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Gll]DE 10 ETCH.[NIO AND 'OTHER INTAGUO

PR[NTMAKINGI

TECHN]QUES

M,an~y Barns ten (25165-~) .kWSTRA'ff G .NATURE:: How TO PAINT .AND DRAW P.LAN1'~AND .ANIMALS" Dorothea Barlowe and Sy Barlowe .. (2'992'1~X) 'PAfNTINO GARDENS, Norman B,attersh~n. (Avallable In lJ.S~ and Canada

only) (284()."..8)

TI~E..ART AND CRAFT Of DRA\VJ!NO I

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STEP

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TREES, R:·, V:I'ca)t C. II " (2: . _,75'"13-) PERSP':ECf,W! FOR AJrrIlS,TS. 'R.·:_.~ .·at .• ol r, (':2 87'-2' '~'i ART S fJDENTS,!' MAT. :MV~ ='dm,Qlna J. F, rrls, (2:0?'''''~'_ ".1.95, -1) ABSTRAiC I DES[ N , ". D t;I:'IW T,O '.In: -.~ IT. Amer i',., ,. (211"7'-2') 'S" O'D"T~ " C'V"L I·.l, "iI'IliIFfI1-rf r I J __:'~:~, £-!Ii, . 'Q~W _ -::'! P. ~U!-'" ,Q:"IIU M"" L
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DIRAWU~NG: CO,NStRU(1'1[ON., ACTION ANALYSIS'i CAR~'CATUREi

MODFJ.UN·O AND 5CUlf'nNG TU:IE HUMANI FI(jUR.~,Edouard


,MOD,EW

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E'fCH]NG~ ENGRAVING AND !OTH' It ~NTAGUOPRirITMAKl, G TECHNlQUES

(24,721-X) THE ART OF ETCHI_G

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All rights reserved


GODveD.'lion!i~

under P[aB Am,erl'can ,aR,d. 'n,ter,tuldollal

Cupy-r:igh.t

B"ibliag,rap,hi.c,al ,Note
This D cnr:e(f' ed:iitj,on. rlrst piublie1b,ed, in 1999, is an u'Da'brld_ged 'republica,. 'lion. ,of the 'wo,rk originJul,y pubJJisned, by Tbe MO,icmU1,a.D Go:mpa,llY1 -:., : ,oF,:k~lO, 19 39., ew
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CQ~aJo&iRB ..in.,Publication

Data

Norling, Ernest R,. [Ernest Ra~_,ph),1 hi' '1892,. Perepective made ea:sy f Emest R. N orliag,
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O~r:igig,Rl1y 'pu.b:ilShe.d:: :NeiW Yo'rk z M,acrniU

1939",

SBN' 0,·,48"6.4047:3·0 (phk.) .

1.,Perapeetlve.
N'C'''l'50.,N711'

2. Dracwing- 'Technique. [[999

I. Title,
99-]03"10 ICIP

7,'42~,c21

M,anufac,'tured in the U:uiit'eld States of A 1D:erie'ilJ 'Dover. Publicatio:D8~1 Ine., :31 :Eas.,t 2,'RdStreet, M'iD~ola'jl N.,Y: 11501

To,
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who hal· presenied


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Perspective is, easy;, y,et surprisingly few artists, are familiar' with, the. simple 'laws that make it so, It ,is .the purpose of this hook, to make these, laws clear, One of the things that have simplified perspective Ior DS, is our w'ay of building things, 'We, 'live, in a world of

square comers; our streets buildings furniture" all are designed with a square. We find it convenient to he able to fit ,any of the corners of a table. into any of the corners of the room: hence we build that way'., This fact has made perspective drawing quite simple, 'Wh,en we 0 .... _',-',aw., t,j' humb ']e hri 'ck:' ,," h·-v' e 1earned I r'· w,e ,a. ....'~._ ' ... have learn e d t· dr '-.,'- the ," ~ ~ pracncai'1 perspective ..
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This hook explains perspective step hy step, de_pend .. ing on illustrations to c,arry the sequence, Some steps 1 are repeate d " hrut_.d lih deliberately so, to em'p ' ." ,., their unasize hei portance, A great deal of S' ress is placed on "the eyelevel.' A, bird's-eye view and a worm's eye view' of the 'W'O' '.rld a r' e' quiole" di"'ff- ~e"'r'e' -' 'n' t A,,'· S'I'''X £''-0' 0" t m an' ]'''n' a crowd .:1, sees hats and hair, faces and shoulders. A four-foot child, beside him sees hands, :gluvles., purses, and coat .., tails, They are both seeing the same people at the same
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time, How diJI'er'8nt are their two 1Iis,ualworlds I Our hei,ght above the ground .is 8'D important factor 'when we sketch the 'w'orld about us. 'The eye-level is really *h' ke 'y" to p'- p" ective W-il·,',_"','l,'g-'".[. ~-WI': '~'I , ~..·v " .... The knowledge of perspective should be, 'used as, a, guide tO drawing and not as,a device to harden into still L ht h 'b f":.... 1 meenames W h' t nngn :-'ave, neen a b t.. 11 I008e'y ',R' neau mu handled sketch, Wre., build a strong seal'olding 'forr the cons tru ction '0'£ our bridge ,; later we discard. the scafflolrd ing and keep only the graceful IlpaD •
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as W'e Seem Them Parall,el Lines R,e:lat.ed, to ..:·· "' .: -e 0D..... Po'1.1I!"D'j'.t"'~ perspectiv e
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The T'hree Sets

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Placing the Two V',a.:nis:hi:ng Points 'The Error of Close Spacing


,S,TE,'P S':EV'EN ;;
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Showing ,H,owthe Vanishing Points Move in Relationship to' On,e. Another


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Building Perspective "}' ,_'-I]C,-,-S k WIt 1. ''B


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Finding the Center 'Dividing Spaces into Halves Practical ,Appl1cations


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Cylinders in Perspective Drawing Ellipses


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Dividing a Surface iII Persp ective Drawing a Checkerboard


