a 10 t Stevpris Mk5
Anchor tests

anchor to its ultimate holding capacity in sand would


require a horizontal pulling capacity of approximately
A G B

Holding Capacity
600 t. C

D
If anchor tests are to be comparable, the testing pro- E
gram should preferably meet, as a minimum, the fol-
F
lowing criteria:
• An accurate and sophisticated measuring system fig. 2-20 Drag

should be used.
• The anchors should be tested up to their ultimate
holding capacity.
• Drag and penetration of the anchor should be
recorded during testing.
• The anchor should be held under tension with a
blocked winch for 15 minutes, to investigate any
drop in holding capacity.
43
Reading test curves
The behaviour of an anchor during tensioning can be
accurately interpreted from the holding capacity ver-
sus drag curve. Sample test curves are presented in
Fig. 2-20. Properly interpreted performance curves
can explain a lot about anchor behaviour.

• Curve A is very steep and represents a streamlined


anchor in very stiff soil.
• Curve B is a normal curve for anchors in sand and
medium clay.
• Curve C is a curve of an unstable anchor. This can be
caused by a wrong fluke/shank angle setting, a
short stabiliser or a fluke that is too long.
• Curve D is a normal curve for an anchor in very soft
clay.
• Curve E is an anchor with a 32o fluke/shank angle in
very soft clay.
• Curve F represents an anchor that is turning contin-
uously. This can be caused by the absence of stabil-
isers, a too large fluke/shank angle or a low effi-
ciency anchor at continuous drag.
• Curve G represents an anchor penetrating in a layer
of stiff clay overlain by very soft clay.
Anchor tests

Curves A, B, D, E and G show a very stable rising line,


150

Holding capacity in t
which indicates that the anchor builds up its holding Sand
8 m soft clay
capacity constantly until the ultimate holding capacity on rock
100

has been reached, after which the anchor shows


continuous drag. The other curves are largely self-
50
soft clay
explanatory. 25
0 10 20 30 40

Test results fig. 2-21 Drag in meters

Vryhof’s extensive database of test results with different


Full scale Gullfaks A anchors
anchor types, sizes and soil conditions, has been
800
frequently used in anchor design. Data has been
700
obtained from practice, scale models and from third

Holding capacity in t
600
parties. The data has been interpreted and after- A B* C
500
wards incorporated in the ultimate holding capacity, 400

drag and penetration graphs of the Stevin Mk3 and 300


Survival load = 1500 ton
Stevpris Mk5 anchor as well as in the ultimate pull- 200 A = 40 t Stevpris in sand
B = 60 t Stevshark in mud on rock
44 out capacity graph of the Stevmanta VLA. 100 C = 65 t Stevpris in mud
* Final pretension load on site
0
20 40 60 80

Norwegian Contractors (1984)


In 1984 Norwegian Contractors carried out tests at fig. 2-22 Drag in meters

Digernessundet, Stord, Norway. The purpose of these


tests was to determine the correct anchor type and size
for the mooring system of the Gullfaks A platform during
the construction of the platform at Digernessundet.
Although the construction would took place at one loca-
tion, it was know that three different types of soil condi-
tions would be encountered: sand, soft mud and an 8 m
mud layer on rock. After the initial trials the Stevpris
anchor was selected for further testing.

The 3 t Stevpris anchor that was used for the tests at a


3.30 pulling angle, produced a maximum holding
capacity of 150 t in the sand, 102 t in the very soft clay
and 150 t in the layer of mud on rock. As the mooring
system required a survival load of 1500 t, a 65 t
Stevpris (mud location), 40 t Stevpris (sand location)
and 60 t Stevshark (mud on rock location) were select-
ed for the final mooring. Fig. 2-21 shows the test
results of the 3 t Stevpris anchor, while fig. 2-22 shows
the result of the tensioning of the final anchors with
a load of 820 t.
Anchor tests

Large scale anchor tests in the Gulf of Mexico 700


Large scale anchor test jip - 7 & 2 t
In 1990, tests were performed with 2 t and 7 t Stevpris

Horizontal load in kips


600
7-3
Mk5 anchors, as part of an anchor test Joint Industry 500

7-2 7-4
Project (JIP). The anchors were tested using a wire 400
7-1
300
rope forerunner. 2-1
200

100
2-2

The 2 t Stevpris anchor was tested up to its ultimate 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

holding capacity of 107 t (235 kips). Due to insufficient fig. 2-23 Drag distance in feet

pulling capacity, the 7 t Stevpris anchor could not be


pulled up to its ultimate holding capacity. Based on the
results of tests, the ultimate holding capacity of the 7 t
Stevpris anchor was calculated to be larger than 338 t
(745 kips) (fig. 2-23).

Uplift
Stevpris anchors are well capable of resisting uplift
loads when they are deeply embedded. Anchors in sand 45
and firm to hard clays do not penetrate very deeply and
only take small uplift loads. Stevpris anchors installed in
very soft clay and mud penetrate deeply, a typical
penetration for a 15 t anchor is 15 to 25 meters. Due to
the inverse catenary in the soil, the anchor line arrives
at the anchor shackle at an angle of 20o to 30o with the
mud line. Once the anchor is installed, a load making an
angle up to 20o with the horizontal at mud line will not
change the loading direction at the anchor! A Stevpris
anchor has been tested in the Gulf of Mexico with grad-
ually increasing pull angle (fig. 2-24). The maximum
resistance was obtained for 18o uplift at mud line.

35 000 60
Line angle vs mudine

= dyn load
30 000 50
= pull angle
Line load in lbs

25 000
40
20 000
30
15 000
20
10 000
18˚
5 000 10

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300

fig. 2-24 Line length pulled in feet


Anchor tests

Cyclic effect factor


The loading at the anchor is cyclic. Exxon performed
cyclic tests on anchors reported by Dunnavent and
Kwan, 1993. Although the maximum cyclic load was
less than the initial installation load, the static load
applied after the cycling phase revealed 25 to 50%
larger anchor resistance than the initial installation
load (fig. 2-25). This effect is explained by further
penetration of the anchor. Applying this knowledge
to the anchors, the static anchor resistance after some
storm loading improves by the cyclic effect factor of
1.25 to 1.5.

Tests with Stevmanta anchors


Tests have been performed in the Gulf of Mexico and
offshore Brazil. The Stevmanta anchor being pulled in
46 with a load equal to F, accepted a vertical load to the
anchor of up to 2 times F! Amongst the many tests the
anchor relaxation was measured. The anchor with a
fluke area of 0.13 m2 was pulled in at 0o pull angle
(fig. 2-26), then loaded vertically to a load equal 1.6
times the maximum installation load. At this load the
winch was blocked.
Anchor resistance in kN

Increased capacity
Initial static capacity vs initial static
0.15

0.1
Cycling

0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

fig. 2-25 Time in seconds

200

Block winch
Line load in %

150

100
Change from
50
pull-in to normal mode

0
20.00 22.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00

fig. 2-27 Time in seconds


Anchor tests

This permitted the monitoring of the load with time


(fig. 2-27) as what would be expected in real circum-
stances at a constant loaded anchor line. The results
show that the holding capacity of the anchor does
not change significantly during continuous loading,
as the observed decrease in tension was due to move-
ment of the winch. The subsequent pulling at 7:00 AM
showed that for only a small movement, the full plate
capacity (2 x installation load) could be reached.
Continuous pulling caused the anchor to loose resis-
tance and break out.

To demonstrate that the feature of these anchors is


not only a vertical resistance, the anchor was installed
with a horizontal pull, the mode changed to the
normal (vertical) mode and the anchor subsequently
pulled with an uplift angle of 30o (fig. 2-28). The 47
behaviour is similar to the earlier vertical pull test.
However, for the 30o pull angle the anchor did not
break out but moved slowly along the pulling
direction through the soil. The graphs clearly show
this effect and that the anchor can be used for
substantial horizontal loads.

200

Block winch
Line load in %

150

100 Change mode

50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

fig. 2-26 Line length pulled in feet

200
Line load in %

150

100

50
Change from
pull-in to normal mode
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

fig. 2-28 Line length pulled in feet


Soil table

Increasing grain size of


Cementation of

Approx. Rock

particulate deposits
strength
soil

0.002 mm 0.063 mm 2 mm 60 mm
Increasing lithification

Total carbonate content %


Carbonate silt Carbonate sand Carbonate gravel 90
Very weak to firmly
cemented soil

Carbonate clay Siliceous carbonate Siliceous carbonate


Very weak

50
silt sand Mixed carbonate and
non-carbonate gravel
Calcareous clay Calcareous silica silt Calcareous silica sand 10

Clay Silica silt Silica sand Silica gravel

48 Calcilutite Calcisiltite (carb. Calcarenite (carb. Calcirudite (carb.


Weak to moderately weak

90
(carb. Calystone) Siltstone) Sandstone) Conglom. Or Breccia
Well cemented soil

Conglomeratic 50
Clayey calcilutute Siliceous calcisiltite Siliceous calcarenite
calcirudite

Calcareaous claystone Calcareous siltstone Calcareous sandstone Calcareous 10


conglomerate

Conglomerate or
Claystone Siltstone Sandstone
breccia
Moderately strong to strong

Fine-grained limestone Detrital limestone Conglomerat 90


limestone

Fine-grained Fine-grained siliceous Siliceous detrital Conglomerate


50
agrillaceous limestone limestone limestone limestone

Calcareous 10
Calcareous claystone Calcareous siltstone Calcareous sandstone
conglomerate
(well cemented)

Conglomerate of
Claystone Siltstone Sandstone
rock

Breccia
Strong to extemely

Crystalline limestone or marble 50


strong

Conventional metamorphic nomenclature applies in this section


3

Practice
Introduction

Practice

Although theoretical knowledge of anchors is essen-


tial for good anchor design and selection, the practi-
cal issues are just as important. The handling of an
anchor and the selection and use of support equip-
ment is of equal importance.

Anchor handling is a critically important and often


complicated process. It is influenced by such factors as
the weight and shape of the anchor, the nature of the
soil, the depth of the water, the weather conditions,
the available handling equipment and the type and
weight of mooring line. It is for these reasons that
anchor handling is a subject which requires careful
consideration. Without proper anchor handling, opti-
mal performance of an anchor is not possible. 51

In the process of handling anchors, various types of


support equipment are necessary or beneficial. An
anchor manual would be incomplete without consi-
deration of these auxiliary items, the reasons for
their use, their operation and the advantages and
drawbacks involved.

This chapter gives an overview of the recommended


procedures that should be followed for anchor hand-
ling and the types and use of the support equipment
during the handling operations.
The following handling procedures are by no means
complete, but they do give some suggestions which
can be applied to each anchor handling procedure
and adapted for specific circumstances and locations.

Some of the topics covered in this chapter are:


requirements for a soil survey, connection of the
anchor to the mooring line, chasers, handling the
Stevpris anchor, handling the Stevmanta anchor, the
Stevtensioner, anchor handling/supply vessels.
Soil survey

For the dimensioning of drag embedment anchors,


Typical contents survey report
the availability of site-specific soil data is important.
For advice on specifying drag embedment anchor • Cone penetration resistance.
type/size and calculating expected behaviour, the • Sleeve friction.
• Pore pressure.
site-specific soil data should be compared with soil
• SPT values.
data of previous drag embedment anchor (test) sites. • Granulometry and percentage fines.
• Wet and dry densities.
• Water content.
The soil survey requirement for the design of drag
• Drained and undrained triaxal tests.
embedment anchors usually consists of only shallow • Undrained shear strength, also remoulded.
boreholes, while in anchor pile design deep bore- • Unconfined compression tests.
• Plasticity limits.
holes are required. For suction anchor design there-
• Specific gravity.
fore a more extensive soil investigation is generally • CaCO3 content.
required when compared to drag embedment anchors. • Shell grading.
• Angularity and porosity.
When choosing between anchor pile, suction anchor
• Compressibility.
and drag embedment anchor the financial implica- • Cementation.
tions of the soil survey should be taken into account. • Normalised rock hardness test (point load test).
• RQD index, rock quality designation.
52
A typical soil survey for drag embedment anchor table K
design requires a survey depth of twice the length of
the fluke in sand and 8 times the fluke length in very
soft clay. In most cases a depth of 8 to 10 meters is suf-
ficient, although in very soft clay a reconnaissance
depth of 20 to 30 meters should be considered. For
optimal drag embedment anchor dimensioning, each
anchor location should ideally be surveyed. The soil
investigation can consist of boreholes, vibrocores,
cone penetration tests or a combination of these.
Cone penetration tests including sleeve friction are
preferred, but they should be accompanied by at
least one vibrocore or sample borehole per site to
obtain a description of the soil. Depending upon the
type of survey performed and the soil conditions
encountered, the survey report should present the
test results obtained on site and in the laboratory
including the points as shown in table K.

It is possible to dimension the drag embedment


anchors based on limited soil information (for
instance fewer boreholes). The ‘lack’ of soil data can
be compensated by choosing a conservative (larger)
anchor size.
Pile or anchor

The choice between piles and anchors is only possible


Description Pile Suction Anchor
for permanent systems. Piles are not a good invest- pile
ment when an anchored entity must be moved. But
Soil survey - - +
the choice is often made for piles on emotional
Procurement + - -
grounds; a pile does not drag! However, anchors that Installation spread - - +
are properly pre-tensioned on site will also not drag. Installation time - - +
Pile hammer - + +
Follower - + +
While it is a psychologically loaded subject, experi- Pump unit + - +
ence has shown that the choice between anchor and Pretensioning + - -
Extra chain + + -
pile is merely a matter of economics. The required
Rest value pile/anchor - + +
pile weight for a system is equal to the required Removal of anchor point - + +
weight of a Stevpris anchor. Piles cost about 40% of ROV + - +

equivalent capability anchors. However, the installa-


+ less expensive - more expensive
tion costs for piles are much higher. Piles require a fol-
lower and a pile hammer. The installation spread for table L

piles is much more significant; a crane barge with sup-


port spread versus the two anchor handling vessels. 53
The weather downtime for a spread involving a crane
vessel is much longer than when AHVs are used. To
allow drag of the anchors during pretensioning, extra
chain length is required. Sometimes the pretension
load for piles is much less than for anchors. The survey
work for anchors is generally much simpler than for
piles. When abandoning a field, anchor removal is
much cheaper than removal of installed piles. The
choice between piles and anchors strongly depends
upon the circumstances. The table L can help in esti-
mating the costs for the two alternatives.

Suction piles are an alternative for drag embedment


anchors and piles, also for MODU applications. The
advantage is the accurate positioning of the suction
piles. The disadvantage is the cost of the pile itself
and the cost of the installation. Also many soil types
do not allow suction pile applications, whereas drag
embedment anchors can be used in any soil type.
Setting the fluke/shank angle

Introduction
fluke angle too large in hard soil !
In soil such as sand and medium to hard clay, an
anchor with a fluke/shank angle of 32o will give the
highest holding power. An anchor with a 50 o
fluke/shank angle in this soil will not penetrate but
will drag along the seabed. If used in mud a 50o
fluke/shank angle is appropriate. An anchor with a 32 o no penetration !

fluke/shank angle will penetrate less and generate fig. 3-01

lower holding capacity in mud(fig. 3-01). change from mud to sand angle

The Stevpris Mk5 anchor has an additional fluke/


shank angle setting of 41o, which can be adopted in
certain layered soil conditions (table M).

Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk3


This can be carried out within half an hour with the fig. 3-02

54 Stevpris anchor upside down on deck.


Soil type Optimal
Secure the anchor on deck. Connect a tugger wire (C) fluke/shank
to the holes (D) on the bottom side of the fluke. angle setting

Change from mud to sand angle by removing the loc- Very soft clay (mud) 500
king plates and the two rear pins in (B), decrease the Certain layered soils 410 *
Medium to hard clay
fluke/shank angle by hauling the cable (C). Reinstall
or sand 320
the pins and locking plates in (A). Seal weld the lock-
* Stevpris Mk5 only
ing plates, do not weld them to the pins (fig. 3-02).
table M
Setting the fluke/shank angle

Change from sand to the mud position, increase angle change from sand to mud angle
by veering (C), change over pin and locking plates
from (A) to (B). No special welding requirements
(fig. 3-03).

Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk5


Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk5
anchor is even quicker. No welding required. Veering fig. 3-03

and hauling (C) to change the fluke/shank angle as change fluke/shank angle Stevpris Mk5
above, the pin however remains in (A), the locking
plate is secured by means of a cotter pin (fig. 3-04).

fig. 3-04

55
Connecting a swivel to the Stevpris anchor

To connect a swivel to the Stevpris anchor, several dif-


ferent configurations are possible. These are:

Type I - The swivel is connected directly to the shank J C B A

of the anchor thus omitting the anchor


shackle (fig. 3-05).
J swivel shackle, C end link, B enlarged link, A
common link fig. 3-05

Type II - The swivel is connected to the anchor shackle


(fig. 3-06).
J swivel shackle, C end link, B enlarged link, A
common link J C B A

Type III - The swivel is connected to the anchor shack-


le via a special design end link (fig. 3-07).
K special end link, J swivel, C end link, B enlar-
ged link, A common link fig. 3-06

56 Type IV - The swivel is part of a forerunner connected


to the anchor shackle, for instance the fore-
runners VA02, VA04 and VA 06 described in
the product data section (fig. 3-08). K J C B A

PL pear link, A common link, B enlarged link,


H swivel.

fig. 3-07
When a chaser is used in combination with the
Stevpris and swivel, some of the configurations men-
tioned above are more suitable than others. In gener-
al, swivels are only designed to withstand longitudin-
al forces, and are usually not designed for use in com- PL A B H B A

bination with chasers. The design of the chaser tends


to stop it at the swivel. Consequently, there will be
high bending forces on the swivel, which can result in
fig. 3-08
damage or even breakage.
damage possible!

