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Foundation Design

Requirements

D0429375-1
Foundation Design Requirements

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D0429375-1 / EB 2 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

Document details
Document ID D0429375-1
Note Original document.

Date Language DCC Plant / Department


2017-01-16 en EB WRD/ TU-EF

Additional notes
Original document details Translation details
Created/Date: Beramendi, R. / 2017-01-16 Translated/Date:
Alves, C./ 2017-01-16
Checked/Date: Alves, C./ 2017-01-16 Checked/Date: Wenderoth, S. / 2017-01-16
Approved/Date: Brand, M-J./2017-02-20

Revisions

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Rev. Date Change Created
0 2017-01-16 Document created Beramendi, R.
a 2017-08-02 General corrections Beramendi, R.
1 2017-12-21 Annex 1 and Patent reference added Alves, C.

D0429375-1 / EB 3 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

Contents

1 GENERAL................................................................................................................... 6
2 TERMS OF AGREEMENT .......................................................................................... 6
3 NOMENCLATURE ...................................................................................................... 7
3.1 Steel tower foundations .............................................................................................. 7
3.2 Concrete tower foundations ........................................................................................ 8

4 LOADING.................................................................................................................... 9
5 GEOMETRY AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS ...................................................... 10
6 SOIL .......................................................................................................................... 12
7 SERVICE LIFE.......................................................................................................... 13

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8 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS ................................................................................. 14
8.1 Wind loads ............................................................................................................... 14
8.2 Geotechnical engineering ......................................................................................... 14
8.2.1 HYD and UPL: Hydraulic heave in the ground caused by hydraulic gradients
and loss of equilibrium of the structure due to uplift by water
pressure (buoyancy) .............................................................................................. 14
8.2.2 EQU: Loss of static equilibrium .............................................................................. 15
8.2.3 STR and GEO: Internal failure or excessive deformation of the structure,
structural members and ground ............................................................................. 15
8.3 Ultimate limit state .................................................................................................... 16
8.3.1 Material .................................................................................................................. 16
8.3.2 Factors for design load combinations..................................................................... 16
8.4 Serviceability limit state ............................................................................................ 16
8.5 Fatigue state............................................................................................................. 17

9 MODELLING............................................................................................................. 18
9.1 Strut-and-tie modelling (STM) ................................................................................... 18
9.2 Finite-element model ................................................................................................ 19

10 GEOTECHNICAL VERIFICATIONS ......................................................................... 20


10.1 Loss of static equilibrium .......................................................................................... 20
10.2 Sliding resistance ..................................................................................................... 20
10.3 Maximum allowable eccentricities............................................................................. 20
10.4 Floating .................................................................................................................... 21
10.5 Ground pressure ...................................................................................................... 21
10.6 Minimum values for the dynamic oedometric modulus .............................................. 22
10.7 Minimum pile toe and pile cap spacing: .................................................................... 22
10.8 Pile foundation - Rotational and translational spring stiffness ................................... 22

D0429375-1 / EB 4 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

11 VERIFICATIONS IN SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE (SLS) .................................. 23


11.1 Minimum reinforcement [11/17] ................................................................................ 23
11.2 Limitation of crack width ........................................................................................... 24
11.3 Piles in compression under DLC1.0 .......................................................................... 24

12 VERIFICATIONS IN ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE (ULS) ............................................. 25


12.1 Bending reinforcement ............................................................................................. 25
12.2 Overlap length .......................................................................................................... 26
12.3 Shear reinforcement ................................................................................................. 27
12.4 Back-anchoring reinforcement .................................................................................. 28
12.5 Splitting tensile reinforcement ................................................................................... 29
12.6 Concrete compressive strength ................................................................................ 29
12.6.1 Foundation basket ................................................................................................. 29
12.6.2 Steel section .......................................................................................................... 30
12.6.3 Concrete tower foundations ................................................................................... 30
12.7 Punching shear design ............................................................................................. 30

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12.8 Structural analysis of foundation corbel .................................................................... 32

13 FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS....................................................................................... 33


13.1 Concrete fatigue life analysis .................................................................................... 33
13.2 Fatigue strength analysis for reinforcement .............................................................. 35

14 EARTHQUAKE DESIGN .......................................................................................... 36


15 CONSTRUCTION STAGE ........................................................................................ 37
16 REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 38
16.1 General .................................................................................................................... 38
16.2 Concrete design ....................................................................................................... 39
16.3 Geotechnical design ................................................................................................. 40
16.4 Piles ......................................................................................................................... 41
16.5 ENERCON documents ............................................................................................. 41
16.6 Patents ..................................................................................................................... 41

Annex 1- Special requirements for Japan and South Korea........................................ 42

D0429375-1 / EB 5 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

1 GENERAL
This document includes only foundation requirements that are specifically related to wind energy. It
assumes compliance with all other basic requirements, including but not limited to other standards.

The design must be in accordance with the relevant national/local standards and this specification.
If the national/local standards are more stringent than these requirements or vice versa, the pre-
vailing requirements will supersede any other prior requirements.

2 TERMS OF AGREEMENT

(1) This document shall be used in conjunction with the general conditions of contract.
(2) ENERCON takes on responsibilities, acting in many aspects as regulator regarding struc-
tural conformity; hereinafter referred to as the First Party.

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(3) Foundation design in scope of the customer or nationalization referred to the local applica-
ble rules and regulations in force, can be carried out by local engineering services; hereinaf-
ter referred to as Second Party.
(4) External experts may be commissioned by the First Party with the task of examination;
hereinafter referred to as Third Party.
(5) Methods or requirements described in this document have been developed from practical
considerations and experience and have been accepted on the basis that they have been
demonstrated to work. The Second Party accepts and understands these principles in terms
of clearance, conformity and safety.
(6) The First Party retains the contractual rights not to make available any information, or con-
tent element, that it considers fundamental, namely, calculation reports or worked exam-
ples.
(7) The Second Party would receive all the necessary certified information (Certification Re-
ports, Data sheets, Building Document and Drawings issued for construction) in order to
perform the design or nationalization.
(8) The Second Party will have to submit all relevant information (calculations and structural
drawings) for the assessment, evaluation and approval by the First Party or Third Party.
(9) The technical documentation submitted by the Second Party must be bilingual. A translation
into English is mandatory.
(10) The Second Party will have to submit a deviation list – from the documents which were
granted – together with a justification from a structural point of view.
(11) The First Party or the Third Party will perform a “Design Review” based on the requirements
stipulated in this document.
(12) In case, the documents of the Second Party do not fulfill the demanding requirements in this
document, the First Party will submit a document with remarks, which have to be consid-
ered in order to grant the approval.
(13) The Second Party confirms the entire agreement with requirements stipulated in this docu-
ment.