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P,E:RSPECTIVE,
The artist's business :is to be able to draw lao object 61'0 that it will look solid and not flat like th,€'- surface ofthe ,p'aper on w'hic.h it is drawn, In, so doing the artist employs a m e.. --hod, tha ,t-, we" ea.... 11} P 'er':~sp" .tiv e t "'" e 'c':'~ _ ""--J;;:;}' :'.', --, ,', " J.,
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Let us follow' the railroad tracks out on the plain


where there is level land in, all directions as far as we can see, All around us we can see the sky meeting the distant plain in a long even Iine, This is called the ,hOT,lzon. ·d.e.a f- e .orlZO'D.lS s·e~enw:c·_en. "Vl.ew'e.. hi d 'Th e l __1 e:xamp '1e 0.1 thi hori across, a Iarge hody of' water where no distant shore is seen.. At sea the horizon is one continuous line. , m eonsid er thIe",horiz on as continuou 8·, This Iii: 8>' We." "g'>-'Y'" true though. the vi.ew may be obstructed. by an [object: a hand, a building, Oil a mountain. The horizon is, still there though we go into the building and ,close the door, If objects became transparent the: horizon could always hie seen, This is Illnstrated on the opposite p·age,.,
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shiny rails and Iook along the track, These rails go, on and on across the level plain until they reach the horizon where they are Iost from sight in the distance .. 'W'le eall the place where they disappear the oanishi,n,g ,p,oi,n·t
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N-O'W" look down at your feet T':h,erc-'-\IiCI'Y"OU see the track "y.ee. b' " ,;-"',·::··'···' S see Ra your eyes an'd' ]""., k~ '6f:-:··:··t'... feet ,eYOIB·d'.." Y',_ou stillI ,si .' ··.~·Ise 00 " th,'le tr _ '- alt·h ougr-h- y ..':' W" no looking eli"·-·'·'~C:tI-··.- down, - trae .,' .. . '--on a'Pie not '. lUO:.._·. r:a- y '~:," . ... upon 11,.
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If we ascend in an airplane we shall find that the distant horizon rises, with, our 'h,ieig;h,t" It, iap:pears to rem a in at eye-level, 'T"hi IS-a,OCOUD:S -'--', . the pecu·· ar ,'b' lik~" '-', ''',- ,- "', 't'· f··--or ne .'....; -Iia nasm .... "- appearance t uze ""f"~ _" " (,', -' .-.··· V1Bwe-',f-'·:,· ".'-, 0_'. th e ear th W'h.','B:D. ,.'. ;'-' ed..- .-ro,m a, grea hei rht . ,eIK·-'. n W'~, ca·~:· now und erstand -,hl,y,.·,: the drawing o-···,f th comer 0'£ a room looks different when sketched from a I, 8-,00,-,'I as ,co,mpare: d' wnr one ,SK,e·tenea rrom th '_o,p -..-. ... - . *11- - _. .....1._ - ....-d f' . L c__,OW t .' tne 1 of a'- ste pla d'd er '-T-"'-h' -,- hei zht ,·· the ,.',.,'-, 'b'- .. ·.'· .... irta .. ,:{-, .' e ,el,g", _-..f,·r "e eyes recomes a very Im,p'o ~.ant:-'-ao.. 0 : -', , ·,' '..,···",,·, 'd dr li!or 1.D f·":,.reeh__n-_awlng. s
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REMEMBER

W:e: use perspective

in ,dr,aw.ing a ·bri,c·k. o that :it appears e

DB

solid ,o:hj eet,


The; horiz oll is, ·that distm,t line Wlie'fB the earth. ,and. the sky seem
i

to meet,
The v,sni;shin,g po·int. is the. place on the b.'orizon "her'e: the 'r',ails

of the tracks a"ppearr.' tomeet. The horizon


:js,

the :he:i,ght 0,£ your eyes. no 'matter 'where you. are'


110

above the ground.

'T06 eye-Jevel is the :heiJ'ht of your eyes


PE,o.B,:LEU:S

matte:r. whel'\e

Y'OU,

are,

:n,r,B,W ,8 ,bric'k, a hox, a

book, Do 'You. know' just 'why


OF

you.

d,f,'8.W

it

as you do?
If' yon 'are in level conn try' near t'll.e oc-ean look fo'l' the horieon,
JL'u~ 'td'I'!I'DaJ!JL'-' ,t±i"

.Expcr.ittl'mt' by 'lOO:ltdDI from f''Ii"\ii"I;'ma win d v" ,f::r,.....'m- .'[L top ,I:L!,~'
~".... or down, to see ,It ~
.Ii,"U,' . . , .., " '. AW' ,"v'
,II •

difr,cren't .heig-h.ts:, from the, ground,


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10

..L· T'HE···I Ey· ..··E-··' 'EV'". ··E···~L


'-"... .. .1. . -.
.! ..... ','

'1

Ii'., ,'.~' 'IP" AN""n" ITS R"'E'LATiIO'~'N~!'SH'


,c_,_,:!",' ,_ '.' ..::" _ ..
I:

TO P'ER,SP:·ICTIVE:

DRAWING

I,

~ \3!' '

·d -. . t Y·-·-·are seared s ceten ng thee ,·-·:enor 0.f'~ yOUI' room ou .',"'.'sean .. sk..-,t,··-:hill,.,-- ,_, m..erior "-' -.. ,.",,--- "'-',.',' .:. , Someone makes a,mark around the 'wall the: same height ',' .. f rrom the ,0toor as,yo,ur eyes, T--hi' .,8 mar k will appea.r as a .. __ il'I straig h '-I'me across 'Y,':'-OlJI" drawi "'_','=. 1't0,'IS th,.' eye-reve 'J .. ht "' arawmg '. ; ['. rn e "_:.:.,' '.,,:,.'',11. _'__' ~"""":" _ ' , Notice In tme d'.I,a'Wlng the'"a the V'J:SW-enorizon .. seen -. -,',-'-o nee ,.,-,' he _",··,~i'-, -,' rat __ visible he :-"'- ' ",",e th h th ~ d · th h I el "__'roug~T tie 'Wln...:ow' :ms_"e Isamc,e]g', h t ,as:th e le.ye~le'v:,' , __ mark on the wall,
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'The eye ..:revel is level with, the eye, You may smile at the: simplicity 'of the above definition ye'l it is a surprising fac,t tha,t it is, ignored, in praetiee even by' professional artists, Its importance, however, is immeasurable. Let us! look into it. On the preceding page is the drawing of the room
corner, there are, the pictures on the wall, the chair, the lamp, the window, and the drapes. Now let us consider the Iamp, 'W'e are seeing the underside of the Iamp shade; in other words w'e are looking from below up into the

Now let us' look at the base of the lamp; it rests on th,e floor and it is 'necessary to 1100k down upon it, The shade is ahove the height of our eyes, while the base ,isl bellow" Somewhere between is, the eye-level, a 'place that is exactly the: same height from. the 800r as are lour
shade,
eyes,

W1e show' this eye-level by means of a straight line,


across the drawing, We find that we have control over this eye.. evel Iine, I W'e can look under the table' and see the: underside. e .... . W· accomplish this h:-",y'" lio"w""Q,rin::g"" o,'l,..r· IA·y,,'e···-le"'·v':-e',,]- W';'e"',"
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stand 0'0 tiptoe or step u.P on a ,biox.to see: over the heads '0.£ people in a crowd, Wle do this to raise the eye.. evel, N,ew' pictures are constantly being formed I ~~:':l' ,_._._: ,'.~. before our eyes by our various w"""ays"'" o-"f: raising and . ~I1 lowering the eye-rever. It is, interesting to watch for the effects and changes in a landscape 'when 'viewed from an automobile driven over 8. hilly road, Showmen have taken advantage of this, fact and 'have built the: Ferns Wh'eel, a mechanical means of swiftly raising and lowering the eye-level. ~k 'h foi 'h ne ie ps '10 mtens if'y the exTh quics en ange 0.: picture helnato : perience, W,e 'find that the objects we draw' are in. tw'O classes: the ones that are above and the ones that are below the line that indicates th.'e:eye.. evel. l NOIW let U8 go into it further,
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· W TH: E-:- H"~IG,·:H'... ··::·::·A····~···T-:-c··'E;-R..··


.__ . [.. I . '. _. .,. _.'