Generally, it is best when the swivel is fitted some dis-


tance from the anchor when a chaser is used. The cha- NO !
ser can then pass the swivel and stop on the anchor
shank. When a load is applied to the chaser, the swi-
vel is only loaded longitudinally. This means that in
combination with the use of a chaser, the configura-
fig. 3-09
tion type III and type IV are preferred.
Connecting a swivel to the Stevpris anchor

When the swivel (or swivel forerunner) is connected


to the anchor shackle by means of an end shackle and
a chaser is used, the end shackle and the anchor
shackle should be connected bow through bow inste-
ad of pin through bow as is normal practice. This to
minimise the chance of damage to the shackles.

The illustrations fig. 3-09 through fig. 3-14 show how fig. 3-10

and how not to connect the swivel to the Stevpris damage possible!
anchor when using a chaser.
NO !
The best method for chasing with a swivel in the sys-
tem is to maintain the tension of the anchor line as
much as possible during chasing. This will make the
chaser pass more easily over the swivel.
fig. 3-11

57

fig. 3-12

damage possible!

NO !

fig. 3-13

fig. 3-14
Chasers

Chasers and their application


To facilitate handling, pendant wires may be applied
to retrieve the anchor. These wires are connected to a
pendant eye situated on the anchor and equipped
with a buoy for picking up. In deeper water higher
anchor break-out forces are encountered, resulting in
longer, heavier pendant wires and consequently
larger buoys. Due to wear caused by the continuous
movement of the buoy by the waves, these pendants
will break close to the buoy. The buoys would then
float free and the anchors are much more difficult to
recover.

To overcome this, chasers were introduced. These


were rings ‘chased’ along the cable towards the
anchor and back again to a rig or handling vessel.
58 Their function was to ensure both installation and
break-out of the anchor without having to use a pen-
dant line/buoy. The chaser system thus totally elimi-
nates buoys, partly eliminates cables and reduces
wear on the system.

The cost of a chaser is small when compared to the


cost of a mooring line. It is therefore extremely
important from an operator’s viewpoint that chasers
do not inflict damage to the mooring lines.

Towing a chaser along mooring lines with, at times,


high interface pressures, must result in wear. It is thus
essential that such wear is taken by the chaser and
not the mooring line. The chasers vryhof recommends
are manufactured in a material that is softer than the
steel used for the mooring line. Chaser wear is indu-
ced by the application of high interface pressure
between the mooring line and the chaser. High
interface pressure can arise from:

• Pulling the chaser along a slack mooring line.


• Maintaining high tension in the chaser workwire
when chasing a tensioned mooring line.
Chasers

Chasing operations are best carried out on mooring


lines which are fully tensioned. There is little need for
the application of high interface pressure while cha-
sing, the permanent chaser is captive on the mooring
line and, unlike the J-chaser, will not become disen-
gaged due to a slack work wire. For optimum chasing
operations, the length of the chaser pendant line
should be at least 1.5 times the waterdepth.

There are many different types of chaser available on


the market today. A selection of the different chaser
types is described in more detail on the following pages.

59
Chaser types

The J-chaser
The J-chaser (fig. 3-15) is used on mooring lines where
the anchor has to be recovered and no permanent
chaser has been installed, or the normal recovery
mechanism has failed. In other cases the J-chaser is
used simply to keep a chain free from a pipeline
during deployment of the anchors. The chaser is
deployed over the stern roller of an AHV at approxi- fig. 3-15

mately 1/3 of the water depth. The chaser is towed


across the mooring catenary until it catches the chain.
It is then towed into contact with the anchor
shank/fluke for anchor break-out and retrieval.

The permanent chain chaser


As a practical alternative to the buoy and pendant,
fig. 3-16
the permanent chain chaser (fig. 3-16) was introduced.
60 Originally, simple shackles were used; these were fol-
lowed by special cast oval rings which were attached
to a pendant by a ‘bight’ of chain and shackle. Very
soon afterwards the pear-shaped chaser with shackle
eye was introduced. The design of these chasers offers
superior sliding and penetration properties.
Chaser types

The detachable chain chaser


For rigs in service it is sometimes preferred to equip
the mooring with a chaser which does not require the
anchor chain to be broken and re-made. Detachable
chain chasers (fig. 3-17) were introduced to satisfy
this need. The withdrawal and replacement of the
single bolt permits easy assembly of the chaser on the
mooring cable. fig. 3-17

The permanent wire chaser


The permanent wire chaser (fig. 3-18) was introduced
when rigs moved to deeper waters, and composite
wire/chain mooring systems became necessary. The
chaser incorporates a ‘rocker’ which is centrally
mounted on a hinge bolt. The rocker has two oppo-
sing grooves, and when the chaser is engaged with fig. 3-18

the mooring line, the wire slides through one of these 61


grooves irrespective of the angle which the chaser
makes with the mooring. The large radius at the base
of the groove assists in reducing wear of the rocker
and avoids severe ‘opening’ of the lay of the wire if a
loop of wire is pulled during the handling process.
The material of the rocker is not as hard as the mate-
rial of the wire. This means that wear is taken by the
rocker without damage to the wire and, because the
rocker is easily removable, replacement is relatively
inexpensive. The permanent wire chaser is easily
detachable by removal and re-assembly of the hinge
bolt and rocker.

Some designs of wire chaser incorporate fully rota-


ting rollers over which the mooring wire passes. To be
effective such rollers need to be of a large diameter
and require to be supported by bearings. They are
consequently larger, heavier and much more costly
than the permanent wire chasers discussed above,
and because of their size, they require more power at
the AHV to penetrate the seabed and reach the
anchor.
Chaser types

The J-lock chaser.


The J-lock chaser (fig. 3-19) has been designed so that
it can slide along the chain in one direction and when
the pulling direction is reversed, the chaser locks on
the chain and does not slide any further. This means
that the tension in the mooring line can be wholly
transferred from the rig to the chaser. The J-shape
permits catching the anchor chain after the anchor fig. 3-19

has been installed. This means that this chaser can be


used to assist in unforeseen circumstances. The well-
balanced and ‘guiding’ design of the chaser enables
catching the chain when the chaser approaches a
mooring at a point where the catenary angle is as
high as 450.

When a normal permanent chaser is used under unfo-


62 reseen conditions, there is the chance that the AHV
cannot break out the anchor by means of the chaser.
The J-lock chaser can help in such an instance. It is
released from a second AHV and slides along the
chain towards the anchor. The design prevents the
J-lock chaser from sliding back. The J-lock chaser is
stopped at the permanent chaser. If the winch pull of
both tugs is now increased, the J-lock chaser prevents
the permanent chaser from sliding away from the
anchor. Consequently, the forces required do not
increase, and the anchor can easily be broken out.
After this operation, the J-lock chaser can be released
again.

This chaser can also be used when a very heavy chain


has to be installed. It assists during installation by
lifting the chain.
Stevpris installation

Stevpris deployment for MODUs


chaser
Introduction
Typical methods for deployment and retrieval of
Stevpris anchors with an anchor handling vessel
(AHV) are described, focusing on the use of chasers
for handling the anchor (fig. 3-20). This is the most
common practice on mobile drilling rigs (MODUs). fig. 3-20

Handling using permanent pendant lines is similar.


Deployment procedures for the Stevpris anchor will
also be given for permanent moorings where chasers
are normally not used.

Laying anchors
It is preferred, and by some operators required, to always deck anchor with chain between flukes

deck the anchor before run out to check the jewellery. fig. 3-21

Run the anchor line out the full distance with anchor 63
on deck or on roller, with the chain between the
flukes (fig. 3-21).

Boat increases power until anchor line tension rises on


rig winch tension meter. When rig gives order to lower
the anchor, veer pendant till anchor arrives at roller. quickly pass drum
fig. 3-22
Allow the anchor some speed to negotiate the bump
at the change-over from the deck on to the roller
(fig. 3-22).

If anchor is kept on roller, keep triangular plates


below the main shackle on the drum for stability of
the anchor. Alternatively the chaser can be kept on
deck/roller. In this situation the propeller thrust pas- triangular plates on drum
fig. 3-23
ses underneath the anchor and does not influence
the fluke (fig. 3-23).
Stevpris installation

Reduce propulsion momentarily when anchor passes


the propeller thrust, keep chaser on anchor head for
control of anchor orientation and lower anchor
(fig. 3-24).

STOP !
Once below the propeller wash zone, reactivate and
maintain propeller thrust to well above 30 tons. Keep
constant tension in order to ensure anchor does not fig. 3-24

fall through chaser, i.e. anchor remains in the chaser


and orientation of the anchor is correct (fig. 3-25).
Note: In some circumstances AHVs prefer to run the
anchor hanging from the pendant line below the
propeller wash approximately 60 to 80 meter above
the seabed. This method requires less power on the
winch during the actual laying of the anchor. If this
method is employed, make sure that at all times the fig. 3-25

64 anchor is correctly oriented in the chaser. Keep


constant tension in the pendant line to prevent the
anchor from falling through the chaser and possibly turn.

Stop lowering when anchor hangs 10 to 15 meter


above the bottom and advise rig. Rig now instructs
AHV to pay out until pendant line is 1.4 to 1.5 times wait for signal rig
fig. 3-26
the water depth in shallow water (100m) and 1.3 to
1.4 times in deeper water. AHV increases power till
tension is again seen to rise at the rig, i.e. the load in
the line is larger than the chain-soil friction (fig. 3-26).

Rig commences to pull in slowly. AHV further increa-


ses power until tension rises further at rig winch. At
this moment rig orders AHV to lay the anchor. AHV
immediately stops the propulsion and is consequently
pulled backwards. AHV pays out pendant and maintains
paying out pendant after anchor has landed on the
bottom till a wire length of 1.5 to 2 times the water
depth is out. Enough slack wire must be paid out not
to disturb the anchor during buoying off or waiting.
Stay above or behind the anchor. Rig continues
heaving the cable to a sufficient load, equal to the
total chain/soil friction plus 50 t to embed the anchor
fully and create confidence in good setting.
Stevpris installation

This also gives stability to the anchor when the AHV


strips the chaser back or buoys off the pendant. Now
the AHV can retrieve the chaser and return to the rig.
If circumstances allow, the rig can tension up to the
full pretension load directly (fig. 3-27).

No extra pull after landing! rig hauls AHV slacks

It is customary with older anchors such as Danforth, fig. 3-27

Moorfast, etc. to give another pull once the anchor is


on bottom. Do not do this with Stevpris anchors.
Once the anchor hits bottom, AHV should not pull
again. Pendant line must remain slack, otherwise
anchor could land upside down! (fig. 3-28).
Suggestion: pre-load the anchors to the maximum
required pretension load as soon as the chaser is 100 do not pull after landing !

meter or more ahead of the anchor, i.e. do not wait. If fig. 3-28

anchor has not been laid correctly, a rerun can be 65


made immediately.
wrong ! keep cable
under tension
Retrieving anchors
The chaser should be brought to the anchor with a
pendant of at least the length of 1.5 to 2 times the
water depth, measured from the stern roller. Chaser
fig. 3-29
should hang freely down from the anchor line till the
bottom is reached, i.e. slack in the pendant line. A too
short pendant and/or too little tension in the cable
results in a situation as sketched (fig. 3-29). patience in very soft soils !

While chasing, the rig should maintain tension of 60


to 70% of the pre-load tension. No tension in pen-
dant to ensure smooth passing over the chain. When
fig. 3-30
chaser is pulled into contact with anchor shank, incre-
ase thrust and keep thrust while heaving, especially in
rough water (fig. 3-30).
Stevpris installation

The motion of the vessel itself now helps gradually to


break the anchor loose. Sequentially with the vessels
motion the pendant is shortened gradually. Anchors
in very soft clay can be buried very deep. Have patien- keep
ce, take your time and be gentle with the equipment; rig pulling
hauls
the anchor will come. The rig can help and speed-up
the operation by hauling the anchor line at the same
time! Once the anchor is off bottom, keep the chaser fig. 3-31

in contact with the bow shackle by maintaining suffi-


cient thrust (fig. 3-31).

Anchor orientation
The anchor flukes are always oriented towards the
rig, on deck the anchor lays on its back with shackle
towards AHVs bow and cable between the upwards always deck anchor with chain between flukes

directed fluke points. Check jewelry (fig. 3-32). fig. 3-32

66
It is important to control the anchor orientation at all
times for easy racking, laying and decking of the
anchor, i.e. keep pendant line under tension while
working the anchor. If the anchor slides through the
chaser, the anchor has to be pulled back to the stern
roller and orientation checked (fig. 3-33). keep tension !
fig. 3-33

Decking the Stevpris anchor


If anchor is not correctly oriented, reduce propulsion
and let anchor slide down through the chaser.
Rotation is easier while near the rig where all loads
are lower (fig. 3-34).

wrong ! anchor cannot deck !


fig. 3-34
Stevpris installation

Turn the anchor with a shot of propeller wash. Then


pay out pendant, make sure anchor is below the pro-
peller wash away from the propeller influence zone
(fig. 3-35).

Increase propulsion moving AHV forward pulling cha-


ser in contact with the anchor. Make sure the stern
roller is perpendicular to the chain, the chain direc- fig. 3-35 turn

ting between the fluke points (fig. 3-36).

With sufficient bollard pull haul pendant, stop/redu-


ce thrust for only a few seconds when anchor passes
the propeller wash onto the drum. Pull anchor on the
drum, allow the anchor to turn with its back on the
roller, fluke points up. Then pull further on deck (fig.
3-37). fig. 3-36

67
With little tension in the line, the chain hangs steep
against the fluke points and anchor cannot rotate
easily (A). Before rotating the anchor, pull on the
cable, the anchor will be free to turn (B) and (C) (fig.
STOP !
3-38).
stop / reduce
fig. 3-37
propulsion
With anchor on the stern roller reactivate propulsion.
For inspection anchor can be pulled on deck. If requi-
red, change fluke angle to 32 degrees for hard soil or
to 50 degrees for very soft soil. Mind, every anchor
type will be unstable and drag in hard soil, stiff clay
or sand with a fluke angle set for mud! (fig. 3-39).

fig. 3-38

fig. 3-39
Stevpris installation

What not to do!


The anchor is approaching the drum. If the AHV
maintains thrust, the water flow will push the fluke
(fig. 3-40).

If the propeller is not stopped, the thrust risks turning


the anchor around the cable then acting as a shaft thrust on anchor makes it swing !

(fig. 3-41). fig. 3-40

The relative weight of the anchor increased by the


thrust force on the fluke will cause the anchor and
the cable to slide down through the chaser and con-
trol of anchor orientation is lost (fig. 3-42).

When the thrust is maintained while hauling in the and rotate !

chaser, the cable prevents the anchor to turn on its fig. 3-41

68 back at the stern roller. Boarding will be difficult now.


The anchor could pass the stern roller on its side and
get damaged!
So stop/reduce the thrust just before the anchor pas-
ses the propeller wash (fig. 3-43).

anchor slides through chaser


fig. 3-42

damage !
fig. 3-43
Stevpris installation

Racking the Stevpris


Rig heaves in anchor line, pulling AHV towards it.
AHV keeps sufficient tension in pendant, chaser
remains in tight contact with anchor, anchor remains
correctly oriented (fig. 3-44).

At some distance from the rig, AHV pays out winch keep tension !

wire while keeping sufficient bollard pull (at least 1.5 fig. 3-44

times anchor weight) to keep chaser on anchor head.


Anchor flukes point towards the rig. Rig hauls, AHV
veers while keeping some tension in the pendant line
transferring the anchor to the bolster. The direction
of the anchor cable must now be perpendicular to the
rack (fig. 3-45).
keep tension !

When anchor arrives at bolster, reduce tension to 15 fig. 3-45

tons. As soon as anchor is resting on bolsters, slack 69


pendant wire completely. If tension is not sufficient,
anchor falls out of control of the chaser and might
rotate and make racking difficult. If this occurs, bring
anchor to the stern of the AHV, rotate anchor with
fluke points directing outwards and keep chaser tight wrong !
risk losing control
on the anchor (fig. 3-46). over anchor orientation
fig. 3-46

Deploying Stevpris from the anchor rack


AHV receives pendant from rig and connects to AHV
winch wire. AHV moves to a position at a good dis-
tance but less than the water depth (for instance 50
meter dependent on weather) from the rig. Stop
winch and keep sufficient tension, 20 to 30 tons or
more as required to maintain the chaser on the head keep tension !
fig. 3-47
of the anchor. Only now rig pays out cable while AHV
hauls in on the winch. The AHV maintains sufficient
tension while pulling the anchor to the stern roller.
Reduce the power of the propeller as anchor passes
the wash zone and bring anchor on roller for inspec-
tion and reactivate thrust (fig. 3-47).
Stevpris installation

Boarding the anchor in deep water


In deep water the weight of the anchor line becomes
of predominant importance. For line loads larger
than 8 times the anchor weight the anchor could be
pulled against the chaser as illustrated, it could even
position itself upside down! In such cases boarding anchor weight
the anchor is difficult and damage might occur high tension

(fig. 3-48). fig. 3-48

The best and preferred solution is to pull the anchor


from the bottom and have the rig haul the anchor
line, allowing the boarding of the anchor near the rig
lock chaser
where loads are smaller.
If this is not possible or allowed for some reason,
another solution is to reduce the weight that is han-
fig. 3-49
ging from the anchor. This can be done by lifting the
70 anchor line using a lock chaser or grapnel handled by
a second vessel (fig. 3-49).

