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THIKA SCHOOL OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES

A STUDY ON FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE CONSUMPTION OF


ALCOHOL AMONG YOUTHS AGED 18-35 YEARS IN KABANDI AREA,
THARAKA NITHI COUNTY

STUDENT NAME: GITARI NANCY MUTHONI

ADMISSION NO: DCHD/S-045/016

UNIT NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT : RESEARCH PROJECT

DEPARTMENT : HEALTH SCIENCES

LECTURER : MR. VINCENT

DATE OF SUBMISSION: ................................

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DECLARATION

I hereby solemnly declare that this dissertation is the result of an independent investigation
except where literatures of records have been reviewed. Work and has not been presented in
the same or any other institution for academic purposes.

Name: GITARI NANCY MUTHONI

Sign :………………………………………

Date:………………………………………

Supervisor: MR. VINCENT

Signature:……………………………………..

Date:…………………………………………..

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DEDICATION

I declare this project to my beloved parents, family members and friends for their support
during the time of carrying out the research work. Special thanks to my family members for
the financial support and encouragement.

This with great love and respect.

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ACKNOWLEGMENT

It is a deep gratitude to express my appreciation to all those who worked tireless towards the
completion of this work. Great thanks to my Supervisor for the effort to guide and correct the
work till completion. Also not forgetting to pass my gratitude to my parents for their support
spiritually, morally and financially.

Above all, I thank Almighty God for giving me strength and knowledge to write and
complete this work.

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ABSTRACT

Alcohol is a common cause of major mental health problem in many countries of the world
including kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County, in Kenya. The study is Cross sectional design
and retrospective in nature which aimed at assessment of prevalence of druginduced
psychosis among young adults aged (18-35) years in Tharaka Nithi county metropolitan
council, admitted in Kabandi Hospital from January 2016- June 2019. The specific

Objectives were:

To identify which age group is at higher risk of developing drug-induced psychosis, to


identify which year under study with the highest prevalence and to identify the occupations of
patients mostly affected by drug abuse induced psychosis. Selfdeveloped checklist was used
to obtained data from the patients’ files for the months under study. Descriptive statistics was
used to summarize and analysed the collected data from medical records of patients.

The collected data were

Analysed using frequency, percentages and presented in tables. The stated hypotheses were
tested using chi- square and ANOVA statistic. The result showed that the year 2018. Had the
highest number of admitted cases of drug-induced psychosis with 105 patients admitted with
drug-induced psychosis 22.69% were young adults aged 18-35 years from kabandi area ,
Tharaka Nithi county. The findings also showed that the prevalence of drug abuse is on the
increase. The researchers made the following recommendations: public health awareness
campaign should be carried out from time to time on the dangers of illicit drug or substances
use using mass media, government should re- empower agencies by reviewing constitutions
to make agencies prosecute offender, and, government should formulate national policies and
guidance that will address cases of illicit drugs or substances use among young adults. This is
according to The Ministry of Health Tharaka Nithi County (MOHT, 2018).

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ABBREVIATION

WHO - World Health Organization

MOH - Ministry of Health

AMREF - Africa Medical and Research Foundation

AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

UNPAID - United Nation Programme of Aids

KDHS - Kenya Demographic of Health Survey

UN - United Nations

MDGS - Millennium Development Goals

ART - ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY

Ms. EXCEL - MICROSOFT

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

i). DECLARATION
ii). DEDICATION
iii). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iv). ABSTRACT
V). ABBREVIATION

CHAPTER ONE

1.0) INTRODUCTION
1.1) BACKGROUD INFORMATION
1.2) PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3) SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.4) PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.5) OBJECTIVES
1.6) RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.7) HYPOTHESIS
1.8) SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
1.9 ) JUSTIFICATION OF THE STURDY
1.9.1) LIMITATION AND DELIMINATION
1.9.2) OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0) LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1) INTRODUCTION

2:0) . PEER PRESSURE IN CONTRIBUTE TO ALCOHOLISM AMONG YOUNG


ADULTS.

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2:1) HOW IGNORANCE CONTRIBUTE TO DRUG ABUSE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS
AGED 18-35 YEARS

2:2) HOW AVAILABILITY OF ALCOHOLISM CONTRIBUTE TO DRUG ABUSE


AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

2:3) POOR PARENTAL GAIDANCE IN CONTRIBUTING TO ALCOHOLISM AMONG


YOUNG ADULTS / OVER POPULATION.

CHAPTER THREE

1.1.1 3:0) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3:1). RESEARCH DESIGN

3:1:2). STUDY AREA

3:1:3). STUDY POPULATION

1.1.2 3:2) SAMPLING TECHNIQUE


3:3). SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION

1.1.3 3:4 DATA COLLECTION


3:5). DATE PRESENTATION

3:6). ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

CHAPTER FOUR.
4.0) Data analysis and presentation

4.1) Demographic data

4.2) Knowledge on uptake of Sociodemographic factors contributing to alcoholism among


youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

4.3). Control Practocal by administration

4.4) Equipment of screening and management of alcoholism among youths aged 18-35 years
in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

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CHAPTER FIVE
5.0) Inroduction

5.1) descation and study findings

5.2) conclusion

5.3) Recomendation

APPENDIX (i).

