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8.044 Statistical Physics I

Spring 2008

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k y

2π/L x

k y 2 π /L x 2 π /L y k x N = 2 ×
k y 2 π /L x 2 π /L y k x N = 2 ×
k y 2 π /L x 2 π /L y k x N = 2 ×

2π/L y

k x

N = 2 × D(k) × 4 πk

3

3

F

k F = 3π 2 (N/V ) 1/3

D(k)=( 2π

L

x

) 1 ( 2π ) 1 ( 2π

L

y

L

z

=

V

(2π) 3

) 1

wave vectors only!

k z k y k x
k z
k y
k x

radius k F

8.044 L30B11

Fermions: Non-interacting, free, spin 1/2, T =0

k z k F k y k x
k z
k F
k y
k x

Fermi sea

Fermi surface

Fermi wave vector

k F = 3π 2 (N/V ) 1/3

Fermi energy

F = ¯ h

2 k F /2m

2

8.044 L31B1

1/2

 

4

k( )=

2m

 

3

¯ h 2

8π

V

3 (2π) 3

2m 3/2 3/2

¯ h 2

#( )=2 × D(k) × πk 3 ( )

=

D( )=

V 2m 3/2 1/2 2π 2 ¯ h 2
V
2m 3/2 1/2
2π 2
¯ h 2

D(ε)

ε F ε
ε F
ε

F =

¯ h

2

k

2

2m F

(N/V ) 2/3

8.044 L31B2

D( )= a 1/2

N

=

E =

0

F

0

F

2

D( ) d = 3 a

3/2

F 2 5/2 = F 3 5
F
2
5/2 =
F
3
5

N F N (N/V ) 2/3

D( ) d = 5 a

8.044 L31B3

Consequences: Motion at T =0

p = ¯k

h

p F = ¯k F

h

h

¯

v F = m k F

Copper, one valence electron beyond a filled d shell

N/V = 8.45 × 10 22 atoms-cm 3

k

F

= 1.36 × 10 8 cm 1

v F = 1.57 × 10 8 cm-s 1

p F = 1.43 × 10 19 g-cm-s 1

F /k B = 81, 000K

8.044 L31B4

Consequences: P (T = 0)

3 E = N F ∝ (N/V )2/3 F 5 ∂ F ∂E 3 2
3
E
=
N F
∝ (N/V )2/3
F
5
∂ F
∂E
3
2
P
= −
= −
N
= 5 (N/V ) F ∝ (N/V ) 5/3
∂V
5
N,S
∂V
N
2 F
3 V
∂P
5
=
3 (P/V ) at T =0
∂V
N,T

8.044 L31B5

1 ∂V 3 1 3 1 K = = = T − V ∂P 5
1
∂V
3 1
3
1
K
=
=
=
T
− V
∂P
5 P
2 (N/V ) F
N,T
For potassium
F = 2.46 × 10 4 K = 3.39 × 10 −12 ergs
(N/V ) conduction = 1.40 × 10 22 cm −3
1.5
×3.39×10 −12 = 31.6 × 10 −12 cm 3 -ergs −1
K T = 1.40×10 22

The measued value is 31 × 10 12 !

8.044 L31B6

Temperature Dependence of < n k,m s >

< n

k,m s

>= f ( ) only, as in the Canonical Ensemble

<n>

1

~ kT T=0 T << ε F /k B
~ kT
T=0
T << ε F /k B

ε F

ε

8.044 L31B7

Estimate C V

Classical Quantum

N

# electrons influenced N

# electrons

E

C V

2 3 kT

3

2 NkT

3

2

Nk

N

N ×

kT

F

kT

N (kT ) 2 F

2Nk kT

F

Exact result: C V = π 2 2 Nk kT

F

8.044 L31B8

Magnetic Susceptibility

H = Hzˆ

k, = (k)+ µ e H

k, = (k) µ e H

ε µ e H D (ε) D (ε)
ε
µ
e H
D
(ε)
D
(ε)

ε F

8.044 L31B9

    N D( F ) D( F ) N ↓ − N
N
D( F )
D( F )
N ↓ − N ↑
=
+ µ H
 N 2 − µ e H
e
2
2
2
=
µ e HD( F )
M = µ 2 HD( F ) ≡ χH
e
χ
= µ 2 D( F )
e
This expression holds as long as kT F , so χ is
temperature independent in this region. This is not

Curie law behavior. It is called Pauli paramagnetism.

8.044 L31B10