It is recommended to board the anchor with the chain


between the fluke. The anchor fluke is generally
designed to withstand loads up to 8 times the anchor
weight (fig. 3-50). 8 x anchor weight
fig. 3-50

It happens that the anchor is accidentally pulled over


the roller on its side. Due to the large forces damage to
shank and fluke might occur when the chain is han-
ging over the anchor (fig. 3-51).

large weight
fig. 3-51
Stevpris installation

If boarding the anchor on its side is inevitable, make


sure that before boarding, the vessel is turned to free
the anchor line from the anchor and haul gently. The
chain will pass the stern roller next to the anchor.
However, this situation should be avoided as damage
may occur (fig. 3-52).

Ballast In fluke fig. 3-52

Using a wire rope forerunner and ballast material


wire
placed inside the hollow fluke, the anchor may not
topple over with the fluke points directed down-
wards. A wire anchor line might be too light to posi-
tion the anchor correctly and the anchor may not top- chain

ple over, the anchor could skid over the seabed and
prevent penetration. with ballast in fluke use chain forerunner

When the fluke is ballasted, the weight of a chain fig. 3-53

forerunner will cause the shackle to nose down and 71


bring the fluke in penetration position (fig. 3-53).
Stevpris installation

Chaser equilibrium
pendant line force
To control the anchor, the chaser collar must always
be on the anchor head. The tension in the anchor
cable must be equal or larger than 1.5 times the
weight of the anchor. If not, the anchor slides anchor line tension
through the chaser and the orientation is not control-
led (fig. 3-54). anchor weight
fig. 3-54

Equilibrium forces determine if chaser is in contact Fp Fpv


with the anchor. Near bottom, the vertical load at the
chaser from the anchor line Flv is small. The chaser
remains only in contact with the anchor if the bollard Flh
pull Fph is larger than the horizontal line load Flh Fph

which in turn must be larger than the anchor weight Flv Fl

W (if not the anchor will slide down). The angle of the
pendant line must be larger than 45° (fig. 3-55). fig. 3-55 W

72
Recommendation: Bollard pull must always be equal chaser

or larger than the line tension, i.e. use a minimum


bollard pull of 20 to 30 tons for a 12 to 15 ton anchor.
Use a minimum pendant line length of 1.4 to 1.5
times the water depth in shallow water (100m) and
1.3 to 1.4 times the depth in deeper water (fig. 3-56).
fig. 3-56
Stevpris installation

Deployment for permanent moorings

The simplest deployment procedure for the Stevpris


anchor is to lower the anchor to the seabed using the
mooring line. When the anchor is nearly on the
seabed, the AHV should start moving slowly forward
to ensure that the anchor lands correctly on the
seabed (fig. 3-57). fig. 3-57

temporary bridle
Another option for the deployment of the Stevpris
anchor is to connect a temporary installation bridle mooring line

(wire rope) to the anchor. The bridle is connected to


the padeyes situated at the back of the shank of the
anchor. The AHV then lowers the anchor overboard
while paying out the mooring line and the bridle
simultaneously (fig. 3-58). fig. 3-58

73
To recover a Stevpris anchor after it has been instal-
led, the AHV should take the mooring line and pull
it in the opposite direction that the anchor was
installed in, generally away from the centre of the
mooring. The AHV should recover the mooring line
till a length of approximately 1.5 times the water
fig. 3-59
depth is still overboard.
When only 1.5 times the water depth of mooring line
is left overboard, the AHV should block the winch and
keep a constant tension on the mooring line equal to
the pre-load tension. Once the anchor starts to move
in the soil, a lower tension in the mooring line can be
used (fig. 3-59).
Piggy-backing

Introduction
Piggy-back is the practice of using two or more anchors
in order to obtain holding power greater than can be
achieved with one only. Piggy-backing is used when
anchors are employed with insufficient holding capa-
city. This can be caused by improper design for the
particular environment or insufficient anchor size.

In some soil conditions, the use of two smaller


anchors in piggy-back can offer an advantage over
the use of one larger anchor. This can be the case
when the anchor has to hold in a certain layer and
holding capacity in the underlying layer is uncertain.

Considerations to remember on piggy-backing:


• Installing a piggy-back system is more costly than
74 the installation of a single anchor.
• If the mooring line of the second anchor is connec-
ted to the rear of the first anchor, the stability, pene-
tration and holding capacity of the first anchor may
be less than is the case for a single anchor. The force
from the second anchor may tend to pull the fluke
of the first anchor closed (hinging type anchors).
• If the piggy-back anchor is connected to the first
anchor by means of a chaser, the chaser may
obstruct penetration of the first anchor.
• Both anchors must be exactly in line with the moor-
ing line load. The lead anchor may become unstable
if a lateral load is applied.
• Two hinging anchors in piggy-back do not provide
2 times but only 1 to 1.6 times the individual holding
capacity of the two anchors, for reasons described in
second point above.
• If the first anchor is not influenced by the pull from
the second anchor, and the second anchor (fixed
fluke/shank type anchors) is connected at 3 to 4
shank lengths distance from the first anchor, the
holding capacity of the 2 anchors may be up to 2.5
times the holding capacity of the individual
anchors, due to the extra penetration of the second
anchor.
Piggy-back methods

Piggy-backing involving hinging anchors


Since there is little difference between handling one
hinging anchor or two, the first method is described
with a Stevin anchor (hinging) in combination with a
Stevpris anchor (non-hinging).
Here, the Stevpris is main anchor and the Stevin is
back-up. This is the best solution when using a fixed
shank anchor as the fluke of the Stevpris anchor can
not be pulled closed. The pendant line is connected to
the padeye near the anchor shackle so performance is
not reduced.
Note: if the piggy-back anchor can not be laid in line
with the mooring load, the piggy-back anchor makes
the main anchor unstable. In such a case the Stevpris
can better be placed as the second anchor.

For optimal performance of the combination, the 75


pendant line between the two anchors should be
wire rope, to promote penetration and obtain better
holding capacity (fig. 3-60).

The installation procedure is described as follows:


• Pay out the main anchor as usual.
• Tension the mooring line until the anchor slips.
• Connect the second anchor to the pendant line.
• Bring the anchor to its location.
• Lower the piggy-back anchor and tension the moor-
ing line again.
• Provide the pendant of the second anchor with
a buoy for easy retrieval.

fig. 3-60
Piggy-back methods

Piggy-backing with two Stevpris anchors


When two Stevpris anchors are used in piggy-back,
the holding capacity of the combination may be
equal or higher than the sum of the individual hol-
ding capacities of the anchors. The installation proce-
dure of two Stevpris anchors in piggy-back (fig. 3-61) is
as follows:
• Pay out the main Stevpris anchor, with the moor- fig. 3-62

ing line connected to the anchor shackle and the


pendant line (wire rope for optimal performance
and approximately three times the shank length of
the first Stevpris anchor) connected to the padeye
behind the anchor shackle.
• Connect the other end of the pendant line to the
anchor shackle of the second Stevpris anchor.
• To lower the second Stevpris anchor to the seabed,
76 a second pendant line is connected to the padeye
behind the anchor shackle.
• Using the second pendant line, the Stevpris
anchors are lowered to the seabed and positioned
and buoyed off.
• The Stevpris anchors are then tensioned by pulling
on the mooring line (fig. 3-62).

fig. 3-61
Piggy-back methods

Piggy-backing by using a chaser


Sometimes chasers are used to connect the piggy-
back anchor to the first anchor (fig. 3-63), although a
pendant line connected directly to the padeye behind
the main anchor shackle of the first anchor is prefered.

The installation procedure described for two Stevpris


anchors is also applicable when a chaser is used for
the connection.

During the deployment of the piggy-back


combination, care must be taken that anchors are
installed in line with the load.

77

fig. 3-63
Stevmanta VLA installation

Introduction
installation mode
The Stevmanta VLA consists of an anchor fluke which
is connected with wires to the angle adjuster. The shear pin
angle adjuster is responsible for changing the anchor
from the installation mode to the vertical (or normal)
loading mode.

There are many options to install VLA anchors. The fig. 3-64

most efficient methods are based on two different


normal mode
principles:
• Double line installation method using the fixed
angle adjuster.
• Single line installation method using the shear pin
angle adjuster.

fig. 3-65
The double line installation method is typically used
78 when it is preferable to install the anchor with a steel
wire rope installation line instead of using the actual
mooring line (for example polyester).

The following three typical methods for installing the


Stevmanta VLA are discussed:
• Single line installation method.
• Double line installation method.
• Double line installation method using the
Stevtensioner.

It is also possible to use the Stevtensioner with the


single line installation method, however because this
is very similar to the double line installation method
with Stevtensioner, it is not presented here.

Single line installation procedure


This procedure requires only one AHV for installation
of the Stevmanta. The Stevmanta is deployed with
the shearpin angle adjuster. The mode of the anchor
changes when the shearpin breaks at a load equal to
the required installation load. When the shear pin
breaks, the Stevmanta changes from the installation
mode to the normal (vertical) loading mode (fig. 3-64
and fig. 3-65).
Stevmanta VLA installation

Installation procedure
In the installation procedure an optional tail has been
included on the Stevmanta. The tail assists in orient
ation of the Stevmanta on the seabed.
Connect the installation/mooring line to the angle
adjuster on the Stevmanta on the AHV. Lower the
tail for
Stevmanta overboard. The Stevmanta will decend tail orientation
first, i.e. the tail will be the first part to reach the recovery

seabed (fig. 3-66).

When the Stevmanta is on the seabed, an ROV can


fig. 3-66
optionally inspect the anchor (position and orienta-
tion). The AHV starts paying out the installation/
mooring line while slowly sailing away from the
Stevmanta (fig. 3-67).

When enough of the installation/mooring line has 79


been paid out, the AHV starts increasing the tension
in the installation line. The Stevmanta will start to
embed into the seabed (fig. 3-68).
ROV

fig. 3-67

fig. 3-68
Stevmanta VLA installation

When the predetermined installation load has been


reached with the AHVs bollard pull, the shearpin in
the angle adjuster fails, triggering the Stevmanta
into the normal (vertical) loading mode. This can be
clearly noticed on board the AHV, as the AHV will
stop moving forward due to the sudden increase in
holding capacity. Now that the Stevmanta is in the
normal (vertical) loading mode, the AHV can conti-
nue to increase the tension in the (taut-leg) installa-
tion/mooring line up to the required proof tension
load (fig. 3-69).
fig. 3-69

After the Stevmanta has been proof tensioned to the


required load, the installation/mooring line can be
attached to the floater.
In case of a pre-laid mooring, the mooring line can be
80 buoyed off, for easy connection later on (fig. 3-70).

Stevmanta retrieval
The Stevmanta is easily retrieved by pulling on the
‘tail’. Connection to the tail can be achieved either
with a grapnel or by using an ROV (fig. 3-71).
fig. 3-70

fig. 3-71
Stevmanta VLA installation

Alternatively the Stevmanta can be equipped with an


pull for retrieval
optional recovery system. The recovery system con-
sists of two special sockets which connect the front
wires to the fluke.
To recover the anchor, the mooring line is pulled
backwards, i.e. away from the centre of the mooring.
Once the mooring line has been pulled back, the
front sockets will disconnect from the fluke (fig. 3-72). fig. 3-72

retrieval
The Stevmanta VLA is now pulled out of the soil using
just the rear wires. This reduces the resistance of the
anchor, so that it can be retrieved with a load equal to
about half the installation load (fig. 3-73).

fig. 3-73

81
Stevmanta VLA installation

Double line installation procedure


installation mode
This procedure requires two AHVs. The Stevmanta is
deployed with the fixed angle adjuster. The mode of mooring line
installation line
the anchor (installation mode or normal (vertical) loa-
ding mode) is chosen by pulling on either the installa-
tion line or the mooring line.

The Stevmanta is in the installation mode when the fig. 3-74

installation line is tensioned, i.e. the line on the front


normal mode
of the angle adjuster (fig. 3-74).
mooring line

The Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading


mode when the mooring line is tensioned, i.e. the line
on the rear of the angle adjuster (fig. 3-75). installation
line

fig. 3-75
During the installation AHV1 handles the steel instal-
82 lation line and AHV2 handles the mooring line, for AHV2 AHV1
instance polyester (fig. 3-76).

In the installation procedure an optional subsea reco-


very buoy can be included in the installation line. The
recovery buoy is connected to the installation line via
a delta plate at approximately 90 m from the
fig. 3-76
Stevmanta (fig. 3-77).
AHV2 AHV1
Connect the installation line to the angle adjuster on
the Stevmanta on board AHV1.
Pass the mooring line from AHV2 to AHV 1 and con-
nect it to the angle adjuster.
Lower the Stevmanta VLA overboard by keeping ten-
sion on both the installation line (AHV1) and the
fig. 3-77
mooring line (AHV2).
When the Stevmanta is on the seabed, an ROV can AHV2 AHV1
inspect the anchor’s position and orientation. AHV2
slackens the tension in the mooring line and AHV1
starts paying out the installation line while slowly
sailing away from the Stevmanta (fig. 3-78).

fig. 3-78
Stevmanta VLA installation

When enough of the installation line has been


AHV2 AHV1
paid out, AHV1 starts increasing the tension. The
Stevmanta will start to embed into the seabed. AHV2
keeps the mooring line slack by keeping the same dis-
tance from AHV1. If more bollard pull is required break
link
than one AHV can deliver, AHV2 can buoy off the breaks

mooring line and pull with AHV1 in tandem.


fig. 3-79

When the predetermined installation load has been AHV2


reached, the breaking device in the installation line
fails (break shackle connecting the installation line to
the delta plate), freeing the installation line from the
pretension load
Stevmanta (fig. 3-79).
recovery
line
If the optional recovery buoy is used, the breaking
fig. 3-80
device is placed on the delta plate connecting it to the
installation line and AHV1. AHV1 is now no longer AHV2 83
connected to the Stevmanta and the installation line
can be recovered on deck (fig. 3-80).

AHV2 can now start increasing the tension in the


mooring line. If AHV2 can not generate enough bol-
lard pull to reach the required proof tension load,
fig. 3-81
AHV1 can be connected in tandem to AHV2 to gene-
rate additional bollard pull. AHV2

After the Stevmanta has been proof tensioned to the


required load, the mooring line can be attached to
the floater.
In case of a pre-laid mooring, the mooring line can be
buoyed off, for easy connection later on (fig. 3-81).
fig. 3-82

Stevmanta retrieval
The Stevmanta is recovered from the seabed by retur-
ning to ‘installation mode’ instead of the normal
(vertical) loading mode. The AHV picks up the reco-
very buoy from the seabed and by pulling vertically
on the installation line, the anchor is retrieved easily
(fig. 3-82).
Stevmanta VLA installation

Double line installation with Stevtensioner


installation mode
The Stevmanta is deployed with the fixed angle
adjuster. The mode of the anchor (installation mode mooring line
installation line
or normal (vertical) loading mode) is chosen by pul-
ling on either the installation line or the mooring
line. The Stevmanta is in the installation mode when
the installation line is tensioned, i.e. the line on the
front of the angle adjuster (fig. 3-83). fig. 3-83

normal mode
The Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading
mooring line
mode when the mooring line is tensioned, i.e. the line
at the rear of the angle adjuster. During the installa-
tion AHV1 handles the installation line (preferably
chain and steel wire) and AHV2 handles the mooring installation
line
line, for instance polyester (fig. 3-84).
fig. 3-84

84 The installation procedure with the Stevtensioner AHV2 AHV1


tensioner
requires a reaction anchor (the typical use of the
Stevtensioner is presented in the next chapter). In this
case the reaction anchor can be either a Stevpris or
Stevmanta. For now a Stevpris is shown as reaction
anchor and is to be on the active side of the
Stevtensioner.

Connect the installation line to the angle adjuster on


the Stevmanta on AHV1. Pass the mooring line from
AHV2 to AHV1 and connect it to the angle adjuster.
fig. 3-85
Lower the Stevmanta to the seabed by keeping ten-
AHV2 work chain AHV1
sion on both the installation line and mooring line.
stopper
Connect the installation line to the passive side of the
Stevtensioner. A break link can be installed between
the Stevtensioner and the installation line on the pas-
sive side (fig. 3-85).

Connect the installation line to the reaction anchor.


Pass the installation line through the Stevtensioner
(fig. 3-86).

fig. 3-86
Stevmanta VLA installation

Sail to set-down position of the reaction anchor


(AHV1 only). AHV2 stays above the Stevmanta.
During the movement of AHV1, the installation line
of the Stevmanta has to be paid out (fig. 3-87).

Lower the Stevtensioner and reaction anchor to the


seabed (fig. 3-88).

Buoy off the retrieval line (or mooring line) of the


reaction anchor. AHV1 sails to tensioning point and
starts taking in the slack of the tensioning line (fig. 3-89).

AHV2 shark jaws AHV1 85


wire
stopper
tensioner
chain

fig. 3-87

AHV2 AHV1

wire

stopper
stopper
tensioner chain

fig. 3-88

AHV2 AHV1

wire

stopper
stopper
tensioner chain

fig. 3-89
Stevmanta VLA installation

Start the tensioning procedure (yo-yoing) (fig. 3-90).

The break link will break on the Stevmanta when the


required installation load has been reached (fig. 3-91).

Recover the Stevtensioner, the installation line and


the reaction anchor to AHV1.
AHV2 can now proof tension the Stevmanta and then
buoy off the mooring line. Installation of the
Stevmanta is now complete (fig. 3-92).

