Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

Maejelou Morales

CPE – 1D (The Life and Works of Rizal)

MIDTERM OUTPUT

CHAPTER 1

I. RA 1425 and Other Rizal Laws

Summary

The Rizal Bill became the Rizal Law or RA 1425, in which its full name is “An Act to
Include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools, Colleges and Universities Courses
on the Life, Works, and Writings of Jose Rizal, Particularly His Novels Noli Me Tangere and
El Filibusterismo Authorizing the Printing and Distribution Thereof, and for Other
Purposes.” The purpose of the Rizal Law is focused mainly on inspiring the youth to thrive
on nationalism, to pay tribute to the national hero, and to gain motivation in terms of
patriotism through studying Rizal’s life and his works. The first section of the law is about
requiring students to read Rizal’s novels, while the last two sections are about making
Rizal’s works available. Aside from the Rizal Law, another Republic Act, which is the RA
229, exists to ensure that the Rizal Day be properly celebrated each year.

II. The Importance of Studying Rizal

Summary

The academic subject focused on the national hero and his works are created for
many reasons that is beneficial to every Filipino, especially the youth. Some of the reasons
as to why it is importance are as follows: it teaches history that aids in how present and
future problems should be dealt with, it helps in making on understand his/her Filipino
identity, it demonstrates and motivates the practice of nationalism and patriotism, it instills
valuable life lessons, it encourages critical thinking, it is necessary since Rizal is the
ultimate Filipino role model, and it is a source of entertaining stories, among others.
Evaluation

I. Multiple Choices

1. c

2. b

3. a

4. c

5. d

6. b

7. b

8. d

9. a

10. d

II. True or False

1. T

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. T

6. F

7. F

8. T
9. T

10. F
CHAPTER 2

I. End of Galleon Trade

Summary

Before the Spanish colonizers came to the Philippines, the country was already
trading with countries such as China, Japan, Siam, India, Cambodia, Borneo, and the
Moluccas. During the Spanish colonization, the Spanish government paved a way for the
“Galleon Trade” which is the trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico. The trade is said
to have served as the central income-generating business for Spanish colonists in the
country. The trade last for 250 years and ended with Mexico’s War of Independence. After
this, Spain took direct control of the Philippines instead of governing it through Mexico.

II. Opening of the Suez Canal

Summary

The Suez Canal is sea-level waterway running across the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt
which is connected Mediterranean and Red seas, constructed under the leadership of
Ferdinand de Lesseps. It was officially opened on 1869, which ultimately made travelling
between Europe and the Philippines more convenient with the travel time being reduced
from more than three months to only 32 to 40 days. Aside from the Suez Canal being
beneficial to commercial enterprises, it also made importation of reading materials with
liberal ideas from America and Europe easier. The availability of this waterway encouraged
the Ilustrados to pursue education overseas, enabling the growth of their nationalistic
desires. One of these Ilustrados is the Philippines’ very own Jose Rizal.

III. Rise of the Export Crop Economy

Summary
After the Galleon Trade, the Philippines was on its way in developing an export crop
economy. The economic activities involved in the newly developed export crop economy
paved a way for expanding the Chinese population in the country. Many Chinese then
moved to provinces in the country that produced export crops. The North European and
North American merchants who motivated the development of the export crop industry
needed agents to distribute imports on the inside as well as buy up goods for export. These
agents were the Chinese.

IV. Monopolies

Summary

Monopoly contracting was one of the main sources of income after the Galleon
Trade had taken place. The Chinese, who held most of the contracts in the monopoly, took
advantage of this commercial opportunity the most. One of the monopoly systems which is
said to be the most controversial and oppressive to locals is the tobacco monopoly which
involved Philippines provinces to be restricted in planting tobacco only, as well as the
produce being solely owned by the government. Although the tobacco monopoly raised
revenues for the government, it caused food shortages, and was finally abolished in 1882.

V. Education in the 19th Century

Summary

With the Spanish colonization, European education was introduced to the country,
lead by Catholic missionaries. The education system led by the Spanish government and the
missionaries were rather inclusive due to the fear of Indios being educated and becoming
their equals. Formal schools were established, then colleges, and finally universities.
Privileges were different for different categories such as Mestizos, Ilustrados and Indios.
One of the most prominent of the Ilustrados who gained education and motivated the
desire for independence by writing his novels was Jose Rizal.
VI. The Rise of Chinese Mestizo

Summary

Due to the economic activities involving trade and being more welcome to
merchants, the developments resulted to the presence of the new class. The Chinese
mestizos continued to play a vital role in the Philippines' economics and politics in the 19th
century. Due to the Philippines' fast economic progress, the said new breed of rich and
influential Filipino middle class became powerful enough to lead education and finance.