'MARK':'.'.... _.... .. :.,/ ..

Imagn ..·· YOurS'!l, w.ano: g'.. a di~.l'JL,::: g" helmet ..,...... seated . ll·.lne -': . ·'-'e·1f:'·e··!II, -- - .. ivin . ·.:.lme and . :,'.... ,:' .", aki m, your To-om, maxmg a ,8ke h or the i .. 6t[C_1 I tne c-nt,enOI'.'"SA- you, . ~ - he - --- .. , d . ith - .- .. :. it "', -- .. ·h· . SIt thi ere the room 15 fill~'- r_e' WJ" water unrtil 1 ]iUS: t- reaones th . h eign 0,·f·· yOlur eyes, 'N'! th en; everytmng In..- e - -.. ryth- .'.. :th .ne ... ht .II·.,OW· -:.. ... d water · neiow tne ~y'~'i!" .~'-:' ; nom r--· . that 1!1!IS under -. wate lS, "Below th - 'E' e Level.. " everything tha t I-'S' not u n der wat-'Ie"r- u.lUJ ':;" .' the E''-' y-:e'' ' is A hove _'.-' _'_,:::. 1 M·' -" ...... - '. t: - . II '.--~ ,Le;ve_CI' T- he ""U!, h -.': ater ').,·· 'ar·-k"'" ,arOUDI-d=- th e WB_·-,S an-:del ..: ".·'11 '" ' e ill.g.· =W--:·' ,.
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. ---th',·n,':· -'1" tho t t ion eve-ry,1 . 1;0'.-- g e,1se. ,.,.•a,'· 1· " t-· ouche.·.·S, In, th e.. ra ..om 1S "'Th:e :., ,. ·!:I', ·,-, - .-_.. ,- I
Ii.

-. ..'. rtselt, I, .. ha direetion k_' E'ye,..L eve 'I'" ,., '. slf -N""'.'.: ,0 matter In W,..at di ,. . you '1rook hi mg ".. k ., 1.1.8 hi 'h water mars appears to y,our eye as a straiglh t'] '-h hi fh reve I I· across t e objects 10·, u e room, me
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W.hen

yOIU,

ar,e sketching outdoors this "water Ievel'

explanation will still hold true, Fences, buildings, hay ... stacks, people, all have a. "High-Water Mark;' which is, . h' ,. t' 1 the arbs's ,ey,e,·, ever. ..:. ,.. ean.. on d sk ···,·t· h,.",.. .., if' '. '., . . If':: you are,'.. sea "c: on th ie groundd-" sxe cnmg,, or., '~J-,',I~ you "f' .... " '1... . ~,,-:L~W··· ,-;.. _.,~. -k-" expianauon still ,are, on, a, root. tne "'H' ,1,grJl, T,a"t er M"':' .arx " ...]; .'. itio sru 'b0'ld true, .·:5
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1M·'PIc.:'O··RI:'T···AN:··-'··-C···E-~
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Eye-le.vel above the. ta:hle. top, - ',- ,e· , ..ehed W..11e . .' i88.] :,e: Sk.e.,CIle '. .--h"'I" St',an di-u n,g b-" ~d". th..·
i.iI!.

.E y,e,..],evul bcl(lW 'the' ta.bI.le, top, Sketched while sitling on the


, oo,r,Ol

table,
,

It is easily seen that. 'yo!u would get two entirely difl'er~ ':.-views 01 __ ·· .. "f ,if: you mac e ske en .' ta.. :,entvi ...... your. tahl e: :'.'''',' .. _- d-C"I",,,a s ,.'·t·· 'h w hil e..stansd .... .. sid .!'t ~f·· -t- _.. .. - - de----'1 - tee th Ing hiesme- ).-·r" or.. 1: yo,n. sa, , 0'0 the e rug anc sketc h d the -h' same tahle f· . rom t iat poemon. The w ,,01e slys t··: 0'f'" perspecuve '-.': d.J1raWl.n,g "b·· .~,. ed oln,. .' . '" _ e .··:c:h·.' :·' ·,-, .. em, . "'," .''- .. .- ·..···~t·,··· IS _,a5 .. <.: _ .. the height of this ':/-I.' ..~ ...- ,.0'\.;1.' "_ Dr' or not th e'"eves .~~ '.; w·,1..~th· are_" ,. ,- .-,\_'-"" ....:"_ u., :.W ..:. eve-level 'J'f;iI' above or .: e ow ,,' - ... I.ng, .~ """( et hed ,~ ove .'. :belc '" th .e thins th at' IS h· mng. sk 'e ce' '.
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· Tb h .. __ ,IJ3.0'fU:QD.

. .... .,' - - - .. ,'. [. ..n a room- .you can'. create. .


a, Q
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_.L lS !mown
'Ii;

'b ,I .y .

· a. str',mg 'ht '11" e .• m


YOII.[,

across your- dr8wm,l~ - .-- 'h" '-T'' hi.·U!!, lS an, eye",J..ey.e,-I, .... 'Ii'. OWDc..OflZUD., ". - 10 'to .

loo:k up to S.~D thomn's, a,L,ove th··,· A· eve ..')D!V· ·~l-- .un d ,-".~ d-'OWD", to '0'-' ...D.·· ""- I-c..!!io;l·-·l- ·.~··~· ~. t, ,., iI 'I_ trnngs .b_e:~o'w 'I 'h-e eyel"',llev,e, .. ~Th eye- Ieve,'I IS memgr h.. ateI - 'mar," W·C'D the water lS eye ileep" '" IIIo.L h~ w . kh hid' LI.e Th:is Iine is the brst thin.g we Iocate in m akin g' a. perspective draw~

m,Ptr.k around. the wall,

I.

