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Media Arabic An Essential Vocabulary Elisabeth Kendall Edinburgh University Press © Elisabeth Kendall, 200 Edinburgh University Press Lad 22 George Square, Edinburgh Reprinted 2007 ‘Typeset in Times New Roman and Geers Pro an printed and bound in Germany by Bercker Graphischer GmbH & Co. ACIP recon for this hook is availabe rom the BN 0 7486 2150 4 (paperback) ‘Theight of Elisabeth Kendal toe identified as suthor ofthis work his been asserted in accordance ‘sth the Copyright, Designs an Patents Act 1988 CONTENTS Introduction 1. General 2. Politics 3. Elections 6, Trade & Industry 7. Law & Order 8. Disaster & Aid INTRODUCTION “The ability to access Media Arabic ~ the language of printed ‘or broadcast news items ~ has become increasingly important in the light of recent developments in the Middle Eas Consequently. the need for a quick-fix” vocabulary of Media Arabic is. greater than ever. Arabic dictionaries are not ‘equipped 10 deal with Media Arabic which involves many new coinages to express contemporary concepts (For example rmulti-culturalism, anti-aircraft missile, globalisation). While English-speaking. students can deduce some terms. from Arabic to English by. thinking laterally (for “example, ministerial straightening equals cabinet reshute, the falsification of elections equals election-rigging), this is a much more hitand-miss process when attempted from English to Arabic, Until now. getting to know the Arabic for common contemporary media terminology has necessitated Tong period of Tamiliarsation with the Arabic media. This bbook is designed to help undergraduates, postgraduates governmental, military, diplomatic and business personnel bypass tis lengthy process Tis book aims 10 supply the core vocabulary of Media Arabic in a logical format to provide easy reference and easy’ to-learn Tists testing boxh Arabic to English and English to Arabic. Familarisation with this book will Tumish the reader with an invaluable knowledge of the key vocabulary components essential to comprehend, translate, write and Speak “contemporary Media Arabic. Whilst independently Useful, this book is best used in conjunction with Julia Ashtiany’s excellent Media Arabic (EUP, 1993), 2 coursebook ‘whieh sets the vocabulary in context and teaches students (0 ‘manipulate typical Media Arabic structures and formas. 2+ INrRopucnio ‘This book comprises eight sections, organised by topic: General; Politics; Elections: Military: Eeonomics; Trade snd Industry: Law and Order: and Disaster and Ail. The intial General section comprises vocabulary pertaining to reports, Statements, sources and common media idioms of a genera nature, Prepositions and idiomatic time expressions are listed fonly where particular variations arse in Media Arabic. For example, "day", “weck’ and s0 on are exchided whereas “in the long term’. “in the near future” are included, Generally. basic vocabulary stich as would be acquired during cclementary grammatical waining is excluded, The General and Politics sections are naturally the longest, since much of this vocabulary is also used in media discussions concerning the Military, Eeonomics, Trade and Industry and son ‘Vocabulary 1 not repeated except where this forms part ofan ‘expression to produce @ new meaning, Expressions have Been excluded where the reader has the information 10 assemble these logically. For example, “intelligence” and “military” are both supplied as general media vocabulary items in the General section, therefore “mililary intelligence’ does not feature asa separate entry in the Miltary section Each section has its own internal logic, For example, the Politics section begins with common political acronyms and ‘organisations followed by political systems, descriptors of Politieal stance, political bodies and organisations, political offices and roles, geographical entities, and soon. Direct Subsitles for groupings within each section have been avoided Since not all vocabulary items can be neatly categorised beyond the broad section