VII. The Rise of Inquilinos

Summary

After the Galleon Trade, many estates turned to the inquilino system of land tenure,
or the right to use land in exchange for paying rent. Inquilinos paid a fixed rent depending
on the area and quality of the land they work on, collected by administrators during
harvest. This system caused various disputes and conflicts between different parties such
as estate owners and workers. Peasant protest movements took place as led and arranged
by inquilinos, after they acquired relative freedom.

VIII. Liberalism

Summary

Liberalism is formally defined as "a worldview founded on ideas of freedom and


equality", a political concept that penetrated the country and swayed the ilustrados when it
opened itself to world trade. One way that liberalism has swayed ilustrados is how it
encouraged them, such as Jose Rizal, to pursue higher studies overseas and learn liberal
ideas in European universities, affecting their beliefs on politics and nationhood. The
country's actual experience of liberalism came from Governor-General Carlos Maria De la
Torre, the first liberal governor-general in the country, whose rule was necessary for
national awakening and necessary as it provided Jose Rizal a preview of democratic rule.

IX. The Impact of the Bourbon Reforms

Summary

The Bourbon Reforms is the policy change pertaining to advocating a century-long


effort to reform and modify the Spanish empire. The policies ideally provided advantage to
the country but weren't as effective due to the lack of ideological coherence and
complexity. Because of this, impacts due to the reform varied, being less effective when it
comes to the Philippines. It is said to at least have given the natives in the country the idea
that colonization can be done with or without the Catholic Church's intervention.

X. The Cadiz Constitution

Summary

The Cadiz Constitution was made in Cadiz and was put in practice to almost every
area of the Hispanic Monarchy, under the control of the Spanish crown. It is said to be the
first constitution in Europe to deal with national sovereignty, recognizing it as something
that comes from the people instead of the king. The constitution was formally implemented
in Manila and it established the principles of male suffrage, national sovereignty,
constitutional monarchy, and freedom of the press, among others. It was very influential
and it vested the sovereignty in the people, recognized the equality of all men and the
individual freedom of each citizen.

Evaluation

I. Identification

1. The Cadiz Constitution


2. Liberalism

3. Nineteenth Century

4. The Galleon Trade

5. Inquilino

6. 1565

7. Manuel Gonzales Aguilar

8. Don Ventura De Los Reyes

9. King Fernando VII

10. Bourbon Reforms

11. Manila

12. Chinese

13. Tobacco Monopoly

14. Spanish Missionaries

15. Corporal Punishment

16. Jose Rizal

17. Farmers

18. French Revolution

19. Carlos Maria De La Torre

20. Ilustrados

II. True or False

1. T
2. T

3. T

4. F

5. F

6. T

7. T

8. F

9. F

10. T
CHAPTER 3

I. Don Francisco Mercado

Summary

Jose Rizal's father is named Francisco Rizal Mercado, a productive, dynamic and
free-spirtited farmer from Biñ an, Laguna who was also referred to as Tiniente Kiko. He was
born on May 11, 1818, as the son of Domingo Lam-co, a pro-poor Chinese immigrant, and
Ines de la Rosa, a sophisticated Chinese mestiza of Manila. Don Francisco took Latin and
Philosophy at the College of San Jose in Manila where he met Jose Rizal's mother, Teodora
Alonso. The two later married in June 28, 1848 and eventually settled down in Calamba.

II. Doña Teodora Alonso

Summary

Jose Rizal's mother is named Teodora Alonzo, also known as Doñ a Lolay, who was
and educated and highly cultured woman from Sta. Cruz, Manila, born on November 8,
1826. She was educated at the estemeed school for girls in Manila, College of Santa Rosa.
She is believed to have descended from Lakandula, the last native King of Tondo. She is the
daughter of Manuel and Regina Quintos.

III. Jose’s Siblings

Summary

The eldest of the Rizal family is Saturnina, the one, alongside their mother, who
provided Jose with good basic education. Next to her is Rizal's only brother Paciano who
later became the general of the Philippines revolution, and was also a member of the
Katipuneros. Next to him is Narcisa, who, together with Saturnina, helped finance Rizal's
study in Europe, then Olympia, who was the schoolmate of Jose's first love, then Lucia, then
Maria, then Concepcion, who died at the age of three, then Josefa, then Trinidad and then
finally, Soledad. All of Rizal's siblings had an important impact on his being and his life in
general.

