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MICHEL FOUCAULT miSel fuko

NIETZSCHE nicSe
FREUD froidi
MARX marqsi
Les origines de l’herméneutique Tanamedrove hermenevtikis
contemporaine saTaveebTan

ISBN 978-9941-0-7886-6

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nicSe, froidi, marqsi

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MICHEL FOUCAULT
NIETZSCHE, FREUD, MARX
Les origines de l’herméneutique contemporaine

Article Traduit du français et Commenté par:


Médéa Kintsourachvili
Irakli Bratchouli

Redacteur:
Tamar Berekashvili

frangulidan Targmani da komentarebi:


medea kinwuraSvili
irakli braWuli

redaqtori:
Tamar berekaSvili

mxatvari:
merab gewaZe

ISBN 978-9941-0-7886-6
© m. kinwuraSvili, i. braWuli

© gamomcemloba Carpe diem, 2015


sarCevi

azrovnebis buneba sarkeebis


metaforaSi ............................................ 3

nicSe, froidi, marqsi ........................... 19


diskusia .................................................. 40
SeniSvnebi ............................................... 53

3
azrovnebis buneba sarkeebis
metaforaSi

mkiTxvels vTavazobT saerTaSoriso fi-


losofiuri koloqviumis masalebs, romelic
1964 wels gaimarTa italiaSi. masSi monawi-
leobdnen miSel fuko, gabriel marseli, Jil
deliozi _ evropis inteleqtualuri elitis
sxva warmomadgenlebi. es koloqviumi SeiZleba
SevadaroT antikur saberZneTSi, Cven eramde IV
saukunis aTenSi gamarTul filosofiur sim-
poziumebs, romlebic platonis dialogebSia
aRwerili. am simpoziumebze eladis intele-
qtualuri elita ikribeboda metafizikuri
meditaciebisa da iseTi tipis kamaTisaTvis, sa-
dac ibadeba WeSmariteba. berZnebs sjerodaT,
rom WeSmariteba (aletea) dafarulis gamJRavne-
ba, sxvagvarad ver moxdeba; WeSmariteba uars
ambobs monologiur gonebaClungobaze, lo-
gosi mxolod iq gamodis idumalebidan, sadac

