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A. Research Title

“The Effects of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) towards

Students’ Achievement.”

A. Background

The development of science and technology has born some various and kinds

of hardware and software which can assist the human in conducting their duty. One of

science and technology product which is meant that is the computer devices and its

aplication program. Computer is a tool which can operate accounting or process the

data and present the result as the information.

In 1977 Public Broadcasting System (PBS) had just been able to stand. Also

at that year Seelos & Richey (1994) micro – Apple computer II was introduced and

had stimulated the development and using of computer software. In 1984 Macintosh

computer with the graphic ability had changed rapidly the product of learning

material. The use of computer was not only doing accounting and processing data but

also could assist people learn or as medium to present the learning material

(Suprapto, 1986). Some various of the application of technology based computer in

learning was called as “ Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)’ or “Computer Assisted

Learning (CAL), computer was used as a tool or learning medium which can assist

the teacher duty or substitute the teacher role in delivering and implanting a concept,

fact, procedure, or metacognitive.


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With the fantastic spurt of computer technology, greater attention has been

drawn to educational technologies in its popular application to foreign language

teaching and learning. According to Zhang (2004), CALL (Computer-Assisted

Language Learning) has already over 40 years’ history. And it is one of the most

fascinating fields in the current teaching and learning of foreign languages (QI & HE,

2006). Since 1978, China started applying CALL in language classrooms, and its

development is surprisingly fast. Computer or multimedia-assisted language teaching

has become an overwhelming trend and been regarded as a major reform. It is widely

acknowledged that modern technology brings about remarkable reform to language

teaching. In theory, computer or modern technology can help enhance students’

interests, better the foreign language learning environment, and therefore elevate

foreign language teaching quality. But from the learners’ perspectives, lots of aspects

have to be investigated concerning students’ attitudes towards CALL, teachers’ use of

computers, and learning or teaching effect assisted by computer or multimedia. To

have holistic comprehension of the aspects mentioned above, the researcher conducts

a research, involving three classes of second-year students, who are non-English

majors in a university.

The history of CALL ranges over approximately 40 years and can be divided

into three main stages that correspond to technological and pedagogical changes over

that time. The three stages are defined as behaviorist CALL, communicative CALL

and, most recently, integrative CALL. Integrative CALL reflects the socio-cognitive

view of communication and emphasizes authentic contexts and genuine language use
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in meaningful ways. It also seeks to integrate the four language skills: reading,

writing, listening and speaking (Lee, K, 2000).

Language teacher today must become increasingly adept at using computer in

the classroom. In his paper, Using Computer to Learn Thinking Skill, Poedjosodarmo

(1998:38) suggests that the teacher should not only know how to use computers to

teach language skill, but also to use computer to increase learners’ understanding the

nature of human language. Based on her experience, she provides a lot of hand-on

activities that teacher will find useful for teaching language skill such as

pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence structure, and discourse.

In addition, Masnijuri (2001) reported that the use of computer as teaching aid

aims at language that gives lots of positive effect and advantages for the learners. The

advantages are using computer to teach certain language skill, using computer to

learners construct an understanding of language structure: vocabulary, sentence, and

discourse, using anomalies in computer-generated language to increase understanding

of the nature of human being, improving students’ motivation, adapting learning to

the students, authenticity, and critical thinking skills.

Therefore, the researcher proposed one technique, Computer Assisted

Language Learning here in after called CALL, as media in teaching English. The

teacher should consider the effectiveness of using technology in teaching and learning

process. Ruddell (1998:151) points out that as “language teachers we have to be

interested in communication process. The computer is becoming the major tool of


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communication inside and outside the school and us, therefore, has no choice but to

be involved.”

With the growing technology progress, and the increasing demands of

competition going on in the world of work, the graduates Vocational School (SMK)

in the charge for a workforce secondary level that have a sufficient competence.

Competition they face not only with labor from Indonesia, but from other countries.

For the English language ability must be a capability that is owned by SMK so that

their graduates are able won the competition in the world of work.

Also, the government’s program, in this respect the Department of National

Education has conducted many important programs for vocational school or SMK, so

the SMK graduates are prepared who are ready for Work, Smart and Competitive.

Ready for Work means SMK graduates have been provided working skills and

capabilities in their respective fields; Smart means the SMK graduates are being

smart is not only in intellectual, but also in spiritual, emotional, social, and kinesthetic

terms; “Competitive means the SMK graduates being competitive in spirit, a desire to

be an agent of change, so they can win the tight competition both local and global

opportunities right now” (Dikmenjur, 2007:4).

Also social, economic, and technological changes of the past decades are

making education and training for all more crucial than ever. Yet, educational

systems, to different degrees worldwide, are struggling to afford educational

opportunities for all, to provide their graduates with the necessary knowledge and

skills for evolving market places and sophisticated.


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Beside that English is the dominant language of both computer and Internet.

An estimated 80% of online content is in English. A large proportion of the

educational software produced in the world market is in English. For developing

countries in the Asia-Pacific where English language proficiency is not high,

especially outside metropolitan areas, this represents a serious barrier to maximizing

the educational benefits of the World Wide Web.

That is why, the English teachers at vocational school or SMK are demanded

to find out the more progressive, dynamic, practical and link-match teaching

techniques in enhancing the students’ English competencies. We cannot deny that the

students’ English competencies contribute to the students’ personal development,

career advancement, and be competence in the global setting as drawn in the

government‘s program for vocational school or SMK.

The important step to know whether the computer implementation is the need

for accurate data about how does the teacher implement computer in their class

including the condition and problems of the use of computer in schools.

Based on the researcher’s observation, SMKN 4 Kendari has TKJ (Tehnik

Komputer Jaringan) program and Multimedia program and has been facilitated by

some facilities such as ICT, computer and multimedia laboratory. However, not all

the teachers use those facilities as media in teaching and learning process. The main

problem is the teacher can not adapt at using computer in the classroom.
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Therefore, the researcher is interested in considering the using of computer as

a media of teaching and learning language skill. The researcher will carry out a

research under the tittle: “The Effects of CALL (Computer Assisted Language

Learning) toward the Students’ Achievement.”

C. Problem Statement
Based on the background above, the researcher would like to formulate

problem statement as follows:

1. Does the use of CALL affect the students’ achievement?

2. Do the students have positive attitude in studying English by using


CALL?

D. Objective of the Research

In the accordance with the problem statements above, the objectives of

research are:

1. To find out whether or not the CALL affects the students’

achievement.

2. To find out the students’ attitude in learning English by using

CALL.

E. Significance of the Research

The results of the research are generally expected to be:


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1. The source of information about the social, technology,

economy in education context specially provide an accurate data about the

effects of CALL toward the students’ achievement in teaching English.

2. The useful information for teachers, particularly the English

teachers at SMK or vocational school to develop their skill in teaching by

using computer, so their activities become more effectively,

communicatively and functionally;

3. The source of information for teachers or other researchers

who want have further study about the use of computer in teaching.

F. Scope of the Research

The scope of the research is limited on the effects of CALL toward the

students’ achievement in teaching English at SMKN 4 Kendari. The research is

under applied linguistic. It means that this research will focus on two main cases; the

first is the use of computer in English learning process. The researcher will use

several kinds of CALL software in teaching students namely: CD-ROMs, Microsoft

Power Point, Microsoft Word, Hotpotatoes, and internet. The second is about the

impact of CALL toward student’s attitude in learning English.

G. Review of Related Literature

This part deals with the previous related studies, theories or concept related to

the thesis’ topic, resume, conceptual framework, and hypothesis of the research.
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1. Previous related studies

Some studies have been conducted on the field of multimedia and

achievement. They are revealed as in the following:

Husain (2005) conducted a research entitled “The Effectiveness of Using

Computer in Teaching Intregated Language Skills.” The result of his study showed

that the students’ attitude toward learning English by using computer was favorable.

It means that the students had favorable attitude. Moreover, the students’ motivation

in learning English by using computer was strong. It means that the students had

strong motivation level of classification. And there is a significant difference of the

students’ achievement on language intregated skills who were taught by using

computer between the students’ achievement who were taught without using

computer. Therefore, the researcher stated that the use of computers in teaching

intregrated skills is more effective and better than teaching without using computer.

And also the computer can motivate students in learning English since they had

favorable attitude toward learning English by using computers as media.

Ali (2006) in his research,”Utilizing the Multimedia Language Laboratory to

Improve English Vocabulary of the Third Year Students of SMAN 9 Makassar,”

found that the use of miltimedia language laboratory is able to improve significantly

and effectively the students’ attitude in learning English vocabulary because all of the

students give a possitive response toward it.

Christine & Doyle (1998:77) had conducted a research,” Using Multimedia

CD-ROMs to develop Listening Competence.” They concluded that CD-ROMs are


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promising sources of aunthentic listening that every language teacher with available

technoligical resources and support can explore. It is natural to have some initial

misgiving but it is we have shown. CD-ROMs offer some clear benefits for learners

that audio and video recording can not provide. And they suggest that, as a teacher,

we should seriously consider this source if we are to prepare our students for the

kinds of listening they will do outside the language classroom.