Instead of using a reaction anchor, two Stevmantas


can also be installed at the same time. After comple-
tion of the tensioning (yo-yoing), AHV2 proof ten-
sions one Stevmanta while AHV1 recovers the
Stevtensioner and disconnects it from the installation
86 line of the other Stevmanta. This Stevmanta can then
also be proof tensioned (fig. 3-93).
Stevmanta VLA installation

AHV2 AHV1

wire
stopper
tensioner
chain
stopper

fig. 3-90

AHV2 AHV1

wire
stopper
tensioner
break link breaks chain
stopper

fig. 3-91

AHV2 chain wire AHV1 87

tensioner
pretension load
stopper

fig. 3-92

AHV2 AHV1

wire

stopper
stopper
tensioner chain

fig. 3-93
The Stevtensioner

Introduction
The Stevtensioner is used for cross tensioning of dia-
metrically opposed anchor legs moored by drag
anchors or anchor piles. The Stevtensioner is general-
ly used for the installation of (semi) permanent flo-
ating structures such as the SPM buoy, STL, TLP, FPS,
FPSO, etc. After the tensioning operations the
Stevtensioner is demobilised and ready for the next fig. 3-94

project. The Stevtensioner can however also be used


for permanent tensioning purposes, becoming a part The new Stevtensioner models
offer the following features:
of the mooring system.
• Smaller dimensions, reduced weight and improved
The Stevtensioner can be deployed from a crane handling, but heavy enough to easilty slide down
the mooring line.
barge, AHV or any vessel having enough crane/winch • Designed to smoothly guide at least 5 links and
capacity to pull the required vertical force. The exis- therefore prevent chain getting stuck inside.
ting models VA220 and VA500 were designed for • Due to economical volume/weight ratio, the new
Stevtensioner models allow for containerised
88 handling a single size of chain. The new Stevtensioner freight by either sea or, for rush deliveries, by air.
models VA600, VA1000 and VA1250 can handle chain • The integrated shape allows for smooth passage
diameter ranging from 76 mm up to 152 mm. Because over stern roller.
• Load measuring pin is equipped with two indepen-
of this variety in chain sizes additional work chain dent sets of strain gauges. The umbilical
may not be required (fig. 3-94). cable connections are protected against
handling and lifting operations.
These connections may be used for acoustic
The working principle of the tensioner transfer of the signals.
The Stevtensioner is based on the principle that a verti-
cal load to a horizontal string causes high horizontal
loads. To achieve the required horizontal pretension
load at the anchor points, the vertical pulling force only
needs to be 40% of this pretension. The anchor line ten-
sion is measured by a measuring pin located inside the
Stevtensioner and as such well protected against dama-
ge caused by handling and lifting operations (fig. 3-95).

2V
H

fig. 3-95
The Stevtensioner

One anchor line (passive line) is attached to the ten-


sion measuring pin at the Stevtensioner. The oppos-
ite anchor line (active line) passes through the
Stevtensioner. Tensioning starts by applying the
yo-yo movement to the active line (fig. 3-96).

When the Stevtensioner is lifted by the active chain, it


blocks the chain. When the Stevtensioner is lifted
from the seabed, the passive and active mooring lines
are also lifted. Consequently the anchors or piles are
loaded and cause an inverse catenary of the mooring
line in the soil, as well as causing the anchor to drag
and embed. In other words: chain length is gained.
Lowering the Stevtensioner slackens the anchor lines
and allows it to slide down over the active chain. By
repeating this several times (called the yo-yo move-
ment), the horizontal load on the anchor points incre- 89
ases. Generally the required horizontal load is achie-
ved after 5 to 7 steps.
Once tensioning is completed, the Stevtensioner is
recovered by pulling the lifting/pennant wire making
it disengage. This allows the Stevtensioner to slide up
along the active chain to the surface (fig. 3-97).

passive chain active chain

fig. 3-96

chain locks

fig. 3-97
The Stevtensioner

Measurement of the tensions applied


Fig. 3-98 shows the curve recorded during tensioning
of chains connected to piles for the Coveñas Pipeline
Project in Colombia. The graph shows a total of 5
heaves (yo-y’s), each resulting in a higher tension.

When the Stevtensioner is lifted from the seabed, the


passive and active mooring lines are also lifted from
the seabed. Consequently the anchors or piles are
loaded. The loading causes an inverse catenary of the
mooring line in the soil, and also causes the anchor to
drag and embed; in other words: chain length is gai-
ned. When lowering to seabed the gain in chain
length (slack) is won by the Stevtensioner sliding
down the chain (approximately 5 to 8 links). The next
heave (yo-yo) will therefore create a higher tension in
90 the system. In practise a total of 5 to 7 yo-yos are
required to reach the required proof tension load.

Different methods can be applied to verify the tension


in the chain. These are discussed below.

Computer calculations
The tension in the chain can be calculated by means
of computer catenary calculations. Besides known
parameters such as submerged chain weight, and the
length of the mooring line, other parameters meas-
ured during tensioning need to be incorporated in
the calculation:
• Height Stevtensioner above seabed.
• Vertical pulling load.

tension on anchor
250 lifting force
tension force in t

125

0 30 60 90 120
fig. 3-98 time in minutes
The Stevtensioner

By using this method the tension in the chain can be


calculated at any height of the Stevtensioner above
seabed. This method is independent of the water-
depth.

Umbilical cable and measuring pin


The chain tension can be measured with a measuring
pin. The pin is part of the Stevtensioner housing and is
equipped with strain gauges. The pin is connected to
a tension read-out unit on the installation vessel by
using an umbilical cable. The pin is connected to the
passive chain. All tensioning data are measured on
deck and presented during tensioning on a chart
recorder. A hand winch with sliding contacts is used to
veer and haul the umbilical without disconnecting the
umbilical from the registration equipment. The meas-
urement is insensitive for variations in cable length. 91
The use of an umbilical is an effective method in
waterdepths down to approximately 200 meters.
Beyond this depth it becomes more efficient to use
either an acoustic system or computer calculations.

Break - link
The passive chain can be attached to the
Stevtensioner by a break link. When, during the ten-
sioning operation, a predetermined load has been
reached, the link breaks. Consequently the passive
chain falls to the bottom, and the Stevtensioner can
be retrieved.

Duration of pretensioning anchors and piles


Once the required tension has been achieved, the
tension has to be maintained for a certain duration.
This period is described in the table below for various
Certification Authorities.

Certification Authority Required duration of


maintaining tension
Lloyds Register of Shipping 20 minutes
American Bureau of Shipping 30 minutes
Det Norske Veritas (NMD) 15 minutes
The Stevtensioner

Handling the Stevtensioner


Handling operations can generally be described as
follows:

• Positioning the anchors and paying out the chain


• Hook-up all necessary hardware for tensioning
operations on deck of barge or AHV
• Deployment Stevtensioner to the seabed and posi-
tioning of the installation vessel
• First lift (yo-yo)
• Series of yo-yos fig. 3-99
• Maintain required tension for a specified period of
time
• Retrieve the Stevtensioner and disconnect
• Prepare for next tensioning
A Stevtensioner can be deployed from a crane barge,
92 Anchor Handling Vessel or any vessel having enough
crane/winch capacity to lift the required vertical
force.

General tensioning procedures


General tensioning procedures using crane barge or
AHV for Stevtensioner models VA1000 and VA1250
are presented in fig. 3-99 and 3-100.

Hook-up
Pass the active chain (2) through the tensioner (1) on
deck. Connect passive chain (3) to measuring pin
shackle (9). Connect dislock wire (5) to shackle (4).
Connect umbilical cable (7) to read-out system on
deck and to the measuring pin (6).

Lowering
Fix active chain (2) to winch or crane hook. Slack dis-
lock wire (5) and lower Stevtensioner to seabed.
Stevtensioner will pass over active chain (2).

Tensioning mode
When Stevtensioner is on seabed, slack dislock wire (5)
before the first yo-yo, and keep slack during all yo-yos!
The Stevtensioner

Tensioning is achieved by pulling on active chain (2). 2


The mooring lines will be lifted from the seabed cau- 7
sing the anchors or piles to be loaded. After each yo- 5
yo active chain is gained. The active chain can only
pass through the Stevtensioner in one direction. 4
8
Approximately 4 to 7 yo-yos are required to obtain
3
the required pretension load (fig. 3-100).
fig. 3-100 6

Retrieving
When tensioning is completed be sure to lower the
Stevtensioner to seabed and slack off active chain (2)
before retrieving Stevtensioner with dislock wire (5).
Pull on dislock wire (5). Stevtensioner will pass over
chain (2). Disconnect Stevtensioner on deck of the
barge or AHV.

Stevtensioner Product Range 93


The following Stevtensioners are available from
vryhof anchors.

Stevtensioner Maximum Suitable* for chain Suitable* for chain Size Weight
model horizontal load size with Kenter size without Kenter Stevtensioner Stevtensioner
[t] shackle [mm] shackle [mm] lxhxw [m] [t]

VA 220 220 50 60 2.6 x 1.2 x 1.0 5


VA 500 500 102 112 5.4 x 2.6 x 2.4 20
VA 600 600 76 - 84 76 - 87 2.2 x 0.9 x 0.6 2.5
VA1000 1000 102 - 117 102 - 135 3.1 x 1.2 x 0.8 6
VA1250 1250 114 - 132 114 - 152 3.5 x 1.4 x 0.9 9

* The suitability only refers to the section of chain passing through the Stevtensioner. Chain or wire not passing through the
Stevtensioner may have any dimension.

table N
Supply vessels/anchor handling vessels

Drilling rigs are generally moored with 8 to 12


These specialised anchor handling vessels
anchors. These are laid in a mooring pattern.
(AHVs) now have:
Originally normal tugs were used for these opera-
tions, but very soon, there was a call for specialised • A large deck space.
• Powerful winches, with auxiliary winches to reel
vessels.
extra wires.
• Large chain lockers, for storage of the chain.
For anchor handling vesselss, it is very important to be • Large wire storage capacity.
• An adapted seaworthy design and very manoeu-
able to work quickly and effectively. Much depends
vrable with bow and stern thrusters. Some even
on the expertise of the captain and crew. The equip- with a dynamic positioning system.
ment and its design are also extremely important. • Space for drilling mud and fuel tanks for supply
to drilling rigs.
Engine power has to be sufficient to handle chain
• Small auxiliary cranes.
and/or wire and anchors at the water depth concer- • One or two sets of towing pins and shark jaws.
ned. The newest generation of AHVs has bollard pulls • A stern roller that sometimes consists of two
individually rotating drums.
far in excess of 200 t.

table O
Care should be given to the rated maximum bollard
94 pull which in reality might be less, depending on the
use of other power consuming equipment such as
bow (and sometimes) stern thrusters, winches, etc.

The winch often causes confusion. An AHV owner


demonstrates maximum pulling capacity at the bare
drum during the maiden trip, but a contractor requi-
res high winch output when the drum is 70 to 100%
wound with wire under working conditions. It is also
possible that an owner limits the pressure of the
hydraulic system below factory limits, to reduce
winch wear and repair costs.

The dynamic capacity of the winch brake is particul-


arly important when a long heavy chain must be
deployed. Hydraulically and electrically braked drums
are more efficient than band brakes.

For handling chain, many supply vessels have chain


lockers below decks and a wildcat above the chain
locker.

To ensure easy handling of chain and wire, simple,


well-constructed tools are necessary. An experienced
crew will also make the handling easier.
4

Product data
Introduction

Product Data

In this editon of the vryhof anchor manual, we have


given the reader as much information and data as we
imagined would normally be needed. Undoubtedly
some is missing. This can be vryhof-specific or general
information. Vryhof-specific, information can be related
to brochures, detailed handling recommendations
and product data. This can be obtained on request,
while general information will also be provided if
available.

To make the next edition of the anchor manual suit the


requirements of the reader even better than this one,
your suggestions of comments are much appreciated.

97
Dimensions of vryhof anchor types

Stevin Mk3

B D

S
98

C
A

E
L

Main dimensions Stevin Mk3 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg

weight 1000 1500 3000 5000 7000 9000 12000 15000 20000 30000
A 2429 2774 3493 4120 4602 5012 5516 5942 6372 7289
B 2654 3038 3828 4538 5077 5521 6076 6545 6986 7997
C 1559 1785 2249 2667 2983 3244 3570 3846 4100 4694
D 2023 2316 2918 3460 3871 4209 4632 4990 5324 6094
E 737 843 1063 1260 1409 1533 1687 1817 2048 2345
K 1010 1156 1456 1727 1932 2100 2312 2490 2674 3061
L 412 471 594 704 788 857 943 1016 1083 1240
S 60 65 80 80 90 100 110 120 160 180

Note: The dimensions of the Stevin Mk3 anchor may be changed for specific applications
Dimensions of vryhof anchor types

Stevpris Mk5

B H

C 99

sand
T F
mud

Main dimensions Stevpris Mk5 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg

weight 1500 3000 5000 8000 10000 12000 15000 18000 20000 22000 25000 30000 65000
A 2954 3721 4412 5161 5559 5908 6364 6763 7004 7230 7545 8018 10375
B 3184 4011 4756 5563 5992 6368 6860 7290 7550 7794 8133 8643 11184
C 1812 2283 2707 3166 3410 3624 3904 4149 4297 4436 4629 4919 6365
E 1505 1896 2248 2629 2832 3010 3242 3446 3569 3684 3844 4085 5286
F 271 342 406 474 511 543 585 622 644 665 694 737 954
H 1230 1550 1837 2149 2315 2460 2650 2816 2917 3011 3142 3339 4321
T 493 622 738 862 929 988 1064 1131 1171 1209 1262 1341 1736
S 80 90 110 130 140 150 170 180 190 200 200 220 300

Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications
Dimensions of vryhof anchor types

Stevshark Mk5

B H

100 C

sand
T F
mud

Main dimensions Stevshark Mk5 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg

weight 1500 3000 5000 8000 10000 12000 15000 18000 20000 22000 25000 30000 65000
A 2862 3605 4275 4999 5385 5723 6165 6551 6785 7004 7309 7767 10051
B 3085 3886 4608 5389 5805 6169 6645 7062 7314 7550 7879 8373 10834
C 1755 2212 2622 3067 3304 3511 3782 4019 4163 4297 4484 4765 6166
E 1458 1837 2178 2547 2743 2915 3140 3337 3457 3568 3723 3957 5120
F 263 332 393 460 495 526 567 602 624 644 672 714 924
H 1192 1502 1780 2082 2243 2383 2567 2728 2826 2917 3044 3235 4186
T 478 603 715 836 900 957 1031 1095 1135 1171 1222 1299 1681
S 80 90 110 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 300

Note: The dimensions of the Stevshark Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications
Dimensions of vryhof anchor types

Stevmanta VLA

B D H

101

E1
E0

T F

Main dimensions Stevmanta VLA dimensions in mm. Area in m2

area 5 8 10 12 15 17 20
B 3143 3975 4445 4869 5443 5795 6286
C 2976 3765 4209 4611 5155 5488 5953
D 1945 2460 2750 3013 3368 3586 3890
E0 3075 3890 4349 4764 5326 5670 6150
E1 3371 4264 4767 5222 5839 6216 6742
F 172 217 243 266 298 317 344
H 1459 1845 2063 2260 2527 2690 2918
T 639 809 904 991 1107 1179 1279

Note: The dimensions of the Stevmanta VLA anchor may be changed for specific applications
Dimensions of other anchor types

A
A
D D

C B C
B

FLIPPER DELTA DANFORTH


weight A B C D weight A B C D
lb. kg mm mm mm mm lb. kg mm mm mm mm
2205 1000 2605 1960 740 1560 1000 454 1830 1580 410 1100
5512 2500 3150 2660 1005 2130 2500 1134 2260 2140 560 1350
11023 5000 3945 3300 1260 2660 5000 2268 2780 2700 710 1650
16535 7500 4565 3850 1435 3080 10000 4536 3510 3330 890 2100
22046 10000 5040 4270 1600 3400 12000 5443 3730 3540 945 2240
102 26455 12000 5335 4530 1705 3600 14000 6350 3920 3720 995 2360
33069 15000 5735 4845 1830 3875 16000 7257 4100 4000 1040 2470
44092 20000 6405 5410 2010 4320 20000 9072 4370 4150 1110 2620
71650 32500 7320 6200 2310 4930 25000 11340 4710 4470 1195 2820
88185 40000 7850 6650 2480 5290 30000 13608 5000 4750 1270 3000

A
A
D
D

B
C

B C

LWT MOORFAST
weight A B C D weight A B C D
lb. kg mm mm mm mm lb. kg mm mm mm mm
1000 454 1905 1803 622 1168 1000 454 1549 1905 483 940
5000 2268 2997 2845 984 1829 6000 2722 2565 3632 787 1549
10000 4536 3658 3480 1245 2235 10000 4536 3327 3988 1041 2032
15000 6804 3988 3791 1362 2438 12000 5443 3531 4242 1092 2159
20000 9072 4394 4166 1499 2692 16000 7257 3886 4750 1219 2388
25000 11340 4851 4521 1708 2946 20000 9072 4166 4978 1295 2591
30000 13608 5029 4801 1715 3073 30000 13608 4801 5512 1499 2997
35000 15876 5283 5055 1803 3226 40000 18144 5436 6299 1600 3226
40000 18144 5537 6096 1905 3327 50000 22680 5639 6528 1676 3353
60000 27216 6350 7061 2184 3810 60000 27216 5893 6883 1778 3556
Dimensions of other anchor types

