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Objectives Shaft must have adequate torsional strength to

• Compute forces acting on shafts from gears, pulleys, and transmit torque and not be over stressed.

sprockets.

Shafts are mounted in bearings and transmit power

• Find bending moments from gears, pulleys, or sprockets that

are transmitting loads to or from other devices. through devices such as gears, pulleys, cams and

• Determine torque in shafts from gears, pulleys, sprockets,

clutches.

clutches, and couplings. Components such as gears are mounted on shafts

• Compare combined stresses to suitable allowable stresses, using keys.

including any required stress reduction factors such as stress Shaft must sustain a combination of bending and

concentration factors and factors of safety.

torsional loads.

• Determine suitability of shaft design and/or necessary size of

shafting.

increments (in.)

Upto 3 1/16

3 to 5 1/8

5 to 8 1/4

TL

Angle of twist, θ =

GJ

θ = the angle of twist (radians)

T = the applied torque (in-

(in-lb.)

L = shaft length (in.)

J = polar moment on inertia of the shaft cross section

(in4)

G = shear modulus of elasticity of the shaft material

(lb/in2)

1

Torsional Shear Stresses Shear Stress in a shaft

Torque Torque

16 T

Tc Shear stress, SS =

Torsional shear stress, SS = π D3

J Where

T = torque

J = Polar moment of inertia = π × d

4

16 T

32 D = diameter of the shaft = 3

c = radius of the shaft π SS

T = Torque

d = diameter of shaft

August 15, 2007 7 August 15, 2007 8

Ft = Transmitted force Power, P = Tn or T = 63,000 P

Fn = Normal force or separating 63,000 n

force

Torque, T = Ft r and r = Dp /2

Fr = Resultant force

θ = pressure angle Combining the above we can write

Fn = Ft tan θ

2T 2 P × 63,000

Ft = =

Ft Dp Dp n

Fr =

cos θ

August 15, 2007 9 August 15, 2007 10

An additional axial force will be acting on the shaft Force transmitted, Fn = Ft tan θ cos γ

because of the bevel angle θ = Pressure angle

For the pinion it is relatively small, and can be γ = Cone angle

neglected. Axial Force, Fa = Ft tan θ sin γ

Resultant Force, Fr = 2

Ft + F2

For the larger gear it will be significant and will be

larger than the radial separating force. F = Fn or Fa depending on whichever is larger

2

Loads from Worm gears Loads from Worm gears

To

Driving force on the worm gear, Ft =

Axial rwg

To = Output torque

Driving Ft sin φ

Separating force, Fs =

cos φ cos λ - f sin λ

where

λ = lead angle

Separating

ϕ = normal pressure angle

f = coefficient of friction

Axial force on the worm gear

⎛ cos φ sin λ + f cos λ ⎞

Fa(gear) = Ft(gear) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ cos φ cos λ - f sin λ ⎠

where

λ = lead angle

f = coefficient of friction

For a belt, Total load, Ft = Ff + Fb Shafts transmit power through gears and

Net driving force, Fd = Ff – Fb pulleys

Driving torque, T = Fd r These produce bending load in addition to

r = effective radius of pulley or sprocket torsion

For a chain Fb = 0 Use strength of material approach to calculate

the reaction forces and bending moments

3

Bending of circular shafts Bending of circular shafts

• Shaft shown drives a gear set that is transmitting 5

Step 1: Calculate the torque on the shaft from power hp at 1750 rpm.

Step 2: Find the torsional stress in the shaft • Shaft is supported in self-aligning ball bearings

Step 3: Calculate the loads coming from gears, belts and gears are both 10 pitch, 40 tooth, 20° spur

gears.

or chains

• Find torsional and bending stresses in shaft.

Step 4: Calculate the bending moment due to the

acting forces. If necessary combine the forces.

Step 5: Calculate the bending stress in the shaft

Step 6: Combine the bending stress and the torsional

stress using the theories discussed in chapter 4

August 15, 2007 21 August 15, 2007 22

Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.) Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.)

• Find the torsional stress in the shaft.

• Find the torsion in the shaft: (Appendix 3)

(2-6) π D3

Z' =

Tn 16

hp =

63,000

π (.75 in)3

Z' =

then: 16

63,000 hp (3-6)

T = T

n Ss =

Z'

63,000 (5)

T = 180 in-lb

1750 Ss =

.083 in3

T = 180 in-lb

Ss = 2170 lb/in2

4

Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.) Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.)