ttle. Within each logical grouping. alphabetical order has purposely been avoided since this as 3 negative impact on the learning of vocabulary lists. Lastly, this book does not claim to be exhaustive and the choice of vocabulary is necessarily to some extent subjective, However, IyrRopucTiON + 3 very effort has been made to select the most useful andor ‘common vocabulary items [Notes on the formal present “The Arabic is vocalised to ensure corset pronunciation and cenirench iy the mind the vocalisation patterns of certain Structures. However, short vowels are not supplied where ‘a fatha precedes along aif or a 1a" marbuta + akasra precedes a long ya + sdamma precedes long waw ‘The pronunciation of ‘sun and moon eters is assumed knowledge and has not been marked End vowels have not been supplied where they ate ot generally pronounced or where they vary for ease Tn general, Arabic nouns are supplied in both the singular snd plural the plural is printed aftr the comm ‘A-circular bit is shown t0 indicate the location of the direct ‘object in cases where verbs take prepositions after the direct object. ‘Where "+ idafah’ is written in the text, this indicates that the Arabic must be followed by the genitive construction First form verbs ‘These have been supplied in the form of the basic stem (past tense masculine singular) followed by the present tense (masculine singular with the middle vowel marked) and the ‘masdar (verbal noun). The middle vowel ofthe past tense has ‘only been supplied where this is not a fatha. Where two short ‘vowels arc marked with the same letter, this indicates that both ate possi 4s Ivrropucrioy Derived forms ofthe verb ‘These have been supplied only in the form of the base stem (past tense masculine singular). since present tense vocalisation and masdars are predictable for derived forms of the verb. The present tense and masdars have been supplied ‘only where the spelling of the verb changes significantly (Hor example, the present tense of second form frst radical hamza verbs), where a separate vocabulary item is intended, oF where the word is commonly misvocalised Abbreviations st. something pl plural Tit. ieraty 1. GENERAL prey! Silay Hilasall avi ats, ore Le dase (aie \ le SS: oles jee ces jal ae Sa yale ele yale gut as ti a Ls! Geel lal the media the press press agency journaist newspaper press conference: informed sources sources close 19 e/trusted sources high-level sources anonymity tosay it wasis said toadd 6° Geveea carry on (it not to cease) togoontosay to mention, reall to confi torre, deny, repudiate todeny tore out; to regard as unlikely toexpress to declare, announce toctaim to communicate, convey 2231 to state, quote, convey S11 cok Coke Cole to present one’s opinions sp8 Bali] 4d! otal o notify inform so, of st. to el informs. about whe ghi wo ee Bitlet tel Gewenue7 tolet so. know st, inform s.0. oF todeem, consider to believe togivea speech to publish, express issue to broadcast todeseribe 1/89. 08 to clucidate, clarity to throw light on to be published to propagate, spread, publicise, publish tobe wi espread torrespond to oanswer respond to 5 8+ Gexenat As tb! ost obi toanswer, respond to 0. to interrogate, examine to inguire, ask 0. about to ask to indicate, point to te hint at, allude to fo suazest, propose to assume, presume to impose upon 0. to survey, review to define focus on toemphasse, stress twallow, permit so. 4 asia we \ eile oi Bally vot 8 \ she Jha be Geen 9 tosstipulate to demand, request ‘worth mentioning is the fact that to warn 5.0 about two be cautious, wary of to doubt, suspeet toavoid to praise to raise doubts about the burden of proof falls on to.admit, confess tw expose, reveal 10+ Gexern, hays Suds vk se se to show, prove to show, demonstrate to harm the image of (ida) to discover to reflect to guarantee to make a phone cal te participate in to play a role in tocause to cause, provoke, give rise to provoke, incite, arouse to influence tobe influenced cad 0 Generar 11 to result in to pave the way to go back to, stem from asa result of (+ idafahy to