4
azri dialogSi Sedis gansxvavebul azrTan.
mkiTxvels SesaZlebloba eZleva qarTul
enaze gaecnos aRniSnul koloqviumze miSel
fukos mier wakiTxul moxsenebas da am mox-
senebis Sesaxeb gamarTul diskusias.
fukos moxseneba azrovnebis iseTive xasi-
aTis dramaa, rogoric platonis dialogebia.
platonis dialogebSi mTavari personaJi yov-
elTvis sokratea. misi mewyvileebisa Tu spar-
ing-partniorebis rols asruleben dialogis
sxva personaJebi, Jil delozis terminiT rom
vTqvaT, `koncept-personaJebi~. miSel fukos
mier dadgmuli am dramis personaJebad gvev-
linebian: nicSe, froidi, marqsi.
Tvali gadavavloT azrovnebis am `didi
sameulis~ da TviT dramis avtoris, _ miSel
fukos vinaobas.
fridrix nicSe ambobda, rom azrovne-
ba aris yofnis umaRlesi forma, sicocxlis
zeimi. haidegeri gvirCevs CavufiqrdeT si-
tyva `zeims~. zeimi iTxovs xangrZliv da gul-
modgine momzadebas, Tu gvsurs viazrovnoT,
unda movemzadoT aseTi zeimiaTvis, Tundac
TviT zeimamde ver mivaRwioT, azris zeimisaken
mimaval gzaze sacnauri gavxadoT, ras niSnavs
azrovnebde da eZiebde namdvili yofierebis
niSnebs.
nicSesaTvis SekiTxva `ra aris WeSmarite-
5
ba?~ niSnavs `ra aris arsebuli?~ ase dasmuli
kiTxva ukve gulisxmobs arsebulTa yofierebis
Ziebas, yofiereba ki aris dadgineba, xdomile-
ba, aqtualoba, qmedeba. maTi saerTo saxeli,
nicSesaTvis aris `sicocxle~. sicocxles yov-
elTvis nebelobiTi xasiaTi aqvs, xolo neba,
Tavisi arsis mixedviT, aris Zalauflebis neba,
rac yvela RirebulebaTa gadafasebas, zekacis
movlenas da marad igiveSi dausrulebel kv-
lavdabrunebas gulisxmobs. gonieri sicocx-
lis bolo wels, vidre SeSlilobis seni sab-
olood daubnelebda gonebas, nicSem Caifiqra
Tavisi mTavari wigni _ `Zalauflebis neba.
yvela RirebulebaTa gadafaseba~. man am wignis
mxolod konturebis moxazva moaswro. daum-
Tavrebeli wigni mxolod avtoris sikvdilis
Semdeg gamoica. Sedgeboda 483 fragmentisa da
aforizmisagan. momdevno gamocemebSi is nic-
Ses arqividan aRebuli kidev bevri `fragmen-
tiT~ Seavses.
nicSe 1844 wels daibada protestanti
mRvdlis ojaxSi. swavlobda klasikur filo-
logias da am sferoSi sruliad axalgazrda
gaxda profesori bazelis universitetSi. 1879
wlidan Tavs anebebs akademiur moRvaweobas da
Semdegi cxra weliwadi ukiduresad daZabul
SemoqmedebiT meditaciebSi iZireba.
1882-1885 wlebSi qmnis Tavis yvelaze cno-
6
bil nawarmoebs `ase ambobda zaratustra~,
romelsac Tavisi filosofiis karibWes uwo-
debs. mas moyveba `moralis genialogia~, “Esse
Homo”, `antiqriste~ d sxva.
1889 wels SeSlobis mZime sens veRar um-
klavdeba da sicocxlis darCenil wlebs
stacionarul samkuranlo dawesebulebebSi
atarebs. gardaicvala 1900 wlis 25 agvistos.
rogorc amboben, nicSem iseTi ram miawoda
mTel Semdgom dasavleT evropul filoso-
fias, romelic jerac ar aris gadalaxuli;
metic, safiqralia, saerTod `gadaulaxavi~ xom
ar aris misi ganazrebani `adamianis gadalax-
vis~ Sesaxeb...
karl marqsi (1817-1885) is moazrovnea,
vinc ufro meti gavlena moaxdina uaxlesi
politikuri istoriis msvlelobaze, vidre
romelime sxvam. marqsis gavlena ganicada
araerTma moazrovnem evropasa Tu aRmosav-
leTSi. studentobis wlebSi is gatacebuli
iyo hegelis filosofiiT. gaxda axalgazrda
memarcxene hegelinelTa wris wevri. 1943 wels
gamokvlevaSi `hegelis samarTlis filosofiis
kritikisaTvis~ mivida im daskvnamde, rom `sax-
elmwifo aris samoqalaqo sazogadoebis para-
ziti~. `1844 wlis ekonomiur-filosofiur
xelnawerebSi~ Camoayaliba moZRvreba adamia-
nis arsis gaucxoebaze da mis SesaZlo emansi-
7
paciaze, `adamianuri adamianis~ (Homo Humanis)
aRdgenaze. 1845 wels f. engelsTan Tanaavto-