Questionnaire

APPENDIX (ii)

Work plan

APPENDIX (iii)

Budget

APPENDIX (iv)

Refrences

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0) INTRODUCTION

Globaly, Substance abuse, also known as alcoholism /drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug
in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to
themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder . Widely differing
definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In
some cases criminal or anti-social behaviour occurs when the person is under the influence of
a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. In addition to
possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to
criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction. (WHO,
2015).

Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis , barbiturates ,
benzodiazepines , cocaine , methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines like
methamphetamine and MDMA. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with the two
predominant theories being: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others, or a
habit which if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease. In 2010
about 18% of people (230 million) used an illicit substance. Of these 27 million have high-
risk drug use otherwise known as recurrent alcohol /drug use causing harm to their health,
psychological problems, or social problems that put them at risk of those dangers. In 2015
substance use disorders resulted in 307,400 deaths, up from 165,000 deaths in 1990. Of these,
the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 500, opioid use disorders at 2,100
deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 2,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.
(WHO, 2016).

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1.1) BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Globally, One purpose of our study was to examine prevalence rates of current cigarette,
marijuana, and cocaine use, as well as heavy drinking, among American adults aged 35 years
by focusing on the extent of use among specific segments of this population. A second
purpose of our study was to examine how demographics and adulthood roles and experiences
relate to substance use at 35 years of age. Various factors are known to be related to
substance use among adolescents or young adults. For example, women are less likely than
men to abuse alcohol and use illicit drugs. Effects of factors such as race/ethnicity, birth
cohort, being married, attending college, and becoming a parent also have been reported
among young adults. 3–5 Our study investigated which of these factors continues to be
significantly associated with substance use during midlife. (UNAIDS, 2015).

In Africa, alcoholism is a common cause of major mental health problem in many countries
of the world including Nigeria. In fact, it has made a considerable number of young adults
hopeless. According to Giade, Nigeria is making significant contribution to the fight against
illicit drugs. Over 3.4 million kilograms of drugs has been taken from our society and 21,871
drug offenders convicted since the Agency began operations in 2016. He disclosed the
statistics as he officially flagged off a weeklong programme of activities in commemoration
of the 2018 international day against drug abuse and illicit drug trafficking in Abuja. The
NDLEA boss further disclosed that 33.1 billion naira worth of drugs were seized from drug
barons in 2018. “The estimated monetary value of seized drugs in 2015 hit 33.1 billion naira
and the agency is glad to have dispossessed drug syndicates of such a huge amount of money
because the financial empowerment of criminals is an open invitation to chaos with its
associated security implications’’. (WHO, 2017).

In Kenya as one of the developing country, It is estimated that up to two-thirds of Kenyan


youth experiment with drugs. Alcohol is the most abused, followed by tobacco and bhang.
But many parents are either in denial or just helpless in the face of this scourge.

Bhang is used widely and abused by the youth because it is obtained cheaply. In some
regions, miraa is chewed by almost everyone, including women. However, young people in
learning institutions are the worst-hit, with worst influence coming from teachers. Quite
often, it is regarded as an escape from a problem. In our society, children and teenagers start
abusing drugs for many reasons. Easy exposure to drugs is one of the main causes of abuse.
Children grow watching their parents, relatives, teachers and other members of society taking

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drugs to escape from physical and emotional problems. In the same manner they develop the
idea that drugs are a way out of such problems. (UNICEF, 2016).

In kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county, when young people lack strong fundamental values
from their parents, teachers and families, they are prompted to search for these values in the
wrong places. In this pursuit, some of them end up getting entangled in the complex web of
drugs. Unemployment among youth is another reason why they indulge in drug abuse, as they
are often idle.

Due to lack of jobs, the adults have resorted to selling drugs to schoolchildren in order to earn
a living. They do not care to whom they sell alcohol and other drugs or whether it is wrong or
not to do so provided that they earn an income.

Joblessness after school means that the youth turn to drugs for solace. Substance abuse
generates thieves, terror gangs and indiscipline and violence in schools. And even prostitutes.
Increased unrest in schools-including the 2017 kabandi High School arson in which four
prefects were burnt to death and 2016 fire tragedy in kabandi Mixed School in which 67
students lost their lives, were attributed to drug abuse and alcohol consumption.. This is
according to The Ministry of Health Tharaka Nithi sub county (MOH , 2016).