impress to be impressed to explore, investigate; todiscuss to discuss to exchange (eg. views) to cooperate to teat, deal with totneat, deal with 10 incorporate, take in, include to comprise include tw join point of view 12+ Genera Genenne 13 context 2 FS instead of area, field other than, besides + idafah) in exchange fo in comparison with M3 i Ly including in ela level, plane “ Bi pute gle onthe other hand method, way see . Al eeb on means Al ile ce according to w SEE Ld with regard to . Hab from the point of view of with eae to (ida AN RLucIL, with regard vo Ji! TAS in view of with regard 0 all Ha gd inthis respect * + idafahy secording to (+ verb) inthe manner of, ‘nthe patter oF (+ ida) Gi Nas 5 aspect, approach, standpoint 11 whether S151 nthe face of towards ‘eke publicly 225 towards oth! gi in the framework of (+ idafah) SEU. SI Gae itdoesn’t have to... as tong as woLel le omthe basis oF + dara) 14° Gexcea, tothe extent that cqually sake of (+ idafahy ‘thanks to (+ idafah) rere, pure (+ idafah) meaning that fm the international stage in various parts ofthe work allover the world possibility ality probability ‘cis likely/probable that itis possibte that itis clear that itis anveipated that itis expected that Generas © 15 itis inconceivable that itis not inconceivable that itis inevitablevessential that decision UN resolution agenda plan, prajeet| plan declaration, announcement statement, declaration, communique, manifesto indiation, sign Information (Arabie pl.) imtlligence (Arabic pl.) investigation report, aecount 16+ Genrnu analysis explanation, clartiatos lation, explanation argumentation, justification justification, vindication description matter: order issue, affair, mater, question jccurrenee, incident hain of events ‘occasion. opportunity ‘opportunity matter, affair position position, stance circumstance, state, condition Genera +17 impasse, predicament date; appointment date; history aim, objective target, aim, goal ambition aiming at upshot, outcome ‘consequence, outeome impediment, obstacle inuence ‘cause, factor 18+ Gevena Adjectives justification, exeuse éynamies (Arabic pl.) factor clement fact; reality, uth polities cultural religious soxial sgricutual intelectual financiat military official unofficial Genenine 19 civil advisory popular national, people's Ge. ofthe poople) UN adi commercial stil; atiticial regional local professional administrative emotional fundamental, basic structural negative positive 20 Gevenat Ls &L\ je Coals jgule SEA \ practical theoretical oral factual, actual ficient; practical veal realist, real completely untrue ordinary implicated, concerned, involved partial farreaching ‘comprehensive entire, complete firm, solid guaranteed npreced wot Bak ase \ oat aah Geversi hitherto known as famous, well-known prominent specific sistinet private, special general, public sierent just balanced responsible irresponsible harmfal to degenerate, weak spurious, forged ‘complicated, complex 22+ Geena ar gt ES ot MT pul ya iat plat ots \ 93 © il es pers sie zs jee eae tangibte important pivotal decisive, crucial, de critieal, crucial significant, grave instrumental of the utmost importance of mutual significance ‘main, principal widespread prevailing current, widespread, universal ‘overwhelming compatible with Generar +23 suitable, appropriate simil inthe long t inthe short term 5 quickly as possible 8 000 88 possible former past present, current . fortheoming existing, existent recent; final final + Gener Generas #2, ple permanent n the wake of (+ idafah) ise temporary, interim subsequently Aesting as soon as continuously meanvsile GMT (Greenwiel Mean Time) ently finally usually rarely often simultaneously in the near future during before shortly before SE) shorty after 2. POLITICS esl Su Ge (Gul Cooperation Couneit) LUN (United Nations) “The (UN) General Assembly a oL11 Leu ceuopean Union) (enti Jc ala NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) om 1 GUY TN S81 IAEA terational Atomic Energy Authority) Cull) 4 AU RE Local Organisation) El Hilla the arb Leave Scientific