IV. The Surname Rizal

Summary

Jose and Paciano is said to supposedly carry the "Lamco" surname, or "Mercado" as
adopted by their paternal great-great grandfather. Their father, however, adopted the
"Rizal" last name which means "the green of young growth" or "green fields". Paciano
carried the "Mercado" last name when he studied at the College of San Jose, but suggested
that Jose use the surname "Rizal" which he later on was grateful that he did.

V. Rizal’s Birth

Summary

Jose Rizal's mother was said to have experienced the greatest childbirth pain when
she gave birth to him. He was born in Calamba, and grew up in the first massive stone
house there. The state of the household he grew up in reflected his family's wealth and
political influence.

VI. The Childhood of a Phenom

Summary

Rizal is an exceptionally talented or admired person, thus being given the title
"phenom", especially when he was a child. His precious childhood memories were
recorded, including the happy ones and the more sorrowful ones such as the death of
Concha, which he claimed was his first heartache. He learned a lot of things in varying fields
at very young ages such as languages, writing, sketching, clay molding, magic, arts, classics,
and literature, among many others.
VII. The Story of the Moth

Summary

Jose Rizal's mother was fond of reading him stories from the book whose title is
translated as "The Children's Friend". She one day chose the story of a daughter moth and
her mother, in which the daughter refused to listen to her mother about not going into the
light that eventually led to her death. Jose was witnessing the story of the moth in real life
while listening to his mother tell the story. Over time, Jose felt that the story his mother
told him about is somehow similar to his own destiny.

VIII. Education in Calamba

Summary

Rizal's mother is who he claims to be his first teacher, who taught him most of the
things he knew at a young age. Aside from her, Saturnina and his three maternal uncles,
Jose Alberto, Gregorio, and Manuel, also taught him or mentored him. Aside from them,
private tutors were also hired in order to educate him at home such as Maestro Celestino
and Don Francisco's former classmate, Leon Monroy.

IX. Education in Biñan

Summary

Jose was sent to a private school in Biñ an and was brought to the shool of Maestro
Justiniano Aquino Cruz by his brother Paciano. Jose experieced bullying by his classmates,
especially by one named Pedro whom he challenged to a fight and defeated due to his
wrestling lessons from Uncle Manuel. He also had an arm-wresting match with Andres
Salandanan to whom he lost to, as well as other Biñ an boys. He may have not won every
brawl with the Biñ an boys but he defeated all of them in terms of intellect.
Evaluation

I. Matching Type

1. e

2. g

3. a

4. h

5. j

6. d

7. b

8. c

9. f

10. i

II. Identification

1. Tiniente Kiko

2. casco

3. Narcisa

4. Andres Salandanan

5. College of Santa Rosa

6. Maria

7. Alipato

8. Justiniano Cruz
9. Rizal

10. To My Fellow Children


CHAPTER 4

EDUCATION IN MANILA AND EUROPE AND EARLY TRAVELS

I. Education at the Ateneo

Summary

Jose's father enrolled him in Ateneo Municipal in June 1872, a Jesuit-run institution
that upheld religious instruction, advanced education, rigid discipline, physical culiure, and
cultivation of the arts, like music, drawing, and painting. His brother found him a boarding
house to stay in but he eventually transferred to another house to live in. Ateneo encourage
competitiveness and did this by dividing the class into two groups, with one group being
the Roman Empire, comprised the interns while the other one, the Carthaginian Empire,
consisted of the externs. The highest position for either groups is the Emperor, which Rizal
had acquired after only a month. He graduated the Bachelor of Arts degree with honors and
recognition due to his academic excellence.

II. Education at the UST

Summary

In 1877, Jose enrolled in the University of Santo Tomas, studying Philosophy and
Letter while simultaneously taking up a land surveyor and assessor's degree in Ateneo. He
changed course and enrolled to Medicine after a year in UST, motivated by his desire to
cure his mother's deteriorating eyesight. He is said to have taken nineteen subjects in UST
with varying grades but nonetheless got an "excellent" in all of his Philosophy courses.

III. Education in Europe

Summary

Rizal went to Spain on 1882 to study Medicine and Philosophy and Letters at the
Universidad Central de Madrid. Two years after, he received the degree of Licentiate in
Medicine at the age of 23, and also completed three additional subjects the following school
year, leading to the Doctor of Medicine degree. He also went to Paris and Germany to learn
more about opthamology in hopes to cure his mother's eye condition. He has written Noli
Me Tangere at this time and his journey last led him to befriending important personalities.