D0429375-1 / EB 6 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

3 NOMENCLATURE

3.1 Steel tower foundations

(1) Foundation plinth

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(2) Foundation heel
(3) Radial reinforcement (top/bottom)
(4) Ring reinforcement (top/bottom)
(5) Splitting reinforcement
(6) Back-anchoring reinforcement
(7) Shear reinforcement (Stirrup)
(8) Spacer
(9) Tower steel section
(10) Grout joint
(11) T-Flange
(12) Threaded bolt
(13) Anchor ring
(14) Load ring
(15) Compressive layer (present only in shallow foundations with and without buoyancy)
(16) Blinding layer
(17) Non-reinforced concrete area

D0429375-1 / EB 7 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

3.2 Concrete tower foundations

(1) Foundation plinth


(2) Foundation heel
(3) Corbel

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(4) Sole slab (present in shallow foundations with buoyancy and pile foundations)
(5) Tensioning basement
(6) Post-tensioned, bonded or unboned tendons (depends on the tower)
(7) Foundation cover
(8) Grout joint
(9) Precast concrete tower
(10) Radial reinforcement (top/bottom)
(11) Ring reinforcement (top/bottom)
(12) Splitting reinforcement
(13) Back-anchoring reinforcement
(14) Shear reinforcement (Stirrup)
(15) Spacer
(16) Blinding layer
(17) Compressive layer (Present in shallow foundations with buoyancy)

D0429375-1 / EB 8 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

4 LOADING
(1) The ENERCON “Building document” includes a summary of wind loads - based on regula-
tions in force - which can be used in the design and analysis of reinforced concrete for the
ultimate limit state (ULS), serviceability limit state (SLS) and fatigue failure analysis (FAT).
These loads imply safety factors to the load effect and to their response, resulting in a pre-
cise prediction of the system behavior (Blades-Rotor-Tower) and may not be increased.
(2) The loads included in the Building document refer to the foundation top (tower bottom). The
self-weigh of the foundation, soil weight or buoyancy are not included in the Building docu-
ment.
(3) The prescribed vertical forces (FZ) include the self-weight of the blades, rotor and tower.
(4) The prescribed bending moments (MXY) include the second-order moments.
(5) The post-tensioning force in the tendons of a precast concrete tower is described in the
ENERCON “Building Document – Post-tensioning Method”.
(6) The post-tensioning force in the bolts of the foundation basket is given in the ENERCON
foundation basket drawing.

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D0429375-1 / EB 9 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

5 GEOMETRY AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS


(1) The foundation heel is limited to a maximum of 14 % to assess the feasibility and construc-
tability of a tapered foundation.
(2) The plinth slope is limited to a maximum of 2 %.
(3) The visible edge of the plinth and slope must be chamfered by means of triangular borders
of 3 cm length.

(4) The blinding layer with 10 cm thickness and a minimum concrete quality of C12/15, must be
at least 10 cm larger than the outer radius of the foundation.
For more detailed specifications, please refer to the document [37].

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(5) The tower flange and anchor ring (foundation basket) have to follow the First Party standard
design and may not be modified.
(6) The strength of the foundation and its components (i.e. piles) subjected to the prescribed
loads in the ENERCON “Building document” must conform to the safety requirements of
point 8.3. The strength shall not be less than required for forces acting.
(7) The minimum concrete strength of the grout below the T-flange and the minimum concrete
strength for the foundation are given in the foundation basket drawing.
(8) The use of a concrete WU (waterproof) for the sole slab is recommended; however the reg-
ulations for concrete WU are not applicable.
(9) The nominal value of the maximum aggregate grain size at the bottom and top reinforce-
ment of 16 mm and the middle the foundation of 32 mm should be used. See the images in
document [36].
(10) Slowly hardening concrete with a low hydration development and a consistency class F3/S3
should be used. It is allowed to use F4/S4 for the bottom part up to the foundation heel. The
piles must have a consistency class ≥ F4 [11/13].
(11) The ENERCON foundations have defined exposure classes [10] related to specific envi-
ronmental conditions [35].
Any deviation from this categorization must be communicated and justified.
(12) The concrete strength of a foundation and piles must be chosen taking into consideration
also the exposure class requirements [11].
(13) The thickness of the concrete cover depends on environmental conditions (exposure clas-
ses). The minimum thickness of the concrete cover is indicated in the drawings issued for
construction.
For a design in scope of the Second Party a concrete cover thickness of less than 5 cm is
not permitted.
(14) Using ductility class B or C for reinforcing steel bars [12] is recommended. For more infor-
mation about the steel properties, see also ENERCON reinforcement steel specifications
[34].

D0429375-1 / EB 10 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

(15) Bar diameters Ø > 28 mm are not recommended.


(16) Welding of bars and bundled bars are not permitted.

(17) As an option, non-structural reinforcement may be placed in the non-reinforced concrete


area.
(18) Construction joints [38] are not allowed in:
→ Steel tower foundations:
- 10 cm above and below the transition between foundation plinth and foundation heel
- 20 cm above and below the connection area of the anchor ring of the foundation
basket

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→ Concrete tower foundations:
- From the foundation top to 20 cm underneath the corbel

In case the concrete pouring is carried out in different concreting sections (i), the concreting
section (i-1) has to reach a minimum concrete strength before the concreting section (i) is
poured.
This concrete strength must be defined.
(19) The compulsory use of a compressible layer underneath the blinding layer are for:
→ Steel tower foundations:
- Shallow foundations with and without buoyancy, where the diameter of the com-
pressive layer should not exceed the anchor ring diameter
→ Concrete tower foundations:
- Shallow foundations with buoyancy, where the diameter of the compressive layer
should be 1 m smaller than the diameter of the tensioning basement or, at maxi-
mum, equal to the diameter of the foundation tensioning basement
The compressive layer should have with minimum thickness of 10 cm and its material prop-
erties should fulfill the ENERCON specification [37].
(20) In case of a pile foundation the pile system must be agreed in advance with ENERCON. A
pre-design of the piles must be performed.

D0429375-1 / EB 11 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

6 SOIL
(1) The required bearing pressure soil supporting a shallow foundation is defined in the
ENERCON “Foundation Data Sheet” and the structural drawings.
The Foundation Data Sheet is only valid for foundations included in the ENERCON
portfolio.
(2) The value of the modulus of subgrade reaction in situ has to be considered.
(3) In case of a pile foundation the horizontal modulus of sub-grade reaction in situ must be
taken into consideration. The soil-foundation interaction as well as the first meter of soil-pile
interaction have to be neglected (i.e. modulus of sub-grade reaction equal to zero).
(4) The inclination due to subsoil settlement [1] within the lifetime of wind energy converter
– related to the foundation outer diameter – for steel tower foundations is limited to a maxi-
mum of ∆s = 3 mm/m.
(5) The absolute allowed inclination due to subsoil settlement [1] within the lifetime of the wind
energy converter – related to the foundation outer diameter – for concrete tower founda-
tions is limited to a maximum of ∆s = 40 mm.