Da~

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111

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The visible outdoor horison is Dot to he confused with th.e Hari., d' '. ..L Iast zonta I.16 \ r.r, L"' 'HL) In meerh amea 'I perspective as, 18XP Iames In. 'we' 1 step 10'£ th.is hook,
,I ,I, 10

PROBLEMS

D fa w a. IID.e on
'C' ..

are

ending, ~ .'. l -h : 'II iD th e comer of~'L.lL 1"0 om. wn ere ...L '.'IDlelS Ion. d'::a tne me II c_merent. W'I,B,!! t Ad' no" '.~), and take "D'O'''' 'I":c,e" f th'0 line iD 'he' o .' ." d;~ r sition .~ ... 1~ Cbl·a'nua to'_'_ h . h une h corner 0'f the loom. -D_oes It stiill,lI, a,pp'ear as a str aigr t 1'"' wi;' ere it joins at the two walls? Stand 010 a ehair a d nob~the result .. Go outdoors and. locate your eye- eve] mark on. 'the various things you see around yon~ Im:agin.'e where the eye-level lin,e 'w'Ould cut ~1.t"iir-\n.Q'D' these di '~'e' J·t· fbi. -. I,.s :.. .:._:. V'ou' w'.. 'ere ,.- ma'll... g u. OI __ ren 'I~D" g ~l"'f'. ,/ '. :: .:::... , .' .A.U1e.. B ·,.l''''a't.Ul~I'nlrg , T'
S'
0'.,

'b1,I.ac "k1L d-' tne hieig h 0 fI your l!3:yes 'W'hen yo'u ··.coar. L . at This will. appear as a stralght Iiae, though it m.IY be
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1.9

PARA.LLE.L LINES
AS WE, S·,EE'mEM: ,P'A,RAL~LEL, LINES

RELA'TED TID ONE..POlNT 'P',E,RS,PE,CTIVE '

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f

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,.: .''-LEL"" .. ,1:,'._ :-:.,i'c. __ .·'.~. ",' PA';. RA'.... L'--' -2',· 'L'IN', .....ES" ... A':_" 'S' WE'" . 'S-IEEI THE' . -_:__:::_
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: ,- .!'.--c " :\...,.' G."mg wat . tho £I., rallS, .- .. .. ,.'I II· d-' we. no' '..raw - ot d '. Ii, ,WJ .~,O ,
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,-. ,.~., .p'Br,a I are ' ...

them .em

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Instea.d of 'this 'w'o:y?

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UJ.18

Th e .,two
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r'iI;J'I,I;]S': '0' f";' g


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the track v. ._._.~ ..


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al·w····':'a·Y·'Q a sam e di ta 0-' ee th '·8':


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Wh.·.e:c·o· two or more lines always remain the same distanee apart they are called parallel lines, aII-" _D, u awing we d0 D;Ot aetua .Iy dr-~aw .... I· a perspective drawi the ,..'1iI!!!' nes par,aJle,l.. 'lJTL~'C ,-c·"t? ~ , .. ·'111 ~ .. ese - .. ~ n' J1;;lY DO _:
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III

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Let us look straight downon a .person, standing on the


track and see what is, happening, When he looks d,Qwnat the track at his feet his eyes id .. d must tak e In a.wme area In ore erto see b h rar l~ both "' 8,.,
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··'· · th H.'"·" sees:. thoI. .lS,Wl"'d,._,._ in,' fl~'--.'. at 0 .€1 ~ :rODI of


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, .. :. indicr ·d··: ..······he as, In .. llea.t'-',e.- ·h·'y t._.. e


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heavy,:....lackIine_ bi I..:K. ' .

II!!!!I

As he raises hi s ,e'yes, and 'looks fifty feet in front of him.

he sees the same width of tracks but witllin a much narrower area, For this reason the track appears narrower as hie looks farther away, The shaded portion. on the sketch shows this [area"
!'.

------

II

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'-

The portion he : sees u·'_' black Iine,


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"ty':" feat ..'


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away
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s.•hown b"Y'"h e:'t


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24.

As he raises his eyes to the 'horizon the same width of track appears in 8,0 narrow a:n,area that it looks Iike 'DO width at all, This is the vanishing point, Thus the nearer he looks, the wider' a,'p'pears the spread of the track, and the farther aw'ay he Iooks the narrower it ap'pears until it hecomes a point at his ey'e..level, This wide or narrow area is!perhaps better understood :if 'we think, of the person drawing these widths on a piece of gIs,sls 'h,e'.ld upright as shown on, ,p,ag1ei 2,8,.

...

The above sketch shows how the man, in order to see, "['-a- ie"-"r'a''-10-' n -g~-' .he tra ,,--,.K., .m'":.,. ~' -, ,raise 'h';~ eyes",.' rth ,nJ.", ust .~~~".' v.I ..• _: I ,"' .," .•... i • ,"[', .~. :"

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And, so the man sees the,


track 'this 'way~,

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.P:ARALLE·L LINE,S AND OiN·-·~POIN1T


PERSPECTI.'VE,

d ,_ di same d-.. · ann remain th.e same (,'stance apart, irecnon The two opposite sides of a table are parallel, the ,..,. '"f' .., ' ·o,or., .' "e ',.'"'1,_ rds ' ,b·,oar "S 0,,_ t h e H'·' . , th", ralm ,0 'f' -' a tr ' 'k" _r,ac,
,I.

,-,,~II" ,11 li~-~'" "'" t ' .'.mor·e 'li~' ' -;---, -'t'- ~. ' ,roes, ,a, In ,'e P ara· .e.c.. ,nes arewo'""'o.r'. .',' ,', " .,,' th' t, eX.llen d·1,.;- t.'h'
1

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We know that the two parallelrails of the track. ap.p,ear·to, converge at a po,'~ t in. the distance, Now take n .-oti . , o'f ,th''ce renees an,.,lelegrap ,.,wires th "t f"·o,o'w t h Ie t nonce ,- __ 'f':'" ". -," ," d~li ,1" ", anh . that 'll'" ,'-.'~ , th aI.so hi .traek 8, ,; ,_. I.ey~,__ converge at tm s same pomt,
,ii.,.", 'iii

26

A gronp 10£ parallel lines in, I, perspective drawing, :if

extended, meet at the same, point, There are two exceptions t.IO this rule. These e'x,e,e,plions are shown in, the drawing. (1,) Wh,en we face the vanishing point o.f' a group of parallel Iines (as in, the picture) 'we have one-point perspective; in, this case: the left-and ..right lines, like the . ties of the track, are all parallel with the horizon". 'There, is no vanishing point, (2) 'Up; and, down (perpendicular) lines" like the tele .. graph and"Ienc e posts ar 3,'J- O-'" d..... parallel hut", awn :0-·<-1: --" poles "'-: ' , ,1 ",al ~",_L-,' .-', without a vanishing point, (Perp'enmcular- Iines are, explained Ion ,pa,ge 4,,51,)
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The general rule for (1) and (2') is that parallel lines which are also 'parallel to the picture plane do not a.p· pe.ar to ,converge at a point, The picture plane is explained on the next p,ag'e~