IV. Life in Europe

Summary

Rizal went to many places and had a lot of memories, mostly involving important
people and educational experiences, while being in and touring Europe. Some of the
highlights was his love story with, Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, him attending dinner parties held
in honor of two award-winning Filipino painters Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo,
being friends with Ferdinand Blumentritt, and others. He also finished Noli Me Tangere and
had Maximo Viola loan him money to cover for the printing of the said novel. Rizal went
places and had a great journey while in Europe.

V. First Homecoming

Summary

Jose returned to the Philippines, first meeting some friends in Manila and then later
arriving to his hometown in Calamba. He successfully restored his mother's eyesight and
was referred to "Doctor Uliman" or "German doctor". He was also summoned by the
Governor-General Emilio Terrero due to him writing Noli, in which he saw no fault but
assigned Rizal to a bodyguard regardless. Due to Rizal's participation in political activities,
he was advised to leave the country as the friars pressured the the governor-general.
Evaluation

I. Identification

1. Igorot

2. Francisco de Paula Sanchez

3. Berlin

4. Doctor Uliman

5. University of Santo Thomas

6. Maximo Viola

7. Don Jose Taviel de Andrade

8. Haiphong

9. Dr. Adolph Meyer

10. Potsdam

II. True or False

1. T

2. F

3. T

4. F

5. T

6. T

7. F

8. T
9. T

10. F

SECOND TRAVEL ABROAD

I. In Hong Kong and Japan

Summary

On 1888, Rizal sailed to Hong Kong and even visited Macao with his friend Jose
Maria Basa. He had many experiences there such as the Chinese New Year and the
marathon lauriat party. He even went to gigs and witnessed Filipino entertainers in Japan.
He also met the 23-year-old Seiko Usui whom he was particularly fond of. She became his
tour guide and sweetheart, all at the same time.

II. Sail to the West

Summary

Rizal also sailed to the west were he befriended Tetcho Suehiro, a novelist and
human rights fighter forced to leave Japan. Rizal, along the other passengers of the ship he
sailed in, were quarantined for a week upon arrival due to the Cholera outbreak. Upon
arriving in the US, Rizl visited many states and witnessed racial inequality in the country.
He then concluded that real freedom was only a privilege given to whites.

III. In Great Britain, Paris, and Spain

Summary

Rizal sailed to Great Britain, stayed briefly at Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor's house,
boarded at the Beckett residence, and had a love story with his landlord's daughter who
served him there. He had many encounters there, one being Marcelo H. Del Pilar. Del Pilar
was one of the renowned members of the Propaganda Movement, a patriotic socio-political
organization founded in 1872 primarily aimed to bring to Spain's attention the real needs
of its colony. Both he and Rizal inspired the established and mission of Andres Bonifacio's
the Katipunan.

IV. In France

Summary

Rizal went to Paris and shortly resided in Valentin Ventura's house before
transferring to a little room with two Filipino roommates. He spent his free time in the
houses of friends such as Juan Luna and his wife. He also formed the Kidlat Club, a
temporary social club that brought Filipinos together in witnessing the exposition. While in
Paris, Rizal finished and Pubkished the "Sucesos".

V. In Belgium

Summary

After spending Christmas in France, Rizal re-visited London as he went to Brussels


with Jose Albert in January 1890. They both stayed in the boarding house administered by
the Jacoby sisters where Rizal had an affair with a girl named Suzanne, also referred to as
Petite. In Belguim, Rizal was busy writing Fili and writing contributions for La Solilaridad.
Upon hearing about the agrarian troubles in Calamba, he wanted to go home but was
stopped by Paciano's letter where he was told that Filipinos intented to bring the case
against the Dominicans to Madrid instead.

VI. In Madrid

Summary
Rizal traveled to August 1980 to seek justice for this family, alongside his lawyer
Marcelo H. Del Pilar, but was not successful in doing so since he could not find help from an
influential Spaniard. He befriended a Filipino student Edilberto Evangelista whom he
encouraged to take up engineering. He encountered many difficulties in Madrid such as
hearing that his family was forced to move out of Calamba. He was also in interrupted duels
against Wenceslao Retana, who later became his first non-Filipino biographer, and Antonio
Luna, who later became his friend. He also received the unfortunate news that Leonor
Rivera was wed to Englishman Henry Kipping.