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(6) These ENERCON geotechnical prerequisites must be fulfilled
a. Minimum value of the static and dynamic rotational stiffness described in the ENERCON
building document.
b. Minimum value of translational spring stiffness (if it is present in the ENERCON building
document).
c. The minimum value of stiffness modulus (Es) for foundations with piles is given in the
ENERCON foundation drawings.
d. The contact friction angle between the soil layer and the blinding layer must be equal to or
greater than 20 °.
e. The specific weight of the consolidated backfill must be equal to or greater than 16 kN/m³
and 6 kN/m³ in dry and wet conditions respectively.
(7) The backfill on the foundation heel is necessary in terms of structural stabilization and can-
not be removed without prior consent of ENERCON. In some special cases the soil can be
replaced by auxiliary concrete ballast.
(8) Optimized design of the structure based upon the geotechnical characteristics of the par-
ticular location is possible after consultation with the ENERCON R&D department.
(9) The minimum bond between the bearing subsoil and the piles is 5.0 m (qc >7.5MN/m²).
Lower values are to be agreed in advance.
(10) The suitability of the subsoil properties for the foundation and the pile length must be con-
firmed for each location by the geotechnical engineer.

D0429375-1 / EB 12 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

7 SERVICE LIFE

(1) The conventional service life and the corresponding levels of design according to the cur-
rent building code must be considered. The wind loads are given for a period defined in the
ENERCON building document.

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D0429375-1 / EB 13 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

8 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS


The following partial safety factors as well as others not included in this list can be used for the
different structural limit states
Note: If the concept of global safety factors is used, then a safety level γ that augments the ser-
vice level value of the actions until failure should be defined according to the require-
ments in national codes.

8.1 Wind loads

(1) The partial factor for extreme loads included in the ENERCON Building document is:
γ = 1.00
(2) The partial factor for fatigue loads included in the ENERCON Building document is:
γ = 1.00

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8.2 Geotechnical engineering

8.2.1 HYD and UPL: Hydraulic heave in the ground caused by hydraulic gradients
and loss of equilibrium of the structure due to uplift by water
pressure (buoyancy)

(1) Stabilizing permanent loads:


(BS-P) Persistent situation
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 0.95
(BS-A) Accidental situation
(2) Destabilizing permanent loads:
(BS-P) Persistent situation
γ = 1.05
(BS-T) Temporary situation
(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 1.00

D0429375-1 / EB 14 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

8.2.2 EQU: Loss of static equilibrium

(1) Favourable permanent loads:


(BS-P) Persistent situation
γ = 0.90
(BS-T) Temporary situation
(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 0.95
(2) Unfavourable permanent loads:
(BS-P) Persistent situation γ = 1.10
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 1.05
(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 1.00
(3) Unfavourable accidental actions:
(BS-P) Persistent situation γ = 1.50
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 1.25

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(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 1.00

8.2.3 STR and GEO: Internal failure or excessive deformation of the structure,
structural members and ground

(1) Unfavourable general permanent loads:


(BS-P) Persistent situation γ = 1.35
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 1.20
(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 1.10
(2) Unfavourable variable loads:
(BS-P) Persistent situation γ = 1.50
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 1.30
(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 1.10
(3) Ground bearing resistance :
(BS-P) Persistent situation γ = 1.40
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 1.30
(BS-A) Accidental situation γ = 1.20
(4) Sliding resistance:
(BS-P) Persistent situation
(BS-T) Temporary situation γ = 1.10
(BS-A) Accidental situation

D0429375-1 / EB 15 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

8.3 Ultimate limit state

8.3.1 Material

(1) Partial factors for materials for ultimate limit states:


Concrete γc = 1.50
Reinforcing steel γS = 1.15
Post-tensioning steel γS = 1.15

8.3.2 Factors for design load combinations

(1) Maximal compression:


a. Material (self-weight foundation, self- γ = 1.35

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weight backfill):
b. Hydrostatic loading γ = 0.90
c. Post-tensioning force γ = 1.00
d. Wind loading γ = 1.00
(2) Maximum tension:
a. Material partial factor (self-weight γ = 0.90
foundation, self-weight backfill):
b. Hydrostatic loading: γ = 1.10
c. Post-tensioning force: γ = 1.00
(3) Construction stage:
a. Fresh concrete γ = 1.50
b. Live-load γ = 1.50

8.4 Serviceability limit state

(1) Material and hydrostatic loading: γ = 1.00


(2) Post-tensioning force: γ = 1.00

D0429375-1 / EB 16 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

8.5 Fatigue state

(1) Fatigue loading: γ = 1.00


(2) Hydrostatic loading: γ = 1.00
(3) Material:
a. Concrete γ = 1.50
b. Steel reinforcement γ = 1.15
c. Uncertainties in the model γ = 1.10

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D0429375-1 / EB 17 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

9 MODELLING
(1) The model must be carried out using linear stress analysis.
(2) The model must be established to ensure ductility and serviceability demands.
(3) The influence of tension-stiffening (tensile strength of concrete) is not permitted.
(4) The accuracy of the model is left to the discretion of the Second Party.

9.1 Strut-and-tie modelling (STM)

(1) The STM is only applied for ULS.


(2) The equilibrium and yield criteria have to be satisfied.
(4) The angle of the compression strut is limited to:
3 5
≤ cot 𝜃 ≤
5 3

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(5) 3D-STM can be separated into multiple 2D-STM.
(6) The sketching of the STM is left to the discretion of the Second Party.
The design value of the steel is:
fyd
(7) The design value of the post-tensioning steel is:
0,9∙fp0,1k/γs
(the tensile strength and yield strength in the ENERCON Building Document – Pre-stressing
Method)
(8) The reinforcement has to be sufficiently anchored.
(9) The respective verifications at the nodes have to be performed.
(10) A report has to be submitted with model idealization and modelling assumptions.

D0429375-1 / EB 18 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

9.2 Finite-element model

(1) The foundation can be modelled with shell elements or solid elements.
(2) A foundation with piles has to be modelled by a three-dimensional global system (no STM).
(3) Simulation of piles with solid elements is not permitted.
(4) The Second Party can determine for itself if the non-reinforced concrete area is modeled.
(5) The non-reinforced concrete area can be modeled as an equivalent load in the model.
(6) The sole slab can be modelled together with the foundation or separately.
(7) A live load on top of the sole slab has to be defined.
(8) The reaction loads from the sole slab will have to be considered as actions in the foundation
model if the modelling is done in two parts.
(9) Finer meshing must be used in regions of expected high stress gradients.
(10) Mesh refinement must be gradual with adjacent elements.
(11) The maximal recommended mesh division is 50 cm.

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(12) Elements’ corner angles less than 60° or greater that 120° are to be avoided.
(13) Automatic mesh generation is not recommended.
(14) If the post-processing (design) is done by the FEM program, the layers of the reinforcement
will have to be simulated as reliably as possible.
(15) For pile foundations two distinct pile caps have to be modulated, pinned and fixed.
(16) A report that includes the following items has to be submitted:
- List of units used
- Description of coordinate system
- Description of structural model (including all modelling assumptions, model idealization,
element types, mesh size)
- 3D view
- Material properties, plate thickness, pile dimensions, pile inclinations and application radio
- Protocol of the assigned properties
- Protocol of boundary conditions (supports, bedding)
- Protocol of applied loads
- Details of load combinations
- Reaction in boundary conditions
- Forces plot (foundation and piles)
- Stresses plot
- Plots of local / global deformation
- Tabulated results
Plots of required reinforcement (when applicable).