robiT dawera ortomiani gamokvleva `germanu-
li ideologia~. avtorebi cdilobdnen daesab-
uTebinaT, rom ideologia yalbi cnobierebaa,
radgan is gansazRvrulia ama Tu im warmoe-
bis wesiT da gabatonebuli klasis batonobis
iaraRs warmoadgens. yvela gaukuRmarTebu-
li sazogadoeba warmoSobs gaukuRmarTebul
ideologias. swored aseTia dasavluri ide-
alisturi filosofia. kacobrioba rom gamov-
ides gaucxoebis mdgomareobidan, azrovnebam,
upirveles yovlisa, unda awarmoos ideologi-
is radikaluri kritika. 1847 wels (engelsTan
TanaavtorobiT) londonSi dawera `komunis-
turi partiis manifesti~, xolo 70-ian wlebSi
Seqmna Tavisi mTavari Sroma `kapitali~ (sam
tomad). am analitikur TxzulebaSi keTdeba
daskvna, rom sawarmoo Zalebisa da warmoebiTi
urTierTobebis Sinagani logika iqamde miva,
rom revoluciis saSualebiT kacobriobis gan-
viTarebas moexsneba borkilebi da msoflio
istoria dagvirgvindeba yovlismomcveli da
usasrulo humanizmiT.
warmoebis Zveli wesis axliT Secvlis mar-
qsistuli modeli dRes aRar aris aqtualuri,
radgan prognozi ar daemTxva sinamdviles, ma-
gram ideologiis kritikis meTodi kvlav in-
8
teresis sagania.
zigmund froidma Seqmna fsiqoanalizi,
romelsac axal mecnierebas, metafsiqologias
uwodebda. sxvanairad is `siRrmis fsiqologi-
is~ saxeliT aris cnobili. `siRrmis~ imitom,
rom froidamde mecniereba icnobda sulieri
cxovrebis mxolod zedapirul fenas _ cno-
bierebas, froidma Tavisi xangrZlivi friqi-
atriuli praqtikis Sedegad aRmoaCina, cno-
bierebis miRma da mis `zurgs ukan~ damaluli
aracnobieri fsiqikuris usasrulo okeane.
cnobiereba SeiZleba mxolod aisbergis wvets
SevadaroT, romelic okeanis zedapirzea amo-
yvinTuli. aracnobieris birTvs qmnis e.w. li-
bido _ seqsualur ltolvaTa fsiqikuri en-
ergia. froidma Camoayaliba adamianis sulieri
wyobis aseTi sqema: `igi~ _ aracnobieri; `me~ _
cnobieri da `ze-me~ sazogdoebrivi ideolo-
gia. aracnobier fsiqikurSi froidis kvlevebma
daadastura oTxi sferos arseboba. esenia: wi-
nacnobieri, gandevnili aracnobieri, arqauli
memkvidreoba da sakuTriv aracnobieri. maT
Soris pirveladia `sakuTriv aracnobieri~,
xolo danarCenebi meoreuli derivatuli
Sreebia. aracnobieri ltolvebs cnobierebis
sinaTleze ar uSvebs me-s foladis bade, ami-
tom xdeba sublimacia, saxecvlili `aracnob-
ieri ltolva~ gardaiqmneba kulturis qm-
9
nilebad da gamovlenas poulobs religiur,
eTikur, esTetikur aqtebSi, sazogadoebriv
dawesebulebebSi. Tu sublimacia dabrkolda,
maSin ltolvam SeiZleba gaangrios `me~-s fo-
ladis bade da daarRvios pirovnebis mTliano-
ba. swored aseTi darRvevaa SeSliloba, fsiqi-
kuri sneuleba. fsiqoanalizi adamianis sulSi
moqmedi igi-s, me-s da ze-me-s Soris darRveu-
li wonasworobis aRdgenaa. pacientis eno-
briv velSi moqmedi daSifruli aracnobieri
ltolvebis deSifraciaa. faruli sazrisebis
ganmarteba da interpretaciaa. es deSifracia
xdeba fsiqoanalitikosisa da pacientis anali-
tikuri TanamSromlobis Sedegad.
fsiqoanalizi gascda pirovnebis fsiqoTer-
apiis sazRvrebs da saerTod kulturisa da is-
toriis ganmartebis meTodad iqca.
fukos moxsenebis ZiriTadi Tezisi aseTia:
azrovnebis am `didma sameulma~ Secvala ev-
ropuli azrovnebis gezi. maT Secvales TviT
interpretaciis wesi. ar arsebobs `Semec-
nebis arqimedis wertili~, romelzec dekarte
laparakobda, arseboben mxolod usasrulod
mravali sainterpretacio velebi, Taviseburi
paraleluri samyaroebi, romlebzec amJamad
21-e saukunis kosmologia alaparakda.
aseTi postmodernistuli `kondicia~ nic-
Ses versiaSi iRebs SeSlilis saxe, romelsac
10
Segnebuli aqvs rom SeSlilia, marqsTan esaa
gaucxoebuli adamiani, romelsac Segnebuli
