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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

Drafting or Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression within


the visual arts. It is generally concerned with the marking of lines and areas of
tone onto paper/other material, where the accurate representation of the visual
world is expressed upon a plane surface. A quick, unrefined drawing may be called
a sketch. On the other hand, a drawing made with the aid of basic drawing tools,
instruments and equipment’s are called Mechanical drawing. Historians of ancient
time believed that drafting or drawing were used to express or represent object
and ideas by means of lines having various thicknesses and make-ups.
Drafting, also called mechanical drawing, is the process of representing
topography, engineering works, buildings, and pieces of machinery by means of
conventionalized drawings called mechanical or engineering drawings. The
techniques of drafting are an important part of all types of engineering and
manufacturing and are also used in such diverse fields as architecture and geology.
Like other courses Drafting or drawing works requires tools/ Instruments,
materials and equipment for one to be able to produce an acceptable work in the
drafting world.

Today, most drafting work is done on computers. Mechanical drawings done


on a computer are easier to manipulate than those done on paper. Also, computers
make the design and production process more efficient. For example, if the
specifications of a small part of a larger machine are changed on a computer, the
computer can calculate how the change affects the rest of the machine, before
the machine is actually built.

After reading this MODULE, YOU MUST be able to:


1. Identify and define the common Drafting tools and materials and its uses.
2. Use safely the Common Drafting tools and materials accordingly.
3. Remember the importance of drafting tools and materials in any drafting
work.

Lesson 1 – Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses


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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

1. There are seven lessons in Module I. It is imperative and important for


you to read and understand the lessons thoroughly in order to hasten
your knowledge about the topics.
2. In case you need further clarifications on some topics, you can have
supplemental reading using any references listed in the preliminaries or
you may surf the net re. the matter
3. For erroneous concepts/ideas encountered, just take note of them and
bring them out in the next face to face meeting for further explanation.
4. Learning activities are found at the end of each lesson; you are advised
to answer all the items in the test independently. Refrain from going
over your module while answering in order to measure your level of
comprehension and retention of the lessons. However, you may do so
afterwards for the purpose of clarification and confirmation.

 Try your best to finish all learning activities the soonest possible time.
 Always submit all leaning activities to your instructor on the scheduled
time.
 Try to contact your instructor when encountering some difficulties.

Books:
Brown, Walter C., (2000). Drafting for Industry.
Manaois, German, (2006). Drafting Volume 1& 2.
Walker, J. F; Duff, L; Davies, J (2005). "Old Manuals and New
Pencils". Drawing- The Process. Bristol: Intellect Books.

Electronic Source:
https://www.slideshare.net/ReymerMelendres/common-drafting-tools-and-
materials?next_slideshow=1

Lesson 1 – Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses


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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

https://www.academia.edu/42033607/Technical_Drawing_with_Engineering
Graphics_14th_Edition_by_Frederick_E_Giesecke_Ivan_L_Hill_Henry_C_Spen
cer_Alva_Mitchell Retrieved 8/14/2020 10:53PM.

Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses

Unlike other subjects, objectives of drawing cannot be obtained without the


presence of drawing instruments. Each tools and materials have their own
functions and uses in completing a drawing. Any activity with the aid of these
mechanical instruments are called MECHANICAL DRAWING. Mechanical drawing is
the method of constructing a design or an object with the use of prescribed
mechanical instruments.

1. PENCILS – the most commonly used tools of a draftsman. They come in


different grades of softness to hardness. American system of pencil grades
range from #1-#3 while in the European system ranges 9H-9B.

Lesson 1 – Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses


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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

2. RULERS – Use for measuring and setting dimensions usually expressed in


centimeters and inches, and drawing straight lines.

3. TRIANGLES – Use to draw vertical and oblique lines. The most commonly used
triangles are the 45 degrees and the 30 by 60 degrees triangle.

4. PROTRACTORS – used for measuring and setting of angles.

Lesson 1 – Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses


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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

5. COMPASSES – tools used in drawing arcs and circles. Similar to dividers, they
are adjusted the same way.

6. DIVIDERS – Used to divide distances into a number of equal parts and to


transfer measurements and spacing point of lines. Looks similar to a compass.

7. T-SQAURE – Composed of a long strip called blade and s short piece called head.
Used to draw horizontal lines and also a guide for triangles in drawing vertical
and diagonal lines.

Lesson 1 – Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses


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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

8. DRAFTING/ DRAWING TEMPLATES - A flat piece of plastic with standard


symbols cut in it. The drafting templates shapes are used as guides for drawing
symbols on plans.