D0429375-1 / EB 19 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

10 GEOTECHNICAL VERIFICATIONS
(1) The DIBt guideline for wind turbines [1] needs to be taken into account.

10.1 Loss of static equilibrium

(1) In the verification of EQU it must be demonstrated that the design value Ed,dst (destabilizing
actions) does not exceed the design value Rd,stb (stabilizing actions).
Ed,dst ≤ Rd,stb
(2) The rare characteristic combination (Group N/A/T) of actions present in the ENERCON
building document should be used for that verification.

10.2 Sliding resistance

(1) The sliding design forces (Hd) acting on the foundation cannot exceed the sliding resistance

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(Rd).
Hd ≤ Rd
(2) The verification must be performed for the characteristic load combination rare (Group
N/A/T)
(3) Minimum friction angle:
Φ = 20°
(4) Passive ground pressure is not permitted to verify the sliding resistance.
(5) The resulting effective area due to the eccentricities must be considered in the verification.

10.3 Maximum allowable eccentricities

(1) Loss of pressure (splitting gap) between soil and foundation, maximally as far as center of
gravity of foundation surface for load case Group N / T / DLC 8.2 according to the
ENERCON Building document. It is also recommended to limit the Group N / A / T accord-
ing to the ENERCON Building document with this requirement.
(2) No loss of pressure (splitting gap) between soil and foundation for load case quasi-
permanent-NTM DLC 1.0 according to the ENERCON Building document.
(3) The diameter of the compressible layer (if present) must be considered in the calculations.
(4) The buoyancy loading ‒ if present ‒ has to be considered in the verifications.

D0429375-1 / EB 20 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

10.4 Floating

(1) The following relation should be satisfied:


Ak ∙ γG,dst + Qk∙ γQ,dst ≤ Gk,stb ∙ γG,stb
Buoyancy load: Ak
Variable force: Qk
Stabilisation force: Gk
(2) The dead loads should be taken as the weight of the structural elements plus the weight of
backfill.
(3) The verification has to be performed with the characteristic load combination quasi-
permanent.

10.5 Ground pressure

(1) The required bearing pressure (sigma_req) should be determined taking into account the

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permissible eccentricities in Point 10.3 Clause (1) & (2).
(2) The calculation must be performed without taking into account the buoyancy load.
(3) The required ground pressure (“negative values”) has to be calculated with the characteris-
tic Group N / A / T according to the ENERCON Building document. A minimum ground
(sigma_min) pressure needs to be guaranteed up to the foundation center.

(4) Under the quasi-permanent-NTM DLC 1.0 according to the ENERCON Building document,
the ground pressure needs to be guaranteed across the entire surface of the foundation.

D0429375-1 / EB 21 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

10.6 Minimum values for the dynamic oedometric modulus

(1) The static and dynamic value of the oedometric modulus – depending on Poisson’s ratio –
in situ must be equal to or higher than the calculated minimum. The minimum values have
to be obtained for non-cohesive soil and cohesive soil.
(2) The minimum values can be determined using the following formulas:
8 ∙ 𝐺 ∙ 𝑟3 3 1 (1 + 𝜈) ∙ (1 − 𝜈)2
𝑘𝜑 = 𝐸𝑜𝑒𝑑,𝑑𝑦𝑛 = 𝑘𝜑 ∙ ∙ 3 ∙
3 ∙ (1 − 𝜈) 4 𝑟 1 − 𝜈 − 2. 𝜈 2
Shear modulus G
Dynamic oedometric modulus Eoed,dyn
Minimum rotational stiffness Kφ,dyn
Radius r
Poisson’s ratio 𝜈

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10.7 Minimum pile toe and pile cap spacing:

(1) This requirement will be applied to every pile, which is located at the same radius.
(2) The minimum pile toe and pile cap spacing (measured from the center) must not be less
than three times the pile diameter D (3∙D).
A tolerance ∆a to the 3∙D spacing in the pile toe is recommended for covering manufactur-
ing inaccuracies or deviations during the piling works.

10.8 Pile foundation - Rotational and translational spring stiffness

(1) The minimum static and dynamic rotational spring values in the global system stipulated in
the ENERCON building document must be verified.
(2) The verifications must be carried out taking into account the static and dynamic soil proper-
ties in situ in a 3D model.
(3) If a translational stiffness is provided in the ENERCON Building document or in the Founda-
tion Data Sheet, this must be verified.

D0429375-1 / EB 22 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

11 VERIFICATIONS IN SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE (SLS)

11.1 Minimum reinforcement [11/17]

(1) The minimum reinforcement has to meet the conditions of:


- Early-age thermal crack control
- Crack control under quasi-permanent load, defined as DLC1.0 in the ENERCON building
document
(2) The minimum reinforcement is to be adopted according to the following formula:
2 ∙ 𝑘 ∙ 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 ∙ 𝑏 ∙ ℎ
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 =
5 ∙ 𝜎𝑠
𝑀𝐼𝑁 ( 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 ∙ 𝐴𝑐,𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑘 ∙ 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 ∙ 𝑏 ∙ ℎ)
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 2 ∙ 𝜎𝑠 ≥
5 ∙ 𝑓𝑦𝑘

Coefficient for non-uniform self- 𝑘

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equilibrating stresses
Stress in the tension reinforce- 𝜎𝑠
ment assuming a cracked section
The effective area of concrete in 𝐴𝑐,𝑒𝑓𝑓
tension surrounding the rein-
forcement
(3) The coefficient for non-uniform self-
equilibrating stresses is:
for ℎ ≤ 300 𝑚𝑚 𝑘 = 1.00
for ℎ ≥ 800 𝑚𝑚 𝑘 = 0.65
Intermediate values may be interpolated
(4) The effective area is:
𝐴𝑐,𝑒𝑓𝑓 = ℎ𝑐,𝑒𝑓 ∙ 𝑏
ℎ𝑐,𝑒𝑓 can be estimated using:

Increase of the height hc,ef of the effective area of the reinforcement with increasing structural thickness;
Figure NA.7.1 d); DIN EN 1992-1-1:2011-01 [11]

(5) At least the ring direction must meet Item 11.1 Clause (2) of determining the minimum rein-
forcement.

D0429375-1 / EB 23 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

11.2 Limitation of crack width

(1) The limitation of crack width is:


- For the sole slab wk = 0.1 mm
- For elements of the foun- wk = 0.2 mm
dation that does not pene-
trate at most a half a meter
into the ground
- For all other elements wk = 0.3 mm
Deviations from the abovementioned values should be agreed with the First Party.