aqvs, rom is gaucxoebulia; xolo froidis
variantSi esaa cnobiereba, romelmac icis,
rom mis zurgs ukan mimdinareobs Tavisive
aracnobieris boboqroba da Seryvnileba. sami-
ve figura usasrulo sainterpretacio TamaSs
TamaSobs.
miSel fuko (1926-1984) Tanamedrove evro-
puli inteleqtualuri cxovrebis erT-erTi
arqiteqtoria. 1970 wlidan is xelmZRvanelob-
da parizis Collêge de France-s azrovnebis siste-
maTa istoriis kaTedras. kvlevis mravalmxrivi
interesis miuxedavad, swored azrovnebis sis-
temebi, `diskursebi~, `konfiguraciebi~, ro-
gorc TviTon uwodebda, maTi cvalebadobisa
da urTierTmonacvlebis meqanizmebi iyo misi
gamokvlevis mTavari Tema. es Tema azrovnebis
meTodis anu gagebisa da ganmartebis wesis kv-
levas warmoadgens. fukos azriT, dasavluri
civilizaciis da kulturis yovel epoqas in-
terpetaciis sakuTari wesi da teqnikebi aqvs.
am teqnikebis kvlevis sakuTar meTodologias
fukom uwoda `humanitarul mecnierebaTa ar-
qeologia~, mogvianebiT termini arqeologia
Secvala `genialogiiT~. amgvari midgoma gu-
lisxmobda Tanamedrove azrovnebis bunebis
Tavisebur gagebas; fukosTvis Tanamedrove
11
azrovneba aris kritikuli refleqsiis, ufro
swored, metarefleqsiisa da metakognituris
gansakuTrebuli forma, romelSic igulisx-
meba gonebrivi ganviTarebis safexuri, sa-
dac moazrovne Tvals adevnebs sakuTari az-
rovnebis procesebs, amCnevs mis dadebiT da
uaryofiT mxareebs, kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs
gabatonebul mentalur sqemebs da kreatiulad
cvlis sakuTari mentaluri velis kodirebis
wesebs. fukos meTodologia, misi azrovnebis
arqeologia ikvlevs Cveni mentaluri gamoc-
dilebis aqtualur vels _ rogorc TviTon
uwodebs _ diskursul praqtikebs.
sityva `arqeologia~, romelic `siZveleT-
mcodneobs~ niSnavs. am SemTxvevaSi gulisxmobs
azrovnebis `aucilebeli da saWiro mutaciebis
cikls~, codnas, romlis transformacias Tu
morig konfiguracias warmoadgens Cveni menta-
luri aqtualobis veli.
ZiriTadi Teoriuli Sromebi `sityvebi da
sagnebi~ (1966) da `codnis arqeologia~ (1969),
eZRvneba dasavluri azrovnebis epistemuri
praqtikebis ciklis gamovlenas. `arqeologi-
uri dazvervis~ areSia moqceuli uzarmazari
masala filosofiis, enaTmecnierebis, liter-
aturaTmcodnoeibs, xelovnebis, ekonomikis,
eTnologiis sferoebidan. fuko gamoyofs epis-
temuri organizaciis sam epoqas. 1) aRorZineba
12
XVI saukumede; 2) klasikuri ganmanaTleblobis
epoqa XVIII saukunemde; 3) modernulobis dro
XIX saukunidan.
aRorZinebis epoqis diskursi XVI saukun-
emde emyareba msgavsebis (La ressemblahse) prin-
cips. msgavsebaTa diskursSi miwa zemoqmedebs
zecaze, rac qveviT aris msgavsia, imisa, rac aris
zeviT, qveskneli areklavs zesknels da a.S.
fuko gamoyofs msgavsebis oTx saxeobas:
esenia: Sesabamisoba (Conveninetia), metoqeoba
(aumulatio), analogia da simpatia. ar arsebobs
msgavsebaTa samyaro uniSnod, msgavsebaTa sa-
myaro usaTuod mniSvnelobaTa aRniSvnebis sa-
myaroa. XVII saukunidan msgavseba codnis kri-
teriums ki ar warmoadgens, aramed Secdomis
wyaros. msgavsebaTa batonobis xana dasasruls
uaxlovdeba. adamianebi ukve aRar endobian
msgavsebaTa qimerebs. maT ician, rom saganTa
damsgavseba, danaTesavaeba da erT klasSi mo-
qceva SeiZleba crurwmenebisa da gradaciis
safuZvelze moxdes.
XVII saukunis meore naxevridan interpre-
taciis axali wesi mkvidrdeba, romelic srul
gaSlas XVIII saukuneSi aRwevs. am wess fuko
`klasikur epistemes~ uwodebs. esaa univer-
saluri kalkulaciis, gamoTvlis, maTezisisa
da taqsonomiisagan Semdgari sistema. amaSia
elementaruli sawyisebis kombinirebis wes-
13
Ta siaxle. codnis axleburad organizebul