VII. In Biarritz, Paris, and Brussels

Summary

Rizal decided to take a vacation in Biarritz, a tourist town in southwestern France


noted for its mild climate and sand beaches, for more than a month starting in February
1891. In there, he was welcomed as a family guest in the house of the Bousteds, especially
by Nellie with whom he later shared a serious but unsuccessful love story with. He
continued on writing El Fili and later completed it. Valentin Ventura hosted his short stay in
Paris, along with the Jacobiest especially Petite Suzanne. In Brussels, Rizal revised and
prepared for printing El Fili and by June 1891, he was already looking for a printing firm to
print the his second novel.

VIII. In Ghent

Summary

Rizal had gone to to Ghent in July 1891 because the cost of printing in the place was
less expensive. He resided in a cheap-costing boarding house where Jose Alejandro, an
engineering student in the University of Ghent, was his roommate. The publisher F. Meyer-
Van Loo Press, No. 66 Viaanderen Street said yes to printinh the El Fili on an installment
basis. Rizal ran out of funds despite tightening his budget and the printing had to be
suspended. Thanks to Valentin Ventura, the "El Filibusterismo" came off the press on
September 18, 1891.

IX. In Hong Kong and Sandakan

Summary

Rizal left Europe for Hong Kong while he began writing his third but discontinued
novel. Don Francisco, Paciano, Silvestre Ubaldo, Doñ a Teodora and children Lucia, Josefa,
and Trinidad also arrived, and the Rizal family had a sort of family reunion during
Christmas in 1891. Rizal opened a medical clinic receiving help from a Portuguese friend,
Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques. In March 1892, he went to Sandakan to negotiate with British
authorities concerning the founding of a Filipino colony in North Borneo. On March 21,
Rizal asked Governor-General Eulogio Despujol to allow the landless Filipinos, especially
the deported Calamba residents, to establish themselves in North Borneo.

X. Second Homecoming

Summary

Wanting to confer with Despuiol concerning colonization project, Rizal left along
with his sister knowledge on June 21, 1892, the Spanish consul a cablegram to Despuiol
stating rat is in the trap. On June 27, he took a train and visited his friends Rizal in Tondo,
Manila, he had a stopover at the Bautista Mansion in Malolos, Bulacan and spent the night
in the house of Evaristo Puno in Tarlac. On the evening of July 3, Rizal spearheaded the
meeting in the house of Doroteo Ongiunco on Ylaya street, Tondo, Manila, officer were
elected, having Ambrosio Salvador as the president, thereby officially establishing the
league.

Evaluation
I. Multiple Choice Type

1. a

2. d

3. b

4. d

5. b

6. a

7. c

8. c

9. d

10. a

II. True or False

1. F

2. T

3. T

4. F

5. F

6. F

7. F

8. T

9. T
10. T
CHAPTER 5

BITTER-SWEET LIFE IN DAPITAN

I. Daily Life as an Exile

Summary

Rizal’s exile days are productive and has been helpful to people where is exiled. He
practiced medicine by treating people who had come to his house. He also founded a school
in 1893 which only started with 3 pupils and grew to more than 20 students at the time his
exiled ended. Lastly, he engaged in farming and horticulture. He grew many fruit trees like
coconut, mango, lanzones and domesticated some animals like rabbits, chickens, dogs, and
cats.

II. Rizal and the Jesuits

Summary

Refusing to compromise, Rizal did not stay in the church convent after the first
attempt by the Jesuit friars on winning back the deported Rizal and eventually made an
offer for him to live in the Dapitan convent under some conditions. The Jesuit Order made
Rizal assigned to his favorite teacher in Ateneo, Francisco de Paula Sanchez, who tried but
failed at changing Rizal’s mind. Nevertheless, their differences in belief did not get in the
way of their good friendship. The priest, Pablo Pastells exchanged letters with Rizal four
times, corresponding to the debate about Catholicism. Though Rizal consistently attended
mass in Dapitan, he refused to espouse the conventional type of Catholicism.

III. Achievements in Dapitan

Summary

Rizal provided significant community services in Dapitan, from improving the


town’s drainage and constructing better water system to teaching the town folks about
health and sanitation to avoid the spread of diseases. Together with his Jesuit friend,
Sanchez, Rizal made a huge relief map of Mindanao in Dapitan. He also made Dapitan’s
forest better by providing evident trails, stairs, and some benches, he also invented a
wooden machine for the mass production of bricks. Given that Rizal was a gifted doctor, he
can cure different kind of diseases like fever, sprain, broken bones, typhoid, tuberculosis
and even leprosy. He also taught the local fishing men to do better techniques on their
fishing method for efficiency.