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.. h Drawmg In perspective on t_~.;e p1lc.ture, P ane can hIe . ·,· _ self ..explained by standing In front of a window and with, 'lei th ') " a Chi marxmg pene]il traci ma ,tracing on tne g.ass th' e oUtlines .. bi f th h ildi 0, -u e r Ul " ~ngsas you see, tl, em. A pape.r with a hole in it can be set at arm's Iength to help" fix the point of view Look throuzh this 'bole and -'[C"-~ .. '.. ind h he f" S' ' h 'if h sk etch as 1:', the Wln," ,ow'were the S.·. et O'I~,p,aper. '':'lm,p 'I,y tr.-:.,..., [" e g _ ' .. the ln Ildi.',',D,gs: an,.,..1" 'd'-- "". las you, see :',' ' .'" ·d· ,an__ , ~a,ee,,on 'h, ,.'}ass _'JeUl scape,
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The two raila of a track. are par allel ~ These two par aIle,1 Imee, ,. "• ~ • W,Ih'.,en 8-h own in a perspeetrce d' ra.wlng, come toget h- .M' at 8. pomt, .. at >·:·.,,;..~ ' '.'" o.,)e ~ .. iW.':.~ " ..:~.J!.o ; W.'h,an ·t- .'wo' parall -11m"· m eet ,a a.p..oln·t~' all'l other ·J)·D· ,~..., parallel t· ~.
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Yon lower your eyes to see your feel" Y'Olll raise your eyes, to see objects on the' ground at is diB;tan.oo,~ ·The plc~ure p.s.ne 51-anus 1ll.pr.lg.., b ween Ule. a..us t an .. we o· J~.' "'I'II·-·_ .1" t.-:· . ..l. ,oj -ht :1,..'" blect .~__ c·.e:..
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Dr.aw the top view 10£ a man sta;lding' at the end o:f a 100n_g narrow table, Show the ,difFereJ1ce in tb:e area of his v.isioD when to'okin.g' a,t the wi,.dth of the far end of the \able· co'mpa:r,ed. ,w.,ith that o,f the' neal" end, Stand in. the center of a 8.tr'ajght level ·highway. :Dra'w it as you see it-dis8pp'e·arin.g .in.the distance, Add a sidewalk para Ilel to it, Add two ro,'W',s of telephone p olea, a FlOW on each side, A.dd a fence

"d-:-' we '.ii.. b elu·· e ,L·L. W,8.]L Dr'Hw a railro'ad on the prairie ,BKetched from the center of the ·b".8 c'k. S.how a. ,'ig'b,w'8Y crossing it :in. the fore:groun.d",
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THE, THREE SETS

OF PARA,LLELS,
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The lines off the drawing' indicate where two of these '"d-81,', es ]om If all sides of the brick were shown, there would he twelve lines, The four long lines which indicate the length 10.1' the brick are parallel lines, The four lines of' the width are parallel, The four lines of height (or thickness) are parallel. Now let 'U,S turn the brick so that we are looking straight along the 1ength lines, The sketch 0'0 the next pi,ageshows it in, this position, 'h d f' t'h ,,,. ,"k' bri , " W e now" .",ave, 'th e len-" 'VlBW 0_ ..-:_~~enc_'::~
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You see that the facts discovered in reg·ard. to the railroad tra··ck. on the":' p:']a~in now hold true f·"oT' hriel .... _,. Ii" ,:' ' me , ··ne o.f- th ..'.- ,.lev I " .va.DISleh·,··:l!l·" p'Oln ..,' anI.,. al"C" 1'-1 . :_c.eeye- :Bve '~,.. '...•. rng " .. t .'.d·
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.Now let us remove al the bricks hut one,

Here it stands, The vaniahing point is go:nefrom the dr,aWln.g, so .1.S :~..'e,.'line~:. : th .e eye·.,)'OeV8J.,. 1 'th . of
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'W'e can easily find the vanishing point and the eye-

level by extending the: Iines 'that 're,present two parallel edges of the brick, The vanishing point is where they meet,
,A horizontalline drawn through this point, gives us

our eye-level, Thus 'we ean find the vanishing point and the eyeIevel ,by extending an:y M'O 'lines, that represent converging parallel lines in a perspective drawing.

FIN,DING, V:ANI SH lNG, PO'IN'TS, AN~D THE ,LINE OF VISION


It is an interesting experiment
to take cuts, of

photo,..

graphs from magazines and then, locate the vanishing points by extending the lines that are parallel. Wh:e,re "h '-h ~ .'.In,g point, they cross rs the varus 'h A straight line through the two vanishing points thus
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35

located shows on the photograph just how high the camera's eye was above the ground. This, is the. eye~

level. A'n,y'photograph, of a building or a room, can be· used :fOI' this experiment. An eas'y' method is to paste the photograph, or clipping in the middle of a large piece of pape,'r an d th draw th e:Ii'liCI!!'S'" righ t over thte ph oto and aen ,i'D paper,
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A brick has six: aides, Three of these; (;;8]]. he' :Bh:o'Wfi in a pers,poo", 't~.v'e rawing, We, draw' ,8 str sight '1 ine 'to show' 'where 11w'o sides J ~),m~ d p'p osite edges are psrallel lin.'eS'ii A row 0;£ bricks placed. e'lld 'to end becomes a. r ailroad traek. All b:r.i,cka ,but, one can be removed, still 'we can find the eye..evel and I the v,ani,slting p omt,

. '" D :r,(lW M. ,empty elg,n,l box i perspective. ...ox In LI ·..'Lr~; ,"""L are P r.. Ilel ? Sh O W"· hi"""0'.. f, t·'L ~JlLU e are :P I Iel. W' fW&Wl lin UJ!Wl '.', 111J~1~ U" ~ lull.· Drs w the' hox, end- view' in perspecti ve, ..IL box, 'd' ,"., ' D ra:w tne b- . sic ,e·;v'lew In ,r-' ,r ~ ~ perspeetrve Fmd the eye-. eve. an".c. vamsnmg 'pemt 0" £." ····,·· .. ·b·· ,0 .jneee d rawm~g.I,~ a ...... it .. esc ". '·'f' .:1;.'1...... ~]]!: , ne ··,',···-'1,··,····) nd "-'-!"h:""',:,;, . . ' "'" "
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Place, the' brick flat on the table so that three of its sid 'b smes can ne seen,

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N ow we "Jave three ".. Whi h can, h exten d d th"U9 h nnes nc • ae -,e_", • h Iocating the vanishing point and the ,e,ye..level,
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After Ioea.. t'l!li'ng·: the p'O" int lM d line tu rn th.e brick a an tr ille more, h .. hi '" 'h h Thi ;8 cnanges ..i.:L vamsnmg pomt, but the eye- 1']tne ever
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. ut wait :!t B Here is another set of parallel lines representing the width of the b,rlck" Let us extend these and see what happens.