sivrceSi aqcenti gadadis identobebze da sx-
vaobebze.
XIX saukuneSi kvlav icvleba codnis kon-
figuracia. am cvlilebis aRmomCenebi da li-
derebi, fukos azriT, arian nicSe, froidi da
marqsi. isini xelaxla aRmoaCenen interpre-
taciis teqnikas, hermenevtikis axal SesaZle-
blobebs usaxaven. oRond codnis organizebis
modernul velze aRar moqmedebs aRsaniSnis
aRmniSvenli _ niSani. am velze mxolod ga-
namrtebaTa usasrulo variaciebiT, kombina-
ciebiT TamaSia SesaZlebeli. fukos azriT,
aseTia Tanamedrove codnis konfiguracia,
magram igi `maSinve gauCinardeba, rogorc ki
codna axal formas miiRebs~. momavlis niS-
nebze dakvirvebis Sedegad, fuko Tavs ufle-
bas aZlevda eTqva: `sanaZleos davdeb, adamiani
iseve gauCinardeba, rogorc zRvis sanapiros
qviSaze moxazuli figura~.
sruli gaugebroba da Secdoma iqneboda
gvefiqra, rom fuko epistemologiur da eTi-
kur relativizms qadagebs. is cdilobs iaz-
rovnos da upirveles yovlisa, sakuTari viTa-
rebis kritika awarmoos. fukom amas `sakuTari
Tavis kritikuli ontologia~ uwoda, romelic
araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda iqnes gagebuli,
rogorc doqtrina, an Tundac rogorc codnis
14
permanentuli ualternativo korpusi.
fukos dakvirvebiT, nicSec, marqsica da
froidic meTodologiur gadatrialebas imiT
aRweven, rom WeSmaritebis dasavlur ideas
Sinaganad ukavSireben Zalauflebis ideas. te-
qsti unda gavigoT, rogorc represiuli ba-
tonobis veli, rogorc ideologia, anu yalbi
cnobiereba. codnis erTi konfiguraciidan
meore konfiguraciaze gadasvlis meqanizmebi,
arsebiTad aris Zalauflebis meqanizmebi. Za-
lauflebis globaluri instituciebi, fukos
dakvirvebiT, Tanamedrove viTarebaSi Sevsebu-
lia `Zalauflebis mikroqselebiT~, romlebSic
Cven yvelani CarTulni varT. erTdroulad
varT Zalauflebis subieqtebi da obieqtebi.
viRacas vemonebiT da viRacaze vbatonobT.
industriuli civilizaciis uaxles fazaSi,
Zalauflebis qselebis mravalsaxeoba tota-
lurad msWvalavs adamianuri yofnis mTel
gasaqans, yovel ujreds, is gansakuTrebuli
saxiT vlindeba cixeSi, klinikaSi, seqsualur
regulaciebSi. am sferoTa genezisi evropaSi
gamokvleulia fukos SromebSi: `fsiqikuri
daavadeba da personuloba~ (1955), `SeSlilo-
bisa da ugunurebis istoria klasikur epoqaSi~
(1961), `klinikis dabadeba~ (1963), `zedamxedv-
eloba da sasjeli~ (1975), `codnisadmi neba~
(1971), `seqsualobis istoria dasavleTSi~ (sam
15
tomad (1978-1989) da sxv.
am SromebSi fukom gamoavlina Zalau-
flebis fenomenis Tanamedrove Tavisebureba-
ni. am Taviseburebebidan aRsaniSnavia: xelisu-
flebis anonimuroba, kontrolis panoptizmi
da translirebadi xasiaTi, normirebisa da
procedurebis formalizeba, fizikuri wamebi-
dan da reglamentaciebidan sasjelis aqcentis
gadatana mentalobisa da `semiozisis repre-
siul kodirebaze~ da sxv.
nicSe, froidi, marqsi... TviTon miSel
fuko sakmaod skandalur figurebad iTvle-
bian. akademiuri sferos SigniT Tu gareT, maT
Sesaxeb, mravali Wori vrceldeba.
mniSvnelovan interess iwvevs nicSes mo-
ZRvrebis saeWvo kavSiri faSizmTan, marqsis
Teoriis kavSiri komunizmTan, froidis „oi-
diposis kompleqsis“ kavSiri amoralizmTan;
da bolos TviTon miSel fukos „genderuli
gadaxrebi“. romlebzec, rogorc erTi Teo-
logi ambobs, „sul asiode wlis win, yvelaze
xelidan wasuli avazkic ki sircxviliT gawiT-
ldeboda“. ra SeiZleba iTqvas amaze?
nicSe, froidi da marqsi meamboxe moazro-
vneebi arian, isini gvafrTxileben adamianis
rTuli bunebisa da SesaZlo paTologiebis Sesa-
xeb. nicSe kacobriobis gamajansaRebelze, ze-
kacze qadagebda, marqsi laparakobda „saqonlis
16
fetiSizmze“; frodi cdilobda aexsna rogor