9. TRIANGULAR SCALE – A type of scale used in general drawing. The scale has
various divisions. Its main purpose is to reproduce the dimension full of size on
a drawing or to reduce or to enlarge them as well.

10. ERASER AND ERASING SHIELD – used to remove pencil or ink smears. The
erasing shield is made up of metal or celluloid with irregular holes. It protects
the rest of the drawing when making an erasure.

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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

11. TAPES – These are used to fasten paper to the drawing board or table.
Masking tape, scotch tape and other tapes are used. Thumb tacks are
sometimes used in place of tapes.

12. ADJUSTABLE TRIANGLE – A device which combines the protractor with


triangles to produce great versatility of use.

13. FRENCH CURVES – used to draw irregular curves.

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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

14. TECHNICAL FOUNTAIN PEN – With the tube and needle point, is available in
several line width which are fixed and suitable for freehand and mechanical
drawing and line work.

15. DRAWING INK – Black, waterproof and quick to dry ink used in drawing.

16. DRAWING PAPER – a hard and smooth surface. It does not groove easily
when pressure is applied to the pencil. It can withstand with erasures. Oslo
paper is an example of good drawing paper.

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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

17. COLORING MATERIAL – composed of pigments and mucilage, a gummy


substance from various plants. It is used to color drawings.

18. TRACING PAPER – Thin, transparent paper on which ink and pencil drawing
is made for production in blueprint or white print.

19. DRAWING TABLE/ DRAWING BOARD – Refers to a table where drawing paper
is being laid and fastened. Their working edge should be properly straight and
their surface, trim and smooth as this is the edge along which T-square is
moved.

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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

I. Identification. Read religiously the


following statement and write the
word/ words that are asked in your answer sheet.

1. Thin, transparent paper on which ink and pencil drawing is made for
production in blueprint or white print.
2. Composed of pigments and mucilage, a gummy substance from various
plants. It is used to color drawings.
3. Refers to a table where drawing paper is being laid and fastened. Their
working edge should be properly straight and their surface, trim and
smooth as this is the edge along which T-square is moved.
4. A hard and smooth surface. It does not groove easily when pressure is
applied to the pencil. It can withstand with erasures. Oslo paper is an
example of good drawing paper.
5. Black, waterproof and quick to dry ink used in drawing.
6. With the tube and needle point, is available in several line width which
are fixed and suitable for freehand and mechanical drawing and line work.
7. Used to draw irregular curves.
8. A device which combines the protractor with triangles to produce great
versatility of use.
9. These are used to fasten paper to the drawing board or table. Masking
tape, scotch tape and other tapes are used. Thumb tacks are sometimes
used in place of tapes.
10. A type of scale used in general drawing. The scale has various divisions.
Its main purpose is to reproduce the dimension full of size on a drawing or to
reduce or to enlarge them as well.

II. Multiple Choice. Choose the correct letter of your choice. Write your
answers in you answer sheet.

1. A quick, unrefined drawing may be called…


a. Draft b. Scketh
c. Sketch d. drawing

2. A drawing made with the aid of basic drawing tools, instruments and
equipment’s are called…
a. Drafting b. Mechanical
c. Sketching d. drawing

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MODULE 1 DRAFTING FUNDAMENTALS

3. Letter H in pencil grades would mean…


a. Heat b. Medium
c. hard d. soft
4. Use for measuring and setting dimensions usually expressed in
centimeters and inches, and drawing straight lines.
a. ruler b. T-square
c. triangle d. Compass

5. A flat piece of plastic with standard symbols cut in it. The drafting
templates shapes are used as guides for drawing symbols on plans.
a. Templates b. pencils
c. triangles d. Compasses
6. Composed of a long strip called blade and s short piece called head. Used to draw
horizontal lines and also a guide for triangles in drawing vertical and diagonal lines.

a. Templates b. T-Square
c. triangles d. Compasses

7. The most commonly used tools of a draftsman


a. Templates b. pencils
c. triangles d. Compasses

8. It is one of the oldest forms of human expression within the visual arts.
a. Graph b. Mechanical
c. Sketching d. Drafting or drawing

9. American system of pencil grades range from numbers…


a. 1-5 b. 1-3
c. 1.10 d. 1-9

10. Letter B in pencil Grades represent the…


a. boldness of a pencil b. Softness of a pencil
c. Hardness of a pencil d. breed of a pencil

Lesson 1 – Common Drafting tools, materials and its uses