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ve,ry same eye-level Iine as the point reached :b'y tile length line. This must he as we see :it because, when we g'la'D,'ooat the three sides of' the brick a,s it lies there O'D the level surface, our eye-level remains unchanged whether our attention is fixed on OID,e' gro'll,p of' parallels or lon, the
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Tum the brick some more and we :find that ou:r first vanishing point moves, away from the brick along the d ~re _'.rICI r, 1 uie ' h eye- ]ever W hil t, 'e new pomt moves towarc th h 'k
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44

m Wh:-,e', the, P""'O","I'·'n"'-'t'-' C'"Q;':ID":' es directly above the brirck 'W"" re ' ',-~·a.':~:n the railroad track vrit'h one set of receding' have
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parallel lines. The other set is parallel with, the hori .. , son. The latter can also be considered as, parallel w,mth the picture plane if we prefer that viewpoint,

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'N'! w ,let' 'U~ i:o:' :~ __,er'-, the "height" "'1'1;,·:'0- e This is e''a"s'y ,< o :"" , _,~consid .. 'd Il~' ,<"I· < The third set of parallel lines or the ""height" lines may he drawn straight up and d,OWR with no vanishing point to consider, '-T'hi ,. h he "height" Ii cut across our 'h '" unes ": "II,S IS, true because t__ "h picture and we always s'ee only' this small segment 0:£ them :no matter how far' they ma'y be extended u:p or down, Th,€}"height' lines, might he compared with the upright: mullions or bars .0,£ a window through which we Iook,
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'Th:is ,point :m,Qves along the: eye.. evel lbJ,e 'when, the o:bjecit is l 't,urnedl
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All o:f a set of p'B'rallel lines In perspective meet at a POint",

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Both, points are

the eye-level line, 'v'an'ishiDI' p,o:in,tii'

Hei,ght Iines are uP"',SJ;O,.d ..dOWD, 'with.

the table Y: Vi 'Tu:rn the book 10' that :i.t lies in a diff erent position and 'n!dra,w,~ N"otic-e h:ow' the ,tw'O "tanishing p oints rearrange 'themselves, eaeh tim.'! the position of the hook il changed, Sted, ,8 ,br.i.ck on end ~nd sketch ,it :in, dlie, posit:i.ob~ Show the girectian of the "heigb.t~J' Iines, Do they meet Sit a ,p,oin,1t'P
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place the vanishing points w,e'll

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If the points are close together the drawing is not of ,R Isquare object; it :1.$ diamond shaped, This is called, ·'IQ.'':,r'~~ __ ,,-,_,-"violent' '0' 'r--' "warne d" perspective d '" ,~ I h · I ,IS a, student's temptation to p"ace the points c1ose It together, within, easy :ra'n,ge; thus the drawing has the 'wrong beginning and will always l.oo,k;wrong;; Place the, points a long way' apart even if it: is an ,eff'o,rt to do- 0-'
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'Let,us snpp,ose an artist sits i.n front of a 'window and ,'traces , on ,,,-·h· ,WIn" ·ow Ig_cassa. ,"..,.'. t'l' . 0f ' wna tever h."'-"" . '-... .. _- tne ,'"' d'i". "1,, ," h " ne sees .. •• Pl.C nre outdoors. "N··-:·'-'·"'·· '] ,e,-" us' Su,ppo,se th "ere IS 3., ,..,.L"I-··"'·· OU_: .... th -", ..ueh .. ' ' "ow -:'1 "-':'. ':-.'" _. ame ..",'., rt 011 ne '.,: po.re ':If~'"'w'e eou ,e-]d" .lOOK, strarg h";1t.'c"O'WD,. f,rom::__ '11" t, d ab uld " - - -" :~o'v,ewe 'W'O: .. ,~, :,.'.,: h ... ie t ',.' 'L see t he artist (/ S.c· .own In, 1.heni as ae picture o:n 'tile If)" ..... tracing the table as, he sees it through the glass, He is h 1 Idrawi aWIng right on t hewi dow gass'll ',' wmc e 50':'
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The vanishing points of his. drawing would. he A and

"'~ These two pointe are found where the lines pass th .ough the glass when they are: extended from his, eye narallel to the- two sides of 'the table. .-.. h .. fa . ." -·h·· -- - ~ rts . "-'.". N··ote .. ow rar apart t ie pOlnl S .I"ie, henoi _. ose d ··..as .. t h. If- t.· [e· points are 10 0 C I] y' Sp'8,1Ce":c. (..... ltD the· r:l.g·.1:hand picture) the table would have to he di amon d... th ,1.IDes. Irom t~:[e eye tn z A'l e-1 ,'.h ._,pe.d- to b e ,para.1-"}-wrth_ t .e· l~ .u .!,om th . 'd,1. B~:" ~ 'T.''"'hI·--,o;:-, 1.S w.·---..y ,a .square",·cornerle:: d' .0.· jee[1 -}.-. S., ou. t"'b '." .. ' ,,,"'~'." ".. ' ~:.. - '-. ' :h· ect 00:., '.' ok . I. .... IS ~. ··f:'· snape".. wnen. t"h'· pom ts are too C..ose}--:y [.-,-- .. ··I,,:··d -h""" -·h··- '- .ne :','unts '. _:00 _ : ... ..: spacen. I·· J---. m o ther words the artist says in his picture, "This object: ,.. -. d" .lSI not square,-cornere. '.. The drawings which resulted from these i¥-I'O condi.. tiona a-r~'e' h own.. 0.' n P·"llg·-e'·; ·4:·,'9_···.·.., s · u:.,-:-' ...
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Au example of well-spaced vanish.in,g points

In fre[ehaD;d sketching these points exactly,

it is 'not necessary to locate But rememher; keep them, far


51,

apart.

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Sketch of' a room where vanishing 'points


t.oo close together,

,A and ,B are

N'otice the warped shape 'of the bed,

To correct this error 'move either vanishing point 11, or B outward from, the, drawing and along the ley'e:..Ievel I~' nne, N ,0":W':: 'let U S' li;!!'e'.D W" h a:"t h,8';:'' p' 'p' t!ii;n'' "" 52
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Sketch of same room with point .11 moved outward

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Room, with. point B' moved outward ..