IV. As a Scientist and Philologist

Summary

Aside from doing archaeological excavations, Rizal inspected Dapitan’s rich flora
and fauna, providing a sort of taxonomy to numerous kinds of forest and sea creatures.
From the collections he sent to European scholars, at least three species were names after
him: Rhacophorus Rizali, a Dapitan frog, Apogonia Rizali, a type of beetle and lastly the
Draco Rizali, a flying dragon. Rizal engaged himself in the study of the Visayan language,
culture and literature.

V. The Spies and Secret Emissary

Summary

Matia Arrieta, a physician who was cured by Rizal revealed his covert mission and
asked for forgiveness, not only once did Rizal learn that his “enemies” sent spies to gather
incriminating proofs that he was separatist and an insurgent. In March 1895, a man
introduced himself as a relative to Rizal, who said things that made Rizal suspicious by the
visitor’s insistence, and after Rizal interrogated him, it turned out that he was a spy from
Cagayan de Misamis who was paid by the Recollect friars. After a year, Andres Bonifacio
sent an emissary to deliver a message about Rizal being the leader that will carry out the
revolution but Rizal politely refused to Andres’ offer. He thus recommend that if the
Katipunan were to start a revolution, it had to ask for the support of rich and educated
Filipinos like Antonio Luna who was an expert on military strategy.

VI. Visited by Loved Ones

Summary

In August 1893, Rizal was visited by his mother and some sisters that consoled
Rizal’s desolate heart and joined him reside at the Casa Cuadrada in Dapitan, Rizal then
successfully operated his mom’s eye. At distinct times, Jose’s sisters Marai and Narcisa also
visited him, together with his three nephews who had their early education in Dapitan
under their Uncle. Narcisa’s daughter, Angelica, also experienced living for some time with
her exiled uncle in Mindanao. Shortly after his mother left to go to Manila, Josephine
Bracken came to Jose’s life, an orphan with Irish blood and the stepdaughter of Jose’s
patient from Hong Kong. Rizal and Bracken were unable to obtain a church wedding
because Jose would retract his anti-Catholic views, he nonetheless took Josephine as his
common-law wife who kept him company and kept the house for him, but Josephine died in
1895 after giving birth.

VI. Goodbye Dapitan

Summary

In 1895, Blumentritt informed Rizal that the revolution-ridden Cuba, another nation
colonized by Spain, was raged by yellow-fever epidemic, and because there was a shortage
of physicians to attend to war victims and disease -stricken people, Rizal in December 1895
wrote to the Governor-General Raman Blanco, volutered himself to provide medical
services. In the late afternoon of July 31, got on the “Espafia” with Josephine, Narcisa, a
niece, three nephews and three of his students, many went to see their beloved doctor for
the last time cordially bidding him goodbye. The streamer departed for Manila at midnight
of July 1896, with tears in his eyes, Rizal later wrote in his diary onboard ship, “I have been
in that district for four years, thirteen days and few hours”.
Evaluation

I. Multiple Choice Type

1. b

2. d

3. a

4. c

5. d

6. c

7. a

8. c

9. a

10. d

II. True or False

1. F

2. F

3. T

4. F

5. F

6. T

7. F
8. F

9. T

10. T

FROM DAPITAN TO TRIAL IN FORT SANTIAGO

I. In Manila

Summary

As the steamer approached Luzon, there was an attempt by the Katipuneros to help
Rizal escape, the Katipunero Emilio Jacinto disguised himself as a ship crew member, had
managed to get close to Rizal while another Katipunero member, Guillermo Magsakay,
circled the ship in a boat. Firm in his aim to fulfill his mission in Cuba, Rizal was said to
refused to be rescued by the Katipunan’s envoys. Rizal Arrived in Manila on August 6,
1896, a day after the mail boat Isla de Luzon had left for Spain, and so he had to stay in
Manila until the next steamer arrived. There was a bloody encounter between the
Katipuneros and Spanish soldiers in San Juan and the uprising in some other suburban
Manila areas, and on the same day, Governor-General proclaimed a state of war in Manila
and seven other nearby provinces. Blanco issued letters of recommendation on Rizal’s
behalf to the Spanish Miniter of War and the Minister of colonies cleared Rizal of any
connection to the raging revolution.