1.2) PROBLEM STATEMENT

Alcoholism has been a great community health challenge among youths aged 18-25 years in
kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county, It has been shown that substance use peaks during late
adolescence and young adulthood and declines thereafter. As midlife begins and individuals
assume more personal, familial, and societal responsibilities, the incentives and the
opportunities to use substances generally subside, and concerns regarding health risks and
negative consequences of

substance use tend to increase. Of course, substance use occurs across the life span, and—
even at midlife—many still use illicit substances occasionally, licit substances excessively, or
prescription drugs without a doctor’s prescription. The adverse health effects of continued
substance use attest to the importance of examining substance use during midlife. Substance
use is related

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to diseases such as emphysema, lung cancer, and liver disease, and intoxication from alcohol
and other drugs remains a risk factor for automobile accidents. This is according to (AMREF,
2017).

1.3). SCOPE OF THE STUDY


In 2018, approximately 462 thausand young adults In kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county
were using drugs such as Marijuana, Miraa, Cocaine, madrax, Heroin and Alcohol which
gives 45% were addicted. In 2019, an estimated 556 thausand young adults between the age
of 18-35years were suffering from Schizophrenia and Mania which is mood disorders,

Around 45% of deaths among young adults aged 18-35 years of age are linked to
alcoholism.

These mostly occur in low- and middle-income Such as kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.
At the same time, in these same countries, rates of alcoholism and substance abuse are rising.

1.4) PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study on Factors leading to kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi countyamong young adults aged
18-35 years, will help to know and understand how vast the situation is and help in coming
up with recommendations and policies to combat the prevalence of drug abuse among young
adults in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county as the study area.

1.5) OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

MAIN OBJECTIVE

To determine on factors to alcoholism among young adults aged 18-35 years in kabandi area,
Tharaka Nithi county.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

1). To determine how ignorance contributing to privalence cases of alcoholism among young
adults aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.

2). To find out how peer pressure contribute to alcoholism among young adults aged 18-35
years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.

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3). To find out how availability of drugs contributing to alcoholism among young
adults aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.
1.6) RESAERCH QUESTIONS

MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION

What are the major factors that contributing to privalence cases of alcoholism among
young adults aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county?

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

1). How dose ignorance contributing to alcoholism among young adults aged 18-35
years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county?

2). What is the role of peer pressure in contribute to drug abuse among young adults
aged 18-35 years in Thika sub-county, kiambu county?

3). How dose availability of alcohol contributing to alcoholism among young adults
aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county?

1.7) HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

NULL HYPOTHESIS

There is insignificant relationship between peer pressure and alcoholism among


young adults aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

There is a significant relationship between peer and alcoholism among young adults
aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.

1:8) SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STURDY


The findings of the study will help the policy maker, planners, adiminisrator, teachers, and
non-govarnmental organization in Tharaka Nithi county, hence put measures to understand
and sturdy of the problem associated with alcoholism among young adults aged 18-35 years
in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county, in different to the other young adults in the area; heace

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put measures in place to reduce the prevalence cases of drug abuse among Kenya in need to
understand.

1.9) JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Alcoholism has been a great social and Health challenge facing kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi
County today, Other factors that are associated with alcohol substance use during young
adulthood, such as occupational status, may become more strongly associated with use in
middle adulthood, when careers become more stable and more is invested in work life.
Studies have shown that high school marijuana use relates to occupational attainment during
young adulthood. Among men, experimental use of marijuana in high school has been found
to be unrelated to later occupational attainment 18-35 years after high school, although
greater use during high school does relate to lower occupational attainment; among youths,
these associations are less clear. 6 As occupational careers unfold and individual differences
in career paths become more marked, long-term consequences of adolescent substance use
may become more pronounced. This is according to The Ministry of Health Tharaka Nithi
county (MOH , 2015).

1.9.1) LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

LIMITATION

The study will only focus on alcoholism among youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area,
Tharaka Nithi county.

DELIMITATION

The proposed of the study will confine itself to drug abuse among young adults aged 18-35
years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county.

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1.9.1) OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS

HIV - Human Immuno Virus

AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Expectancy - the state of thinking or hoping that something, especially something good, will

happen.

heterosexual - person is attracted to people of the opposite Sex.

Infant - child under 28 days of age.

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CHAPTER TWO

2.0) LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1) INTRODUCTION

2.1) INTRODUCTION

This paper investigates factors contributing to drug abuse among the youth in Kenya; a case
of kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county. The paper also: establishes the nature and extent of
drug abuse and related issues among the youths; establishes the level and sources of
knowledge and awareness on drug abuse and related issues among the young adults aged 18-
35 years; investigates demographic factors contributing to drug abuse; investigates social-
cultural factors contributing to drug abuse; investigates economic factors contributing to drug
abuse; analyses the effects of drug abuse; interrogates the challenges faced against the fight
of drug abuse; and recommends on how to curb and reduce drug abuse. In this paper, the
authors use a descriptive study design where a study is conducted in Thika sub-county to
establish factors contributing to drug abuse among young adults in Kenya. The Descriptive
study design is adopted as it offers an explanation as to why youths engage in drug abuse in
Thika sub-county.