Hedy (1998:121) in his research,”Teaching Grammar Using the Computer,”

his research introduced instructor to some of the posssuble uses of various CALL

materials with a focus on readily available CALL materials that favor grammar

teaching and learning.” It suggested that the teaching professionalneed to determine

which type of software is most appropriate in view of their objectives and make

relevant selections. This paper also offered some activities to encourage instructors to

explore this option to enhance their teaching, techniques and their students’ language

learning opportunities.

A research, “Teaching Writing Using Computers,” was conducted by

Nuraihan (1998:140). He concluded that “the use of the numerous computer-based

technologies in teaching may make learning more interesting to the students. Better

results might be obtained compared to a product-oriented class.” The ease with which

writing can be redrafted and revised when computers are used serves as a positive

contribution to the students learning. Teacher plays a vital role in integrating

computers into a methodological schema for them to be successful. To sum up,


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teacher’s own creativity is essential in reducing their headache when corrrecting

students’ composition.

Sriwahyuni (2010) had a research’”Using CALL In Teaching Reading”, the

reasearch showed that there was significant difference between the students’ score

who were taught using CALL and those who were taught without CALL. It prooved

that the use of CALL improves the reading achievement of the first year students of

SMAN 13 Makassar, the students are interested in learning reading through CALL,

and there is a significant correlation between achievement and interest of the students

after being taught using CALL.

2. Some pertinent ideas

a. Definition of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

Levy (1997:1) defines Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as “the

search for and study of application of the computer in language teaching and

learning.” In the recent history of language teaching, there have been three major

theoretical movements, namely, the structural, the cognitive and the socio cognitive,

all of which have greatly influenced CALL development. CALL developments over

the past 30 years are accordingly categorized into three distinct phrases: structural

CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL respectively (Kern &

Warschauer, 2000). Some common issues concerning CALL initiative in the

literature are reviewed.


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Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is a technique for using

technology in the field of language learning. Many studies worldwide have been

conducted to investigate the effect of CALL on learning languages. Research results

demonstrated a positive effect of CALL on students' learning and language

competency.

According to Sperling (1997), CALL is related to the use of computers for

language teaching and learning. Computers in language imagine an infinite number of

resources available for the students to improve their skills in reading, writing,

grammar, listening, pronunciation, vocabulary, idioms, slang, test of English as a

foreign language and even conversation.

b. The development of CALL

According to Chapelle (1997:19-43), “CALL is not a new development in

language teaching, as it has been used since the 1960s and 70s. However, it is still

lack of research methods and an unclear research foundation.”

Warschauer (1996:3-20) “divides the development of CALL into three

distinct phases: behaviourist, communicative and integrative.”

Behaviourist CALL was implemented in the 1960’s and 70’s, when the audio-

lingual method was mostly used, and provided students with drills and practice. This

model used the computer as a tutor, presenting drills, and non-judgement feedback.

Based on the communicative approach, communicative CALL focuses more

on using form rather than on the form- itself. The communicative CALL programmes
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provide skill practice in a non-drill format, through language games, reading and text

reconstruction. This approach still uses the computer as a tutor, although it gives

students choices, control and interaction. Another CALL model used for

communicative activities involves the computer as stimulus, as in programmes that

stimulate writing or discussions, and which may not be specifically designed for

language learners. Finally, comunicative CALL also uses the computer as a tool, in

programmes that do not provide language material. But enable the learner to

understand and use the language, such as word processors, desk-top publishing,

spelling and grammar checks programmes, as used for instance in process in writing.

The current approach is integrative CALL, which is based on multimedia

computers and internet. These technological developments have brought text,

graphics, sound, animation and video to be accessed on a single inexpensive

computer. These resources are all linked and called ‘hypermedia’, enabling learners

to navigate through CD-ROMs and the internet at their own pace and path, using a

variety of media.

c. Kinds of CALL

According to Husain (2006), CALL has some good programs that teachers

can use them in teaching English as foreign language. Computer Assisted Language

Learning consists of two parts, namely: CALL and non-CALL program. CALL are

designed especially to teach language. Whereas, non CALL program are not designed

for language teaching purposes. Word processings (e.g Ms Word) and presentation
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software (e.g Ms. Power Point), Macromedia Flash are non Call programs but the

non-CALL programs can also be manipulated and used to assist the teacher to present

his or her instruction. These materials should enhance students’ motivation and

interest to learn English.

Brown (2001) offers some computers’ programs that can be used by teacher in

teaching and learning activity, namely:

1) Collaborative projects

With as many as two to four students to a terminal, research projects can be

carried out utilizing data available on the World Wide Web (www) and other

information resources;

2) Peer editing of composition

The exchange of diskettes or material on networked computers offers students

an efficient means of peer-editing of drafts of compositions. Instructor can easily

mange comment on final draft through this technology;

3) E-mail

The most obvious from using e-mail for English teaching is giving students

the possibility for actual communication with individuals around the world. Teacher

has used e-mail communication for such things as dialogue journals with students and

collaboration with other teachers;

4) Web page design


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A rapidly growing number of edicational institution have offered courses to

the students in web page design. In the process, students not only become acquainted

with computer technonolgy in general but utilize English in doing research on a

topic, composing, designing and collaboration with other students;

5) Reinforcement of classroom material

With ready availability of a wide array of software programs, course

objectives can be reinforced, and added material can be made available. A number of

textbooks now come with an accompanying CD-ROM disk filed with practice

exercises, self-check tests, and extra reading material. The process of learning to read

a foreign language can be enhanced through computer adaptive programs that offer

lexical and grammatical information at predicted points of difficulty;

6) Games and simulation

Many of them involving verbal language, that presents students with

stimulating problem-solving tasks that get them to use functional language to pursue

the goals of the games;

7) Speech processing

Speech recognition programs for the language classroom have a multitude of

potential application: simple exercise in pronunciation, feedback graphs showing

accuracy of a learner’s control of phonemic and prosodic elements, faster input for

those who don’t type rapidly, and the wish list goes on.
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d. The advantages of CALL in EFL

There are multitude of advantages cited in the literature that CALL offers the

language student, many of which directly relate to the deficiencies of the EFL

context. There exist strong supporters of using CALL and their reasons range from

reducing learner stress to increasing experiential learning.

K. Lee (2000) suggests that there are many reasons that network-based

technology, if appropriately utilized, should be implemented. The first is experiential

learning through using the vast resources offered on the World Wide Web. Raising

EFL students’ motivation above that which is required to pass a test is a major

obstacle and CALL can increase motivation and enhance student achievement by

affecting students’ attitudes and helping them feel more independent (Lee, K., 2000).

Furthermore, 24- hour access to authentic materials for study, interaction with peers

or native language users, and opportunities for global understanding make CALL an

enormous boon to EFL teaching strategies (Lee, K, 2000).

With respect to online learning, Kannan and MacKnish (2000) offer several

advantages applicable to any blended or online program. This type of program is said

to provide numerous opportunities to apply learnt skills. One major difficulty in an

EFL environment is the dearth of opportunities students have to practice their skills,

so blended learning could be part of the solution to this problem. Moreover, blended

learning can expose students to computers, and with proper guidance build their

online skills. Blended programs can also provide an additional medium for peer

learning and an alternative learning environment (Kannan & McKnish, 2000).


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In addition, Burden & Byrd (1999) and Wen (2003) state that there are several

benefits of computer in teaching and learning activity in the classroom, namely:

1. The computer makes instruction delighted and accelerates

students’ understanding

2. The computer enables the students to have extra work at home.

3. For student have long time to finish their study at school,

computer enables students to keep in mind one topic again.

4. Learning becomes more interested and classroom changes

become game or play.

5. By using computer technology, we can economize a lot of

teachers, the computer is only aid of education or learning.

6. Educational knowledge can be effective with computer, but

consideration must be got from life experience.

Therefore, from the explanation there are several reasons why the students

have to be familiar with the computer:

1. Because there is a wealth of interesting authentic on the

computer to use in language teaching.

2. Because students need computer skills to succeed academically

in the job market.

3. Because it is fun and effective and you kill two birds with one

stone, computer skills and language learning.


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e. The role of the computer and the teacher

In the CALL literature, the distinction between computer-as-tutor and

computer-as-tool was the most common one (Taylor, 1980). The assumptions

underlying the computer-as-tutor role are that the computer is a temporary substitute

for the teachers and also that work with the computer as tutor can occur outside the

classroom without a teacher present (Levy, 1997). The computer-as-tutor has its

theoretical roots in behaviorism and programmed instruction, which assume that

extensive drill and practice are the keys to second language acquisition (Levy, 1997).

The role of the computer-as-tool has been widely discussed. Ahmad et al.