53
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The two drawings on the preceding :plage are examples showing the result of the vanishing points widely spaced, The first dr,awiin.g shows point B' in the same position as in. the previous sketch, but point .A. has been moved to the left in order to widen the distance between .A and

B~
This wide: spacing of 'points gives a natural appearanee to the furniture, The second drawing shows the results when A remains unmoved and B is moved out to the right, When we do this, we create a wi.de space between A and B Here again the result is a natural appearance ofthe fumiture but a. ldiffe.r·ent appearing drawing, Both drawings a're pleasing from the standpoint of perspective. The different results produced show 'how' this particular group of furniture a;·ppea.rs from two -liff'i iti d1.1eren t posmons In th room, _ae The first drawin .. obviously was made when the artist g -l._.:_ -w··'a.s· a position where he could get a side view 0'-£: the in bed, The second drawing shows his position changed 8,0 that his; 'view is more toward the foot of the bed, If we .hold these drawings before a mirror we can. g,ee the grouping of furniture as it iB,pplears from a similar' positio n on the ·o:··'p· p osite side 0'-"£' the room .. We. have discovered that the spacing of vanishing pointe is most important, not on:ly in giving the drawing
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ect appearance hut also to show different: vi~w· _'I ' of whatever ·we are drawing, that this h··S>··,Q been ,0· me lL may .'~~'~ interesting .. to 1. [' ". _- .',' be ~. ' .. ,.. ·.·~JU:_:,·_ . ~ ~-I,
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.[ the problems in animated cartooning, where ,a back- ~. d _[0[.]·,·0-8 in :.": ~[~[,eL!_~.··/'oo figure IS roun chow- an Interimnor 10_ peri.'::!'p eetive and a .\:,='.6.. II. -[--,"_"'vI-~,g cross it. The customary 'h,a,ekgrouD1d, used in a .., ~ ~.:ation is a single drarwing.What app,ear,s as a figure -~oving across this background is a series of drawings de on tra.. nsparent sheets placed over the background .·d then photographed. When the figure moves across the background, [and is :·~ollow·ed the camera, the background should change .by ;:10, perspective aSIthe camera changes its viewpoint. Fortunately for the animater the attention 0 _-' the audience is cente red. upon. the: moving fi,gure and in. many cases the unchanging background loses importance, To overcome ·this problem, however, .new methO.~~SI are being devised in the animation studios,
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close togethe.r you are not d·raw.m,gl


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·'f· you sp,8ice: the ,pOInts, hOI.

The v·anisb.ing' point lies at the p Iace where a line. passes t·hroagh he drawing'", This line. is orne that [extends! :fro.m. the artist'ls ey,e and ,is parallel. to, the line he is dra,w.in.,gi

55

Pao BLE'~ M'",~


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Dra W B, candy box with va'Di~!'hing points w,l.dely' SiP aced, Place points close together and! redraw the box.. Com,_pa:re th,e

:lle!uiw!! :Ex,per,iment by tr'I,cmg wi'tb

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china marking pencil scllme.thiDI

that you see through tb,e w,indOW'i Whe'n this is done move farther ,alway from the 'win.dow and notice t:ba,t 'the: object, appears larger than your dr'8,wing", V'se th'e diagram of' ':he artist and, the wind,ow. Note the, change that would take plaee in the size ,of his drawing if you wer,,, to :m,Qve him closer or Iarther from .. the win.do"Wi 'WouJ,dl e. poaitlon 0,£ V'8.D;ishing' POin't:i be changed?

to..

56

S'HIOIWING :H'OW TiHE VA,NISIHIN'G 'PIOINTS MOVE IN RELATI10N'S,HIP TO ONE ANOTHER

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Y'o'Uare now pointing at the NO vanishing points . :.:_e~, 0:f'l_.thene cuh 'Your two arms form a ,s,q,'uare corner (rig'ht a'ngle) If the cube 1.8 turner d the vamsmng P01D,tS. will. eli ange :L h .. hi -1'1 hi L~.... Db ~.
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these new directions. Your arms still'. form ,8, squ,are' [co[r:n'er ", Wh,cn the position of the cube is changed the relationship [of the points 'must change. Let us see what this relationship ~;S[I'

TH'E RELA:TIO'NSH:IP OF T'H'E TWO POl", TS

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1. MId · h }' ~ Th , -iere [are techmcal 'ways to.' etermme the relation[ship between the two vanishing points, but for freehand d rawmg 1.: .IS necessary:'.tc reme mh...- on ]--: th-"e Slmp"e ar-. . '. iti .. --.- .'-0 '. . •... ... y . ":." ··1· .' - -,,--' .'. oer .. rangement: a straight 'line; a sheet [0:£ ·p'3.pe.r tacked at h 1·' the corner a s'h ort eli' distanee f trom thiIS nne. ._.1.. h hi h' - _',Tn d'"' _ne .'.agram aoove S.1.0WS '1.'18 arrangement; the tack i - 'h Iacewh d.represents, the .p..ace w· ere you are, stan di ann th.e two .... lng
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sides of the p,a.p'er show the directions Ol{ 'your outstretched arms. This is the same arrangement as the diagram. on page 59., Now revolv th e! p··a··p':"·le·,··r·~· around the tacked corner 0'1' u. that the distance from. the tack to the line is the same alon.g the two edges of the paper (first position). Mark the 't\VOI points where the edges cross the 'line (1) and
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Th.e se 'W"" "0 p·o·.···,)ts re pre sent th r·e·.Ia.t·]'" on shi p o····,.fi le~ n . i th two vanishing points when a person is looking [directly " h"'lu"lldins o.'r-:~a D'y"." (l'q' - uar e'-C" 0': ·r'··n:e 1"' ',~[dl" . tOUIa r 'd: th e· co rn e'1'· o f ob ie'C'-·It,-· ... ['. ~. : .. d '~I""': hi,.' hh I n a..perspective .. rawmg tms Ii: ne on w h]c_ the two !I]IO; h points re represents te eye- 1] eve..
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Above is the: Ico'rr,esp on g; perspective drawing' in ····h·!II "h' the o:JJec', th. '1-' . lS:.fawn ..:. h"· las, 1,·8 V,anls. hi.,..... '" ··b··~ t . a d ';.,".' its , .. ng '.'.... , '[ pOln~s, rts WI:]C.. e :.. .. c th th di In th e same arrangement as tney are In the '·.lagram~ u...
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equally distant from the center. Notice that the lighted. and the shaded side of the th cDb e appear to e same In size .. ,
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,R,evolvethe paper from the first position on the p:re .. d posmon as s~'own anove, h b cedi.ng ,pag'e to th seeonu nosi re Point number one moves toward the center w:hich is directly above the tack, Point number two 'moves aW'lay from this center at a, much faster rate.

The cube, is SlhO!WD drawn with,,'the vanishin 'g" points I~:n-I h thiS lie'I~'·' i " ancnsmp,
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one-point perspective. The Iine that determines! point number' two does not cross the line which represents the eye-level, Hence, no point.