A Survey was conducted for the reason that it provides the information from the single
selected sample whose findings can be used to offer a generalization for the whole country.
The sample size for the study is 120 youth across all the sub locations in Bamburi location.
The main findings of the study were: Demographic characteristics except gender do
contribute to drug abuse in the area. Economic and social cultural factors also play a great
role in influencing drug abuse in the area among the youth. Effects of drug abuse are
diverse. . This paper is, however, limited to the investigation of these factors and
recommends the way forward in reducing or curbing alcoholism in kabandi area, Tharaka
Nithi county. According to (AMREF report, 2018).

2:0) . PEER PRESSURE IN CONTRIBUTE TO DRUG ABUSE AMONG YOUNG


ADULTS.

Peer pressure from children’s friends in school can have a high impact on decisions they
make. Friends play a significant role in how your child makes decisions. When your child
hangs out with kids who do certain things, the tendency for your child to join in greatly

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increases. A study done by Columbia University found that a child is six times more likely to
have an alcoholic drink if they have friends who drink . In many cases, children and teens
feel an intense pressure to fit in. They will behave and make decisions based on what they
think their peers want them to do. If your child thinks that taking drugs or drinking alcohol
will raise the respect their peers have for them, there’s a good chance she or he will try it at
least once.

2.1). Risky Behaviors

A study done by the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that teens are more likely to act
out risky behaviors if they know their friends are watching . The behaviors included speeding
and running traffic lights. During the study, teens weren’t encouraged by friends to perform
risky behaviors, but did so anyway in many cases. The way participants calculated risk versus
reward was shown to be underlying cause of these decisions. Functional magnetic resonance
imaging showed that the friends’ presence heightened activity in certain areas of the brain
that are responsible for predicting and determining the value of reward. The resulting social
effect of this process was that the teens made risky decisions. Simply knowing that their
friends were watching stimulated these regions linked with reward, so they went ahead and
took risks.

2.1.2). Drugs and Alcohol: Risky Behavior

These same mechanisms come into play when a young person decides whether to take a drink
or a drug. When with friends, just the mere fact that someone is watching may tip the scales
into agreeing that using substances is a good idea. Unfortunately, depending on what is being
taken and how much, dangerous and harmful consequences can result. Examples of risky
behaviors involving drugs and alcohol include: Choosing to ride with a driver who is
intoxicated or impaired by drugs and alcohol Operating machinery or using dangerous tools
while intoxicated Engaging in dangerous or unplanned sexual behaviors Committing a crime
while under the influence of drugs or alcohol Getting into heated arguments or physical fights
with friends or strangers All of these behaviors can easily lead to some severe consequences
such as unplanned pregnancies, physical injury,

assault and rape, DUI/DWI arrests, psychological problems, or death.(Gipson at-al, 2016).

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CHAPTER THREE

3:0) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


RESEARCH DESIGN

*Research design is Cross sectional design to be used because it is simple to collect


information.

STUDY AREA

* The study area is in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county in Kenya .

STUDY POPULATION

*The target population will be young adults aged 18-35 years in attending kabandi area,
Tharaka Nithi county.

3:2) SAMPLING TECHNIQUE


*Simple random Sampling will be used to collect the data because it is simple, cheap and it
takes a shot time in data collection.

3:3) SAMPLING SIZE DETERMINATION


The Fischer's at-at formula will be used to calculate the size of the sample.

Where N=Z²×PQ

Z= Standard normal devolition at the requird confidence level.

P= privalence in the largest population.

N= Desire sample.

D= Degree required for actual.

Z=1.96

P=18%

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P=0.18

D=0.1

P=0.18

Q=1-P

Q=1-0.18=0.82

N=Z²×PQ

N=1.96²×0.18×0.82

0.01 =56.70216

= 57 Subjects

3:4 DATA COLLECTION

* Data will be collected by the use questionnaires, by giving the young adults aged 18-35
years how attending kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi county to fill.

3.5) DATA PRESENTATION


whereby the data collected will be analyzed by use of MS-Excel and presnted in form of
Tables, Pie chats and Bar graphs.

3:6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION


A consent will be sought from the participants to allow the Researcher to carry out the study.

An introductory letter will be sought from the principal of Thika School Of Medical And
Health Sciences, so as to allow a consent from the adiminisrator of Tharaka Nithi hospital so
nice to give the Researcher a better environment to do the Research in the area.

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CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data analysis and presentation
This chapter presents the analysis of the findings of the study. The data is presented in the
form of tables, graphs and charts. Percentages are calculated from the original data sets in
order to compare the various situations occurring on data findings.
The study investigated on the The Factors contributing to the consumption of alcohol among
youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County. The data collected was
analysed manually using scientific calculator and a computer.

The results were presented by use of frequency tables, pie charts, bar graphs and single
statements. The researcher also used Microsoft excel and word and also scientific calculator.