11.3 Piles in compression under DLC1.0

(1) Tension force is not allowed in the piles under the DLC 1.0 defined in the ENERCON build-
ing document.

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D0429375-1 / EB 24 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

12 VERIFICATIONS IN ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE (ULS)


(1) The design compressive concrete strength is defined as:
𝑓𝑐𝑘
𝑓𝑐𝑑 = 0.85 ∙
𝛾𝑐
(2) The minimum diameter of bending block Dmin is determined as:

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12.1 Bending reinforcement

(1) Acting bending moments should be taken by reinforcement in ring direction and radial direc-
tion.
(2) A mesh reinforcement can be used at the sole slab.
(3) Radial reinforcement under the load introduction is to foresee for steel tower foundations
(with foundation basket or foundation section) in order to redistribute the compressive strut
of the post-tensioning system.
In case the radial reinforcement cannot absorb all the forces, then ring reinforcement can be
placed at a distance D from the anchor ring or foundation ring.
2∙ℎ
𝐷=
3
Where h is the distance between
- Top foundation and anchor ring (for foun-
dation basket)
- Top foundation and bottom T-flange
(for foundation section)
The ring reinforcement should be placed between the back-anchoring reinforcement.
(4) The structural radial reinforcement must be one-piece. Overlap lengths are not allowed.
(5) The required radial reinforcement should be determined taking into account the geometrical
availability (i.e., space between bolts, foundation section, post-tensioning anchor) in the
foundation.
(6) The outer base ring reinforcement is mandatory for absorbing the horizontal forces.
(7) The minimum allowed spacing between ring reinforcement rebars is 9 cm.
(8) A minimum overlapping distance of 1.3 times the overlap length l0, between the middle of
two adjacent laps has to be guaranteed.

D0429375-1 / EB 25 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

12.2 Overlap length

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(1) The following bonding conditions are defined:
- Good bonding conditions → bottom reinforcement and suspension reinforcement
- Moderate bonding conditions → top reinforcement and lateral reinforcement
(2) The ultimate bonding stress is:
for good bonding conditions 𝑓𝑏𝑑 = 1.50 ∙ 𝜂2 ∙ 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑘,0.05
for moderate bonding conditions 𝑓𝑏𝑑 = 1.05 ∙ 𝜂2 ∙ 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑘,0.05
The factor η2 depends on the rebar diameter:
𝜂2 = 1.0 → ∅ ≤ 32
132 − ∅
𝜂2 = → ∅ > 32
100
(3) The basic required anchorage length is:
∅ 𝜎𝑠𝑑
𝑙𝑏,𝑟𝑞𝑑 = ( ) ∙ ( )
4 𝑓𝑏𝑑
(4) The design overlap length:
0.3 ∙ 𝛼6 ∙ 𝑙𝑏,𝑟𝑞𝑑
𝑙0 = 𝛼6 ∙ 𝑙𝑏,𝑟𝑞𝑑 ≥ 𝑀𝐴𝑋 { 15 ∙ 𝜙
200 𝑚𝑚
with

D0429375-1 / EB 26 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

Back-anchoring reinforcement, 𝛼6 = 2.0


top and bottom ring reinforce-
ment at foundation plinth.

Top and bottom ring reinforce- 𝛼6 = 1.4


ment for foundation heel.

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12.3 Shear reinforcement

(1) The stirrups must enclose the longitudinal reinforcement in the tension and in the compres-
sion zone.
(2) The inclination α, of the shear reinforcement rebars in relation to the structural element axis
must be between 45° and 90°.
(3) When VEd ≤ ⅓ VRd,max, 50 % of the shear reinforcement can be constituted by spacers,
which do not need to enclose the longitudinal reinforcement but need to be sufficiently an-
chored in the tension and compression area.
The compression strut angle is limited to:
for normal-weight concrete 1.0 ≤ 𝑐𝑜𝑡𝜃 ≤ 3.0
In determining the shear reinforcement, the effective height in the cross-section should be
taken into account.
(4) In case structural shear reinforcement is required, a minimum amount of shear reinforce-
ment must be considered.
(5) Under a construction joint (during the construction stage) the shear reinforcement must be
verified.

D0429375-1 / EB 27 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

(6) The interface in a construction joint has to be designed for shear-friction. The following fric-
tion factors can be applied:
Coefficient of Coefficient of
friction cohesion
Smooth joint 𝜇 = 0.6 𝑐 = 0.2
Rough joint 𝜇 = 0.7 𝑐 = 0.4
Note: minimum roughness is 3 mm
(7) For dynamic analysis the coefficient of cohesion must be c = 0.
(8) The maximum longitudinal spacing (Smax_l) between stirrups depends on the design value of
the maximum shear force (VRd,max):
𝑉𝐸𝑑 ≤ 0.30 ∙ 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 → 𝑠max _𝑙 = 0.7 ∙ ℎ
0.30 ∙ 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 < 𝑉𝐸𝑑 ≤ 0.60 ∙ 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 → 𝑠max _𝑙 = 0.5 ∙ ℎ
𝑉𝐸𝑑 > 0.60 ∙ 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 → 𝑠max _𝑙 = 0.25 ∙ ℎ

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Where:
VEd Design value of the applied shear force
h Height of the section
(9) The maximum tangential spacing (Smax_t) between stirrups is equal to:
𝑠max _𝑡 = ℎ
Where:
h Height of the section
(10) For a sole slab in case that shear reinforcement is not required, some spacers have to be
provided as construction reinforcement to guarantee the distance between top and bottom
bending reinforcement.

12.4 Back-anchoring reinforcement

(1) The back-anchoring reinforcement can be used as shear reinforcement at the foundation
plinth area.
(2) In steel tower foundations:
a. The arrangement of the back-anchoring reinforcement must be symmetrical (i.e., same
number of bars on the right side and on the left side of the anchor ring).
b. The spacing between back-anchoring reinforcement must be limited to a minimum of 10 cm.
c. A set of rebars must be located at a maximum distance of 50 cm from the middle of the
T-Flange to the centroid of the group.
d. A set of rebars must be located at a minimum distance of 20 cm from either side of the
T-Flange to the centroid of the group.

D0429375-1 / EB 28 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

12.5 Splitting tensile reinforcement

(1) The splitting tensile reinforcement must be verified under compression force.

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(2) For steel tower foundations the splitting tensile reinforcement with a foundation basket must
be located at
0.40 ∙ ℎ𝑠
(hs is the clamped length of the bolt), under the top plinth.
(3) For concrete tower foundations the splitting tensile reinforcement
- must be verified in tangential and radial direction
- must be located above the anchor head
(4) Splitting tensile reinforcement must be located above the pile cap at a distance of
0.40 ∙ ℎ𝑠
Where hs either is the height of the cross section or the height of the construction joint im-
mediately above the pile cap.
If the height of the construction joint is small, this reinforcement can be used also for the
punching verification.