(1985) stress that the computer is a just a tool without any inborn wisdom or a mind

of its own, that the computer itself is incapable of learning or teaching and that it can

only perform the exact instructions given by a human user, without which it is

powerless. Philips (1987) likewise notes that the computer was only a tool used to

augment human capabilities. This view of the computer as tool became more

prevalent with the advent of the multimedia computer and the Internet. Networked

computers and multimedia made both synchronous and asynchronous global

communication possible and provided learners with unprecedented access to a wide

range of authentic materials which were regarded as essential to learning a second

language (Darhower, 2002; Warschauer, 2001; Yang, 1998).


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A review of the CALL literature identifies two prevalent positions regarding

the role of the teacher vis-à-vis CALL: the traditional position and the progressive

view. The traditional position is that the teacher is and will remain indispensable and

that the teacher is the ultimate arbiter regarding the place of the computer in language

learning. Ahmad et al. (1985P:2) comment on this position as follows: “Far from

threatening the teacher’s position, it (the computer) is totally dependent on the teacher

in many ways: for example, it is unable to create educational materials without a

human to direct it.” All the linguistic material and instructions for its presentation

must be specified by the teacher. It is the teacher, then, who can make the computer

assume various roles.

The traditional position sees the computer as a mere adjunct to the teacher’s

role, which remains central to the process of language learning. The progressive view

is that the teacher should take a less intrusive role in managing language learning

especially with the advent of multimedia and networked computers. Progressivists

point out that teachers are not the only source of language information in these days

of global interconnectedness, and the language teachers should understand that

students need to develop strategies to respond and adapt to changes rather than

approaching the task of language learning in a uniform way. Warschauer and Healey

(1998) advocate that the teacher should play the role of facilitator rather than being

the fount of all knowledge.

As facilitators, teachers must in many ways know more than they would as

directive givers of information. Facilitators must be aware of a variety of material


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available for improving students' language skill, not just one or two texts. They also

need to know how to teach learners to use the material effectively. Teachers as

facilitators have to be able to respond to the needs that students have, not just what

has been set up ahead of time based on a curriculum developer's idea of who will be

in the classroom.

A distinct build-up of stress can be noted in many EFL students when asked to

use the target language meaningfully. Huang and Liu (2000) suggest that computer

assisted language learning can reduce a learner’s anxiety which can aid in learning.

Furthermore, if the program is offered in the multimedia lab the opportunity

to aid students’ visualization of the situation can be largely enhanced (Huang & Liu,

2000). Another advantage is CAA (computer-aided assessment). This is specifically

beneficial in many general education situations because of the immediacy of

feedback.

For many years, foreign language teachers have used the computer to provide

supplemental exercises. Recently, due to technology advancement, teachers started to

consider the use of computers as an essential part of daily foreign language teaching

and learning. Technology has the potential to play a major role in foreign language

teaching and learning. A lot of attention has been paid to the use of CALL in foreign

language teaching and learning.

f. Teacher attitudes and teacher training


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As with the broader field of applied linguistics, CALL can be located at the

crossroads of a number of disciplines such as psychology, educational technology,

artificial intelligence and linguistics (Gruba, 2004; Chapelle, 2001; Levy, 1997).

Given the complexity of CALL, it is easy to see why many teachers experience

anxiety in the face of CALL innovation and why training is required for its

implementation. Some teachers feel defensive when they are asked to integrate

technology into their teaching. As Larsen (1983) points out, teachers who have

received years of training in language methodology and literary criticism may

understandably be discouraged when required to get a complex machine to do exactly

what is wanted and when it is wanted. “Moreover teachers may also see the computer

as a threat which risks making them ‘redundant” (Ahmad et al., 1985:7). Teachers’

attitudes to and understandings of technology play a very important role in the

adoption of CALL. Philips (1998) suggests that if teachers are to teach creatively and

effectively with technology, they must themselves have opportunities to learn via this

method since the models teachers had as learners have been found to exercise a

profound influence on their classroom practice. Thus, before integrating technology

into language learning, it is very important to provide training to teachers to let them

know what role they can play in the teaching process in order to alleviate their

anxieties, antagonism and increase the efficiency of CALL.

Warschauer and Healey (1998) likewise mention that teacher training is a key

element to success in this more flexible language classroom, enabling teachers to use

multimedia and other resources effectively. Hoch (1985) offers some suggestions
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regarding the nature of such training, proposing a graduated scale of needs for skills

focusing on seven different areas, namely: pre-skill, orientation, evaluation,

application, programming in the small, programming in the large, and computer

science concepts. Kreutwer and Neunzig (1997) point to the potential benefits of this

kind of training reporting positive feedback from teachers involved in a training

seminar.

g. The computer and individualized learning

The past few decades have witnessed a shift in focus from teaching to

learning, from the teacher to the learner. Individualized learning requires, first and

foremost, respect for and accommodation of individual backgrounds and learning

styles. In concrete terms, it gives the learner control in material selection/sequencing

and the pace of progress (Zhang, 1998). The computer is the perfect candidate for

individualized instruction because, unlike humans, it has infinite resources of

patience and can teach on a one-to-one basis at a pace dictated by the individual’s

capabilities (Schulz, 1993). In reality, this kind of differentiated instruction is beyond

the teacher’s reach, especially in a large, multi-level conventional classroom.

However, with the aid of the computer, this aim is more readily realized.

In addition, the computer’s “flexibility of time” (Ahmad et al., 1985) and

“location independence” Yang (1998) allows students to become active participants

in the learning process and to decide when to study and how long to spend according

to their individualized needs. Flexibility of time and location independence are the
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basis for Distance Language Education (DLE). Through the Internet, students can

attend the virtual classroom or visit on-line resources from anywhere at anytime.

Many universities provide on-line courses. Students who are from different countries

and enroll in such courses can learn at their own individual pace without actual

presence in the classroom. Everything such as enrolling, tutorial and marking the

papers is done on line. More importantly, the computer has the potential to increase

students’ interest in and enthusiasm for language learning and this may be helpful in

motivating students to pursue independent individualized study (Warschauer &

Meskill, 2000; Ahmad et al., 1985; Larsen, 1983). While it might take time to

familiarize students with the computer and the Internet, the opportunities for

enhancing learner autonomy through the use of online resources such as dictionaries,

maps, music, movie guides, chat rooms and language learning websites, are

enormous.

h. The computer and L2 skills development

For early CALL practitioners such as Putnam (1983), Hope (1984), Ahmad et

al. (1985) and Alatis (1986), the biggest disadvantage of the computer was that it

lacked the knowledge to understand the enormous range of utterances possible in any

human language and also had difficulty in handling ambiguous instructions. This

inability to interact is seen as a huge limitation, given that interaction is believed to be

not only the most effective approach to learning alanguage but also the ultimate goal

of communicative language study (Gass, 2003; Kitade, 2000). Zhang (1998) sees this
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technological constraint as the reason for the asymmetric effect of the computer in L2

skills development. He reminds us that of the four skills of listening, speaking,

reading and writing, receptive skills of listening and reading are more commonly

addressed by CALL programs than productive skills of speaking and writing. Even

with receptive skills, it is difficult for learners to play an active role in constructing

meaning because their responses are restricted to computer processible, forced-choice

type comprehension questions. As for the productive skills, the computer cannot

readily process and give feedback on learner-produced language, when responses are

openended and/or delivered orally or in free-hand writing (Zhang, 1998).

Although in recent years remarkable progress has been made in speech

recognition and artificial intelligence, the interactivity of the computer and language

learners is still somewhat limited, and studies reported that the computer could not

contribute very much to the development of speaking ability (Fleta et al., 1999). As a

consequence, CALL researchers began to seek other modes to develop collaborative

learning abilities as well as oral and written competence. Substantial gains have been

made. Webquests are frequently used for collaborative language learning (Goodwin-

Jones, 2004). Usually, a Webquest provides students with a whole range of topics for

which they can gather information on websites. In the end, students are expected to

create a document that collects, summarizes, and synthesizes the information

gathered. For written interaction, Web-based tools such as e-mail (Stockwell &

Harrington, 2003), Internet Chat Relay (Xie, 2002), SchMOOze (Sauer & Del Valle,

2002), Webchat and MSN (Wan, 2004) are frequently used and communications in
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these forms are reported to be effective in improving writing skills. Oral interaction is

also made possible by audio conferencing tools, and although these require technical

support, the findings of studies reporting on the use of such tools to improve oral

ability are quite encouraging (Hampel & Hauck 2004; Hampel & Baber, 2003;

Kotter, 2001). One of the most sophisticated forms of online interaction available at

present is the oral-visual interaction described by Wang (2004). This offers an

authentic learning environment, in which language learners can orally and visually

interact with another human being in the target language in much the same way as

occurs in face-to-face interaction. Therefore, the development of both receptive and

productive skills in CALL contexts is now technically feasible. A review of the most

recent literature on CALL also reveals that, with the aid of the new technology,

language learning is tending to shift away from learner computer interaction towards

learner-learner interaction.