4.1 Demographic data


Figure 1: Gender

Male; 91; 37%

Male
Female; 157; 63% Female

n=248
Most of the respondents were youths aged 18-35 years who represented 63%. Suffering from
alcoholism among youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

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Table 1: Age of the respondents

Age in years Frequency Percentages


Percentages

18-22 141 57%


23-27 99 40%
28-32 Christian; 83 8 3%
33-37 0 0%
Totals 248 100%

Majority of the respondents of 97% were aged between


Muslim;18-35
17 years.

Figure 2: Religion
Religion

n=2
48
Most of the respondents were Christians 83%, while 17% were Muslims therefore religion
did not affect impact of data collection on consumption of alcohol among youths aged 18-35
years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

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Figure 3: Marital status of the respondents who use the consumption of alcohol among
youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

Divorced; 3%; 3%

Married; 17%; 17%

Single
Married
Divorced
Single; 80%; 80%

n=248

Most of the respondents were single with a percentage of 80% while 17% were married and
3% were divorced.

Table 2: Class

Class Respondents Percentages

Sival survants 58 24%

Manager 25 10%

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Casher 107 43%

Weighters 33 13%

Cheffs 25 10%

Total 248 100%


Percentages

Most of the respondents were Sival survants in who represented 43% and lactating mothers
aged 18-28 years which 47%24%, while the respondentsNo;
Yes;are 53% other classes were below 15%.
from

4.2 Knowledge on the effect of consumption of alcohol among youths aged 18-35 years
Disaster
in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi awareness
County.

Figure 4: Awareness of the effect of consumption of alcohol among youths aged 18-35
years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

n=248

More than a half of the respondents were not aware of any strategies of production planning
on inventory control in health industry and were represented by 53% while 47% were aware
of strategies of production planning on inventory control in hospitality industry which was
tourists attraction, food security in big and small hotels and proper communication in health
industry.

Table 3: Knowledge of Respondents Percentages


strategies of ACTIVITIES IN
health industry
Constraction of hotels 149 60%

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Employment of cheffs 33 13%
Proper Transport of tourists 25 10%
Flood security in hotels 17 7%
Prevention of fire outbreak 149 60%
Allocation of tourist 41 17%
attractions
Others 8 3%
Total 248 100%

Majority of the respondents were aware of strategies of production planning on inventory


control in health industry and hospitality career which were represented by 60% each, other
food security were below 20%. However 3% of respondents stated other were aware of
which is Allocation of tourist attractions.Figure 5: impact of strategies of consumption of
alcohol among youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

Yes; 27%; 27%

Yes
No; 73%; 73% No

n=248
In attendance of any training related to impact of strategies of production planning on
inventory control in health industry in Thika Sub-county, Kiambu County, 73% of the
respondents have never have any traininon prevention of poor hospitality enlightenment in
achieving the strategies of production in hospitality while 27% have attended trainings and
most of them trained in a period of two years. The topics that were covered were public
relations management and plans in health industry.

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Figure 6: Current knowledge regarding the strategies of consumption of alcohol
among youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.
Percentages

Fair; 40%
Good; 30% Poor; 27%

Excellent; 3%

Knowledge on disaster
n=248

Majority of the respondents had a fair share of knowledge on proper hotel management.
Figure 7: Copy of hotels management in Development .

Yes; 10%; 10%

No; 10%; 10%

Don’t know; 80%; 80%


Yes
No
Don’t know

n=248

Most of the residents were unaware whether the county has safety standard manual, which
are represented by 80% while 10% representing number of those who were aware and not
aware on strategies of production planning on inventory control in health industry.

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Table 4: Constraints to compliance of safety standards and guidelines of achieving
strategies of the consumption of alcohol among youths aged 18-35 years in
kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

Constraints Frequency Percentage

Lack of time 33 13%

Competing priorities 41 17%

Inadequate funds 25 10%

Ignorance 149 60%

Totals 248 100%

Ignorance which was indicated by 60% was the leading constraint to achieve strategies of
production planning on inventory control in hospitality industryresidence while competing
priorities, inadequate funds and lack of time were below 20% among health industrys.

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4.3 Practices by administration
Figure 8: Training done to educate staffs in health industry
Percentages

Yes; 40%
No; 33%
Don’t know; 27%

Yes No Don’t know

Training on staffs

n=24
8
Most of the Tharaka Nithi residence 40% believes that mass media contribute to training to
educate staffs in health industry while 33% believes there is no training being conducte while
27% of don’t know whether there is training being conducted among the consumption of alcohol
among youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.

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Figure 9 : If the county government provides information and role of mass
media in achieving strategies of production planning on the consumption
of alcohol among youths aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi
County.inventory control in hospitality industry county

I don’t know; 16; 16%

Yes; 40; 40%

Yes
No
No; 44; 44% I don’t know

n=24
8
Less than 50% of respondents indicated that the hospitality industry does not provide
information on role of hotels management while 16% didn’t know whether it existie.