and nian Liberation Gooey! Uys! the Muslim League 1&2 OIC (he Organisation ofthe Islamic Conrerence) csabedt 1891 the Mustim Brotherhood 28 Pouinies al gagell ns Spot 3uhy aa Hse a St al Sigal ota aks Jul SS ule ya WIC (the W Congress) the Knesset Jamie Salvation Front OAU (ihe Organisation of African Unity) the Security Council the Five Permanent Member States of the S curity Coun the international community Axis of Evil Greenpeace the Red Cross the Red Crescent “Amnesty International the Labour Party the Conservative Party the Liberals the Democrats easel Sal onal shall Kell elit Poumnes* 29 the Republicans the Right the Left the political apparatus liberalism plu ‘multi-culturaison totalitarianism feudalism 1neo-Nazismn Zionism 30 * Pounes UN osuaele gut sll al pls sect! Sign) gus eke Bagh isi psi ee ceo pleat, factionatism Fundamentaismn selfrule, autonomy self determination multi-party system decentralised rule constitutional monarchy socialist totalitarian capitalist, Fundamentalist Zionist secularist separatist hls Poutnies« 34 factional constitutional Unconstitutional democratic lector trib acial radical, bigot hardtine revolutionary Fighting leftwing, leftist neutral ‘confederation, league (state of alliance couneit Society. club, assembly 52 Poumies network bow Front Doatd, coune board, council, commission ‘opposition party ruling party wing government cearetakerinterim vovernment transi provisional government leadership ranks parliament the political headquarters palace court (royal) Poumnes *33 corwanisation establishment, foundation authority the authorities authority rule regime leadership delegation team of mediators delegate, envoy delegate, azent, repre representative official high-ranking officials spector 34+ Poumes La cy elds abs cL ot LS ay al Obst cae plane 548 \ 2b sts bee) pees cles Rrein president ‘rime minister (PM) the office of prime minister ‘member of parliament (MP), delegate politician leader authority (eg. cleric) consultant analyst expert specialist expert observer: censor ‘counterpart, peer rebel, insurgent, revolutionary dissident Poumes* 35 cmy public enemy number one rival, competitor adversary supporter sympathise settler aide, associate pessimist optimist member membership hostage king queen monarch Crown Prince 36+ Poumnes Til ale phot gil, ely cael ayy dls angola ete ple cual His Majesty prince governor, ruler Guardian of the Two Holy Shrines (ic. Saudi king) ambassador secretary general spokesperson pioneer epublic nation, homeland a people country developing countries developing (it, backward) pl pane Poumies 37 developed countries ‘capital (geographical) the Superowers the Gulf States the Occupied Territories the West Bank the Gaza Strip the Occupation (refugee) camp settlements human rights politial circles entrenched imerests public lite ‘raft hill, charter; document 38+ Pouines Sule gu oh Li eb gate sce! li ge fate ls Gpotin das alee! gL 31 ple iad oe sie bhi policy principle wend, current difference difference, distinction similarity programme reform modernisation (ministerial) portfolio to take over the portalio of idafahy cabinet rshultle credentials peace conciliation amnesty for Poumies *39 ‘compromise settlement of demands peace settlement peace treaty/peace accord peace process pledge agreement pact, alliance rapprochement isolation alignment dialogue slogan, watchword conference, congress meeting, gathering meeting 40+ Pounes SLAB Jab a5 Sa ella! Geb ota! \ isi ii Sy JS negotiations talks, discussions consultation discussion choice, option suggestion advice ‘exceptional measures to exert effort round (oF talks): tour round (oF talks) parliamentary termisession ing stage, phase lisa pbs ote Lest! Pounes+41 appreciation of for bilateral relations ‘mult-lateral relations the normalisation of relations to esumelcut diplomatic tions with pressure tension bre progress ‘backwardness the status quo decline, stump, breakdown independence unity revolution revolt, coup of emergency 42+ Pounes Se None ele che ge assassination attempt allegation abuse, insult