Learning through computers and the internet

Learning through computers and the Internet combines learning about them

with learning with them. It involves learning the technological skills “just-in-time” or

when the learner needs to learn them as he or she engages in a curriculum-related

activity. For example, secondary school students who must present a report on the

impact on their community of an increase in the price of oil for an Economics class

may start doing research online, using spreadsheet and database programs to help
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organize and analyze the data they have collected, as well using a word processing

application to prepare their written report.

There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and

the Internet, namely:

1. Learning about computers and the Internet, in which

technological literacy is the end goal;

2. Learning with computers and the Internet, in which the

technology facilitates learning across the curriculum; and

3. Learning through computers and the Internet, integrating

technological skills development with curriculum applications (Richmond

in Tinio 2005)

Learning with the technology means focusing on how the technology can be

the means to learning ends across the curriculum. It includes:

1. Presentation, demonstration, and the manipulation of data

using productivity tools;

2. Use of curriculum-specific applications types such as

educational games, drill and practice, simulations, tutorials, virtual

laboratories, visualizations and graphical representations of abstract

concepts, musical composition, and expert systems;


26

3. Use of information and resources on CD-ROM or online such

as encyclopedia, interactive maps and atlases, electronic journals and other

references (Richmond, 2002)

Technological literacy is required for learning with technologies to be

possible, implying a two-step process in which students learn about the technologies

before they can actually use them to learn. However, there have been attempts to

integrate the two approaches.

i. Approaches to teaching by using computer

Point pointing possible approaches can help us to select and design

materials for classroom use, as well as to assess the suitably of published materials

(Gillian Lazar, 2002)

There are two approaches in teaching integrated ICT, Fryer (2001) suggests

two approaches, they are theme-centered approach and software-centered approach.

Fryer (2001) suggests two approaches that can be done when teachers plan for

learning that integrate ICT:

1) Theme-centered approach

In this approach, the topic of learning or serve is use as a reference. The

simple steps in this approach are: (1) determine the topic, (2) determine the purpose

of learning to be achieved, and (3) determine the learning activities and software

(such as modules. LKS, program audio, VCD / DVD, CD-ROM, on-study materials

friends on the internet, etc.) that are relevant to achieving the goal of learning.
27

2) Software-centered approach

In this approach the first step begins with identifying the software (such as

books, modules, LKS, program audio, VCD / DVD, CD-ROM, the material on-line

learning on the internet, etc.) or who have owned it first. Then adjust the topics and

learning goals that are relevant to the software that is there. For example, because the

schools only have a few VCD or CD-ROM may be particular relevant for a particular

topic, the teachers plan of the software to teach specific topics only.

j. Popular methodology in ELT

Popular Methodology in ELT includes all the various level of approaches,

procedures, approaches which influence the current state of English language

teaching.

1) Approaches

According to Jeremy Harmer (2001:78) approach describes how language is

used, and how its constituent parts interlock, in other words its offer a model of

language competence.

a) Communicative approach. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT).

Communicative language teaching is an approach to the teaching of second and

foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal

of learning a language. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the

teaching of foreign languages” or simply the “Communicative Approach”.


28

b) Contextual learning teaching is contextual teaching. Contextual learning

teaching is defined by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (Howey, 1998)

as teaching that enables learning in which students employ their academic

understandings and abilities in a variety of in- and out-of-school contexts to solve

simulated or real-world problems, both alone and with others. Using contextual

teaching strategies, teachers help students make connections with their roles and

responsibilities as family members, citizens, students and workers. Contextual

learning is characterized as problem based, self-regulated, occurring in a variety of

contexts, including the community and work sites, involving teams of learning

groups, and responsive to a host of diverse learners' needs and interests.

2) Method

A method is the practical realization of an approach. “The originators of a

method have arrived at decision about types of activities, roles of teacher and learner,

the kinds of material will be helpful and some model of syllabus organization.

Methods include various procedures and techniques” (Jeremy Harmer 2001:78).

3) Procedure

A procedure is an ordered sequence of technique which can bedescribed as a

term such as first you do this, you do that, smaller than a method, it is bigger than a

technique.

k. Learning achievement
29

Achievement is the act of accomplishing or finishing something, sometimes

that has been accomplished successfully, by means of exertion, skill, practice or

perseverance. Based on this definition, achievement is the result of activities after

learning process or experience.

Simajuntak and Passaribu (1986) state that even though defining one’s

achievement is gohard since many aspects interact in it. It accords that to point out

the students achievement is the most difficult. Besides that, there are many more

characteristics of the students such as: interest, attitudes, verbal ability, social ability,

socioeconomic background and so on. This various characteristics will probably

influence student’s achievement in learning.

Winkel (1987) states that achievement is one’s ability after learning or

experiencing can be seen by students’ behaviour. In more detail Winkel explains that.

teaching and learning process to the students can make them get more knowledge, by

the student skills to their mark and attitude, because of this behaviour, the students

can do their mark and attitude, because of this behaviour, the students can do their

duty or solve problem from teachers.

It is obviously shown that student’s achievement will only be known by

giving a set of question or evaluation and the ability or knowledge is something that

everyone gets. From the above explanations, the researcher concludes that the

learning process creates modification of knowledge or comprehension, either value or

on skill aspect and behaviour aspects which it is called achievement. In other word

achievement is a change level that has been reached by the student who has done
30

learning activities which can be seen on their performance, capability, skill and

attitudes.

l. The factors that influence learning achievement

Basically, the students who are in learning process will be influenced by

external and internal factors. Concerning with this statement, Dewey (in Yusrin

(2001) said that, Environment is all of the surrounding conditions and influences that

affect personal development. In agreement with this statement, Yusrin (2001:20)

states that “learning is the result of cognitive structural by the external factors”.

From the theory above, it is obviously shown that external factor is one of the

very important aspects in learning English process in order to gain achievement.

Talking about the environment aspect (external factor) concerning to learning

achievement, the researcher commats that an environment will positively or

negatively affect the development of general intelligence or school achievement.

The theories can be concluded that most of the thought about the achievement

of one’s ability assumes that it is influenced by stimuli from outside. External

environment itself consists of three aspects or factors and each factor may influence

students’ achievement in learning English..

Slamento (1988) states that the external factors that influence teaching and

learning process, can be divided three parts namely: internal factor, school factor and

external factor.
31

External factors consist of school factor, teaching procedure, school physical

condition, curriculum, school discipline, teaching media, time schedule, and peer

group. While internal factors are motivation, physical condition, students interest,

student intelligence, attitude, language aptitude, and concentration.

m. The concept of attitudes and language learning

Barker (1992) states that attitude is a hypothetical construct used to explain

the direction and persistence of human behavior.

An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree

of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a

person, place, thing, or event. This is often referred to as the attitude object. People

can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they

simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in

question. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behavior,

and cognition). The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an

individual's degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal

indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitive response is a

cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual's beliefs about the

object. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational

learning from the environment.

n. Student’s attitude
32

Attitudes can be described as system of four interactive components behaviors,

behavior intentions, cognitions and affective responses. Behaviors are what

we do, how our attitudes manifest themselves, similarly behavior intentions

are what we intent to do. Cognitions are what we know although what we

know is not necessarily true.

The students’ attitude is one of determinant parts in achieving good language

learning. Basically the students’ attitude is channeled upon what is meant.

Therefore, the language learning should pay more attention to the

communicator is the teacher

The teacher should contribute fairness, a sense of humor and consistent behavior to

all situations and to all students. Teacher should become a good

communicator in regard to the best speaking performance, this aims at

requiring motivational, social and good teaching methodology.

The message refers to the information that the teacher transmits to

the class. The material should be brought attractively and

communicatively so that the students can be interested to use it to improve

their speaking performance;

The audience is the students with numerous characteristics such as

age, gender and self esteem. Finding out to what the students is

successfully interrelated with each other and helping one another will keep

them to be positive to interact with other peers;


33

The audience, the communicator feedback loop which refers to the

respon of the students to interact with teacher, in this situation teacher

should communicate effectively and efficiently to the students.

Explanation above all can be concluded that the students’ attitude influences the

students’ best way of learning. The students shape their mental process when

they see, hear, feel, and do the action in the classroom. Initially, the researcher

hopes that the students will have a positive attitude, using team made question

technique, as theoretical construct attitudes are said to contain various

dimensions of attitudes are grounded in the area of social psychology which

have seen identified by researchers as cognition, affect and behavior.

According to the researchers, the cognitive element of attitude concerns

perception, concepts and beliefs regarding the attitude object.

Attitudes can be described as system of four interactive components behaviors,

behavior intentions, cognitions and affective responses. Behaviors are what

we do, how our attitudes manifest themselves, similarly behavior intentions

are what we intent to do. Cognitions are what we know, although what we

know is not necessarily true.

3. Resume

After having explanation and theories from some experts related to the areas

of research, the researcher simplifies that:


34

1. CALL affects the development of language learners’ four skills: namely:

listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In vocational school or SMK, the

orientation of teaching and learning process must be communicative and

functional, particularly in teaching English at Computer program field.