moxda, rom siyvaruli, anu im adamianis gaRmer-
Teba, vinc tkbobis wyaroa, Caanacvla sxvisi tan-
jviT tkbobam (sadizmi) an TviTtanjvis (mazo-
xizmi) depresiam. samive moazrovne miuTiTebs,
rom gonebis formalizacia mxolod warmoebis
manqanuri wesis inteleqtualuri gamoxatvaa,
rac saSualebas fetiSad aqcevs, batonoba da
Zalaufleba xdeba TviTmizani.
nicSes, marqsisa da froidis moZRvrebebs
axasiaTebs xibli, rac periodulad eufleba
adamianTa garkveul jgufebs. Tavisufleba
da Semecneba Zneli da rTuli gzis gavlas gu-
lisxmobs. adamians uCndeba midrekileba Tavi-
si Tavisufleba sxvas gadaabaros, „fiureri“
ipovos, vinc yvelaferi icis da yvela kiTxva-
ze winaswar gamzadebuli pasuxi aqvs. moZR-
vris xibliT mojadoebuli adamianebi, fsiqoa-
nalizSi mxsnels xedaven, xolo froids ise
uyureben, rogorc axali religiis mociquls.
aseTive fanebi hyavs marqssac da nicSesac.
nicSes XX saukunis winaswarmetyvelad mi-
iCneven. zogierTi misi prognozi, marTlac
gasaocari sizustiT axda. man iwinaswarmetyve-
la ideologiuri msoflio omebis epoqa, mec-
nierebisa da demokratiis ayvavebisa da gafur-
Cqvnis xanaSi evropaSi amoifrqveoda barbaro-
sobis vulkani. dResac bevrs xiblavs azri, rom
17
barbarosobis afeTqeba da „msoflio wesrigis“
kolafsi gardauvalia, rac gzas miscems ufro
srulyofil adamians. marqsis Tezisi: _ kapi-
talizmi Seicavs TviTganadgurebis, TviTmospo-
bis elementebs _ kvlavac poulobs adamianTa
gonebaSi gamoZaxils. amis Sedegia e.w. islamuri,
konfucianuri an afrikanuli „maqrsizmebi“.
akademiur sferoSi nicSes, froidisa da
marqsis erTgvari koqteili Seqmnes frank-
furtis socialuri kvlevis institutis Ta-
namSromlebma: Teodor adornom, herbert
markuzem, maqs horkhaimerma, iurgen habermas-
ma da sxvebma. isini cdiloben daamuSaon sa-
zogadoebrivi komunikaciis modeli, romelic
metnaklebad Tavisufali iqneba „represiuli
kontrolisagan“, sabazro ekonomikis stiqiisa-
gan, bunebrivi resursebis mospobisgan da a.S.
poperma SeniSna: marqszimi da fsiqoa-
nalizi, roca masebs daeufleba, ukve aRar
SeiZleba CaiTvalos mecnierebad. saqme gvaqvs
masiur xiblTan, masebis motyuebasTan. k.mar-
qsis „manifesti“ iwyeba sityvebiT: „aCrdili
dadis evropaSi, aCrdili komunizmisa!“ 21-e
saukunis inteleqtualuri cxovreba ar aris
Tavisufali nicSes, froidisa da marqsis aCr-
dilebisagan. „sameulis“ aCrdilebi dResac
Tavs dagvtrialeben da aravin uwyis sad da
rodis daeuflebian masebs.
18
Cven vcxovrobT kulturis industriis
epoqaSi. es imas niSnavs, rom filosofiuri
ideebi, mxatvruli saxeebi, qcevisa da TamaSis
wesebi, moTxovnilebebi da gemovneba tiraJi-
rebulia masiuri media saSualebebiT; male
daiwyeba TviTon adamianis tiraJireba kloni-
rebiT ... Cven yvelani industriis anonimuri
xelmwifobis uRelqveS moveqceT. nicSe, froi-
di da marqsi Cvenamde aRweven „masiuri saqon-
lis“ saxiT, rac azrovnebisaTvis xelis SemS-
lel „niSanTa tiraniad“ gvevlineba.
nicSes mTavari idea _ „sicocxlis zeimi“ _
nacistur variantSi holokostis preambulaa.
marqsis mTavari idea _ „Sromis sufeva~ _
sabWoTa an mao Ze-dunis variantSi, „xalxis mt-
rebis“ genocidis proeqtia.
froidis mTavari idea _ „ena-aracnobieri
Sifri“ _ pornoindustriis Teoriuli saxel-
mZRvaneloa.
magram aseTi „programuli komentarebi“
rom Seqmniliyo, saWiro gaxda filosofiuri
ideebis gacalmxriveba, gaprimitiuleba da da-
maxinjeba. sxvanairad SeuZlebelia yvelam er-
Tnairad waikiTxos filosofiuri wigni. fuko
cdilobs gaxsnas naazrevis wakiTxvaze masiu-
ri kontrolis meqanizmi. fuko aCvenebs, rom
„sameulis“ mier daweril wignebSi, romlebic
aTasobiT gverds moicavs, sinamdvileSi is ki