bickering isapproval, horror safety valve sectarian rivalries withdrawal, dissolution: retirement, resignation tw encounter. face torevott to demonstrate to resist tw oppose to reject, refit, refuse to fight, struzate to prevents... from aia i Al tal Si Jie J Ml apes ated 2 Pounes 43 to sow the seeds of confit to contend, compete For to fall, collapse tw topple the rexime to hand over poweriauthority to transfer power to to reinstate democracy to take over, control to overwhelm, overcome to dominate, contol, seize to suppress, repress to harass to suspend to remove, sideline, pet rid of to marginalise toabolish 446 Pounes UG) Lt Ji Se Sia De BGI Ue todismiss to dissolve itself to disband sa. {o-withdraw from to break away, secede, split of from to disintegrate, break up to put an end to wend st to end (intransitive) to clear the way to take hostage, abduct to belone to to be on the point of to convene, hold (meeting) tobe convened to hold (aks) twanange ll Jpn Jaa eos bot ele bt pale Baye ayn ale bsreee ee Poumes +45 to resume tw attend, be pre to delay, postpone tobe delayed to meet with totakeimake a trip slofticial visit topaya atthe invitation of totravel to reach vo depart to return 46+ Pounes GS cee gob ye AIS 6 el a ot le pe oe pe wo head for ‘on his way back from at the end of his visit to to conclude a visi tw accompany tosend to present, offer twhand ov toaward, grant, confer to obtain, receive to get hold of, obtain to receive, obtain, ake toagree on tosign tw decide, resolve ‘decide on, determine es oe 23 oases wile es es ALE Jew Je ob bk ws Pousnies * 47 to sete, decide to seate to keep one’s options open to rule out an option to form, shape to set up, erect, hod to found, estaish to stabilise, secure to entrench to strengthen to support to suppor so, {o encourage 5.0.10 dost to Jean towards, favour tocallons.t0 to develop oder pCintransiive) ‘to promote, develop 5 48 Pourics laaty A el pale og jb \ oh le nk, to grow, develop (intransitive) ‘ovexpand 5. to expand tintean tive) to change, transform st to change (intransitive) {o improve 51 to improve (intran to undertake to dtect, administer tw adopt (eg: measures) to embrace (doctrine; person) tw orientate s1 towards to supervise, tw observe, watch, censor tw become a reality to befall, happen tos OF ome eos oh eas aie a ose se oe ssl il le Pounes+49 to oceur, happen to-emerge, appear, seem to reappear, reemerge to fui, realise ‘to implement, carry out to commit, perpetrate to practise more of under the leadership of | (ida) sovereignty totake stops a strong step in the tight direction ‘quantum leap 50+ Poumes ee ota Ds heady SN in iy te eel op ole, ce 455 Mae ey whey tuming point to be exemplary'a byword to impose sanctions to lit sametions to seek political asylum prevention of to tink, unite to be linked 10 tobe related to to Muctuate between to put pressure on to moderate, diminish, ease to fade, dwindle, diminish to snatch the limelight to suffer from tobe afflited by (Arabic passive) 3. ELECTIONS election by-clections presidential elections early elections candidate independent candidate personality ‘image reputation notoriety Popularity decline in popularity ‘contending parties Euecnioxs Jets cel ela ld foo Sos sels was olf oie slacit ebidy! ash tty ou ieLdr si han figs @ 1 Shall les eh Sat ut dat obtasl Salh cee Pos Vale Lpledtl 35i loyalty to registered voters the electorate victory lection iaeing fire and fair elections the most widespread party the fastest-growing party propaganda to hold elections to delay ek tecancel elections to abstain from, togain, win votes to win a landslide victory fate Sal 5 ai asa Gel SA SAL pas dear beny abt Euecrions* $3 to secure an overwhelming majority {orake up the reins of government to come to power to appoint 4. MILITARY the military army the armed forces the troops silty stat soldier civilian the infantry (Arabic pl.) sailor airman, pilot paratrooper sniper hero ally, confederate general (rank) Nag chief of stall 56 * Murray rank, grade air force 10nd forces commando, special troop Tighvimobite taskforce