II. Going to Spain

Summary

Rizal left Manila through the streamer Isla de Panay and arrived in Singapore on
September 7 when his co-passengers Don Pedro Roxas and Singaporean resident Don
Manuel Camus to stay in the British controlled territory. However, he trusted Blanco’s
words of which was part of Blanco’s and War of Ministries plan of arresting him. The day
after they had a stopover on the port, Rizal decided to write a letter addressing Blumentritt
that he received and information that Blanco will have him arrested. On October 3, 1896 he
was a prisoner on board then on October 6,1896 he was transported to Monjuich prison-
fortress of which General Despujol ordered Rizal to be shipped back to Manila. On
December 28, Governor-General Polavieja signed the court decision that Rizal be executed
by firing squad at 7am on December 30,1896 Rizal was executed at Bagumbayan, Luneta.

III. Last Homecoming

Summary

On November 3, 1896, Rizal arrived in Manila as a prisoner, and the Spanish


authorities gathered evidence from Rizal’s friends and family by torturing them and
questioned forcibly, which made Rizal underwent to series of interrogations administered
by Colonel Francisco Olive. Fifteen pieces of documentary evidence were presented and
there are thirteen testimonial evidence from oral testimonies. The reports were submitted
and after examining it, they recommended some restrictions for Rizal in choosing his
lawyer, which he chose LT. Luis Taviel de Andrade. With his lawyer on his side, Rizal
pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion, but the manifesto made by Rizal was not
allowed to be issued.

IV. The Rat in the Kangaroo Court

Summary

On the morning of December 26, the Filipino patriot who was once figuratively
referred to by Spanish officials as “trapped rat” appeared on the kangaroo court inside the
military building, Cuartel de Espafia. Judge Advocate Dominguez presented Rizal’s criminal
case followed by the lengthy speech of Prosecuting Attorney Enrique de Alcocer. Afterward,
Rizal was allowed to read his complementary defense consisting of logical proofs that he
cold have not taken part in the revolution and that La Liga was distinct from Katipunan. On
December 28, Governor-General Polaviej signed the court decision and decreed that the
guilty be executed by firing squad at 7 am of December 30, 1896 at Bagumbayan, because
Riza was also required to sign the verdict, he stoically signed his own death sentence.

Evaluation

I. Identification

1. Jose Rizal

2. Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade

3. Emilio Jacinto

4. Teodoro Patiñ o

5. Enrique de Alcoer

6. General Eulogio Despujol

7. Españ a

8. Colonel Francisco Olive

9. Ferdinand Blumentritt

10. Governor-General Polavieja

II. True or False

1. F

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. T

6. F

7. T
8. F

9. T

10. T

RIZAL’S LAST 25 HOURS

I. From 6 am to 12 Noon

Summary

6 am of December 29, Judge Advocate Domingez formally read the death sentence to
Rizal, and at 7 am, he was then transferred to either his “death cell or prison chapel”.
Several priest visited him including Priest Antonio Rosell after his co-priest Viza left at 8
am, and at 9 am, Santiago Mataix of the Spanish newspaper El Heraldo de Madrid
interviewed Rizal. Two other priest, Jose Vilaclara and Vicente Balaguer also visited him at
about 11 am, and tried convincing Rizal to write Q retraction and he supposedly refused his
anti-Catholic views.

II. From Noon to 7pm

Summary

At noon, Rizal was left alone in his cell, he had his lunch, read the Bible, and
Meditated about this time, Balaguer reported to the Archbishop that only little hope
remained that Rizal would retract. Refusing to receive visitors for the meantime, Rizal
probably finished his last poem at this moment. He then had a talk at 2 am with priests
Estanislao March and Vilaclara, then at 3:30 pm, Balaguer returned and allegedly discussed
about Rizal’s retraction. Rizal the wrote letters and dedications and rested shortly, then at
4 pm, his mother and sister went to visit him but Teodora was not allowed to embrace her
son but Rizal, in quiet grief, managed to press a kiss on her hand. At 5:30 pm, the Dean of
the Manila Cathedral, Don Silvino Lopez Tufion went to see Rizal to exchange some views
with him, as Rosell was leaving at about 6 pm, Josephine Bracken arrived in Fort Santiago
who was called by Rizal and emotionally talked to each other.
III. The Night of December 29

Summary

The day before his Execution, Rizal had various meetings with different people. At
7pm he and Faura had a talk about how he should trust Faura and the other Ateneo
professors, Rizal then purportedly confessed to Faura. At 8pm he took his last supper also
attended to his needs and told Dominguez that he had forgiven his enemies who sentenced
him to death. After which he had an amiable talk with Manila's Royal Audiencia Fiscal Don
Gaspar Cestafio and also he was sent some retractions made by Archbishop Bernardino
Nozaleda and Jesuit Pio Pi. Rizal then spent the night resting until the crack of dawn of
December 30, perhaps praying and meditating once in a while.