19
ar aris Tqmuli rasac kiTxuloben faSiste-
bi, komunistebi an aramkiTxe da TviTmarqvia
kacobriobis Wkuis maswavleblebi, aramed ra-
Rac sxva. aravis ZaluZs orjer Sevides erTi
da igive mdinareSi, radgan is miedineba, aseve
„miedineba“ „diadi wignebis“ Sinaarsi mkiTxve-
lis azrebSi.
fukos dakvirvebiT, Cveni epoqis yvelaze
mniSvnelovani filosofiuri arCevani aseTia:
adamiani Tavisi arsebobis wess poulobs (nic-
Ses, froidis da marqsis mier aRmoCenil): si-
cocxlis, Sromisa da enis Ria, dausrulebel
ganfenilobaSi. es aris gauCinarebis mudmivi
safrTxis qveS moZraoba. amitom dRevandeli
azrovneba vidre mouwodebdes an daakvalia-
nebdes kacobriobas, ukve imTaviTve saxifaTo
qmedebaa; misi amocanaa fxizlad uTvalTvalos
momavlis horizontis xazs.
azrovnebis `didi sameulis~ sainterpreta-
cio meTodikis gacnoba saaSualebas gvaZlevs,
rom isini TviTon am moazrovneTa mimarTac
gamoviyenoT. diskusiaSi fukos sayveduroben,
rom is ar iTvaliswinebs religiur hermenev-
tikas. fukos moxseneba SeiZleba swored am
kuTxiT ganvixiloT.
fukos moxsenebis dedaazri aseTia: in-
terpretaciebis axali teqnikebis saSualebiT,
Cven, ukve ganmartebulni, davkiTxavT Cvensave
20
ganmmarteblebs _ nicSes, froids, marqss, da
amgvarad, Cven urTierTvireklebiT sarkeTa
usasrulo TamaSSi. sarkeTa metaforas xSir-
ad iyeneben postmodernistebi. mTeli es ga-
nazrebani Tanamedrove diskursisa da inter-
pretaciis meTodebis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba pavle
mociqulis korinTelTa mimarT epistoles
erTi muxlis komentarad CaiTvalos. es muxli
wm. giorgi mTawmindelis TargmanSi ase JRers:
`rameTu vxedavT aq viTarca sarkiT da saxiTa,
xolo maSin ki pirispir. axla vuwyi mcired,
xolo merme vcna, viTarca Sevimecne~ (13.12).
rogor unda gavigoT mociqulis es gam-
onaTqvami? RvTismetyvelni fiqroben, rom
masSi adamianuri azrovnebis, rogorc ase-
Tis, buneba aris ganmartebuli. jer-jerobiT,
TiTqos sarkeSi bundovani anarekliT vxedavT
samyaros da mis Semoqmed ufals, xolo `maSin~,
ucnob momavalSi, azrovnebis CvenTvis cnobi-
li wesisgan principulad ganuWvretel kondi-
ciaSi `pirisa pirispir~ Sevimecneb yovelives,
rogorc TviTon RmerTisgan viqnebi Semecneb-
uli.
fuko uars ambobs bibliuri hermenevti-
kis velze imoZraos. mas urCevnia velaskesis
genialuri qmnileba `sefeqalebi~ ganmartos,
sadac, aseve, adamianuri azrovnebis buneba,
sarkeebis metaforiT aris gamoxatuli. fuko
21
nawrmoebs ganmartavs, rogorc reprezenta-
ciis rTul, sarkisebur models. (`sityvebsa
da sagnebSi~ mTeli Tavi eZRvneba am qmnilebis
ganmartebas). platonis gamoqvabulis miTidan
moyolebuli `sarkeebisa~ da `anareklebis~
metafora usasrulod meordeba filosofiaSi,
literaturaSi, saxviT xelovnebaSi, kinemato-
grafiaSi. am azriT, evropuli azrovnebis te-
qstebSi SeiZleba davinaxoT Taviseburi inter-
teqsti, isini erTi giganturi `ontoteqstis~
fragmentebad da furclebad SegviZlia gan-
vixiloT. rogorc J. Jeneti aRniSnavs, inter-
teqstualoba mxatvruli teqstis interpreta-
ciis paradigmas warmoadgens.
argentineli mwerali xose luis borxe-
si filosofiur eskizSi `enigmaTa sarke~,
gvTavazobs retrospeqtul meditacias pavle
mociqulis gamonaTqvamze: `aw vxedavT viTarca
sarkiTa da saxiTa~. borxesi fiqrobs, rom caTa
wiaRSi dafaruli auracxel ufskrulTa sim-
ravle, Cveni Sinagani samyaros sarkeSi Cenili
anareklia. nakvalevi, romelsac adamiani dro-
Si tovebs, erTgvar Seucnobel suraTad ixaze-
ba. RvTiuri goneba mas iseve mkafiod aRiqvams,
rogorc Cven samkuTxedis figuras. am suraTs
(SesaZloa) raRacnairi roli aqvs gamzadebuli
samyaros harmoniaSi.
mTargmnelebi