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1.2 Figure 10: safty as a strategy of strategies of consumption of alcohol among youths
aged 18-35 years in kabandi area, Tharaka Nithi County.
Percentages

No; 50

Yes; 30
I don’t know; 20

Safety activities into daily routine


n=108

Most of the respondents of 50% argued that peer pressure hotel staff doesn’t integrate into
daily routine activities while 20% don’t know whether health industry contribute to the
achievments routine activities and 30% support the hotels integrate safety activity into daily
routine.

1.3 Figure 11: Does have documents of supporting impact of strategies of


production planning on inventory control in hospitality industry.

Yes; 23%; 23%

Yes
No
No; 77%; 77%

n=248

30
Three quarters of the respondents which is 77% were not aware whether the mass media have
safety training while 23% support the staff training, free education and proper food storage
in health industry.

31
Figure 12: How often services are offered
SA-Strongly Agreed, A- Agreed, U- Undecided, D-Decided
percentage

A; 21% U; 22% D; 22%


SA; 18% SD; 17%

How often services are offered


n=191
Most of the respondents were undecided and disagreed how often services were offered
which was indicated by 22% respectively. However those who strongly agreed and strongly
disagreed were below 20%.
4.4 Equipments of Millennium developoing goals

Table 4: Equipment’s such as Health care, free education, proper food storage .
Equipment’s Frequency Percentage

Health care 223 93%

Food storage 8 3%

Free education 17 7%

Given of food supplements 0 0%

Others 0 0%

Totals 248 100%

The Hospital has adequate fire extinguishers represented by 93% while smoke detectors and
isolation rooms are less than 10 %.

32
Figure 13: Adequate evacuation plans in health industry

No; 87%
Percentages

Yes; 13%

Evacuation plans

n=248

There were no enough evacuation plans which were indicated by 87% in health industry.

Figure 14 : Are the equipment’s enough to handle the Millennium Development Goals
in Tharaka Nithi County.

Yes; 20%; 20%

Yes
No
No; 80%; 80%

n=248

Majority of the respondents 80% felt there is no enough equipment’s while 20% supported
there is enough equipment’s to handle duties in health industry therefore the hotel
management should provide enough equipment’s to handle tourists industry in the study area.

33
CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION


5:1) INTRODUCTION

Investigates demographic factors contributing to drug abuse; investigates social-cultural


factors contributing to drug abuse; investigates economic factors contributing to drug abuse;
analyses the effects of drug abuse; interrogates the challenges faced against the fight of drug
abuse; and recommends on how to curb and reduce drug abuse. In this paper, the authors use
an explanatory study design where a study was conducted in langas area uasingishu county.

To establish factors contributing to drug abuse among youths in Kenya. The explanatory
study design was adopted as it offers an explanation as to why youths engage in drug abuse in
Kenya.

A survey was conducted for the reason that it provides the information from the single
selected sample whose findings can be used to offer a generalization for the whole country.
The sample size for the study was 120 youth across all the sub locations in langas area
uasingishu county.

. The main findings of the study were: Demographic characteristics except gender do
contribute to drug abuse in the area.This is according to (WHO; 2016)

5:2) SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


Economic and social cultural factors also play a great role in influencing drug abuse in the
area among the youth. Effects of drug abuse are diverse. They range from individual to
societal effects such as poor health, poor personal hygiene, homosexuality, high school drop-
out rate, high divorce rate, prostitution and increased crime. The main challenge facing the
fight against drug abuse is corruption and lack of concern by the community in general.

Suggested measures to fight the menace are to end corruption and focus on preventive
education among the school-going youth.

Though there are various factors leading to drug abuse, this paper focuses on demographic
factors, social-cultural, and economic leading to pervasiveness of the menace in the Bamburi
community/Location.

34
Basically there are various demographic factors contributing to drug abuse such as age,
occupation, religion, and marital status. Demographic factors also work in close relationship
with social-cultural factors such as one’s perceived respect by others, the social environment,
peer pressure influence, social learning from parents, one’s culture and cultural believes,
customs, norms and values.

Economic factors also play a great role in determining one’s behavior especially in cases of
deviance. One’s economic status may influence one’s indulgence in such activities. This
paper is, however, limited to the investigation of these factors and recommends the way
forward in reducing orcurbing drug abuse in Bamburi Location.. This is Kenya Demographic
Health Survey (KDHS; 2017 ).

5:3) CONCLUSION
Drug addiction is a complex disease. It is a chronic, relapsing brain disease and involves a

combination of ecological, physiological and historical factors. It is not voluntary behavior


and is often a fatal illness.

Addiction treatment and rehabilitation in langas area uasingishu county. islargely a private
sector and NGO affair dating back to 2015. Treatment and rehabilitation centers are few,
operate in a policy vacuum and are expensive for the majority of langas area uasingishu
county.

The development of the National Standards by NACADA and stakeholders, training of

professionals on treatment and counseling and developing the credentialing system for
addiction professionals are milestones in treatment and rehabilitation.

Treatment services and opportunities may include detoxification, substitution or maintenance


therapy and/or psychosocial therapies and counseling. This is according to The Kenya
Demography of Health Survice (KDHs, 2017).