The students are hoped to possess;

2. Implemented or integrated computer is being viewed as the most

demanding of teaching English, and many people often form judgments

about our language competencies by combining life skill in using

computer and mastering in English;

3. English and computer which relevant to their activities and the

job opportunities after graduated.

4. Conceptual framework

Based on theory of the research, the conceptual framework is visualized in the

following diagram:

ELT

Using CALL
35

ACHIEVEMENT ATTITUDE

Figure 1. Conceptual framework of the research

4. Hypothesis
Concerning the review of related literature and the conceptual framework, the

hypothesis of this research are formulated as follows:

1. Null Hypothesis (H0): the use of the CALL does not affect students’

achievement.

2. Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The use of the CALL affects students’

achievement.

H. Research Method

1. Research design

Quasi-experimental method will be used in this research by using non-

equivalent control class design. The researcher will choose and place the

experimental and control design randomly. The experimental class will be treated by

using CALL while the control class will be taught without CALL. The design of the

research will be illustrated as follows:

E : O1 X1 O2

C : O1 X2 O2

Where:

E = Experimental Class
36

C = Control Class

O1 = Pretest

O2 = Posttest

X1 = Treatment for the experimental class

X2 = Treatment for the control class

Adapted from Gay et. Al (2006)

2. Variables of the research and operational definition

a. Independent variable

Independent variable is the use of CALL in teaching English. Computer is one

of medium in teaching English. CALL is related to the use of computers for language

teaching and learning. Computers in language learning are available for the students

to improve their skill in English and competence in reading, writing, grammar,

listening, pronounciation, vocabulary, idioms, slang, test of English as a foreign

language and even conversation.

b. Dependent variable

Dependent variable of the research is students’ achievement. Learning

achievement is the result which has been reached after doing some learning activities.

Indicator is used to determine students’ learning achievement is the value which the

students reached after doing teaching and learning in form of average score.
37

3. Population and sample

a. Population

The researcher will take the first year students of SMKN 4 Kendari in

academic year 2010/2011 as research subject. It consists of 4 classes, and the total

number of population is 120.

b. Sample

The sampling technique used in this research is cluster random sampling. The

researcher will choose two classes of the first year students of SMKN 4 Kendari

randomly. The classes are X TKJ (Tehnik Komputer Jaringan) and X MM

(Multimedia). The X TKJ, as the experimental class, consists of 30 students and the X

MM, as the control class, consists of 30 students. Therefore, the total number of

sample is 60 students.

4. Instrument of the research

To measure the students’ skill and attitude, the researcher will apply two kinds

of instruments. Those instruments are specified as follows:

a. Written test

The researcher will use form of online Test as the written test. The written test

in pretest and posttest will be distributed to the experimental class and control class.
38

The form of the tests are multiple choices. The total number of questions are 30

items.

b. Questionnaire

The questionnaire will be given to the students after treatment. The instrument

given is to find out the students’ attitude in learning English by using CALL. The

questionnaire consists of twenty items which are divided into negative and positive

statement. The students are assigned to select the number response, namely Likert

Scale.

5. Procedure of collecting data

The data will be collected through the following procedure:

a. Pretest

Before doing the treatment, the students will be given pre-test to find out

students’ ability in English before being taught using CALL. The pretest will be

given to the both classes, experimetal and control class.

b. Posttest
The posttest will be given to the students which is suplied the same test in the

pre-test for both experimental and control class. The post test will be conducted to

find out the students’ achievement in learning by using CALL.

c. Questionnaire
39

The questionnaire will be distributed to the students to know their attitude

toward the implementation of CALL in English teaching and learning. The result of

the questionnaire will be analyzed whether the students have possitive attitude or

not.

6. Treatment
After giving pretest, the researcher will conduct treatment for experimental by

using CALL and teach the control class without CALL. Each group is taught

separately. The procedures for both classes are illustrated as follows:

1. The first meeting: the researcher will introduce CALL to the

students and the sequence of using CD-ROM technique before learning.

Then distribute CD-ROMs to every student, and ask them to insert the

CD-ROMs. After that the researcher asks students to start operating

computer and choose one program from the CD-ROM that the researcher

has provided previously.

2. The second meeting: the researcher explains how to use the

CD-ROMs in listening activity. This activity, every student learning

himself/herself and teacher walks around to observe and check students’


40

activity and teacher also notes the score of every student he/she got from

listening activity.

3. The third meeting: this meeting, the students learn about

Grammar (Adjective ending -ing and -ed). In this activity, researcher will

use Power Point to explain the material.

4. The fourth meeting: the researcher teaches about vocabulary

and pronunciation.

5. The fifth meeting: the researcher teaches speaking in the CD-

ROMs. In this material, the students learn the expression of feeling and

opinion, then they practice based on the situation given.

6. The sixth meeting: The researcher gives the students materials

about reading and writing.

It is important to explain here that the learning materials for experimental

group and control group are the same in each meeting. The difference is only for

using media, the experimental group will use CALL software plus CD-ROM and

and the control group without using CALL. CALL software used are Microsoft

Power Point, Microsoft Word, Hotpotatoes, Macromedia Flash, and English Deluxe

10 software.

7. Technique of data analysis

The data will be collected in line with instrument and analyzed quantitatively

by using the procedures as follows:


41

1. Scoring the students’ answer of pre-test and post-test, with the


formula:

(Puskur, 2006:32)
2. Classifying the students’ score, in pretest and post test in to the

following scale:

90-100 : classified as very good

70-89 : classified as good

50-69 ; classified as fair

30-49 : classified as poor

10-29 ; classified as very poor (Puskur, 2006:33)

3. Calculating the mean score, finding out the standard deviation of the pre-

test and post test, computing the frequency and the rate percentage of the

students’ scores and testing the hypothesis of the significant difference

between the means of two groups on some independent variable by

calculating the value of the independent t-test uses SPSS version 17.0 for

Windows Evaluation Version.

4. Analyzing the data from the questionnaire to see the students’ attitude

toward the use of CALL in learning English based on Likert Scale. The

Likert Scale is used in the following table:

Table 1. Likert scale


42

Positive Statement Negative Statement

Category Score Category Score

Strongly Agree 5 Strongly Agree 1

Agree 4 Agree 2

Undecided 3 Undecided 3

Disagree 2 Disagree 4

Strongly Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree 5

Sugiyono, 2008:135

The researher will use 10 positive and negative statements in the

questionnaire. Therefore the highest score is 100 amd the lowest is 20. For each

score classification, the interval score is based on the following table:

Table 2. The classification score for the questionnaire

Score Classification

85-100 Very Favorable

69-84 Favorable

52-68 Moderate

36-50 Unfavorable

20-35 Very Unfavorable

Sugiyono, 2008:137
43

Calculating the percentage and mean score of the students’ attitude by using

descriptive statistic through SPPS 17.0. If the student mean score is 4, the students

have positive attitude in learning by using CALL.

I. Time Schedule

Regardless the easiness to assess the feasibility of conducting this research

within existing time limitation, the researcher constructs a time schedule using Gantt

Chart method (Gay, 1981) as the followings:

Table3. Time Shedule


Schedule of activities for proposed research
Month/week
Activities Okt Nov Nov Desm Des Desm
m
1. Deciding subjects

2. Pre-test
3. Treatment
4. Post-test
5. Data analysis
6. Report preparation

J. Research Financing
1. Preparation Rp. 3.000.000,-

2. Collecting data Rp.

1.000.000,-

3. Analyzing data Rp.

1.000.000,-
44

4. Arranging report Rp.

1.000.000,-

5. Seminar Rp.

1.000.000,-

6. Revision and reduplication RP. 1.000.000,-

Total Rp. 8.000.000,-

K. Bibliography

Alfriediza, Zinnia. 2009. The Advantages of Using CALL. Online. (htttp://


afriediza.wordpress.com). Retrieved on Sept 20th,2010.

Ali, Muhammad. 2006. Utilizing the Multimedia Language Laboratory to Improve


English Vocabulary of the Third Year Students od SMAN Negeri 9 Makassar.
Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: State University Makassar.

Chapelle, C. 1997. CALL in the Year 2000: Still in Search of Research Paradigm?
Language Learning and Technology. Online. (http://www.educatio.man.ac).
Retrieved on 21st Sept 2010.

Christine & Paul Doyle. 1998. ”Using Multimedia CD-ROMs to Develop Listening
Competence” in Christoper & Willy (ED), Computer and Language
Learning. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center.

Gay, R.L., E. Mills, Peter. 2006. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis
and Application. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Gruba, G. (2004). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In A.Davies & C.


Elder (Eds.), Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hedy, M. McGarrell. 1998. “Teaching Grammar Using Computer” in Christoper &


Willy (Ed), Computer and Language Learning. Singapore: SEAMEO
Regional Language Center.

Husain. 2005. The Effectiveness of Using Computer in Teaching Intregated


Language Skills. Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: State University of
Makassar.
45

Jonny Kuang ,Wu. 2004. English Teachers Barriers to the Use of Computer –Assisted
Language Learning. Online. (http://www.hcu.edu.tw.htm.) Retrieved on
September 28, 2010.