combat troops peacekeeping forces the Allied Forces defence force strike foree deterrent force cel, squad ‘execution squad, ring squad patrol Aoititary) unit squadron batation weapon wai Jabal jlo Lui Buln tsbe Sgt SLAs gn ss Esskee Ob gabe Frere AN goa \ sa Ege bbl 5 yle tsk eolball as iad ad hb as jas ahi Amuirany 6 57 small sem parachute arsenal nuclear weapons precision weapons ‘weapons of mass destruction «wMD) missile, rocket decoy missile ‘eruise missile surface-to-air missile long-/short-range missile intercontinental ballistic missile rocket missile launcher torpedo bomb explosive device 58+ Mrrany explosives hand grenade rucear bombs atomic bomb luster bomb incendiary bomb mortar bomb butter gun revolver machine gun submachine gun automati rifle ballistic weapon ‘piece of artery alley fre rocket fre shrapnel (Arabie pl.) Maren #39 radiation explosion bast bombardment, shelling precision bombing preemptive strike use of force no-fly zone armoured personnel carrier tank bulldozer helicopter anti-aircraft submarine alecraft carior fighter airerat destroyer 60+ Murray Aauirany © 61 theatre of war gunboat field of operations torpedo boat rmanoeuvee feet reconnaissance military base parade battle headquarters (HQ) danger strategie point satety tl got! a8 ceasefire JUHI! 3bU JR! LLL combat zone Coke Se 25 disarmament; demilitarisation BLM WELL aucteartce nme SAI JLEI acts of votence acts of sabotage nuclear proliferation suicide bombing. centrifugal system ear bom enrichment oF uranium (lit. booby-trapped ear) war (Arabie fem.) massacre civil war enocide cri wat ‘death; batleground murder, killing 62 © smuany li ha seeks Sh Lal cle \ob oe beheading funeral (procession) ‘wounded, injured (person) ead (person) captured (person), prisoner detainee suicide bomber surprise atack, raid round offensive, land attack amphibious attack terrorist attack armed atack on counterattack ambush Mreany «63 aggressions against revenge for on boat (ashipaairerant (+ iafany ina state oF readiness for deployed (lit. spreading out) hostite repercussions to mobilise call wp, to accumulate to mobilise (idafah) to amass (especially troops) to drat, conscript, mobilise to-call up to reinforce the Woops to deploy tw inspect twexplode st to explode (intransitive) 64 + Murray os Pa pt abi a ta sub Jus Bay Sil todestroy to anniilate tw exchange to claim the lifelives of ( idafah) to be martyred (Arabic passive) te suffer serious’minor injuries (Arabie passive) twattack tw atack, invade, aid to launch an attack’ campaign to faunch Ariss torpedo. ete) to infiltrate to advance farther, to penetrate deeply imo ys gt Aausrany + 65 to besiege, surround to open fre to defend to protects. agninst to withdraw (intransitive) to evacuate, pull out of tw evacuate (transitive) to surrender vo detain to release toset sco. free toletso.g0 to resume Fighting toplan to plot to target specifically 6» snumay Salsa lab aut Salt le jae i aoa te erect road blocks. to impose a cordon! blockade on to break out (war) to bein 8.0.3 power to to-occupy to take the place of| to cross the horder(s) to estimate the strength of forces at to debrier 5. ECONOMICS et (Ga Sst dis (gota! atacyl walt Sout! sabe Ge tha rnational Monetary Fund) the World Bank the uropean Central Bank the Federal Reserve the Common Market black market free market the Stock Exchange exchange markets foreign curreney markets foreign curreney reserves public sector ‘economic integration volume of trade trade exchange 68 * Economies 5a cal oe Ysa ote gash pa el nie trade embargo a the close oF ade hard currency soft currency purchasing power ‘monopoly: cartel market forces ‘competition competitiveness exchange rate preferential rate of interest retail price the price oF the euro ‘against the dotlar Ecoxomcs* 69 bond deriv value added tax (VAT) capital gains tax inheritance tax per cent deposit dividend, return revenue, profit, e. yield profit, profitable bankrupt 70+ Econonacs pha 8H ou Shop esis aa expenses 1, gross in real terms price control price stability the global village slobalisation