A A
D
D

B
C
B C

STATO AC14
weight A B C D weight A B C D
lb. kg mm mm mm mm lb. kg mm mm mm mm
3000 1361 3277 2769 860 1829 2844 1290 2730 980 470 1060
6000 2722 3658 3632 960 2337 4630 2100 3210 1150 550 1250
9000 4082 4064 4318 1090 2540 6746 3060 3640 1310 620 1420
15000 6804 5182 5690 1370 3200 12368 5610 4460 1600 760 1740
20000 9072 5334 5842 1420 3277 18298 8300 5080 1830 870 1980
25000 11340 5740 6248 1540 3480 23149 10500 5500 1970 940 2140 103
30000 13608 5969 6528 1570 3683 29762 13500 5980 2150 1020 2330
35000 15876 6299 6883 1670 3886 41447 18800 6670 2400 1140 2600
40000 18144 6553 7188 1750 4064 44092 20000 6810 2450 1170 2660
60000 27216 7540 8120 2000 4570 50706 23000 7140 2570 1220 2780

A
D

B C

US NAVY STOCKLESS
weight A B C D
lb. kg mm mm mm mm
1000 454 1072 841 521 772
5000 2268 1854 1437 889 1319
10000 4536 2337 1810 1121 1661
15000 6804 2680 2089 1295 1861
20000 9072 2946 2280 1413 2094
25000 11340 3175 2456 1522 2256
30000 13608 3372 2608 1616 2394
35000 15876 3550 2743 1703 2523
40000 18144 3708 2872 1778 2619
60000 27216 4775 3194 2218 3375
Proof load test for HHP anchors (US units)

Anchor proof Anchor proof Anchor proof


weight load weight load weight load
lbs kips lbs kips lbs kips

100 6.2 4100 92.5 10000 165.8


125 7.3 4200 94.2 11000 174.5
150 8.2 4300 95.9 12000 184.8
175 9.1 4400 97.5 13000 194.7
200 9.9 4500 99.1 14000 205.2
250 11.5 4600 100.7 15000 214.3
300 12.9 4700 102.3 16000 222.9
350 14.2 4800 103.9 17000 230.9
400 15.5 4900 105.5 18000 239
450 16.7 5000 107 19000 245
500 18.1 5100 108.5 20000 250.4
550 19.2 5200 110 21000 256.7
600 20.5 5300 111.4 22000 263.5
650 21.7 5400 112.9 23000 270.9
700 23 5500 114.4 24000 277.2
750 24.3 5600 115.9 25000 282.8
800 25.5 5700 117.4 26000 289.2
850 26.6 5800 118.7 27000 296.7
104 900 27.8 5900 120 28000 304.9
950 28.9 6000 121.4 29000 312.3
1000 29.8 6100 122.7 30000 318.9
1100 32.1 6200 124.1 31000 326.9
1200 34.5 6300 125.4 32000 333.7
1300 36.8 6400 126.8 33000 341.2
1400 39.1 6500 128.2 34000 348
1500 41.3 6600 129.5 35000 354.8
1600 43.5 6700 130.8 36000 361.6
1700 45.8 6800 132 37000 368.4
1800 48.2 6900 133.2 38000 375.2
1900 50.3 7000 134.4 39000 382
2000 52.3 7100 135.7 40000 388.8
2100 54.5 7200 136.9 42000 400.6
2200 56.6 7300 138.1 44000 411.5
2300 58.6 7400 139.3 46000 425.1
2400 60.8 7500 140.6 48000 437
2500 62.8 7600 141.6 50000 449.1
2600 64.8 7700 142.7 52000 460.4
2700 66.8 7800 143.7 54000 472
2800 68.8 7900 144.7 56000 484.3
2900 70.7 8000 145.7 58000 496.5
3000 72.6 8100 146.8 60000 508.4
3100 74.5 8200 147.9 62000 519.3
3200 76.4 8300 149 64000 530.2
3300 78.3 8400 150 66000 541
3400 80.1 8500 151.1 68000 551.9
3500 81.9 8600 152.2 70000 562.8
3600 83.7 8700 153.2 75000 590
3700 85.5 8800 154.3 80000 617
3800 87.2 8900 155.2 82500 630
3900 89 9000 156.2
4000 90.7 9500 161.1
Proof load test for HHP anchors (SI units)

Anchor proof Anchor proof Anchor proof


weight load weight load weight load
kg kN kg kN kg kN

50 29.7 2000 434.3 7000 970.3


55 31.7 2100 450 7200 987
60 34 2200 466 7400 1002
65 35.3 2300 480.7 7600 1018
70 37 2400 495 7800 1034
75 39 2500 509.7 8000 1050
80 40.7 2600 524.3 8200 1066
90 44 2700 537 8400 1078
100 47.3 2800 550.3 8600 1088.7
120 53 2900 563.7 8800 1099.3
140 58.3 3000 577 9000 1110
160 63.7 3100 589 9200 1120.7
180 68.4 3200 601 9400 1132
200 73.3 3300 613 9600 1148
225 80 3400 625 9800 1162.7
250 85.7 3500 635.7 10000 1173.3
275 91.7 3600 645 10500 1210
300 98 3700 655.7 11000 1240
325 104.3 3800 666.3 11500 1266.7 105
350 110.3 3900 677 12000 1300
375 116 4000 687 12500 1340
400 122 4100 696.3 13000 1380
425 127.3 4200 706 13500 1410
450 132 4300 715.7 14000 1450
475 137.3 4400 725.7 14500 1483.3
500 143 4500 735 15000 1520
550 155 4600 742.3 15500 1553.3
600 166 4700 751.7 16000 1586.7
650 177.3 4800 760 16500 1620
700 188 4900 769 17000 1653.3
750 199 5000 777 17500 1686.7
800 210.7 5100 786 18000 1720
850 221.3 5200 797.3 18500 1753.3
900 231 5300 808.7 19000 1780
950 241.7 5400 818 19500 1800
1000 252.3 5500 827.3 20000 1833.3
1050 262 5600 836.3 21000 1900
1100 272.7 5700 845 22000 1956.7
1150 282.7 5800 855.7 23000 2016.7
1200 292 5900 866.3 24000 2070
1250 302 6000 877 25000 2130
1300 311.7 6100 887 26000 2190
1350 321 6200 897.3 27000 2250
1400 330.3 6300 908 28000 2303.3
1450 339.7 6400 917.3 29000 2356.7
1500 349 6500 926.7 30000 2410
1600 366.7 6600 936 31000 2463.3
1700 384 6700 944.7 32000 2516.7
1800 401 6800 953 34000 2623.3
1900 418.3 6900 961 36000 2730
Dimensions of vryhof tensioners

106

Main dimensions Stevtensioner dimensions in m. weight in t


Stevtensioner model L B H weight
VA220 2.6 1.0 1.2 5
VA500 5.4 2.4 2.6 20 B
Dimensions of vryhof tensioners

107

Main dimensions Stevtensioner dimensions in m. weight in t


Stevtensioner model L B H weight
VA600 2.2 0.6 0.9 2.5
VA1000 3.1 0.8 1.2 6
VA1250 3.5 0.9 1.4 9 B
Proof load/break load of chains (in US units)

diameter Proof load Break load Weight


R4-RQ4 R3 S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 R3 S R3 RQ3-API
stud studless stud studless stud stud stud and studlless stud studless
studless studless
inches kips kips kips kips kips kips kips kips kips kips lbs/ft lbs/ft
3
/4 75 66 62 60 54 49 95 86 77 73 5 5
1 3/16 88 77 73 71 63 57 111 101 90 86 6 6
1 131 116 110 106 95 85 167 152 136 128 10 9
1 1/8 165 146 138 133 119 107 210 191 171 162 12 11
1 1/4 203 179 169 163 147 132 257 234 210 198 15 14
1 3/8 244 216 203 197 176 158 310 281 252 238 18 16
1 1/2 289 255 241 233 208 187 366 333 298 282 21 20
1 5/8 337 298 281 271 243 218 427 388 348 329 25 23
1 3/4 388 343 323 313 280 252 492 447 401 379 29 27
1 7/8 443 391 369 357 320 287 562 510 457 432 33 31
2 500 443 417 403 361 324 635 577 517 489 38 35
2 1/16 531 469 442 427 383 344 673 612 548 518 40 37
2 1/8 561 496 468 452 405 364 712 647 580 548 43 39
2 3/16 593 524 494 478 428 384 752 684 612 579 45 42
2 1/4 625 553 521 504 452 405 793 721 646 611 48 44
2 5/16 658 582 549 530 476 427 835 759 680 643 51 46
2 3/8 692 612 577 558 500 449 878 798 715 676 54 49
2 1/2 762 674 635 614 550 494 967 878 787 744 59 54
2 5/8 835 738 696 672 603 541 1059 962 862 815 65 60
2 11/16 872 771 727 702 630 565 1106 1005 900 852 69 63
2 3/4 910 805 758 733 657 590 1154 1049 940 889 72 66
108 2 7/8 988 874 823 796 714 640 1253 1139 1020 965 79 72
3 1069 945 891 861 772 693 1356 1232 1103 1044 86 78
3 1/16 1110 982 925 894 802 719 1408 1280 1146 1084 89 81
3 1/8 1152 1019 960 928 832 747 1461 1328 1189 1125 93 85
3 3/16 1194 1056 995 962 863 774 1515 1377 1233 1167 97 88
3 1/4 1237 1094 1031 997 894 802 1570 1427 1278 1209 100 92
3 5/16 1281 1133 1068 1032 925 830 1625 1477 1323 1251 104 95
3 3/8 1325 1172 1105 1068 957 859 1681 1528 1368 1295 108 99
3 1/2 1416 1252 1180 1140 1022 918 1796 1632 1462 1383 116 106
3 9/16 1462 1292 1218 1177 1056 947 1854 1685 1509 1428 121 110
3 5/8 1508 1334 1257 1215 1089 977 1913 1739 1557 1473 125 114
3 3/4 1603 1417 1336 1291 1158 1039 2033 1848 1655 1566 134 122
3 13/16 1651 1460 1376 1330 1192 1070 2094 1903 1704 1613 138 126
3 7/8 1699 1503 1416 1369 1227 1101 2156 1959 1754 1660 143 130
3 15/16 1749 1546 1457 1409 1263 1133 2218 2016 1805 1708 147 135
4 1798 1590 1498 1448 1299 1165 2281 2073 1856 1756 152 139
4 1/8 1899 1679 1582 1529 1371 1231 2409 2189 1960 1855 162 148
4 1/4 2001 1770 1668 1612 1445 1297 2538 2307 2066 1955 172 157
4 3/8 2105 1862 1754 1696 1521 1365 2671 2427 2174 2057 182 166
4 1/2 2211 1955 1843 1781 1597 1433 2805 2549 2283 2160 192 176
4 5/8 2319 2050 1932 1868 1675 1503 2941 2673 2394 2265 203 186
4 3/4 2428 2147 2023 1956 1753 1574 3080 2799 2507 2372 214 196
4 7/8 2538 2245 2115 2045 1833 1645 3220 2926 2621 2480 226 206
5 2650 2344 2209 2135 1914 1718 3362 3055 2736 2589 238 217
5 1/8 2764 2444 2303 2226 1996 1791 3506 3186 2853 2700 250 228
5 1/4 2878 2545 2398 2319 2079 1865 3651 3318 2971 2812 262 239
5 3/8 2994 2647 2495 2412 2162 1940 3798 3451 3091 2925 274 251
5 1/2 3111 2751 2592 2506 2247 2016 3946 3586 3211 3039 287 262
5 5/8 3228 2855 2690 2601 2332 2093 4095 3722 3333 3154 301 275
5 3/4 3347 2960 2789 2696 2417 2170 4246 3859 3456 3270 314 287
5 7/8 3467 3066 2889 2793 2504 2247 4398 3997 3579 3387 328 299
6 3587 3172 2989 2890 2591 2325 4551 4135 3704 3504 342 312
6 1/8 3709 3279 3090 2987 2678 2404 4704 4275 3829 3623 356 325
6 1/4 3830 3387 3192 3086 2766 2483 4859 4416 3954 3742 371 339
6 3/8 3953 3495 3294 3184 2855 2562 5014 4557 4081 3861 386 353
6 1/2 4076 3604 3396 3283 2944 2642 5170 4698 4208 3981 401 367
6 5/8 4199 3713 3499 3383 3033 2722 5327 4841 4335 4102 417 381
6 3/4 4323 3822 3602 3482 3122 2802 5483 4983 4463 4223 433 395
6 7/8 4447 3932 3706 3582 3211 2882 5641 5126 4591 4344 449 410
7 4571 4042 3809 3682 3301 2963 5798 5269 4719 4465 466 425
7 1/8 4695 4152 3913 3782 3391 3043 5956 5412 4847 4586 482 440
7 1/4 4820 4262 4016 3882 3481 3124 6114 5556 4976 4708 500 456
Proof load/break load of chains (in SI units)

diameter Proof load Break load Weight


R4-RQ4 R3 S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 R3S R3 RQ3-API
stud studless stud studless stud- stud- stud and studlless stud studless
studless studless
mm kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kg/m kg/m
19 331 293 276 267 239 215 420 382 342 324 8 7
20.5 385 340 320 310 278 249 488 443 397 376 9 8
22 442 390 368 356 319 286 560 509 456 431 11 10
24 524 463 436 422 378 339 664 604 541 511 13 12
26 612 541 510 493 442 397 776 706 632 598 15 14
28 707 625 589 570 511 458 897 815 730 691 17 16
30 809 715 674 651 584 524 1026 932 835 790 20 18
32 917 811 764 738 662 594 1163 1057 946 895 22 20
34 1031 911 859 830 744 668 1308 1188 1064 1007 25 23
36 1151 1018 959 927 831 746 1460 1327 1188 1124 28 26
38 1278 1130 1065 1029 923 828 1621 1473 1319 1248 32 29
40 1410 1247 1175 1136 1018 914 1789 1625 1456 1377 35 32
42 1548 1369 1290 1247 1118 1004 1964 1785 1599 1513 39 35
44 1693 1497 1411 1364 1223 1097 2147 1951 1748 1654 42 39
46 1843 1630 1536 1485 1331 1194 2338 2124 1903 1800 46 42
48 1999 1767 1666 1610 1443 1295 2535 2304 2063 1952 50 46
50 2160 1910 1800 1740 1560 1400 2740 2490 2230 2110 55 50
52 2327 2058 1939 1874 1681 1508 2952 2682 2402 2273 59 54
54 2499 2210 2083 2013 1805 1620 3170 2881 2580 2441 64 58
56 2677 2367 2231 2156 1933 1735 3396 3086 2764 2615 69 63
58 2860 2529 2383 2304 2066 1854 3628 3297 2953 2794 74 67
60 3048 2695 2540 2455 2201 1976 3867 3514 3147 2978 79 72 109
62 3242 2866 2701 2611 2341 2101 4112 3737 3347 3166 84 77
64 3440 3042 2867 2771 2484 2230 4364 3965 3551 3360 90 82
66 3643 3221 3036 2935 2631 2361 4621 4200 3761 3559 95 87
68 3851 3406 3209 3102 2782 2496 4885 4440 3976 3762 101 92
70 4064 3594 3387 3274 2935 2634 5156 4685 4196 3970 107 98
73 4392 3884 3660 3538 3172 2847 5572 5064 4535 4291 117 107
76 4731 4183 3942 3811 3417 3066 6001 5454 4884 4621 126 116
78 4962 4388 4135 3997 3584 3216 6295 5720 5123 4847 133 122
81 5317 4702 4431 4283 3840 3446 6745 6130 5490 5194 144 131
84 5682 5024 4735 4577 4104 3683 7208 6550 5866 5550 155 141
87 6056 5355 5046 4878 4374 3925 7682 6981 6252 5916 166 151
90 6439 5693 5365 5187 4650 4173 8167 7422 6647 6289 177 162
92 6699 5923 5582 5396 4838 4342 8497 7722 6916 6544 185 169
95 7096 6275 5913 5716 5125 4599 9001 8180 7326 6932 198 181
97 7365 6513 6138 5933 5319 4774 9343 8490 7604 7195 206 188
100 7776 6876 6480 6264 5616 5040 9864 8964 8028 7596 219 200
102 8054 7122 6712 6488 5817 5220 10217 9285 8315 7868 228 208
105 8478 7497 7065 6829 6123 5495 10754 9773 8753 8282 241 221
107 8764 7750 7304 7060 6330 5681 11118 10103 9048 8561 251 229
111 9347 8265 7789 7529 6750 6058 11856 10775 9650 9130 270 246
114 9791 8658 8159 7887 7071 6346 12420 11287 10109 9565 285 260
117 10242 9057 8535 8251 7397 6639 12993 11807 10574 10005 300 274
120 10700 9461 8916 8619 7728 6935 13573 12334 11047 10452 315 288
122 11008 9734 9173 8868 7950 7135 13964 12690 11365 10753 326 298
124 11319 10009 9432 9118 8175 7336 14358 13048 11686 11057 337 308
127 11789 10425 9824 9497 8515 7641 14955 13591 12171 11516 353 323
130 12265 10846 10221 9880 8858 7950 15559 14139 12663 11981 370 338
132 12585 11129 10488 10138 9089 8157 15965 14508 12993 12294 382 348
137 13395 11844 11162 10790 9674 8682 16992 15441 13829 13085 411 375
142 14216 12571 11847 11452 10267 9214 18033 16388 14677 13887 442 403
147 15048 13306 12540 12122 10868 9753 19089 17347 15536 14700 473 432
152 15890 14051 13241 12800 11476 10299 20156 18317 16405 15522 506 462
157 16739 14802 13949 13484 12089 10850 21234 19297 17282 16352 540 493
162 17596 15559 14663 14174 12708 11405 22320 20284 18166 17188 575 525
165 18112 16016 15094 14590 13081 11739 22976 20879 18699 17693 596 545
168 18631 16474 15525 15008 13455 12075 23633 21477 19234 18199 618 564
171 19150 16934 15959 15427 13831 12412 24292 22076 19771 18707 640 585
175 19845 17548 16538 15986 14333 12863 25174 22877 20488 19386 671 613
178 20367 18010 16972 16407 14709 13201 25836 23479 21027 19896 694 634
180 20715 18318 17263 16687 14961 13427 26278 23880 21387 20236 710 648
185 21586 19088 17989 17389 15590 13991 27383 24884 22286 21087 750 685
Chain components and forerunners