Lee, K. 2000. “English Teachers’ Barriers to the Use of Computer-Assisted Language


Learning”. The Internet TESL Journal, 6(12). (http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lee-
CALLbarriers.html). Retrieved Sept 23, 2010. from

Levy, M. (1997). Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and


Conceptualization. London: Clarendon Press.

Masnijuri. 2001. Improving the students’ Achievement by Using Multimedia Program


as Learning in Teaching English. Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: PPs UNM.

Moras, Solange. 2000. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and the
Internet. Brazil: Cultura Inglesa de Sao Carlos.

Mulyadi, 2004. Enhancing Students Mastery of English Vocabulary by Using CALL.


Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: State University of Makassar.

Nuraihan. 1998. “ Teaching Writing Using Computers” in Christoper & Willy(Ed),


Computer and Language Learning. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional
Language Center.

Poedosoedarmo, Gloria R. 1998. “Using Computer to Learn Thinking Skills:


Preparing Language Teachers for Tomorrow’s World” in Christoper &
Willy(Ed), Computer and Language Learning. Singapore: SEAMEO
Regional Language Center.

Pusat Kurikulum, 2006. Model Penilaian SMA. Online. (http/www.pukur.net).


Retrieved on September 10th.

Ruddel, Simon. 1998. “Using the Computer Room for a Writing Program” in
Christoper & Willy (Ed), Computer and Language Learning. Singapore:
SEAMEO Regional Language Center.

Simajuntak B and Passaribu, 1986. Didaktik dan Metodik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Slamento. 1988. Belajar dan Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhinya. Jakarta: Bina


Aksara.

Sperling, D. 1997. Internet Guide. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.


46

Sugiyono, 2008. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Komunikatif, Kualitatif,


dan R & D. Bandung.: Alfabeta.

Syahruddin. 2005. The Correlation between the Sudents Attitude Toward English and
their English Achievement. Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: State University
of Makassar.

Yusrin. 2001. Affecting Factors of English Achievement at the Third Year of SMPN 1
Kapontori. Unpublished Thesis. Kendari: Haluoleo.

Warschauer, M. 1996. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: an Introduction. In


S.Fotos (Ed.). Tokyo: Logos International.
47

Appendix 1. Research instrument

(Pre-Test and Post-Test)


English Test .

1. Abi : Hello, How’s everything with you?


Agung :…………
a. Everything is Ok c. It’s fine
b. I’m not well, thanks d. not good
2. Indra : Hi, my name is Indra, How do you do?
Ira : ……………….I’m Irawati
a. Nice to meet you c.I’m fine, thank you
b. How do you do ? d. Hello
3. Ani : This dress doesn’t fit on my body again !
Ati : Yes, you look…….than before.
a. more fat c. fatter
b. more fast d. fattest.
4. Bro : ……….have you finish your lunch?
Bre : Yes, I have. What about you?
a. good morning c. good evening
b. good afternoon d. good night
5. Yanti : Are you willing to come to my engagement party tomorrow
nght
Anang : …………..Thank You for inviting me.
a. I’d love to, but I can’t c. Of course I will
b. I,m afraid d. of course not.
6. Wiwik : Did you hear about the news on the television last night?
Yayuk : ……………….What was it about?
a. No, I don’t c. Yes, I do
48

b. No I amn’t d. No, I didn’t


7. Manager : Can you bring some letters from another company?
Secretary : ……….
a. Of course, sir c. Yes, you can
b. No, you can’t d. Nothing
8. Via : Thank you for your kindness during I stay here!
Afi : ………………….
a. same c. Congratulations!
b. Thanks d. Don’t mention it!
8. Do you know where……….lives in Medan?
a. she c. hers
b. her d. him
9. When grandma came,…….were watching.
a. we c. our
b. us d. ourselves
11. She goes to Jakarta twice a week.
……She go to Jakarta twice a week?
a. do c. did
b. does d. was
12. The Stapler is ……..the desk
a. on c. into
b. through d. without
13. Most employee drive to work and………te building from the parking lot.
a. enter c. entering
b. entered d. entrance
14. Teacher : What is your opinion about Studying English with computer?
Student :…………I like studying with computer, it makes me understand
easily.
a. I don’t think so c. Yes, I like it
49

b. In my opinion d. I hate it
15. Our latest advertising package includes the videos…….brochures.
a. but c. and
b. or d. either
16. Wanda is……in learning English by using computer
a. Interest c. interested
b. interesting d. be interest

Question no.17 and 18 refer to the following text!

Hospitality is naturally in my village. Guests arrive at anytime of the day or


night and they are always welcome. Nobody will ask them “ why have you come ?“
or “ how long are you going to stay?”. They become part of the family.
Villagers are delighted to receive the guests. They are feed, clothed
and given presents. When the guests arrived they are offered a pot of water to wash
their hands, face and feet. Then hey are given a mat or a chair to sit on. Previously,
sherbet was offered, but now is the custom to give a cup of tea, depending on the time
of the day. Hospitality means giving yourself completely to guests and stranger.

17. What is the topic of the paragraph?


a. Guests and strangers.
b. Hospitality in a village.
c. Rules of Politeness.
d. Advice for guests.
e. The arrival of the guests.
18. What is the main idea of the text?
a. In the winter’s village, guests are always received warmly.
b. Guests have to wash their hands, face, and feet when they arrive.
c. The hosts never ask their visitors questions.
50

d. Guests are usually to refuse food and drink offered by host.


19. Anjas : Dad, May I use your car?
I’d like to return Tina’s book.
Dad : …………but be at home before 6 o’clock.
Anjas : Thank you, Dad.
a. That’s good. c. I am fine.
b. That’s nice. d. It’s all right
20 . Nana : Grandma, can I help you with the sewing ?
Gandma : ………..How kind of you.
a. I am sorry. c. I don,t need you.
b. Never mind. d. Thank you.
21 Narto and I will wait at the corner until you………with a car.
a. are coming. c. will be coming
b. came d. come
22. Mary : Do I hear something?
Dian : Yes, something………..at the door.
a. Knocks c. knocked
b. is knocking d. has knocked
23. Robert : May I borrow your magazine
Farel : I am sorry, my sister………….it
a. is still reading c. has been reading
b. will still read d. still read
24 I don’t like the material because it is…
a. Bore c. bored
b. Boring d. get boring
51

25. Diana : May I play outside with my friends


Vera : No, you……….stay in bed until the fever is gone.
a. Might c. may
b. Could d. must
25 If you use a city map, you ……..your way.
a. are not losing c. will not lose
b. did not lose d. have not lost
26. If he prepared his lessons, he…………his examinations.
a. Passed c. would have passed
b. would be passed d. would pass
27. George is thirty years old and John is twenty-seven years old,
so…………
a. George is older than John.
b. John is older than George.
c. George is more old than John.
d. John is more old than George.
28. His dictionary is ………of all.
a. Thicker c. the thicker
b. more thick d. as thick as
29. She………….sports better than musics.
a. Like c. likes
b. would like d. would rather
30. The boy is dissapointed……..he doesn’t pass the exam.
a. Because c. so
b. While d. then
52

Appendix 2. Research questionnaire

QUESTIONNAIRE (ANGKET)

Angket ini digunakan dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh data tentang sikap
siswa terhadap penggunaan CALL dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Jawablah
sesuai hati nurani Anda tanpa dipengaruhi oleh teman lain. Angket ini tidak
dimaksudkan untuk menguji Anda. Tidak ada penilaian baik dan buruk, juga tidak
ada benar dan salah.
Berilah tanda silang (X) pada jawaban yang paling sesuai dengan pengalaman
Anda selama mengikuti pelajaran.
Dimana SS = Sangat Setuju
S = Setuju
SM = Sulit Menentukan
TS = Tidak Setuju
STS = Sangat Tidak Setuju

Sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan CALL.