12.6 Concrete compressive strength

12.6.1 Foundation basket

(1) The compressive strength of the grout joint and the foundation below the T-flange or load
ring has to be verified according to the partially loaded areas for ultimate loads and fatigue
load collectives.
(2) The grout joint compressive strength should not smaller than specified in the
ENERCON drawings.

D0429375-1 / EB 29 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

12.6.2 Steel section


(1) The compressive stress has to be verified on the top side and bottom side of the flange for
ultimate loads and fatigue load collectives.

12.6.3 Concrete tower foundations


(1) The compressive strength of the grout joint and the foundation has to be verified for ultimate
loads and fatigue load collectives.
(2) The grout joint compressive strength should not smaller than specified in the
ENERCON drawings.

12.7 Punching shear design

(1) The punching verification has to be performed for piles and for the foundation section.

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(2) The punching verification is performed for the maximal compressive force acting within the
pile system.
A reduction of shear forces due to the soil pressure is not allowed.
(3) The punching verification must be verified in the area closed by a basic control perimeter.
(4) The verification of punching at different construction stages must be verified; if it is required,
ring and radial reinforcement must be placed below the joint.
(5) The basic control perimeter (ucrit) must be determined either at a distance 2d (d is the struc-
tural height) or an angle of 26.6° from the one surface of a pile.

(6) The basic control perimeter must be adapted for square pile cross-sections.

D0429375-1 / EB 30 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

(7) When punching reinforcement is required, different rows are to be verified until the punching
reinforcement is not necessary.
The following boundary conditions for the verification must be considered:

1st check 2nd check 3rd check

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The check must not exceed the beginning of the non-reinforced concrete area of steel tower
foundations and the diameter of the tensioning basement of concrete tower foundations.
(8) The punching reinforcement should be placed:
- exactly on the line of each control perimeter:
0.3d to 0.5d; at 1,05d to 1.25d; at 1.8d to 2d (distances from pile surface)
- in arc direction (inside ucrit) at a distance ≤ 1.5d
- in arc direction (outside ucrit) at a distance ≤ 2.0d

(9) Minimum punching reinforcement must be considered.

D0429375-1 / EB 31 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

(10) The existing shear reinforcement (from the ULS-state) can be considered also to resist the
punching forces.
(11) To ensure the shear resistance, the plates in the area of the piles have to be designed for
minimum moments.
(12) Resulting from punching forces, the curtailment of the bottom longitudinal tension rein-
forcement must be verified.

12.8 Structural analysis of foundation corbel

(1) For the verification of the maximum force in the corbel, the anchors can be grouped in four
(2) The corbel must be calculated under compression and tension, taking into account con-
servative approaches.
(3) The required reinforcement must be anchored with lb,rqd (Item 12.2, Clause 3)

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(4) The design compressive concrete strength (Item 12, Clause 1) of the foundation, must be
greater than the acting compression stress in ULS.
(5) The compressive concrete stresses must be limited for the SLS-state according to:
for group N/A/T
0.60 ∙ 𝑓𝑐𝑘
(γaero=γNac+Rot=γTower=1)
for load case NTM DLC 1.0
0.45 ∙ 𝑓𝑐𝑘
(γaero=γNac+Rot=γTower=1)

D0429375-1 / EB 32 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

13 FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS

(1) The fatigue calculations must to be carried out with the provided cycles and average in the
ENERCON Building document.

13.1 Concrete fatigue life analysis

(1) The verifications must be carried out taking into account the approaches of the CEB-FIP
model code 1990 [14] instead of the CEB-FIP model code 2010.
(2) In a steel tower foundation with foundation basket, following sections must be verified:
a. Under the T-Flange /
Load Ring

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b. Under the grout joint
c. Above the anchor ring

(3) In a steel tower foundation with foundation section, the following sections must be verified:
a. Under the T-Flange

D0429375-1 / EB 33 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

(4) In a concrete tower foundation, the following sections must be verified:


a. Under the concrete tower
section.
b. Under the grout joint.
c. Introduction load of the ten-
don.

(5) The Post-tensioning force must be considered in the calculations where present.
(6) The simplified verification of concrete fatigue according to the DIBt guideline [1] can be
used for a prior analysis. If the verifications fail, the fatigue analysis should be carried out
according to Item 13.1
(7) The approaches for partially loaded areas can be used for the determination of the design

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fatigue reference strength for concrete under compression (fcd,fat).
(8) For the coefficient which depends on the age of concrete t in days when fatigue loading
starts, t = 28 days should be adopted.

D0429375-1 / EB 34 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

13.2 Fatigue strength analysis for reinforcement

(1) The Palmgren-Miner linear damage hypothesis for the verifications of the fatigue must be
considered.
(2) The following components must be verified for fatigue damage:
- Radial reinforcement
- Ring reinforcement
- Back-anchoring reinforcement
- Shear reinforcement
- Reinforcement in the corbel for concrete tower foundations
- Joint at the interface between concrete cast at different times
(3) The ratio of moduli of elasticity for steel and concrete may be taken as α =10 [-]
(4) Stress-cycle (S-N) curves (Wöhler curve) shall be considered.

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(5) S-N curves according to DIN EN 1992-1-1:2011-01 [11] and CEB-FIP model code 1990 [14]
may be taken into account.
The maximum damage should be determined using the both approaches.

Shape of the characteristic fatigue strength Parameters for S-N curves for reinforcing steel; NDP to 6.8.4; Table 6.3;
curve (S-N-curves for reinforcing steel); DIN EN 1992-1-1:2011-01 [11]
Figure 6.30; DIN EN 1992-1-1:2011-01
[11]

Type of reinforcement N* Stress ∆σRsk at N*


exponent cycles N/mm²
K1 K2

Straight and bent barsa 106 5 9b 175

a
Note: Values for bent bars D < 25Ø should be obtained using a reduction factor
𝐷
𝜉1 = 0.35 + 0.026 ∙ 𝜙

D Diameter of the mandrel / Ø bar diameter


The reduction factor 𝜉1 may be omitted for shear reinforcement Ø ≤ 16 mm with vertical
stirrups height ≥ 600 mm
b
In corrosive environmental conditions (XC2, XC3, XC4, XS, XD), further considerations
for the Wöhler curve are possible; in case no evidence in situ is available, the value k2
shall be reduced 5 ≤ 𝑘2 ≤ 9

D0429375-1 / EB 35 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

14 EARTHQUAKE DESIGN

(1) ENERCON provides an Earthquake Matrix (country-specific) depending on the seismic


zone and ground type. The loads in this document include the combination of wind load and
earthquake load.
(2) The ENERCON Earthquake Matrix is utilized to establish the feasibility of the tower and
foundation in situ.
(3) Verifications for the foundation should be carried out taking into account the loading present
in the ENERCON Earthquake Matrix
(4) The foundation must be verified in accordance with the local regulations in force with regard
to earthquakes.