4D

3.6D A

F C B A E A A A A A
D

4.4D

3.96D B

F C B H B A E A A A
1.1D

4.35D

4D C
110

PL A A A A A A A A A 1.2D

4D

4.2D E

PL A B H B A E A A A
D 1.52D

PL
B

D E
K C B A E A A A A A
A

Y K

K C B H B A E A A A
Z
Chain components and forerunners

6.3D 13.2D

4.7D 3.8D 4.15D 3.3D

9.7D
H I

1.2D 5.15D 2.2D 1.45D 4D


1.2D 3.8D

1.7D 2.2D 1.65D 1.35D


8D
3.4D 0.8D

1.4D 4D

7.1D G 111
1.6D

1.3D 1.2D 2.8D

4.6D 1.8D

2.4D 5.2D

8.7D F
1.8D

1.4D 1.4D 3.1D

A = common link
B = enlarged link
C = end link
E = joining schackle kenter type
F = anchor shackle D type
G = joining shackle D type
PL = pear link
H = swivel
I = swivel shackle
K = special end link
Connecting links

F
H

B
J K

D
E
A

Pear shaped anchor connecting link (pearlink) dimensions in mm

NO chain size A B C D E F G H J K kg
4 32 - 40 298 206 59 40 48 83 44x 44 56 26 43 13
5 42 - 51 378 260 76 51 64 100 51x 60 74 32 52 27
6 52 - 60 454 313 92 60 76 121 62x 73 88 37 64 49
7 62 - 79 562 376 117 79 95 149 85x 79 111 48 76 94
8 81 - 92 654 419 133 92 124 149 111x 102 130x133 54 79 149
9 94 - 95 692 435 146 98 130 159 124x 137 141 57 83 236
10 97 - 102 889 571 190 121 165 190 130 181 73 108 386
11 103 - 108 940 610 203 127 175 203 156 200 76 111 418

112 D E C

E B
G

Detachable chain connecting link (C-connector) dimensions in mm

chain size A B C D E F G weight kg


30 - 32 190.5 127 44 32 35 39 21 4.5
33 - 35 210 140 49 35 39 42 23 6.0
36 - 38 229 152 53 38 43 46 25 7.8
40 - 42 248 165 57 41 50 50 27 10.0
43 - 44 267 190 62 44 51 56 30 12.5
46 - 48 286 184 64 48 55 60 31 14.5
50 - 51 305 197 64 51 59 64 33 16.5
52 - 54 324 210 67 54 64 67 36 20.0
56 - 58 343 221 71 57 67 71 38 23.5
59 - 60 362 234 78 60 70 75 40 27.5
62 - 64 381 246 79 64 73 78 42 32.0
66 - 67 400 246 83 67 78 79 44 37.0
68 - 70 419 275 92 73 83 90 46 45.5
71 - 73 438 283 94 73 85 93 48 48.5
74 - 76 457 295 95 76 90 94 50 54.5
78 - 79 476 308 102 79 92 96 52 62.5
81 - 83 495 320 103 83 92 103 55 73.0
84 - 86 514 332 107 86 100 107 57 80.5
87 - 89 537 350 116 92 105 114 59 93.5
90 - 92 552 356 119 92 106 116 61 97.5
94 - 95 571 368 122 95 114 119 62 116.0
97 - 98 590 381 127 98 117 121 67 123.0
100 - 102 607 394 132 102 119 122 68 130.0
Conversion table

to convert from multiply by to obtain

length millimetres mm 0.03937 inches in

metres m 3.28084 feet ft

kilometres km 0.62137 miles mi

kilometres km 0.53996 nautical miles nmile

inches in 25.4 millimetres mm

feet ft 0.30480 metres m

miles mi 1.60934 kilometres km

nautical miles nmile 1.852 kilometres km

area square millimetres mm2 0.00155 square inches in2

square metres m2 10.76391 square feet ft2

square kilometres km 2
0.38610 square miles mi2

square inches in 2
645.16 square millimetres mm2

square feet ft 2
0.09290 square metres m2

square miles mi 2
2.58999 square kilometres km2
volume millilitres ml 0.06102 cubic inches in3

litres l 0.26417 gallons (US) gal

cubic metres m3 35.31467 cubic feet ft3


113
cubic inches in 3
16.38706 millilitres ml

gallons (US) gal 3.78541 litres l

cubic feet ft3 0.02832 cubic metres m3

mass kilograms kg 2.20462 pounds lb

metric tons t 1.10231 short tons US ton

pounds lb 0.45359 kilograms kg

short tons US ton 0.90718 metric tons t

density kilograms per cubic metre kg/m3 0.06243 pounds per cubic foot lb/ft3

pounds per cubic foot lb/ft 3


16.01846 kilograms per cubic metre kg/m3

force or weight kilonewtons kN 0.22481 kips kip

kilonewtons kN 0.10197 metric tons t

metric tons t 2.20462 kips kip


kips kip 4.44822 kilonewtons kN

metric tons t 9.80665 kilonewtons kN

kips kip 0.45359 metric tons t

pressure or stress kilopascals kPa 20.88555 pounds per square foot psf

megapascals MPa 0.14504 kips per square inch ksi

pounds per square foot psf 0.04788 kilopascals kPa

kips per square inch ksi 6.89472 megapascals MPa

velocity metres per second m/s 1.94384 knots kn

metres per second m/s 2.23694 miles per hour mph

knots kn 0.51444 metres per second m/s

miles per hour mph 0.44704 metres per second m/s

temperature degrees celsius ˚C multiply by 1.8 then add 32 degrees fahrenheit ˚F

degrees fahrenheit ˚F subtract 32 then multiply by 0.555 degrees celsius ˚C


Mooring line catenary

When the mooring line of a floater is deployed, part F


of the mooring line will lay on the seabed and part of X

the mooring line will be suspended in the water. The


part of the mooring line that is suspended in the
water will take on a catenary shape. Depending on
s v d
the waterdepth, the weight of the mooring line and j
the force applied to the mooring line at the fairlead,
the length of the suspended mooring line (S in [m]) fig. 4-01

can be calculated with:


1600

length S and X in meters


S= √dx{2xF -d } 1200

W
800
with d : the waterdepth plus the distance between
sealevel and the fairlead in [m] 400

F : the force applied to the mooring line at


the fairlead in [t] 0
0 100 200 300 400 500

and w : the unit weight of the mooring line in depth in meters


114 fig. 4-03
water in [t/m] S, F = 50 t S, F = 100 t S, F = 150 t S, F = 200 t
S, F = 100 t S, F = 300 t X, F = 50 t X, F = 100 t
X, F = 150 t X, F = 200 t X, F = 250 t X, F = 300 t

The horizontal distance (X in [m]) between the fairle-


ad and the touchdown point of the mooring line on
180
the seabed can be calculated with:
weight catenary chain in t

140

X= { wF -d} x log
e

{ }S + F
w
F - d
w
100

60

The weight of the suspended chain (V in [t]) is given by: 20

0
V=wxS 0 100 200 300 400 500

depth in meters

See fig. 4-01 for a clarification of the symbols used. fig. 4-02
F = 50 t F = 100 t F = 150 t F = 200 t
The angle is the angle between the mooring line at F = 250 t F = 300 t

the fairlead and the horizontal.

Example.
In fig. 4-02, the suspended length S and the horizontal
distance X are plotted for a 76 mm chain for different
loads F (ranging from 50 t to 300 t). The suspended
weight of the mooring line is plotted in fig. 4-03. The
submerged unit weight of the 76 mm chain is 0.110 t/m.
Mooring line holding capacity

Holding capacity of the mooring line on the


seabed.

The holding capacity (P) in [t] of the part of the moor-


ing line that is laying on the seabed, can be estimated
with the following equation:

P=fxlxw
with
f : friction coefficient between the mooring
line and the seabed
l : the length of the mooring line laying on
the seabed in [m]
w : the unit weight of the mooring line in
water in [t/m]

If no detailed information on the friction coefficient 115


is available, the following values can be used:

friction coefficient
mooring line type starting sliding
chain 1.0 0.7
wire rope 0.6 0.25

The values for the friction coefficient given under


starting can be used to calculate the holding capacity
of the mooring line, while the values given under sli-
ding can be used to calculate the forces during
deployment of the mooring line.
Shackles

A A

O D
D

B B

C E C E

Chain shackle Anchor shackle

chain shackle and anchor shackle


According to U.S. federal specification (RR-C-271) dimensions in mm

SWL t A B C D D E O Weight Weight


chain anchor anchor Chain anchor
shackle shackle shackle shackle KG shackle KG
116 2 13 16 22 43 51 32 32 0.38 0.44
3.25 16 19 27 51 64 38 43 0.66 0.79
4.75 19 22 31 59 76 44 51 1.05 1.26
6.5 22 25 36 73 83 50 58 1.46 1.88
8.5 25 28 43 85 95 56 68 2.59 2.79
9.5 28 32 47 90 108 64 75 3.34 3.8
12 32 35 51 94 115 70 83 4.74 5.26
13.5 35 38 57 115 133 76 92 6.19 7
17 38 42 60 127 146 84 99 7.6 8.8
25 45 50 74 149 178 100 126 12.82 15
35 50 57 83 171 197 114 138 18.16 20.65
42.5 57 65 95 190 222 130 160 27.8 29.3
55 65 70 105 203 254 140 180 35.1 41
85 75 80 127 230 330 160 190 60 62.3
120 89 95 146 267 381 190 238 93 109.5
150 102 108 165 400 400 216 275 145 160
200 120 130 175 500 500 260 290 180 235
250 125 140 200 540 540 280 305 225 285
300 135 150 200 600 600 300 305 305 340
400 165 175 225 650 650 350 325 540 570
500 175 185 250 700 700 370 350 580 685
600 195 205 275 700 700 410 375 850 880
700 205 215 300 730 730 430 400 920 980
800 210 220 300 730 730 440 400 990 1110
900 220 230 320 750 750 460 420 1165 1295
1000 230 240 340 750 750 480 420 1315 1475
1200 250 280 400 840 840 560 500 1700 1900
1500 260 325 460 840 870 650 600 2500 2800
Shackles

D G

C E
F

heavy duty shackle double nut dimensions in mm

SWL t rope dia A B C D E F G weight


inch kg
60 12-13” 65 76 175 350 165 305 535.5 65
85 14-15” 80 90 220 390 178 380 604 87
110 16-18” 90 102 254 430 210 434 676 146
130 19-21” 100 114 280 480 235 480 754.5 194
175 22-23” 125 133 300 600 265 550 924 354
225 24”-> 130 146 333 720 305 593 1075.5 410
117

E
D

A C A

sling shackle dimensions in mm

SWL t A B C D E F weight kg
75 70 70 105 290 186 120 67
125 85 80 130 365 220 150 110
150 89 95 140 390 250 170 160
200 100 105 150 480 276 205 220
250 110 120 170 540 300 240 320
300 122 134 185 600 350 265 350
400 145 160 220 575 370 320 635
500 160 180 250 630 450 340 803
600 170 200 275 700 490 370 980
700 190 215 300 735 540 400 1260
800 200 230 325 750 554 420 1430
900 220 255 350 755 584 440 1650
1000 240 270 380 760 614 460 2120
1250 260 300 430 930 644 530 2400
1500 280 320 460 950 680 560 2980
Wire Rope

Depending on the required service life of the


mooring system, the following types of wire rope are
recommended:

Design life Recommended product type


Up to 6 years Six strand
Up to 8 years Six strand c/w zinc anodes
Up to 10 years Six strand c/w ‘A’ galvanised outer
wires & zinc anodes
10 years plus Spiral strand
15 years plus Spiral strand c/w Galfan coated outer
wires
20 years plus Spiral strand c/w HDPE sheathing

The two rope constructions have differing properties.


The advantages of each of the rope types are presen-
118 ted in the following table:

Spiral strand Six strand


Higher strength/weight ratio Higher elasticity
Higher strength/diameter ratio Greater flexibility
Torsionally balanced Lower axial stiffness
Higher corrosion resistance
Higher fatigue resistance

Properties of spiral stand wire rope


Diameter MBL Axial Stiffness Weight in air Submerged Nominal Sheathing
mm (inch) t (EA) [MN] Unsheathed Sheathed weight steel area Thickness
kg/m kg/m kg/m mm2 mm
76 (3) 525 520 28 31 24 3465 8
84 (3.25) 640 610 35.2 38.7 30.5 4220 8
90 (3.5) 720 700 39.5 42.5 33.5 4750 10
96 (3.75) 825 810 45 49.5 38 5435 10
102 (4) 965 910 51 54 43 6350 11
108 (4.25) 1075 1030 57 62 48 7055 11
114 (4.5) 1180 1170 65 70 55 7775 11
121 (4.75) 1300 1300 71 76 60 8550 11
127 (5) 1455 1430 80 85 67 9596 11
133 (5.25) 1595 1600 88 94 74 10490 11
140 (5.5) 1775 1720 96 101 81 11675 11
146 (5.75) 1895 1870 106 111 89 12470 11
151 (6) 2020 2030 114 120 96 13270 11
Wire Rope

Properties of six strand wire rope


Diameter Construction Axial Stiffness API 9A-EIPS MBL Weight Submerged Nominal
mm (inch) (EA) [MN] Minimum t in air weight steel area
Breaking kg/m kg/m mm2
load t
77 (3) 6*36 320 347 425 25 20.5 2835
83 (3.25) 6*47 370 402 475 29 24.5 3285
90 (3.5) 6*47 445 460 575 35 29.5 3950
96 (3.75) 6*52 470 516 625 37.5 31.5 4185
103 (4) 6*52 555 582 680 43.5 36.5 4925
109 (4.25) 6*52 630 652 740 49 41.5 5575
115 (4.5) 6*76 680 725 844 56 47 6050
122 (4.75) 6*76 770 801 950 64 54 6810
128 (5) 6*76 875 880 1025 69 58 7760
135 (5.25) 6*95 915 915 1110 75 63 8095
140 (5.5) 6*95 1020 995 1220 80 67 9025
146 (5.75) 6*95 1100 1078 1310 88 74 9815
152 (6) 6*95 1200 1165 1410 97 81.5 10650

Installation of sheathed spiral strand.


The limiting factors for the installation of a sheathed
spiral strand are defined by the
properties of the sheathing. The maximum bearing 119
pressure (_b) on the sheath is limited to
21 N/mm2 to avoid permanent deformation.

The minimum bending diameter permitted can be


calculated using the following formula:

D = (4 x W) / (π x σb x {d x 0.15 x t}0.5)

Where :
D = sheave diameter mm
W = line load N
d = sheathed cable diameter mm
t = sheathing radial thickness mm
σb = maximum bearing pressure N/mm2

The above formula ensures no damage to the sheat-


hing through bending. In addition to prevent damage
to the cable within the sheathing, the minimum
bending diameter is 24 times the unsheathed cable
diameter., i.e. D > 24 x (d – 2 x t).
Wire rope sockets

D1
B

A X

Closed spelter socket dimensions in mm

NO MBL t for wire A B D1 F G X


dia. mm
428 650 75 - 84 360 375 150 350 150 1110
430 820 85 - 94 400 410 175 380 170 1250
431 1000 95 - 104 425 450 205 400 200 1400
433 1200 105 - 114 500 500 230 500 210 1570
440 1500 115 - 130 580 570 260 600 225 1800
445 1700 131 - 144 625 630 300 680 240 1940
450 1900 145 - 160 700 700 325 725 275 2150

F F
120 E G E G
C C

B B

A A

D D

Closed spelter socket dimensions in mm

NO SWL t for wire A B C D E F G type


dia. mm
201 6.3 20 - 22 101 90 33 24 47 92 38 A
204 10 24 - 27 114 103 36 28 57 104 44 A
207 14 27 - 30 127 116 39 32 63 114 51 A
212 17 31 - 36 139 130 43 38 70 127 57 A
215 20 37 - 39 152 155 51 41 79 136 63 A
217 28 40 - 42 165 171 54 44 82 146 70 A
219 40 43 - 48 190 198 55 51 89 171 76 A
221 40 49 - 53 195 225 54 56 100 190 90 B
222 45 49 - 54 216 224 62 57 96 193 82 A
223 50 54 - 59 215 235 58 62 110 210 100 B
224 60 55 - 60 228 247 73 63 108 216 92 A
225 60 60 - 65 235 245 62 68 120 230 110 B
226 75 61 - 68 248 270 79 73 140 241 102 A
227 80 69 - 75 279 286 76 79 159 273 124 A
228 90 76 - 80 305 298 83 86 171 292 133 A
229 100 81 - 86 330 311 102 92 184 311 146 A
230 115 87 - 93 356 330 102 99 197 330 159 A
231 160 94 - 102 381 356 108 108 216 362 178 A
240 225 122 - 130 500 475 120 138 260 515 210 A
250 270 140 - 155 580 550 150 160 300 510 250 A
260 320 158 - 167 675 600 175 175 325 600 300 A
Wire rope sockets

C J

D1
B

A X

Open spelter socket dimensions in mm

NO MBL t for wire A B C D1 J X


dia. mm
338 650 75 - 84 375 298 296 140 159 1050
340 820 85 - 94 410 320 340 152 171 1170
344 1000 95 - 104 425 343 362 178 191 1300
346 1200 105 - 114 500 500 440 200 200 1570
350 1500 115 - 130 580 580 580 250 220 1800
370 1700 131 - 144 625 625 625 280 230 1940
380 1900 145 - 160 700 700 680 300 250 2150