, . H we nave a:', rawmg 0f th C,(lIJeID thi re anon,,.. rere tne ,... 18 , , '. , h d ship '0'£ points, The cube has a, single side facing us ',''·th' ' ..e: op .J~ ",'" """'" '''', ' ,,'--,',", cti , e WlI~:. the tot UClaw,n ,. 11] O'D,e""'pOlD,,t perspecnve,·h I··_ha Thi 18 the arrangement a"f perspective pomts tl ,.. ,,8 t ." '.,' ~ ,,'_-'~I"",!, sk et "0" a ,',- ','."" whil S ,an, ,-;" a we .use In maxmg',- a. IS teten 0'.'f" ,,' 'room. w, ue ists..idin ,g at
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N'ow revolve the pa',per still f,a-ther, Point num .. ber ...... '-' p"a'sse,~:s~' " center and immiedia tely: point': num--.,' one .. "__ the",' ,'.'..... '. '-',,' ,_" .-.". . ...:~. -ill·[. '..... ,'_ '..... ",' .... ber two ,a.p.pea:rs again on the line but in the opposite direction from. its former positions,
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The cube drawn, to this arrangement is like 'position ·t ~ : i' n.n. er '_"W'Oexcep.' OppOS1"e 1.0 direc till rob t t 10n., Re:m.'ember ,in using this :method. that the diagram of the line' and sheet o.f p,aper is, not a perspective drawing hut merely a method of showing how the two vanishing h i hh points mayne move,d In re 1 ~ to' eacn other-s-one ation moves s;}ow,ly;, and the other quickly .. It shows also t.hat the tW'IQ points should 'he spaced. Id · 'Wl : eIIy apart 1:0. a perspective d rawmg,
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N,otlce·that 'we cannot have hoth points 0'0 the same side of the drawing" As soon. as 'w,e tum the cube in order to create that relationship we find that the point id I.., passes to t h e other sic e. O' perspectrve point IS on .. ...:. 'ne the left and the other on the right o,:f the center of in .. , terest, This reo ationship does not 'hold, of course in one .. oint perspective". p

WIlen you point in the same direction as "the line 'YOU are 8, teteh ... , ing, you are pointing toward the vanishing point: of that line. The tw 0 vanish ing P ointa 1ie o-n the eye-Ieve I line out in the dilI'\cction ,of the t·wo Iines forming :th.e square corner on which you

stand.. As the object is, turned this, corner l,evolves around tbe point. on which you, stand. 'y ou. can thus follow the chang'e in direction of th1e poin .. ts~, The two vanishing points hold opposite sides, of the center of Interest, They cannot get together,

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Place a :brick. on, the table before. you, Sketch the II I dd · "hi nncx Wlt~'1 Its p,ara_es extended to th ,~ vams,,"'og' rneir h · k ith ~ points, Place ,3. second brick on the: first. This second brick ...ld I'll 1 nnes W'~, C:,h In turn can 'n exten d- d hi.. aces 'more p,mra rei 1'"' oe ieo tiO the two vanishing points of hrick number one.
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As they' approach the level of 'your eye, the top of' the u,pper' brick app'ears

ow' because the lines de.temli;D,~' :iog that. surface are coming' closer together.
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Wb,en the pile reaches, your eye Ievel the top of the b k~ can st b seen at aI'-__.ecause tl Ie li~ 0f' th 'two , i-,e b' h unes me ie -, ,-~- l-e1 eg,es nave come-,-oge.-er.. ,.... to eth ,para, '-ll-,'ll'd',-,
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Lay several more bricks on the table, end to end, or side against side, The new lines formed by' the additional 'blricks all extend to the same vanishing points. 71,

Place more bricks o n t'o"p of the ones


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Brick a or block s sr e arra n g"·e: end to. end and side d ·i . .-.. .e,., . .. ·.. ,:~.. '." i .. t: e ". . buil 'h"·· e against ,- S,lde N··I ow ,Rrdd more at', ··'h··· top, .:~ din: ...t~· . ·.ng "1 · hei ht pnes to various ,·.eig•.s,
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A city can thus he: drawn, hy the use of two per,s:p'ec:·,


tive points on a lin'e',c' "fl: vision Wh.en, you sketch at city' from the window o:f 8, high office building" keep in mind that the buildings you see: are no' thing mor thian b ricks piled'".. In the m anme'r 1":,,, ,'! ,'. 'u'p just explained ...
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We now wish. to draw the same gro'nping as we: should S,Be it from the street Ievel, First, decide how high a, person's eye-level 'wo'u!d 'be ,if he were standing 'beside one of' the buildings, The height of his eyes w'o'u'ld,be about, wh,ere the mark is 0 :0 the, door,
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b 'U,}.Il' lngs'l 'I '"' I i ildi iowermg t-hie eye-1eve). 810 that it p,as·s,es 'throll,gh, the mark on the door, The · nn 'g ;.. .~ , remain on [thre '1me 10" t,'h·' same re,:..I, 'a' ,. ,', 1.., , --:'~ va nis 1 ' 1 ,." P·O-]'ID·ts' err ..-:< .1:. "_' , 'N"' .•ow
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The upright lines of the build ... ings are in the, same position, Only the horizontal lines change for this change of eye-level, DiJferent views of the buildings may he. drawn In this manner ,by raising or' lowering the ,ey,e .."level. 7 6'::
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P'aral1eI. lines that ,ljl'rebelo,w tbe eye-level tilt upward;

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the, eye .. eve] they tilt downward. toward the vanishmg point, I ':-b ' I ung ',' L. - . , ~d ,-' .-, - -,,,"- .l~ . "f-: h- '; -l .._, --. A mn~ld'" can De consmerec .d ,~iILS a staex 0. ',·rl,eM,~ Whiolever can dr,al'w bricks can draw a, city"

Place bo oks in a st.ale'k:on your d,,-esk,so th a t the top' edge of the top boo:k reaches your eye .. evel, Make a sketch. I N ow' star! a up' and sketch the same group .. :Pla,c.e dl.e hooks ion somethieg that is a.hoVle the ey-e.. evel and I 'Ii- c, ., LJlU~m~ 8,K,et·· ·"h ,..L _.C' ,. .ompare tb n ree drawrags, tne th
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PLACING ,FIGU,RES
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We have a drawing' of a building' and we wish to sketch people in, various places on the street so that they' will he in. correct proportion 'with the hluilding'~ The places, where we wish to sketch these people are marked with X~ In order to place figures on. the street we: must first know how hi:----.'".'g·-.ch- a pers on :-o":u1-~-'i:d----'" eomp are d with the h--'e-'height of the building" W,e know that the average person wou d reach ,R oer••••• [ •••••• " _.' J ••.• ,' •• ,' •••••••••• [

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A, ,pe:rson at the corner of the building would 'be: the h f h I~' h ere, ]t re height 0,;" the nne 'W',here i toucnes th corner,
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'From this height at the corner extend a line :in the 'h ,.. to t ,,. '['lng' point or thte other wa'11 ~ f tl.··.. 'h ott er direcnon to thte vams hli .~
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