5:4) RECOMENDATION
What makes some people more susceptible to becoming dependent or addicted is perhaps a

genetic predisposition. This theory, with some evidence to support it, makes sense especially

since addiction crosses social divides. However, this is still debatable.

35
There are also cultural and social factors that put people at greater risk. For instance, you’re

less likely to become alcohol-dependent growing up in a country where alcohol consumption


is unacceptable than where it’s a normal part of everyday life. Growing up in a family where

there’s alcohol or drug abuse increases the risk. This is also the case for people who suffer

childhood trauma, abuse and neglect.

Poverty, a lack of education and unemployment can also increase the risks. If your
environment is stressful and you feel unable to change it, you may turn to substances for
relief. Significant life events may contribute. If your inner world is in turmoil, you may turn
to substances as medication to feel better. (NAKADA, 2015).

People who don’t receive adequate nurture as children or who are more emotionally sensitive

may be more susceptible. These factors won’t always lead to substance misuse or dependency

or any other addictive behavior, but they can increase vulnerability.This is according to The
Ministry of Health Kakamega North Sub-county in Kenya. (MOH, 2016).

36
APPENDIX .(ii)

D E L I M I T A T I O N A C T I V I T I E S

J a n 2 0 1 9 Proposal development

F e b - m a r c h 2 0 1 9 P r o p o s a l w r i t i n g

A P R I L - J U L Y 2 0 1 9 Proposal Presentation

A u g u s t 2 0 1 9 D a t a c o l l e c t i o n

S e p - o c t o b e r 2 0 1 9 P r o j e c t w r i t i n g

N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 9 P r o j e c t s u b m i t i o n

APPENDIX (iii)

37
BUDGET

ITEMS QUANTITY AMOUNT TOTAL AMOUNT


stationery expenses
File 1 50.00 50.00
Foolscap 1 rim 480 480.00
Pens 5 20 100.00
Ruler 1 30.00 30.00
TOTAL 660.00
proposal expenses
Internet browsing 30 hours Shs 40 per hour 1200.00
Flash disk 1(4GB) 1000.00 1000.00
Typing 53 pages Shs5 per page 265.00
Printing 53 pages Shs10 per page 530.00
Binding 2 copy Shs 100 200.00
TOTAL 3195.00
project expenses
Project typing 53 pages Shs 5per page 265.00
Project printing 53 pages Shs 10 per page 510.00
Questionnaire 80 copies 5 pages shs 5 per page 2000.00
photocopy @copy
Binding 2 copies Shs 100 per copy 200.00
Laptop 1 30,000Kshs. 30,000
Project photocopy 2 copies @53 Shs 3 per page 318.00
pages
TOTAL 33,293.00
Travelling expenses 5,300.00
Miscellaneous 2,000.00
TOTAL EXPENSES 44,448.00

APPENDIX (iv)

REFRENCES

1. Oshodi OY, Aina OF, Onajole AT. Substance use among secondary school students in an
urban setting in Nigeria: prevalence and associated factors. Afr J Psychiatry. 2010;13:52–7.
doi: 10.4314/ ajpsy.v13i1.53430. [PubMed] [Cross Red, 2016]

2. Igwe WC, Ojinnaka N, Ejiofor SO, Emechebe GO, Ibe BC. Socio- demographic correlates
of psychoactive substance abuse among secondary school students in Enugu, Nigeria. Eur J
Soc Sci. 2015

38
3. Fatoye FO, Morakinyo O. Substance use amongst secondary students in rural and urban
communities in South Western Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 2002;79(6):299–305. doi:
10.4314/eamj.v79i6.8849. [PubMed] [Cross Ref, 2017]

4. Fatoye FO, Fatoye GK, Oyebanji AO, Ogunro AS. Psychological characteristics as
correlates of emotional burden in incarcerated offenders in Nigeria. EasAfr Med J.
2006;83(10):545–52. [PubMed,2016]

5. Abiodun OA, Adelekan ML, Ogunremi OO, Oni G, Obayan AO. Psychosocial correlates
of alcohol, tobacco and Cannabis use amongst secondary school students; Nigerian students.
Drug Alcohol Depend. (WHO, 2015).

6. The Republic of Rwanda, Ministry of Youth, Culture and Sports . National Youth Policy.
Kigali: Ministry of Youth, Culture and Sports; 2007.

7. The Republic of Rwanda, National Institute of Statistic . Statistical yearbook 2011 edition.
Kigali: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda; 2016.

8. The Republic of Rwanda, National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda . Population census


preparatory frame, Rwanda. Kigali: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda; 2017.

9. Paille F. Evaluation pratique de la consommation d’alcool. Classifications et définitions


des conduites d’alcoolisation. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2015;

10. Babor TF, Biddle-Higgins JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG. AUDIT: The Alcohol Use
Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Health Care. Geneva,
Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2016.