the welfare state money laundering decline, ump ination rate of ination devaluation forecasting speculation Ul Silja Sa Gol ee Seals a Sat ens ur akan \ Gaus ual Ecoxouies* 71 instability ‘Auctuation bankruptey standaed of ving debe debvindebredness cutstanding debt oan race period budget deft trade deficit the amount ofthe deficit surplus tiguidiy economy of scale the financial year index, indicator + Economies cles ‘commodity consumer goods the average consumption of ( idafany trader, dealer broker speculator shareholder trade partner to apply economic sanctions te invest capital tospend to squander wig is oi iy \dbdue il pall al Sat ot Min alates Halle Economes* 73 to consolidate tw blossom, flourish to reduce the budget deficit, t0.come into effect to stimulate the economy to repay a debt to become payable to become bankrupt to tie the curreney to the dolar 6. TRADE & INDUSTRY dew 5 ks yl dais 2 by alt ope Org Exporting Count non-OPEC wro (World Trade Organisation) G8 (Group of 8) trade industry Sipe ltl SLi Sia he corporation partnership merger factory 76» Trape & INDuSTaY is lias pls bi (a ae wear ct] Jase laese asi ULE \ pl Sige Le alge refinery cil well (Arabic fem.) crude ot oil supply oil production barrel fuel (petroligas for eas) ravw materials foodstuts natural resources mineral the workforee employee, fu worker ‘unemployed person director, head director general Jue! Slay Jel Je UE, danke ase! Baby aus vlna! as pls aL Trae & Iypusray businessman job wage increase unemployment strike trade union iniastructare zovernment subsidy deat toss damage Aexiility power station cenerey 78 + TRape de InDusTAY Jui Bal oa 05 hI 26 5445 ae pollution black rain jonmental protection ‘marketing eempaign website 1T Ginformation technology) toexpor toimport to distribute to supply tocmploy to dismiss (From job) todirect to increase (intransitive) a Trape& Inpusray* 79 to compensate for to privatise to deregulate lit to lift sgovernmen to sponsor to do business with 7. LAW & ORDER slsi cusild law ss aks ance oF law) (SRE court Ayal Shall LEA he International Court of Justi high court the national guard the seurity forces the military poli the intelligence service judicial power legislative power ELI Sh LAL scourity measures LB accusation ee on charges of + idafah) w tele pS sentenced 0 JELLLI in response to 2+ Law & ONDER protest demonstrator smugeler political prisoner erieninal gunman gang network crime, offence crime, felony abuse, violation abuse, cruelty homicide (atl) shooting burglary, theft attempted coup protest pi ab sales Sal Law & Onpee ®83 threat challenge demonstration clash, seule drugs stolen goods criminal investigation 5.0, witha criminal record delingueney legality permit ieence legally competent legally incompetent criminal (a) ” court hearing ‘non-binding opinion to convict £0. of st to contest, appeal against 84+ Law & ORDER toaceuse $0. of st tacoma, a to press changes against to sentence 8.0. to death tosentence to ti e imprisonment to deport, expatriate, expel exile tolive in exile to commit (a crime) Law & OeveR +85 to put on red alert to impose a curfew toclaimidectare one’s responsibilty for to organise toca a strike to protest against o comply with tobe involved in ten 8.0 with 5, 8. DISASTER & AID tS} S18 2S ie one Gh oneuc Gusta ofa oh eg disaster, catastrophe tragedy cemergeney aid "(arabic pl) UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency) support rant sit food aid technical aid Financia ai deb cancelation 88 = Disaster & AID Buy! Je Quy Jule sid worker id elie organisation voluntary organisation chart earthquake arth temor, seismic shock ‘on the Richter seale ‘ood rd fire famine drought malnutrition food convoy lorry, ruek. oruet sail yl ge chee Us te Disisven & Ap +89 sorrow, distress depression refugee asylum secker starving (person) homeless (person) emerpency (adjective) developmental humanitarian voluntary to migrate, emigrate ‘pour into tole tobe exposed to to ruin, damage, destroy 90 = Disaster & uD two reschedule a debe tocancel, write offa debt to freeze a debt