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D0429375-1 / EB 36 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

15 CONSTRUCTION STAGE
(1) The construction stages (e.g. with a construction joint) must be modeled in FEM in order to
secure bending and shear stresses.
Following boundary conditions are to be considered:
- The fresh concrete should be considered with a specific weight of 26 kN/m³.
- Live load has to be placed.
- Two load cases are to be considered:
a) Partial concrete load and live load (half of the foundation poured)
b) Full concrete load and live load

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D0429375-1 / EB 37 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

16 REFERENCES

16.1 General
[ 1 ] Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, 2012. DIBt 2012 Reihe B, Heft 8, Fassung Oktober 2012.
Richtlinie für Windenergieanlagen - Einwirkungen und Standsicherheitsnachweise für Turm und Gründung
Guideline for wind turbines – Effect and structural safety of towers and foundations
rd
[ 2 ] International Electrotechnical Commission, 2005. IEC 61400-1, 3 edition, 2005-08.
Wind turbine generator systems – Part 1: Safety requirements.
[ 3 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2011. DIN EN 61400-1: 2011-08
Windenergieanlagen – Teil 1: Auslegungsanforderungen (IEC 61400-1:2005 + A1:2010)
Wind turbines – Part 1: Design requirements (IEC 61400-1:2005 + A1:2010)
[ 4 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN EN 1990:2010-12, Eurocode 0.
Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung; Deutsche Fassung EN 1990:2002 + A1:2005 + A1:2005/AC:2010; mit
DIN EN 1990/NA:2010-12 Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter.

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Basis of structural design; German version EN 1990:2002 + A1:2005 + A1:2005/AC:2010; with
DIN EN 1990/NA:2010-12 National Annex – Nationally determined parameters.
[ 5 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN EN 1991-1-1:2010-12, Eurocode 1.
Einwirkung auf Tragwerke – Teil 1-1:Allgemeine Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke – Wichten, Eigengewicht
und Nutzlasten im Hochbau; Deutsche Fassung EN 1991-1-1:2002 + AC:2009; mit DIN EN 1991-1-
1/NA:2010-12 Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter.
Actions on structures – Part 1-1: General actions – Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings;
German version EN 1991-1-1:2002+AC: 2009; with DIN EN 1991-1-1/NA:2010-12 National Annex – Na-
tionally determined parameters.
[ 6 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12, Eurocode 1.
Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke – Teil 1-4: Allgemeine Einwirkungen – Windlasten; Deutsche Fassung EN
1991-1-4:2005 + A1:2010 + AC:2010; mit DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA:2010-12 Nationaler Anhang – National
festgelegte Parameter.
Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – Wind actions; German version EN 1991-1-4:2005 +
A1:2010 + AC:2010; with DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA:2010-12 National Annex – Nationally determined parame-
ters.
[ 7 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2013. DIN EN 1998-1/A1:2013-05, Eurocode 8.
Auslegung von Bauwerken gegen Erdbeben – Teil 1: Grundlagen, Erdbebeneinwirkungen und Regeln für
Hochbauten; Deutsche Fassung EN 1998-1:2004/A1:2013; mit DIN EN 1998-1/NA:2011-01 Nationaler
Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter
Design of structures for earthquake resistance – Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for build-
ings; German version EN 1998-1:2004/A1:2013; with DIN EN 1998-1/NA:2011-01 National Annex – Na-
tionally determined parameters.
[ 8 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN EN 1998-5:2010-12, Eurocode 8.
Auslegung von Bauwerken gegen Erdbeben – Teil 5: Gründungen, Stützbauwerke und geotechnische
Aspekte; Deutsche Fassung EN 1998-5:2004 mit DIN EN 1998-5/NA:2011-07 Nationaler Anhang – Natio-
nal festgelegte Parameter.
Design of structures for earthquake resistance – Part 5: Foundations, retaining structures and geotechnical
aspects; German version EN 1998-5:2004 mit DIN EN 1998-5/NA:2011-07 National Annex – Nationally
determined parameters.
[ 9 ] Schneider K., 2016. Bautabellen für Ingenieure, 22. Auflage, Bundesanzeiger Verlage: Albert A.

D0429375-1 / EB 38 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

16.2 Concrete design


[ 10 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2014. DIN EN 206-1:2014-07
Beton: Festlegung, Eigenschaften, Herstellung und Konformität, Deutsche Fassung EN 206:2013
Concrete – Specification, performance, production and conformity, German version EN 206:2013
[ 11 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung, 2011. DIN EN 1992-1-1:2011-01, Eurocode 2.
Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken – Teil 1: Allgemeine Bemes-
sungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau; Deutsche Fassung EN 1992-1-1:2004 + AC:2010; mit
DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA:2011-01 Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter
Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings; German version
EN 1992-1-1:2004 + AC:2010; with DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA:2011-01 National Annex – Nationally determined
parameters.
[ 12 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung, 2010. DIN EN 1992-2-2:2010-12, Eurocode 2.
Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken – Teil 2: Betonbrücken - Be-
messungs- und Konstruktionsregeln; Deutsche Fassung EN 1992-2-2:2005 + AC:2008; mit
DIN EN 1992-2-2/NA:2013-04 Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter.
Design of concrete structures – Part 2: Concrete bridges – Design and detailing rules; German version
EN 1992-2-2:2005 + AC:2008; with DIN EN 1992-2-2/NA:2013-04 National Annex – Nationally determined

© ENERCON GmbH. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. All rights reserved..


parameters.
[ 13 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung, 2011. DIN EN 13670:2011-03
Ausführung von Tragwerken aus Beton; Deutsche Fassung EN 13670:2009
Execution of concrete structures; German version EN 13670:2009
[ 14 ] Comite Euro – International Du Beton, 1993. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990
Design Code: Thomas Telford Ltd.
[ 15 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung, 2009. DIN 488-1 & DIN 488-2
Betonstahl Teil 1: Stahlsorten, Eigenschaften, Kennzeichen
Betonstahl Teil 2: Betonstahl – Betonstabstahl
Reinforcing steels – Part 1: Grades, Properties, marking
Reinforcing steels – Part 2: Reinforcing steel bars
[ 16 ] Deutscher Ausschuss für Stahlbeton, 1994. DAfStb Heft 439.
Ermüdungsfestigkeit von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetonbauteilen mit Erläuterungen zu den Nachweisen
gemäß CEB-FIP Model Code 1990; König, G., Danielewicz I.
Fatigue strength of reinforced and prestressed structures with comments on the fatigue design according
to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990; König, G., Danielewicz I.
[ 17 ] Deutscher Ausschuß für Stahlbeton, 2012. DAfStb Heft 600.
Erläuterungen zu DIN EN 1992-1-1 und DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA (Eurocode 2), Hegger J.; 1. Auflage Beuth
Verlag GmbH Berlin 2012
[ 18 ] Schlaich, J., Schäfer, 2001. K Beton Kalender BK2: Konstruieren im Stahlbetonbau (Teil E), Ernst & Sohn
Verlag, Berlin 2001
[ 19 ] Deutscher Ausschuß für Stahlbeton, 1978. DAfStb Heft 240.
Hilfsmittel zur Berechnung der Schnittgrößen und Formänderungen von Stahlbetontragwerken nach
DIN 1045; Grasser, E., Thielen, G.; Ausgabe 1972-01 (1978).