11. Legleye S, Karila L, Beck F, Reynaud M. Validation of the CAST, a general population
cannabis abuse screening test. J Subst Use. 2007;12(4):233–42. doi:

10.1080/14659890701476532. [ KDHS, 2015]

12. Piontek D, Kraus L, Klempova D. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a


review of psychometric properties. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2008;3:1–10. doi:

10.1186/1747-597X-3-25. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref ]

39
13. Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J, et

al. A comparison of the hooked on nicotine checklist and the fagerstr&m test for nicotine
dependence in adult smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. /14622200600789965. [ PubMed ] [Cross
Ref ]

14. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction . Handbook for Surveys on
Drug use among the General Population, EMCDDA project CT.99.EP.08 B. Lisbon:
EMCDDA; 2015

15. European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction . 2012 Annual

Report on the State of the Drugs Problem in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications

Office of the European Union; 2012.

QUESTIONNAIRES

My name is Gitari Nancy Muthoni a student at Thika School of Medical and Health Sciences,
taking Diploma in Community Health and Development , I am requesting you to be one of
the participants in the study on research project in which investigate on the factors
contributing to the consumption of alcohol among youth age 18-35 years in kambandi area,
tharaka. Nithii county. This information will be anonymous and confidential requesting you
to give honest answers

Do you agree to be a participant/respondent?

Yes ( )

40
No ( )

INSTRUCTIONS

1. The information given will be private and confidential

2. Your name is not required

3. The questionnaire is meant for education purposes only

4. I shall only take 20 min of your time. I allow you to ask any question concerning the study.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFORMATION OF THE


RESPONDENTS

1. Gender of the respondents.

a) Male [ ]

b) Female [ ]

2. Age brackets of the respondents

a) 18-27 [ ]

b) 28-37 [ ]

c) 38-47 [ ]

d) 48 and above [ ]

3. Highest level of education of the respondents

a) None [ ]

b) Primary [ ]

c) Secondary [ ]

d) Tertiary [ ]

41
4. Marital status of the respondents

a) Single [ ]

b) Married [ ]

c) Separated/Divorced [ ]

d) Widowed [ ]

5. Religious affiliation of the respondents

a) Christian [ ]

b) Muslim [ ]

c) None [ ]

d) Others (specify)………………………………….................................................................

6. Residence of the respondents

a) Urban [ ]

b) Peri-urban [ ]

c) Rural [ ]

d) Others (specify)……………………………………

7. Is consumption of alcohol among youth age 18-35 years in your community?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

8. If yes to question 7 above, why?

a) Custom [ ]

b) Continued with family lineage [ ]

42
c) Cultural practices [ ]

9. Is consumption of alcohol among youth age 18-35 years common in your community?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

10. If yes how how dose it controlled ?

a) youth empowerment [ ]

b) stopage of drug traffic [ ]

c) Others (specify)……………………………………………..

SECTION B: KNOWLEDGE OF CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL AMONG YOUTH


AGE 18-35 YEARS

11 Have you ever heard about consumption of alcohol among youth age 18-35 years?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

12. If yes to question 11 above, what is it?

a) Use of Alcohol in wrong way [ ]

b) It is a killing habits [ ]

c) using of adictive substances [ ]

d) Others (specify)…………………………………………

13. Have you ever done control of consumption of alcohol among youth age 18-35 years?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

14. How can alcohol be prevented?

43
a) By empowering the youths [ ]

b) By educating the youths on effect of alcoholism [ ]

c) By avoiding alcohol drinking [ ]

d) Others (specify)………………………………………….

15. What are your views on the effect of alcoholism among youth?

a) population decrese [ ]

b) mobidity [ ]

c) Others (specify)……………………………………………..

SECTION C: ATTITUDE OF PARENTS ON ALCOHOLISM

Peer pressure is one thing that lead to alcoholism,

a) Strongly agree [ ]

b) Agree [ ]

c) Not sure [ ]

d) Disagree [ ]

e) Strongly disagree [ ]

17. Alcoholism is common among young people, do you agree?

a) Strongly agree

b) Agree

c) Not sure

d) Disagree

e) Strongly disagree

18. There is cure for alcohol adicts?


44
a) Strongly agree

b) Agree

c) Not sure

d) Disagree

e) Strongly disagree

19. All the survice for alcohol prevention are found in all Health centers?

a) Strongly agree

b) Agree

c) Not sure

d) Disagree

e) Strongly disagree

20. Deprevailing culture discourage alcohol using among youth

a) Strongly agree

b) Agree

c) Not sure

d) Disagree

e) Strongly disagree

SECTION D: CONTROLINGY OU ALCOHOLISM AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE

45
21. Are you currently doing anything to delay or avoid alcoholism?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

22. Do you use alcohol in your life?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]
23. Does alcoholism affect your utilization of daily services?
a) Yes
b) No
24. Do you openly share how you avoid alcoholism with your friends?
a) Yes
b) No

25. Can alcoholism among youths aged 18-35 years lead to death?
YES ( )
No ( )

46