L2 L2
121
K J K C K J K C

D1 D1
B B
L1 L1

A A

D D

Open spelter socket dimensions in mm

NO SWL t for wire A B C D D1 J K L1 L2 type


dia. mm
100 5 18 - 19 89 76 80 21 35 38 16 205 70 C
101 3 14 - 16 115 62 70 18 28 36 16 212 68 A
104 6.3 20 - 22 101 89 90 24 41 44 19 235 82 C
108 10 23 - 26 114 101 120 28 51 51 22 275 95 C
111 14 27 - 30 127 114 130 32 57 57 25 306 107 C
112 10 31 - 34 190 114 127 36 50 60 32 367.5 124 A
115 17 31 - 36 139 127 144 38 63 63 28 338 119 C
118 20 37 - 39 152 162 160 41 70 76 30 394 136 C
120 28 40 - 42 165 165 176 44 76 76 33 418 142 C
121 16 39 - 43 220 142 157 45 63 74 38 440.5 150 A
125 40 43 - 48 190 178 200 51 89 89 39 468 167 C
128 45 49 - 54 216 228 216 57 95 101 46 552 193 C
130 60 55 - 60 228 250 236 63 108 113 53 596 219 C
132 75 61 - 68 248 273 264 73 121 127 60 653 247 C
135 80 69 - 75 279 279 276 79 127 133 73 696 279 C
138 90 76 - 80 305 286 284 86 133 146 76 733 298 C
140 100 81 - 86 330 298 296 92 140 159 79 776 317 C
142 115 87 - 93 356 318 340 99 152 171 83 844 337 C
144 160 94 - 102 381 343 362 108 178 191 89 905 369 C
146 200 108 - 115 460 480 440 125 190 208 101 1160 410 C
150 225 122 - 130 500 500 560 138 250 210 120 1280 450 C
160 270 140 - 155 580 500 600 160 275 230 140 1380 510 C
170 320 158 - 167 675 600 650 175 290 250 175 1600 600 C
Wire rope sockets

F
E C

CR-socket dimensions in mm

NO MBL t rope dia A B C D E F weight


mm kg
522 250 49 - 54 215 125 55 57 115 200 30
524 300 55 - 60 230 145 65 63 135 230 46
526 400 61 - 68 250 160 75 73 150 270 62
527 500 69 - 75 280 175 80 79 165 300 87
528 600 76 - 80 310 190 85 86 175 325 110
529 700 81 - 86 340 205 100 92 200 350 135
530 800 87 - 93 360 220 105 99 205 360 160
531 900 94 - 102 380 240 110 108 225 380 208
533 1000 108 - 115 450 260 125 120 240 420 270

122 Advantages of the CR socket.


– Guaranteed high breaking load.
– Integrated non rotating stopper system which prevents
the tamp from turning or slipping out of the cone.
– An open-widow side for easy rope handling.
– A high performance connection for the right
combination with a detachable link.
– No rings in the cone to a give a maximum
rope/socket connection.
– Impact value of min. 27 Joule at -40˚C.
B
A C

Forged eye socket

Dimension Size
A 1.7 D
B According to insulating tube thickness
C 1.4 D
X According to wire rope diameter
Y According to wire rope diameter
Note : D is the nominal diameter of the chain
that connects to the socket.
Thimbles

K
D

A B

main dimensions bellmouth thimble dimensions in mm

For wire dia. A B C D E F K weight kg


10”-12” 366 606 277 480 195 166 85 80
15”-16” 440 746 352 608 248 191 105 125
18”-21” 454 844 352 660 300 226 118 175

123

H2
A H1

X
E D

F
B

main dimensions tubular thimble dimensions in mm

For A B C D E F G H1 H2 X weight
wire dia. kg
12” 521 420 260 194 144 130 20 130 140 10 50
15” 625 510 312 194 144 150 25 158 168 40 80
18” 727 610 368 219 169 175 30 183 194 40 140
21” 829 740 415 219 169 200 30 206 219 40 180
24” 930 880 465 273 201 225 30 229 245 40 260
27” 1035 1020 517 273 201 250 30 260 273 40 380
Synthetic ropes

Material properties

Polyester HMPE
Material High tenacity polyester High modulus gel spun polyethylene
Construction Parallel strand with braided jacket Parallel strand with braided jacket
Specific gravity of core ± 1.38 ± 0.99 (floating)
Melting point > 250˚C 144˚ / 152˚C
Range for use -40˚C - +120˚C -30˚C - +100˚C
UV resistance Excellent Conform BS 4928 / BS 5053
Rot / mildew resistance 100% 100%
Cold water shrinkage < 0.5% 0%
Water absorption fibres < 0.5% Nil
Water adhesion ± 30% 45%
Approximate elongation at
first loading (broken- in
rope, dry and wet condition)
At 20% of MBL ± 3% ± 0.8%
At 50% of MBL ± 6% ± 2%
At break ± 12% ± 4%

Production and construction in accordance with


BS4928 / BS5053 (1985). The dry breaking strength is
124 equal to the wet breaking strength.
The properties of the different rope sizes are presented
in the following tables.

HMPE

Circ. Diameter MBL Weight


inch mm t kg/m
2 16 16 0.1
21/2 20 25 0.2
3 24 36 0.3
31/2 28 47 0.4
4 32 62 0.5
41/2 36 77 0.6
5 40 95 0.8
51/2 44 115 0.9
6 48 131 1.1
61/2 52 152 1.3
7 56 174 1.5
71/2 60 198 1.7
8 64 222 2.0
81/2 68 248 2.2
9 72 274 2.5
91/2 76 301 2.8 Polyester
10 80 330 3.1
11 88 390 3.7 Circ. Diameter MBL Weight
12 96 462 4.5 inch mm t kg/m
13 104 530 5.1
14 112 600 6.1 15 120 400 9.5
15 120 686 7.0 17 137 500 13.0
16 128 777 7.9 191/2 156 600 15.8
17 136 868 8.9 201/2 166 700 17.3
18 144 966 10.0 22 176 800 19.4
19 152 1066 11.2 23 186 900 21.7
20 160 1170 12.4 241/2 199 1000 23.8
21 168 1280 13.9 251/2 205 1100 26.3
261/2 213 1200 28.3
Note : MBL in unspliced (new) conditions, MBL
spliced -/- 10%. Note : MBL in spliced condition.
Synthetic ropes

Recommended practise for handling fibre rope


mooring lines before and during installation.
• Ropes should not be permanently installed around
bollards or fairleads.
• A minimum bending radius should be observed.
The minimum bend radius (D/d) with very low line
tensions should be larger than 6.
• When unreeling the rope, maximum line tension
should be observed, to avoid pulling the rope into
the underlying layer.
• Torque or twist in the rope should be avoided.
• Fibre ropes should not be run over surfaces which have
sharp edges, grooves, nicks or other abrasive features.
• Care should be taken when applying shearing forces
to the rope.
• There should be no “hot work” such as welding in
the vicinity of the rope. 125
• Frictional heat from excessive slippage of the fibre
rope over a capstan, drum, etc. must be avoided.
• Care should be taken that ropes do not get knotted
or tangled.
• Rope contact with sharp gritty materials should be
avoided.
• Abrasion or fouling of the mooring line with other
anchoring equipment such as anchor, steel wire
rope, chain and connectors must be avoided.
• Chasers should not be used on fibre ropes.
• Shark jaw stoppers designed for use with steel wire rope
or chain should not be used for handling fibre ropes.
• It should be avoided that the ropes undergo more
than 1000 loadcycles with a line tension smaller
than 5% of the MBL.
• Pre-deployed lines should not be left buoyed at the
surface waiting connection to the platform, unless
a minimum line tension of 5% (for polyester) of the
MBL is maintained.
• If the fibre rope is laid on the seabed, it must be
protected against external abrasion and ingress of
abrasive particles.
Mooring hawsers

Double braided nylon Circular braided nylon Deltaflex 2000


Circ. Diameter Ndbs Nwbs weight Ndbs Nwbs weight Ndbs = weight
inch mm t t kg/m t t kg/m nwbs t kg/m
12 96 208 198 5.7 205 195 5.0 217 5.7
13 104 249 236 6.7 256 244 6.0 258 6.7
14 112 288 273 7.8 307 292 7.3 297 7.8
15 120 327 311 8.9 358 341 8.4 339 8.9
16 128 368 349 10.2 406 387 9.5 378 10.2
17 136 419 398 11.4 454 433 10.7 423 11.5
18 144 470 446 12.8 501 477 12.0 468 12.8
19 152 521 495 14.3 547 521 13.2 523 14.3
20 160 577 548 15.8 597 569 14.4 578 15.9
21 168 635 603 17.4 644 614 15.7 636 16.9

Specific gravity 1.14 1.14 1.14


Melting point 250˚C 215˚C 260˚C
Note : ndbs = new dry break strength in spliced condition
nwbs = new wet break strength in spliced condition
Deltaflex 2000 in 8 strand plaited construction.

Approximate elongation at Circular braided nylon (double braided Deltaflex 2000


first loading (broken- is similar)
in rope, dry and wet
condition)
126 At 20% of MBL ± 16% ± 19%
At 50% of MBL ± 22% ± 26%
At break ± >40% ± 33%
Mooring hawsers

Double braided construction versus circular


braided construction
The circular braided construction can be defined as a
recent alternative for the double braided construc-
tion. The elongation and TCLL values of both con-
struction types are the same. The efficiency (breaking
load/raw material) of the circular braided construction
is however much higher, which means that the circular
braided construction can be more budgetary attractive.

Both construction types have an overbraided jacket


as part of their construction, but the important diffe-
rence is that where the overbraiding of the double
braided construction is load bearing, the overbrai-
ding of the circular braided construction is just there
for protection. This means that when the overbrai-
ding is damaged due to chafing or other reasons, the 127
stability and break load of the circular braided con-
struction will remain unchanged, while the double
braided construction should be considered as structu-
rally damaged (loss of stability and a lower break
load).

Advantages of Deltaflex 2000


When compared to nylon hawsers, a Deltaflex 2000
hawser has the folowing advantages:
• Equal strength in dry and wet conditions.
• Strength is 10% to 20% higher than wet double
braided nylon.
• High energy absorption and elastic recovery.
• No water absorption.
• One of the highest TCLL (thousand cycle load level)
values of all sysnthetic ropes.
Main dimensions chasers

G G F G G

H H H

D
A
D A
A C

B E
D E
B E B

J-Chaser J-Lock Chaser Permanent Wire Chaser


VA 101 VA 115 VA 210-213-214-215

G G

H H

128

A A
C C

F F

D E D E
B
B

Permanent Chain Chaser Detachable Chain Chaser


VA 102-106-110-112 VA 107-108-111

main dimensions chasers dimensions in mm

Type A B C D E F G H proofload weight


t kg
VA 101 2483 1829 - 699 305 - 124 86 250 1882
VA 102 1657 1143 991 762 305 191 124 86 250 1088
VA 106 1702 1168 991 762 381 203 130 99 250 1451
VA 107 1886 1143 1080 762 305 191 124 86 250 1238
VA 108 1931 1168 1067 762 381 203 130 99 250 1656
VA 110 1867 1245 1130 838 330 203 130 99 250 1433
VA 111 1994 1245 1130 838 330 203 130 99 250 1742
VA 112 2210 1384 1397 953 356 260 130 99 250 2064
VA 115 2083 1486 - 711 533 305 124 86 250 1778
VA 210 2073 1245 1203 838 432 330 130 99 250 1959
VA 213 1962 1099 1086 692 445 330 130 99 250 1846
VA 214 2318 1308 1397 902 508 330 130 99 250 2530
VA 215 2051 1168 1060 711 445 356 178 127 400 2495
Main dimensions chasers

Note: the VA115 is available in two versions: the VA


115/35 for 21/2” to 31/2” chain and the VA115/45 for
33/4” to 41/2” chain.

Restoration of worn chaser profiles.


Worn profiles may be restored by application of a
weld deposit. Care must be taken to ensure a satisfac-
tory bond between parent material and the weld
deposit and to avoid the generation of a brittle struc-
ture in the area of repair.

The following procedure is recommended:


• The area to be welded must be cleaned to a bright
metal finish.
• Prior to the commencement of welding, the parent
material should be pre-heated to 180-200 ˚C and
the pre-heat temperature is to be maintained 129
during welding.
• The initial layer of weld deposit should be effected
by a high nickel electrode such as: Metrode C.I. soft-
low nickel – N.I.O. 8C.2FE A.W.S. No.A5.15.ENI-CL.
• Subsequent layers of welding may be laid using a
less noble electrode such as: Metrode CI special cast
Ni Fe – FE.55.NI-1.3.C A.W.S. No. A5.15.ENI.FE.CI.
• Each successive layer of weld must be cleaned and
hammered.
• On completion of welding, the built-up zone and
surrounding area should be insulation wrapped to
permit slow cooling.
Stevin Mk3 UHC chart

y
cla
d
har
d
an
nd y

typical Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) in t


sa cla
ium
ed y
m la
f tc
so
ry
ve
130

Ultimate Holding Capacity

The prediction lines above


represent the equation UHC=
A*(W)0.92 with UHC as the
Ultimate Holding Capacity in
tonnes and A a parameter
depending on soil, anchor and
anchor line with values between
16 and 31.

Stevin Mk3 size in t

The Stevin Mk3 design line very soft clay represent soils The design line sand represents competent soils, such as
such as very soft clays (mud), and loose and weak silts. medium dense sands and stiff to hard clays and is based on
The line is applicable in soil that can be described by an a silica sand of medium density. In sand and hard clay the
undrained shear strength of 4 kPa at the surface increasing optimal fluke/shank angle is 32°.
by 1.5 kPa per meter depth or in the equation Su = 4+1.5*z.
with Su in kPa and z being the depth in meters below The medium clay design line represents soils such as silt
seabed. In very soft soils the optimum fluke/shank angle is and firm to stiff clays. The fluke/shank angle should be set
typically 50 deg. at 32° for optimal performance.
Stevin Mk3 drag and penetration chart

clay
soft
ery
g in v
dra
lay
mc
ediu
nm
drag i

anchor loaded to ultimate holding capacity (UHC)


nd
in sa
drag

typical drag and penetration in meters


clay
soft
ery
in v
tion
etra
pen

131

clay
ed ium
in m
t ion
etra
pen

and
in s
ion
e trat
pen

Stevin Mk3 size in t

anchor load drag penetration


as % of % max as % max
UHC drag penetration
drag
70 48 80
60 37 68
50 27 55
40 18 42
penetration
30 9 23
Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and
80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity.
Stevpris Mk5 UHC chart

y
cla
rd
ha
d
an y
nd cla
sa
ium
ed
m y
la
f tc
so
ry
ve

typical Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) in t


132

Ultimate Holding Capacity

The prediction lines above


represent the equation UHC=
A*(W)0.92 with UHC as the
Ultimate Holding Capacity in
tonnes and A a parameter
depending on soil, anchor and
anchor line with values between
24 and 110.

Stevpris Mk5 size in t

The Stevpris Mk5 design line very soft clay represent soils The design line sand represents competent soils, such as
such as very soft clays (mud), and loose and weak silts. medium dense sands and stiff to hard clays and is based on
The line is applicable in soil that can be described by an a silica sand of medium density. In sand and hard clay the
undrained shear strength of 4 kPa at the surface increasing optimal fluke/shank angle is 32°.
by 1.5 kPa per meter depth or in the equation Su = 4+1.5*z.
with Su in kPa and z being the depth in meters below The medium clay design line represents soils such as silt
seabed. In very soft soils the optimum fluke/shank angle is and firm to stiff clays. The fluke/shank angle should be set
typically 50 deg. at 32° for optimal performance.
Stevpris Mk5 drag and penetration chart

ay
ft cl
ry so
in ve
drag

clay
ed ium
in m
drag

clay

anchor loaded to ultimate holding capacity (UHC)


nd hard
nd a
in sa
drag

typical drag and penetration in meters


clay
ry soft
in ve
tion
etra
pen
133
ay
iu m cl
in med
ion
e trat
pen

lay
rd c
an d ha
in sand
tion
etra
pen

Stevpris Mk5 size in t

anchor load drag penetration


as % of % max as % max
UHC drag penetration
drag
70 48 80
60 37 68
50 27 55
penetration
40 18 42
30 9 23
Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and
80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity.
Stevmanta VLA UPC chart

2000

1800 600

1600
typical UPC - Ultimate Pull-out Capacity in t

500
1400

typical installation load in t


1200 400

1000
300

800
C
600 200

400
100
B
134 200
A
0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Stevmanta Fluke Area (m2)

Mooring lines in diameters;


A ø 76 mm B ø 121 mm C ø 151 mm
Six strand & spiral strand Spiral strand

Typical Ultimate Pull-out Capacity (UPC)


The prediction lines on the “UPC chart” can be expressed in the equations as stated below:

D = 1.5 *k0.6 *d-0.7 *A0.3 *tan1.7 (α) UPC = Nc *Su *A

where, where,
D = Stevmanta penetration depth [m] UPC = Ultimate Pull-out Capacity [kN]
k = quotient Undrained Shear Strength clay [kPA] and Nc = Bearing Capacity Factor
depth [m] Su = (k *D), Undrained Shear Strength clay [kPa]
d = mooring line or installation line diameter [m] A = Stevmanta fluke area [m2]
A = Stevmanta fluke area [m2]
α = Stevmanta fluke / shank angle [deg]

The UPC graph incorporates a Nc- value of 10, α-value of 50 degrees and k-value of 2. The graph clearly illustrates the influ-
ence of the diameter of the mooring line or installation line, and whether six strand or spiral strand is used. The typical
installation load to obtain a specified UPC is presented on the right vertical axis of the graph.
Notes

135
Notes

136
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SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Drilling Units HCA 1/04


13

General layout Jack-Up drilling unit:


A Jack-up drilling unit is designed for drilling in water depth up to 150 metres.