• Find the resultant force on the shaft:

• Find the load at the gear pitch circle: (12-2)

Ft

Fr =

(11-4)

cos θ

NT

Dp =

Pd

90 lb

Fr =

cos 20°

40

Dp =

10 Fr = 96 lb

(12-3) (Appendix 2)

2T FL

Ft = Mm =

DP 4

Ft = Mm =

4 in 4

Ft = 90 lb Mm = 360 in-lb

Example Problem 17-1: Design Stresses in Shafts (cont’d.) Combined Stresses in Shafts

• Find the stress:

M

As seen in Chap 4

S =

Z

(Appendix 3)

π D3

Z =

32

π (.75 in)3

Z =

32

Z = .041in3

M

S =

Z

360 in-lb

S =

.041 in3

S = 8780 lb/in2

Shafts

τ = Maximum combined shear stress • From previous example problem, find the combined stress using

the maximum shear stress theorem:

S = normal stress ⎡ 2 ⎛ S ⎞2 ⎤

1/2

⎣⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎛ ⎛ S ⎞2 ⎞ ½

τ = ⎜Ss2 + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟

This can be rewritten as ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠

D3

(T + M 2 ) 1/2

5.1 2

τ=

⎝

⎛

⎝

2

τ = ⎜(2170 lb/in2) + ⎜ 2

⎛ 8780 ⎞2 ⎞ ½

lb/in2⎟ ⎟

⎠ ⎠

5

Example Problem 17-3: Combined Stresses in

Maximum Normal Stress Theory Shafts

• From Example Problem 17-1, find the combined stress using the

σ = equivalent combined normal stress maximum normal stress theory:

⎛ ⎛S⎞ ⎞

2

S = normal stress from bending or axial loads σ =

S

± ⎜ Ss2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟

1

2

2 ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟⎠

⎝

SS = shear or torsional stress

1/2 – Substituting stresses from Example Problem 17-1:

S ⎡ 2 ⎛S⎞ ⎤

2

σ= ± ⎢SS + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

2 ⎣⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎛ ⎛ 8780 in 2 ⎞ ⎞⎟

2

8780 lb / in 2 ⎜ 1

σ = + ⎜ ( 2170 lb / in 2 ) 2 + ⎜⎜ ⎟

⎟ ⎟⎟

2

2 ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠

This can be written as ⎝

σ = 9300 lb / in 2

5.1

[

σ = 3 M + (T 2 + M 2 )1/2

D

] – This should be compared to the normal stress allowable.

D =3

τ

(T + M 2 ) 1/2

5.1 2

D= 3

5.1

σ

[

M + (T 2 + M 2 )1/2 ]

Operating speed should be 20% away from the critical speed.

Vibration frequency, f is given by

1 kg

f=

2π W

f = frequency in cycles per second, Hz

k = force constant, force per inch of deflection

g = acceleration due to gravity, 386.4 in./s2

W = weight in pounds, lb

6

Change the frequency to rpm Shaft with n concentrated loads

Critical speed, Nc = 60 × f

Rayleigh’

Rayleigh’s equation is used.

Also k is weight divided by deflection

W

k=

δ W1 δ1 + W2 δ 2 + W3 δ3 + ... + Wn δ n

60 Wg N c = 187.7 2 2 2 2

Nc = W1 δ1 + W2 δ2 + W3 δ3 + ... + Wn δ n

2π Wδ

1

N c = 187.7

δ

Example Problem 17-5: Critical Speed Example Problem 17-5: Critical Speed (cont’d.)

• Find the estimated critical speed for the shaft in Example Problem 17-1

(assume the entire shaft diameter is ¾ inch).

188

− First, find deflection: Nc =

FL 3

(Appendix 2)

∂

δ = – 48 EI (17-14)

188

(Appendix 3)

Nc =

I =

π D4 .21

64

Nc = 410 rpm

π (.75 in)4

I =

64

I = .016 in4

96 lb (15 in)4

δ = – 48 (30 x 106 lb/in2) (.016 in4) • This is approximate, and additional multiples would exist at 820,

1230, and 1640 rpm.

δ = .21 inch

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