No Pertanyaan S S R TS STS
S
1 Saya menyukai belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan
menggunakan CALL, karena media modern banyak
kelebihannnya dari media lain
2 Belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan CALL tidak
efektif dan efisien.
3 Saya suka belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan
CALL, karena materinya tidak terlalu sukar untuk
dipahami.
4 Saya kurang menyukai komputer karena barang
yang mahal dan pemborosan.
5 Selama ini saya benci belajar Bahasa Inggris, tetapi
setelah belajar dengan CALL saya menjadi senang.
6 Saya lebih suka belajar biasa daripada
menggunakan CALL, karena mengantuk dan capek
duduk didepan komputer
7 Dengan CALL banyak kosakata kata yang dapat
53

saya ketahui
8 Saya menyukai belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan
menggunakan CALL, karena cepat dimengerti dan
bagus pengucapannya.
9 Saya kurang menyukai belajar bahasa Inggris
dengan menggunakan CALL karena kurang
terbantu dalam berkomunikasi dengan teman
10 Sebelum menggunakan CALL, saya benci mata
pelajaran Bahasa Inggris tetapi sekarang saya
menjadi senang..
11 Belajar bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan CALL
hanya cocok bagi orang kaya saja.
12 Saya suka kalau semua mata pelajaran diajarkan
menggunakan berbantuan komputer.
13 Saya kurang menyukai belajar Bahasa Inggris
menggunakan CALL, sebab saya kurang mengerti
artinya.
14 Saya menyukai belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan
menggunakan CALL meskipun mahal
15 Saya tidak menyukai belajar Bahasa Inggris
menggunakan CALL karena tidak memberikan
bermanfaat.
16 Saya suka belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan
CALL karena dapat meningkatkan kemampuan
dalam bahasa Inggris
17 Saya kurang menyukai CALL dalam belajar bahasa
Inggris karena membuat saya bingung mempelajari
materi pelajaran.
18 Saya sangat senang belajar Bahasa Inggris
menggunakan CALL karena dapat memberikan
kebebasan dalam berpikir.
19 Belajar menggunakan CALL membuat prestasi
belajar saya menurun.
20 Saya kurang suka belajar Bahasa Inggris
Menggunakan CALL karena tidak membantu saya
dalam belajar.
54

LESSON PLAN (First Meeting)

School : SMKN 4 Kendari


Subject : English
Class/Semester : X/2
Time Allocation : 2 X 45 Minutes
Competency Standard : Communicating in English at Novice
Level (Score 10-300)

Basic Competency : Explaining an Event is Happening


Simply

Indicator : Expressions of Feelings/Opinions


Concerning an Event
A. Objective:
• Students are able to use the expressions of feelings/opinions
concerning an event correctly.
• Students are able to understand and use CALL plus CD-ROMs at
computer.

B. Teaching Material:
• CALL software.
• Procedures of use CD-ROMs.

C. Learning Method:
• Direct Method

D. Learning Procedures:

1. Warming Up:
• Attract the students’ attention to the lesson
• Brainstorming
55

2. Main Activity:
• Introducing CALL to the students.
• Give CD-ROMs to the students.
• Explain the procedure of using CD-ROMs for the material.
• Practicing the use of CALL software.

3. Summing Up:
• Rechecking students’ comprehension about the material by asking
some questions

E. Media/Source:
• Media : Computer, CD-ROMs and Internet
• Source : Internet.

F. Assessment:
• Spoken Test: Asking questions about CALL.

Kendari, February 2011

Approved by:
Head of SMKN 4 Kendari English Teacher

Drs. Susi Husen W. Syuhida, S.Pd


NIP. 131 689 38
56

LESSON PLAN (Second Meeting)

School : SMKN 4 Kendari


Subject : English
Class/Semester : X/2
Time Allocation : 2 X 45 Minutes
Competency Standard : Communicating in English at Novice
Level (Score 10-300)

Basic Competency : Explaining an Event is Happening


Simply

Indicator : Expressions of Feelings/Opinions


Concerning an Event

A. Objective:
• Students are able to use the expressions of feelings/opinions
concerning an event correctly.
• Students are able to understand and get the information through
Listening activity.

B. Teaching Material:
A Song “ Big big World” by Emilia

C. Learning Method:
• Direct Method
• Task-based Language Teaching

D. Learning Procedures:
1. Warming Up:
• Attract the students’ attention to the lesson
• Brainstorming.
57

2. Main Activity:
• Have the students open the material in CD-ROM and choose
the listening activity.
• Ask each student to listen the song by using winamp in their
computer.
• The students complete the task with identifying the singer’s
feeling by giving a thick.
• Students listen again the song and say whether the statement
True or False.
• The students listen again the song and they sing together.
3. Summing Up:
• Rechecking students’ comprehension about the material by
asking some questions

E. Media/Source:
• Computer
• A song “Big big World”

F. Assessment:
• Spoken Test: Asking the student about some words contain the
feeling.

Kendari, February 2011

Approved by:
Head of SMKN 4 Kendari English Teacher

Drs. Susi Husen W. Syuhida, S.Pd


58

NIP. 131 689 386


59

LESSON PLAN (Third Meeting)

School : SMKN 4 Kendari


Subject : English
Class/Semester : X/2
Time Allocation : 2 X 45 Minutes
Competency Standard : Communicating in English at Novice
Level (Score 10-300)

Basic Competency : Explaining an Event is Happening


Simply

Indicator : Expressions of Feelings/Opinions


Concerning an Event
A. Objective:
• Students are able to use the expressions of feelings/opinions
concerning an event correctly.
• Students are able to comprehend and use the adjective ending –ed and
–ing correctly.

B. Teaching Material:
Adjective ending-ing and –ed
It was such a boring party; I was bored.
Miss. Ida is an interesting teacher. We are interested in her.
Your explanation is confusing. I get confused with it.

C. Learning Method:
• Content-based approach

D. Learning Procedures:
1. Warming Up:
• Attract the students’ attention to the lesson
• Brainstorming
60

2. Main Activity:
• The teacher gives some examples of the use adjective
–ed and –ing by using Power Point
• The students analyze the examples given, and try to
make the conclusion about the using of adjective –ed and –ing.
• The students determine whether the word is action or
reaction.
• The students identify and make correct the word if it is
wrong.
• The students develop their activities by using On Line
Grammar.

3. Summing Up:
• Asking the student to make conclusion about the adjective –ed
and -ing

E. Media/Source:
• Computer
• Internet
• LCD
• Teachers’ material

F. Assessment:
• Written Test: Exercices/Tasks

Kendari, February 2011


Approved by:
Head of SMKN 4 Kendari English Teacher
61

Drs. Susi Husen W. Syuhida, S.Pd


NIP. 131 689 386
62

LESSON PLAN (Fourth Meeting)


School : SMKN 4 Kendari
Subject : English
Class/Semester : X/2
Time Allocation : 2 X 45 Minutes
Competency Standard : Communicating in English at Novice
Level (Score 10-300)

Basic Competency : Explaining an Event is Happening


Simply

Indicator : Expressions of Feelings/Opinions


Concerning an Event

A. Objective:
• Students are able to use the expressions of feelings/opinions
concerning an event correctly.
• Students are able to know some vocabularies dealing with feelings.
• Students are able to pronounce the words correctly

B. Teaching Material:
• Vocabularies/Adjectives expressing feelings: interested, bored,
exhausted, satisfied, etc.

C. Learning Method:
• Direct Method

D. Learning Procedures:
1. Warming Up:
• Attract the students’ attention to the lesson
• Brainstorming
63

2. Main Activity:
• Students practice how to pronounce the words by using Speak
Commands.
• Students search another vocabularies/ Adjectives in the internet.
• Students make own sentence by using those adjectives
3. Summing Up:
• Asking the student to mention some adjectives.

E. Media/Source:
• Computer
• Hot Potatoes
• Speak Commands

F. Assessment:
• Spoken Test: Pronounciation.

Kendari, February 2010

Approved by:
Head of SMKN 4 Kendari English Teacher

Drs. Susi Husen W. Syuhida, S.Pd


NIP. 131 689 386
64

LESSON PLAN (Fifth Meeting)


School : SMKN 4 Kendari
Subject : English
Class/Semester : X/2
Time Allocation : 2 X 45 Minutes
Competency Standard : Communicating in English at Novice
Level (Score 10-300)

Basic Competency : Explaining an Event is Happening


Simply

Indicator : Expressions of Feelings/Opinions


Concerning an Event

A. Objective:
• Students are able to use the expressions of feelings/opinions
concerning an event correctly.
• The students are able to communicate and express their feelings and
opinions correctly through Speaking activity.

B. Teaching Material
You’re wonderful!/ You look wonderful!
What a patient teacher!
Oh, how exhausting!
That’s confusing / precious / fantastic /….
It’s peaceful, isn’t it ?
I think…………………….Don’t you?
I don’t think………………………………….
In my opinion,……………………………..
As far as I’m concerned……………………….
How would you ask somebody for their opinion?
What do you think about…………………?
What are your feelings about…………?
65

What is your honest opinion about……………?


C. Learning Method:
• Communicative Language Teaching

D. Learning Procedures:
1. Warming Up:
• Attract the students’ attention to the lesson
• Brainstorming
2. Main Activity:
• Teacher explains some expression of feelings and opinion.
• Students say the expressions of feeling and opinion
• Teacher asks some questions about feeling and opininon and the
students give the correct response.
• Asking student to search the current news in the internet and
express their feeling and opinion about the news.
3. Summing Up:
• Asking student some questions which describe feeling/opinion
based on the situation given
E. Media/Source:
• Computer and Internet
F. Assessment:
• Spoken Test : Performance Test

Kendari, February 2010


Approved by:
Head of SMKN 4 Kendari English Teacher

Drs. Susi Husen W. Syuhida, S.Pd


NIP. 131 689 386
66

LESSON PLAN (Sixth Meeting)


School : SMKN 4 Kendari
Subject : English
Class/Semester : X/2
Time Allocation : 2 X 45 Minutes
Competency Standard : Communicating in English at Novice
Level (Score 10-300)

Basic Competency : Explaining an Event is Happening


Simply

Indicator : Expressions of Feelings/Opinions


Concerning an Event

A. Objective:
• Students are able to use the expressions of feelings/opinions
concerning an event correctly.
• Students are able to comprehend and get information through reading
a poem.
• Students are able to write and develop their idea by completing
incomplete sentences.