[ 20 ] Petersen, S. 3. Auflage, 1993: Stahlbau – Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von
Stahlbauten,

[ 21 ] Collins Michael P. and Mitchell D.,1997 - Prestressed concrete structures; Response Publications Canada

D0429375-1 / EB 39 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

16.3 Geotechnical design


[ 21 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2014. DIN EN 1997-1:2014-03, Eurocode 7.
Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der Geotechnik – Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln; Deutsche Fassung
EN 1997-1:2004 + AC:2009 + A1:2013; mit DIN EN 1997-1/NA:2010-12 Nationaler Anhang – National
festgelegte Parameter
Geotechnical design – Part 1: General rules; German version EN 1997-1:2004 + AC:2009 + A1:2013; with
DIN EN 1997-1/NA:2010-12 National Annex – Nationally determined parameters
[ 22 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN EN 1997-2:2010-10, Eurocode 7.
Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der Geotechnik – Teil 2: Erkundung und Untersuchung des Bau-
grunds; Deutsche Fassung EN 1997-2:2007 + AC:2010; mit DIN EN 1997-2/NA:2010-12 Nationaler An-
hang – National festgelegte Parameter
Geotechnical design – Part 2: Ground investigation and testing; German version EN 1997-2:2007 +
AC:2010; with DIN EN 1997-2/NA:2010-12 National Annex – Nationally determined parameters
[ 23 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN 1054:2010-12
Baugrund – Sicherheitsnachweise im Erd- und Grundbau – Ergänzende Regelungen zu DIN EN 1997-1
Subsoil – Verification of the safety of earthworks and foundations – Supplementary rules to DIN EN 1997-1

© ENERCON GmbH. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. All rights reserved..


[ 24 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN 1054:2010-12
Baugrund – Sicherheitsnachweise im Erd- und Grundbau – Ergänzende Regelungen zu
DIN EN 1997-1:2010; Änderung A1: 2012
Subsoil – Verification of the safety of earthworks and foundations – Supplementary rules to
DIN EN 1997-1:2010; Amendment A1:2012
[ 25 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2010. DIN 1054:2010-12
Baugrund – Sicherheitsnachweise im Erd- und Grundbau – Ergänzende Regelungen zu
DIN EN 1997-1:2010; Änderung A2: 2015
Subsoil – Verification of the safety of earthworks and foundations – Supplementary rules to
DIN EN 1997-1:2010; Amendment A2:2015
[ 26 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm – International Standards Organisation, 2013. DIN EN ISO
22476-1:2013-10
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchungen – Felduntersuchungen – Teil 1: Drucksondierung mit
elektrischen Messwertaufnehmen und Messeinrichtung für den Porenwasserdruck (ISO 22476-
1:2012+Cor. 1:2013); Deutsche Fassung EN ISO 22476-1:2012 + AC:2013
Geotechnical investigation and testing – Field testing – Part 1: ‚Electrical cone and piezocone penetration
test (ISO 22476-1: 2012 + Cor. 1:2013); German version EN ISO 22476-1: 2012 + AC:2013
[ 27 ] Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geotechnik e. V. (DGGT), Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises 1.4
Baugrunddynamik, 1. Auflage, Berlin Dezember 2002.
[ 28 ] Smoltczyk, U. (Hrsg.):Grundbau-Taschenbuch Teil 3:Gründungen, 6. Ausgabe, Ernst & Sohn, 2001
[ 29 ] Schulze, WE., Simmer, K.: Grundbau Teil 2, Baugruben und Gründungen, 15. Auflage, B.G. Teubner Verlag,
Stuttgart, 1978

D0429375-1 / EB 40 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

16.4 Piles
[ 30 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2015. DIN EN 1536:2015-10
Ausführung von Arbeiten im Spezialtiefbau – Bohrpfähle, Deutsche Fassung EN 1536:2010 + A1:2015
Execution of special geotechnical work – Bored piles; German version EN 1536: 2010+A1:2015
[ 31 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2015. DIN EN 12699:2015-07
Ausführung von Arbeiten im Spezialtiefbau – Verdrängungspfähle; Deutsche Fassung EN 12699: 2015
Execution of special geotechnical works – Displacement piles; German version EN 12699: 2015
[ 32 ] Deutsches Institut für Normung – Euronorm, 2007. DIN EN 12794:2007-08
Betonfertigteile – Gründungspfähle; Deutsche Fassung EN 12794:2005+A1:2007; mit Berichtigung 1,
2009-04
Precast concrete products – Foundation piles; German version EN 12794: 2005+A1:2007; with
Corrigendum 1, 2009-04
[ 33 ] Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geotechnik e. V. (DGGT), EA-Pfähle;
Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises „Pfähle“
Recommendations on Pilling

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2. Auflage, Berlin 2012

16.5 ENERCON documents

[ 34 ] Materialspezifikation Betonstahl
D0181818-1
Reinforcing Steel Material Specification
[ 35 ] Spezifikation-Anforderungskatalog Beton
PM-CE-SP308
Specification-Catalogue for concrete requirements
[ 36 ] Spezifikation- Festlegung Größtkorn Fundamente
PM-CE-SP310
Specification-Definition of maximum aggregate size for foundation concrete,
[ 37 ] Spezifikation-Anforderungen an die Sauberkeitsschicht und die Kompressible Lage PM-CE-SP306
Specification- Requirements for blinding layer and compressible layer PM-PE-SP002
[ 38 ] Spezifikation – Bereiche ohne Betonierfuge
PM-CE-SP313
Specifications-Areas without construction joints

16.6 Patents
[ 39 ] JP2010065454 A– Foundation structure of tower-like structure JP2010065454
[ 40 ] KR100925964 B – The foundation design for the tower shaped structure KR100925964

D0429375-1 / EB 41 of 42
Foundation Design Requirements

Annex 1- Special requirements for Japan and South Korea

For steel tower foundations the disposition of the ring reinforcement close to the back-anchoring
reinforcement has to attend specific requirements to avoid patent [39] and [40] infringement.
No more than one ring reinforcement (in the image Pos. 27, Pos.21 and Pos.22) should be tied up
to the back-anchoring reinforcement (Pos.19 and Pos.20) in the same radius. The image below is
to be used as example of a correct disposition.
The constructive ring reinforcement (Pos.27) used to maintain the splitting reinforcement (Pos.12)
in the correct position is tied up to the back-anchoring reinforcement at different radius. No other
ring reinforcement rebar (Pos. 21 and Pos.22) is tied up to the back-anchoring reinforcement at the
same radiu.
If there is some ring reinforcement placed at the same radiu (top or bottom ring reinforcement) that
cannot be tied up to the back anchoring reinforcement.

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D0429375-1 / EB 42 of 42