A jack-up is standing on 3 legs, each leg ending in a footing, these footings are called
spud cans.

The derrick is normally situated on a cantilever, in drilling position the cantilever is skidded
out so the derrick is extracted over the rig’s stern.
The Blow Out Preventer (BOP) is placed under the rig floor, the tubular from the BOP to
seabed is called the conductor pipe.
At production platforms a Jack-up is placed very close to the platform and the cantilever is
skidded over the platform.

Before rig move, the rig has to be prepared for towing, all pipe from the derrick are laid
down on deck and secured. Risers and BOP is retrieved and secured. Watertight integrity
is checked, and the cantilever skidded in, flush with aft end of rig and secured. Deck cargo
secured, cranes laid down and secured.

Stability is calculated, ballast distributed for the rig to float at even keel, in this situation the
rig will not accept cargo handling, as the calculations are done, and cargo secured on
deck.

Weather conditions for rig move of jack-up rigs are normally 15-20 knots of wind, sea/swell
less than 1.5 metres, weather window more than 24 hours.

A tow master is normally in charge of operations.


A rig move starts with jacking down to 2 metres draft and checking for watertight condition.
All overboard valves are checked for leaks.

At this same time one or more boats for towing will be connected to the tow bridle.

Then the rig is jacked down to calculated draft, boats ordered to pull minimum power.
Due to the considerable size of spud cans, the rig will jack further down to break suction of
the spud cans. This is called freeing legs and can take hours depending of the amount
penetration of spud cans into the seabed.

When the rig float free, the legs are jacked up, flush with bottom of hull and the tow begins.

During the tow a jack-up rig afloat is very sensible to roll and pitch period, the long legs
can cause a whipping effect, and therefore the roll and pitch period has to be more than 10
seconds. Severe rolling with short rolling period will cause structural damage at jacking
houses and is known to have caused loss of rigs. In the rigs operational manual limits for
roll and pitch are given.

Training Manual
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SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Drilling Units HCA 2/04


13

At the new location the rig will lower legs and tag bottom, jack the hull free of the water
and preload. Preloading takes several hours and is a process where the rig is ballasted
corresponding to maximum environmental conditions, normally a 100 years wind condition.
Again operational manual will give the precise procedure.
During preload no cargo operations are allowed to take place.
When preload is completed, tugs are released and the rig jacked to working airgap, and
the cantilever skidded out.
Now drilling and cargo operations can begin.

A Jack-up drilling rig is fitted with an anchoring system consisting of 4 anchors. These
anchors are light anchors, connected to wire of diameters less than 3”.
In some cases anchor handling will take place with jack ups.
The jack-up will jack down close to location, run out anchors, and use the anchor system
to move in close to platforms or sub sea production well heads.
The tugs will be connected up, but will only use little or no power.
To receive anchors, the A/HV will move close to the rig, and the rig’s crane will first lower
the anchor buoy and pennant wire, and then lower the anchor to the deck.
The anchor is then run out to position, lowered in the pennant wire, pennant wire
connected to anchor buoy, then the buoy is launched.

To retrieve the anchor, the AHV will move in stern to the buoy, catch the buoy, disconnect
the pennant wire from the buoy, connect work wire to pennant wire, then break the anchor
loose of seabed, take anchor on deck, return the anchor, buoy and pennant to the rig.

Training Manual
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Drilling Units HCA 3/04


13

General information about a Semi Submersible drilling unit.

A semi submersible-drilling unit (semi) is designed to drill at water depth more than 100
metres.
A semi is floating on stability columns and has low GMT, and therefore a slow rolling
period. This makes the semi an acceptable working platform as regards to crane operation
etc.

A semi is anchored in a mooring spread of 8 anchors, 30/60 degrees. Heading into the
prevailing weather. Forward end is defined with helideck and accommodations.
Anchors are numbered clockwise with anchor no.1 forward starboard.

The BOP is placed on the seabed, connecting with risers up to the rig.
Between BOP and riser a flexible joint is installed.
The purpose for a flex joint is to allow some movement of the rig due to the elasticity of the
mooring spread.
At 90 metres this elasticity is greater than the flexibility of the flex joint, this is therefore a
critical depth.
A riser angle of up to 10 degree from vertical is maximum allowable.
In case of severe weather, where the riser angle increases to maximum allowable the rig
can disconnect from the BOP, and connect when the weather improves.

At sea level a slip joint is installed in the riser system.


The purpose of a slip joint is to allow the rig to heave.
At the slip joint the riser tensioning system keeps tension on the riser, this is to carry the
weight of the riser. Slip joints has a stroke of 50 feet.

Just under the rig floor a ball joint is installed. The purpose of a ball joint is to allow the rig
to roll and pitch.

The last component is the to mention here is the drill string compensator.
This purpose of a compensator is to allow the rig to heave and still keep the same weight
on the drill string; the motion compensator has a stroke of 20 feet.

To prepare a semi for tow, pipe is paid down on deck and secured, deck cargo is secured.
The last operations before a rig move is to retrieve the risers and the BOP, secure these
items on deck, and deballast the rig to transit draft.

At transit draft the bolsters are visible.


Sequences for retrieving anchors are given in the procedure for rig move.

Breast anchors, which are number 2,3,6,7, are retrieved first, then a tug is made fast to the
tow bridle, and then the last anchors can be retrieved.

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Drilling Units HCA 4/04


13

During the tow the rig has a good stability, and can endure severe weather. In some
weather conditions the rig will ballast to survival draft.

At the new location the sequence will be to run anchors (no 4 &5) first, then anchors no 1
and 8, disconnect vessel from tow bridle, then run breast anchors.

When all anchors are run and confirmed in the correct position (bearing and distance from
rig) the anchors will pre-tensioned to an agreed load, corresponding to 100 years weather
condition.

In some cases the combination seabed and anchor system cannot hold the pre-tensioning.
In that case piggyback anchor will be set. Piggyback are anchors in tandem.

Anchor spread can extent far from the semi, with piggy-back anchors the distance to the
rig can be 2 miles.

Training Manual
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Drilling Operations HCA 1/01


13

Drilling Operation – Semi Sub

A drilling operation for a semi starts with a spud in.


Spud in means to agree on the right position to start drilling; a temporary base plate is
landed on seabed using guide wires.
A 36” hole is drilled to 500’, only water is used as “drilling mud”.
Hole is cleaned, volume is displaced with a mud made of bentonite and water.
A 30” conductor pipe is run in hole, then cemented to formation.
A 26” bit is used to drill to 2000’, hole cleaned and displaced with mud consisting of
bentonite and water. The drill pipe is pulled out of hole and rig prepares to run casing.
A 20” casing is landed on the temporary base plate, on the last joint a wellhead is bolted.
The casing is then cemented to the formation.
Next step is to run BOP using the risers, latch the BOP on to the wellhead.
A 17 1/2” bit is used to drill to approx. 5000’, hole cleaned up, pipe pulled out of hole and
13 3/8” casing is run. The casing is hung off in the wellhead, 13 3/8” casing is cemented to
formation.
A12 ½” bit is used to drill to a depth of 10.000’, this is the depth of most wells.
Last casing is a 9 5/8” also hung off in the wellhead.

From the step where the BOP is installed, the pressure in the formation is increasing with
the drilled depth.
To balance the formation pressure, the drilling mud is used to make a hydrostatic
pressure. Mud is a very important commodity, a mud engineer is in charge.
When the mud weight, density of the liquid, has to be increased, barite is added to the
mud.
Other chemicals such as caustic soda are added to adjust the mud properties, such as
viscosity and pH value.

Drilling operations for a Jack-up is simpler, the top hole is not drilled, but instead the
conductor pipe is hammered using a 500-ton hydraulic hammer.

When the conductor is firm to the seabed, a 26” bit is used to drill to 2000’.
On top of the 17 ½” casing the BOP is installed.
The BOP is standing on the deck just below the rig floor, the BOP is dismantled for each of
the following casing run, and often a boat is needed for stand by as the rig crew is working
overboard.

At the desired depth, a well test is performed, here the well is allowed to flow, and the
production is measured.

The well is then plugged and abandoned. This means large cement plugs are set in the
hole to prevent any flow. Then the well is backed off to seabed and rig is moved.
In other cases when the well is a production well, the well will be connected up to
production facilities, above sea surface or sub sea completions.

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Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PFR 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Ship Handling / Manoeuvring PMZ 1/05


14

Introduction
A ships movement are determined by the forces acting upon her. Some of these forces are
controllable and some are not. Some of them can we measure and some we can not.

The ship is subjected to the forces from the wind, waves and current and in shallow water
and narrow waterways by the interaction from the bottom, banks or sides of the channel.

Close approach to other vessels generates intership action, and wash from
propellers/thrusters from another vessel will also affect our ship.

Some of these forces will vary in size depending on the speed of our, or the other ship,
whereas other forces are affecting us all the time.

Forces from pulling an anchor-wire-towing-cable etc, is also an important factor.

This chapter will explain some basis knowledge to Ship handling and Manoeuvring theory
but the most important factor in Ship handling is experience.
It is therefore essential that navigators do practice handling of their ship when there are a
chance to do so.

Propulsion system
Most vessels do have diesel engine which through a gear rotate the aft propeller, and a
electrical power system generation power to the thrusters.
But some special vessels can have a system with electrical propellers/thrusters, and
maybe only having azimuth thrusters whiteout any rudders.
Depending on the layout of your propellers/thrusters/rudders the shiphandling can be quite
different from one ship type to another.

A continued research and development is taking place within the maritime technology and
new engines, propeller and rudder types are invented every year. This chapter will
therefore concentrate on some basis knowledge regarding propellers and rudders.

Training Manual
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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PFR 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Ship Handling / Manoeuvring PMZ 2/05


14

Propellers,
A propeller can be a fixed propeller, which mean that the propeller blades are fixed, which
again mean that changing from ahead and astern can only be done by stopping the
rotation and then rotate the propeller the opposite way.
In our business we use propellers with variable pitch, where the propeller blades can turn,
changing the pitch. From neutral where the propeller is rotating but without moving any
water, to full pitch ahead or astern.
The variable pitch propeller will always rotate and can very fast go from full ahead to full
astern.

If we look at the propeller seen from the aft and the propeller rotate clockwise when sailing
ahead we call it a right-handed propeller and left-handed if rotating anti clockwise.

When the propeller rotate and special when we do not make any headway water flow to
the propeller are less compared to when making headway. The water pressure on the top
blades are lower compared with the blades in their lower position.
The lower blades will therefore have a better grip, and a right-handed propeller going
ahead will push the stern towards starboard (ship’s heading turning port).
With a variable pitch propeller the propeller is always turning the same way and the
movement of the stern will always be to port (rotation clockwise) whether we are going
ahead or astern.

If we place the propeller inside a nozzle we eliminate this force and direct the water flow
from the propeller in one direction.

The direction of the trust is determined by the direction of the water flow and by the
direction the water flow pass the rudder.

Thrusters
Thrusters are propellers placed inside a tunnel in the ship or outside as a azimuth thruster.
The tunnel thruster can push the ship in two directions whereas the azimuth thruster can
rotate and apply force in all 360°.

Most thrusters are constructed with an electrical motor inside the ship with a vertical shaft
down to a gear in the thruster which again rotate the propeller blades.

All thrusters do have variable pitch propellers.

Be aware of that your azimuth thruster can give full thrust in one direction and 15 -20 %
less thrust in the opposite direction (because of the big gearbox).

And also remember that high speed through the water can empty the tunnel from water,
and overheat the gear, if used.

Turbulence and air in the water can during powerful astern manoeuvre also result in air in
the stern thruster.

Training Manual
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DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PFR 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Ship Handling / Manoeuvring PMZ 3/05


14

Rudders
The rudder is a passive steering system which only can work if water is passing the
rudder.
The rudder is constructed like a wing on a plane, wide in the front and slim aft.
When turning the rudder the flow of water will on the backside create a low pressure and
on the front a high pressure.
The low pressure, or suction create 75% of the turning force, whereas the high pressure
side only 25%.
That is why a traditional rudder looses steering moment when turned more that 40-50
degrees. With high angles there will be turbulence on the backside killing the suction force.

The Becker rudder is constructed as a normal rudder, but with an extra small rudder flap
on the edge. This flap turns twice the angle of the rudder, and the water on the high
pressure side will be directed more or less sidewards creating a big sidewards thrust.

The Schilling rudder has a rotating cylinder built into the front of the rudder, rotating in a
direction moving water towards the back side of the rudder.
A Shiller rudder can therefore turn up to 70 degree.

The Jastram rudder is an asymmetric constructed rudder designed special for the
particular ship and propeller, and can also turn up to 70 degree.

If water do not pass the rudder, the rudder do not have any affect, which many navigators
know from their experience with variable pitch propellers.
When the pitch is placed in neutral the rotating propeller stops the water flow, and the
rudder can not be used.

When the propellers are going astern, the water passing the rudder is poor, and the effect
from the rudder is very low.
But with a high speed astern the rudder will help, as there will be water passing the rudder.

Training Manual
\\MTC-MASTER\DATA\DATA\COURSEMAT\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 14\Shiphandling.doc
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PFR 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Ship Handling / Manoeuvring PMZ 4/05


14

Manoeuvring
When talking about manoeuvring our ship, we need to look at how the ship is responding
to different forces, and what happen when we apply forces as well.

A ship laying still in the water is exposed to forces from the current and wind. Swell and
waves do not move the ship, but close to an offshore installation, swell and waves can
push us into or away from the installation.

Current
The current moves the water we sail in and the ship will be set in the same direction and
with the same speed as well.
We can calculate the force depending on the angle the current attacking the ship, where
current abeam can be very high, special with water depth lower than twice the draft.
Turning a ship (80m long draft 8 meter) on a river with 2 knots current and water depth of
12 meter will when the ship is across the river give a force of 60 tons. If we have a lot of
water below the keel the force will be 21 tons in above example, but when the water depth
are lower the force will increase rapidly, and with only 2 meter below the keel the force will
be 78 tons; a significant force.

Wind
We can do the same calculation with the wind, but the force from the wind moving the
supply ship is not a considerable force, where big containerships, car-carriers, bulkers and
tankers in ballast have to do their wind calculations.
The problem with wind in our business is the turning moment created by the wind.
With our big wind area in the front of the ship and none in the aft, the ship will turn up in
the wind or away from the wind, depending on the shape of the hull and accommodation
and the direction of the wind.

We can however use the force from the current and wind in an active way. Instead of
fighting against the force, turn the ship and use the current or wind to keep you steady in a
position or on a steady heading.
When operating close to FPSO, drillships or other installations with a big underwater
shape or hull, this can result in different forces and direction of the current and wind
compared to observations done just 10 meters away.

Other forces
Forces between two ships passing each other can also be a considerable affect special if
the speed is high. In front of a ship steaming ahead there is an overpressure, and along
the sides a low pressure.
If a big ship pass us this pressure system can move or turn our ship, and if the big ship do
have a high speed (30 knots) you can feel that effect up to ½ mile away.

Training Manual
\\MTC-MASTER\DATA\DATA\COURSEMAT\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 14\Shiphandling.doc
DOCUMENT ID AUTHORISED BY REVISION

MAERSK TRAINING CENTRE A/S MTC-03-14-01 CBI 2


ORIGINAL DATE REVIEWED BY ITEM
Anchor Handling Course May 2001 PFR 0
SUBJECT: PREPARED BY CHAPTER PAGE

Ship Handling / Manoeuvring PMZ 5/05


14

Turning point (Pivot point)


When a ship is stopped in the water and we use our thrusters to turn the ship, it will
normally turn around the Centre of the ship, depending on the underwater shape of the
hull.
When sailing this point will move ahead and the ship will turn around the Pivot point now
approximately 1/3 to 1/6 from the front.
Our bowthruster will therefore loose some of the turning moment as it must now move the
hole ship in the desired direction, whereas the sternthruster, and also the rudders, do have
a long arm and thereby giving a big turning moment of the stern of the ship.

It will be the opposite when going astern, the pivot point moving aft and in this case our
bowthruster having a long arm and a very big moment.

The Pivot point must not be confused with the turning point we can choose on our
Joystick, this is a computer calculated turning point. But think about it, when you next time
have chosen turning point aft and you are sailing ahead with 5 knots and the ship seems
reluctant in retrieving a high turning rate.

Forces from cable laying, wire/chain from tow and anchor handling, special if there is a big
force in the system, will also have a significant effect on our ship. Some times it can be
very difficult to turn a ship as the Pivot point can move outside the ship.
As the pull from these system mostly are very big, we need to use high engine/thruster
power to obtain the desired movement.

Ship handling
With a basis knowledge of the different forces acting on our ship, and special whether it is
a big or a small force, knowledge of how our propellers, rudders and thrusters are working
and how the ship react on above, we can gain a better and quicker experience in ship
handling of the particular ship we are on right now.

You will see experienced navigators using split-rudder, where one rudder have one angle
and the other rudder having another angle. Going for and back on the engine you can
control the aft end of the ship sidewards without moving ahead or astern. But again other
navigators will get the same result by using the rudders in parallel drive and turn the
rudders from side to side, and still use the engine to control the movement sidewards and
ahead or astern.
The best way is like mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, to practice manoeuvring of
your particular ship, using the information mentioned in this chapter.

Training Manual
\\MTC-MASTER\DATA\DATA\COURSEMAT\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\TRAINING MANUAL\Chapter. 14\Shiphandling.doc