B. Teaching Material:

• Reading : A Poem “My mother is a piece of furniture”.

• Writing : Incomplete Sentence.

C. Learning Method:
• Direct Method
• Task-based Language Teaching
67

D. Learning Procedures:
1. Warming Up:
• Attract the students’ attention to the lesson
• Brainstorming
2. Main Activity:
• Students guess the content of poem.
• Students read the poem.
• Point out one of students to read the poem in front of
the class
• Students find the difficult words.
• Students retell the poem with their own words to know
their comprehension about the poem
• Students search an object in the internet and copy it,
then they make a stanza of poem about an object.
3. Summing Up:
• Rechecking students’ comprehension about the lesson

E. Media/Source:
• Computer, Internet, Picture and Poem

F. Assessment:
• Written Test: Assessing Students’ Poem.

Kendari, February 2010


Approved by:
Head of SMKN 4 Kendari English Teacher

Drs. Susi Husen W. Syuhida, S.Pd


68

NIP. 131 689 386


Learning Material
I’ve got a feeling !

Your feelings are your truth


strenght.
Be in touch with them.
Gertrude Mozkowitz ( 1978)

1. Listening : Big Big World

Listen to the song and try to catch the message.


Take notes if necessary.

Through the song, the person is describing her feelings.


Can you identify the following words describing her feelings?

(…….) annoyed (…….) embarrased


(…….) enchanted (…….) excited
(…….) fascinated (…….) confused
(…….) disappointed (…….) pleased
(…….) encouraged (…….) rejected
(…….) satisfied (…….) stimulated
(…….) fulfilled (…….) threatened
(…….) fired (…….) overwhelmed
(…….) depressed (…….) ignored

Listen again and say whether the following statements are true or FALSE
about the song:
1. The singer thinks that everything she wants the world to be
has never come true for her.(TRUE/FALSE)
2. She is overwhelmed by the joy of love. (TRUE/FALSE)
3. She hopes that tomorrow will be different. (TRUE/FALSE)
4. Love has made her dissapointed. (TRUE/FALSE)

Now listen again and sing the song together.


69

2. Vocabulary and Grammar Focus : Adjective ending-ing and –ed

Look at the following sentences !

It was such a boring party; I was bored.


Miss. Ida is an interesting teacher. We are interested in her.
Your explanation is confusing. I get confused with it.

What can you understand about the above examples?

- The –ing ending is used on adjectives which describe…….

- The –ed ending is used on adjectives which describe…….

Which is the action ?


Boring or bored? Interesting or interested?
Confusing or confused?

Which is the reaction?


Boring or bored? Interesting or interested?
Confusing or confused?

Which is active?
Boring or bored? Interesting or interested?
Confusing or confused?

Which is passive?
Boring or bored? Interesting or interested?
Confusing or confused?

Now read the sentences and correct the words in the bolds if they are wrong.

She was very exhaust after the party; she fell asleep in the classroom.
Her words were so inspiring that I was inspire to create such as a poem.
He is always encouraged by what the teacher says to him.
Your instruction has been so tired for such a person like me. I am tiring of it.
I can not accept the annoyed explanation of what he had done to me.
70

There are some other examples of adjectives ending –ing and –ed as you can
see below. Make sure you can pronounce these words correctly:
enchanting -enchanted annoying-annoyed
suprising –surprised embarrasing-embarrased
frightening-frightened fascinating-fascinated
astonishing-astonished dissapointing- dissapointed
amazing -amazed satisfying-satisfied
stimulating -stimulated inspiring-inspired
encouraging- encouraged exhausting-exhausted

Now with a partner, choose a pair of adjectives ending –ing and –ed and make
your own sentences using those adjectives.
………………………………………………………………………………….
.
………………………………………………………………………………….
.
71

3. Conversation Gambits: Expressing our feelings and opinions

We show our feelings in different ways. Our eyes, the expressions on our
faces, our posture, our gestures all reveal how we feel. How do we express our
feelings through language? Let’s see some examples below.

You’re wonderful!/ You look wonderful!


She’s ecstatic / She fell ecstatic.
He’s confusing, isn’t he?
Look at that girl. Isn’t she excited?
What a patient teacher!
Oh, how exhausting!
It’s great / confortable / sentimental/….
That’s confusing / precious / fantastic /….
It’s peaceful, isn’t it ?
Look at that sculpture, isn’t it amazing?
What an artistic furniture!
Oh, how terrific !

You can also give your opinions using the following expressions:

I think…………………….Don’t you?
I don’t think………………………………….
Personally, I think………………………..
In my opinion,……………………………..
I do think that……………………….
As far as I’m concerned……………………….
How would you ask somebody for their opinion?

Try to use the following expressions:


What do you think about…………………?
How do you feel about…………………….?
What are your feelings about…………?
What is your honest opinion about……………?
72

Now let’s give quick responses to the statements your friends say to you.
Look at the possibilities of the responses;

STATEMENT : You’re the thoughtful.


RESPONSES : I’m not
I am
Am I ?

STATEMENT : What an honest acknowledgement !


RESPONSES : It is.
It isn’t!
Is it?

STATEMENT : Oh, how knowledgeable she is!


RESPONSES : She is
She isn’t!
Is she ?
STATEMENT : They are not symphatetic.
RESPONSES : They aren’t !
They are!
Are they?

How would you describe:


- Your favorite television show?
- Someone who is funny and makes you laugh or smile?
- A signal that makes you hard to know exactly what is
mean?
- Your feeling about the loud music played by your
neighbor?
- How you feel before a semester exam?
- Something that embarrases you and makes you feel
stupid and ashamed?
- How you feel when someone is frightening and makes
you lose confidence?
73

4. Reading and writing : My mother is a piece of furniture

People often have associations and feeling related to different objects. And
object may remind them of someone as you can read in the following poem:

My mother is a piece of furniture

My mother is a sofa because


I am comfortable with her
And she always rests in my living room.
My mother is an armchair because
I can relax with her
While her arms surround me.
My mother is a television set because
I live to look at her
And she is colorful.
My mother is a refrigerator because
She is well-organized
And I love the way she refereshs my mind.

Now can you write a sentence about someone by associating him or her to an
object?
You may develop your idea by thinking that the object reminds you of
someone because of some reasons…..

- My friend is………………………………………
because…………………………………………………
…….
- My boyfriend is…………………………………
because…………………………………………………
…….
- My teacher is……………………………………
because…………………………………………………
…….
74

- My father is …………………because ……………..


………………………………….
- My neighbor is………………because…………………
…………………………………
- My brother is………………because…………………
…………………………………
- My sister is…………………because………………….
…………………………………
Let your friends listen to what you have described. Can you see how creative
you are and how great your ideas are?
Then you may continue by completing the following unfinished sentences:

I feel proud
when…………………………………………………………
……………..….……………………….
I get angry
when…………………………………………………………
……………..….…..……………………
I am satisfied
when…………………………………………………………
…………..…....………………….
I don’t feel comfortable
when…………………………………………………………
………………
Thing that makes me feel anxious
is……………………………….………………………..
75

TEACHER’S NOTES: Integrated Lesson


MAP OF THE LESSON
TOPIC Our feelings and opinions
LESSON I’ve got a feeling
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS Expressing/ describing feelings and opinions
LISTENING Listening to a song about someone who is
expressing feelings about love
GRAMMAR Adjectives ending –ing and –ed
VOCABULARY/PRONUNCIATION Words and expression indicating feelings and
emotions
Words and expressions that describe qualities in
people
SPEAKING Conversation Gambits:
Expressing/ describing feelings and opinions
READING/WRITING Reading a poem
Writing: associating someone with something
Unfinished sentences
76

Big big world

I’m a big big girl


In a big big world
There’s not a big big thing if you leave me
And I do do feel
But I do do will miss you much..miss you much

I can see the first leave falling


It’s all yellow and nice
It’s so very cold outside
Like the way I’m feeling inside

I’m a big big girl


In a big big world
There’s not a big big thing if you leave me
And I do do feel
But I do do will miss you much..miss you much

Outside is now raining


And tears are falling from my eyes
Why did it have to happen
Why did it have to end

I have your arms around me


Warm like fire
But when I open my eyes
You’re gone

Winkel, US. 1987. Psikologi Pendidikan dan Evaluasi Belajar. Jakarta: Rake Press.
77

HOT potatoes : Vocabulary

English Deluxe 10 software : Grammar

Positive Statement Negative Statement

Category Score Category Score

Strongly Agree 5 Strongly Agree 1

Agree 4 Agree 2

Undecided 3 Undecided 3

Disagree 2 Disagree 4

Strongly Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree 5