IV. The Early Morning of December 30

Summary

Hours before his execution, Rizal heard a mass, confessed, and took communion at
3am. At 4am he meditated with the book entitled Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis
and at 5am he washed himself. Having only roughly 2 hours left to live, he spent his time
writing letters to his family and to Paciano of which his main message is asking their
forgiveness for all the pain that he has afflicted upon them. It was said that his wife and his
sister came to bid a last goodbye. Before his death march, he wrote last two letters to his
parents but he wasn’t able to finish writing his intent.

V. Slow Walk to Death

Summary

Thirty minutes before his execution, Rizal walked along with defense lawyer, with
two Jesuit priests to Bagumbayan while in front of them were the advance guards of armed
soldiers and behind them was another group of military men. Once in a while, Rizal
conversed with the priests, commenting on things like his lappy years at the Ateneo as they
passed by Intramuros. After a few minutes they arrived at the Bagumabyan. Rizal Yelled
“"Consummatum est!" as he was shot and fell on the ground facing the sky.

Evaluation

I. Multiple Choices

1. a

2d

3. c

4. a

5. b

6. d

7. b

8. a

9. b

10. c

II. True or False

1. T

2. T

3. T

4. T

5. T
6. T

7. T

8. T

9. F

10. T
CHAPTER 6

I. Dr. Morga and his ‘Sucesos’

Summary

Antonio de Morga was a Spanish student of history and legal advisor and a
remarkable pioneer official for a very long time in the Philippines, New Spain, and Peru.
When was reassigned to Mexico, he distributed the book Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas in
1609. His work was viewed as one of the main chips away at the early history of the
Spanish colonization of the Philippines. The set of experiences was distributed in two
volumes both in 1609 by Casa de Geronymo Balk in Mexico City. The primary English
interpretation was distributed in 1868.

II. Rizal’s Annotation of the Book

Summary

As nationalistic and patriotic as he was, Rizal had a passionate yearning to know the
genuine state of the Philippines when the Spanish colonizers came to the islands. He didn't
accept the colonizers' case that they sociologically improved the islands. All things
considered, Rizal guessed that the Spanish colonization to some degree brought about the
weakening of the Philippine's rich culture and tradition. To back his hypothesis up, Rizal
needed to search for a dependable record of the Philippine, previously and at the beginning
of Spanish colonization.

III. The Preface

Summary

Summarized, Rizal said:

"Like the most of you, I was born and brought up in ignorance of our country’s past
and so, without knowledge or authority to speak of what I neither saw nor have studied, I
deem it necessary to quote the testimony of an illustrious Spaniard who in the beginning of
the new era controlled the destinies of the Philippines and had personal knowledge of our
ancient nationality in its last days. I started to sketch the present state of our native land.
But the effect which my effort produced made me realize that, before attempting to unroll
before your eyes the other pictures which were to follow, it was necessary first to post you
on the past. So only can you fairly judge the present and estimate how much progress has
been made during the three centuries of Spanish rule."

IV. Some Important Annotations

Summary

Governor Morga was the first to compose as well as the first to distribute about
Philippine history. The transformations by the Spaniards were not as broad as their
students of history guarantee. It's anything but a reality that the Filipinos were unprotected
before the happening to the Spaniards. The islands went under Spaniards sway and control
through conservative, ceasefires and coalitions for correspondence. The Spanish students
of history of the Philippines never disregarded any chance, be it doubt or mishap that
might be contorted into something troublesome to the Filipinos.

V. The Value of Rizal’s Annotations

Summary

Rizal's annotation of Sucesos is great because through it, he furnished particularly


the Filipino perusers with rich annotative references concerning Philippine culture and
society. The importance of Rizal's honorable reason in chipping away at Morga's book is
prophetically embodied in a portion of his assertions in his Preface: The book (Sucesos de
las islas Filipinas) prevails to stir the cognizance of the Filipinos' past.

Evaluation
I. Identification

1. b

2c

3. a

4. d

5. b

6. a

7. c

8. d

9. a

10. d

II. True or False

1. T

2. T

3. T

4. T

5. T

6. F

7. T

8. T

9. F
10. T