22
miSel fuko

nicSe, froidi, marqsi

23
roca me am `mrgvali magidis~1 Sesaxeb Se-
vityve, sagonebelSi Camagdo am Zalze sain-
tereso Canafiqris sirTulem. am dabrkolebis
daZleva ki ase vcade: me gTavazobT ramdenime
Temas, isini Seexeba interpretaciis teqnikebs
marqsTan, nicSesTan da froidTan.
sinamdvileSi saqme imaSia, rom am Temebis
ukan imaleba, Cemi didi xnis ocneba, rom erT
mSvenier dRes SevZlebT SevadginoT yvela
CvenTvis cnobili interprtaciis teqnikebis
sruli krebuli, dawyebuli berZeni grama-
tikosebidan dRemde. ramdenadac CemTvis cno-
bilia, jer-jerobiT, amgvari krebulis Zalze
cota Tavebi Tu iqneba dawerili. amjerad ki
im savaraudo krebulis zogadi Sesavlis saxiT,
imis Tqma SemiZlia, rom ena, yovel SemTxvevaSi
_ ena indoevropuli kulturebis wiaRSi, yov-
elTvis badebda ori saxis eWvs.
pirveli: gviCndeba eWvi, rom ena yovelT-
vis ar gadmoscems imas, rasac ambobs. sinamd-
vileSi gadmoscems saTqmelis mxolod umcires
nawils. is azri, romelic aRiqmeba da uSualod
mJRavndeba, SeiZleba mxolod faravs ufro
Rrma, ufro Zireul da amdenad gansxvavebul
mniSvnelobebs. berZnebi amas uwodebdnen: ale-
goria da hiponoia.
meore mxriv, ena kidev sxva eWvs badebs:
gvafiqrebinebs, rom is ar eteva sakuTriv
24
wminda verbalur formaSi da gamodis am for-
midan; samyaroSi bevri sxva ramea, rac metyve-
lebs (parle), magram ar miekuTvneba enas. bune-
ba, zRva, xeebis mSrali, cxovelebi, saxeebi,
niRbebi, gadajvaredinebuli danebi, SeiZleba
yvelaferi es metyvelebs (parle), SeiZleba ar-
sebobs ara verbaluri enac. zogad StrixebSi,
es garemoeba SegviZlia gadmovceT berZnuli
terminiT Semainon.
zemoT gamoTqmuli ori eWvi, romelic
jer kidev Zvel berZnebs gauCndaT, dResac ar
gamqrala, CvenTvisac nacnobia; Cven amaze fiqri
daviwyeT XIX saukunidan da aRmovaCineT, rom
es munji Jestebi, melodiebi, mTeli es mousve-
nari garemo Cvens irgvliv, aseve SeiZleba iyos
metyveli. yuri miugdoT am SesaZlo enas da si-
tyvebis miRma gamovavlinoT raRac sxva, ufro
arsebiTi diskursi.
vfiqrob yvela kulturas, ufro sworad,
dasavluri civilizaciis yvela kulturul
formas, aqvs interpretaciis sakuTari siste-
ma, damaxasiaTebeli teqnika, Tavisi meTodebi.
es yvelaferi im eWvis Sedegia, rom enas sxva
ramis Tqma unda, vidre is, rasac ambobs; rom
Cemi enis miRma kidev sxva ena arsebobs. me
mgonia, Rirda agvego interpretaciis amgvari
xerxebis sistema (cxrili, rogorc ityodnen
XVIII saukuneSi), raTa gavigoT Tu interpre-
25
taciis rogori sistema dafuZnda XIX sauku-
neSi da aqedan gamomdinare interpretaciis
romel sistemas vekuTvniT amJamad; me mgonia,
kargi iqneboda, mivubrundeT intrepretaciis
xerxebis iseT moZvelebul tips, magaliTad,
romelic SeiZleba arsebobda XVI saukuneSi.
mxolod msgavseba SeiZleba yofiliyo elemen-
taruli erTeuli, riTac SeiZleboda operi-
reba yovelgvari interpretaciis im speqtrSi.
mxolod iq SeiZleboda raRac Tqmuliyo da
Semdeg gaSifruliyo, sadac sagnebi erTmaneTs
hgvanan, sadac raRaca raRacis msgavsia. kar-
gad aris cnobili, rogor mniSvnelovan rols
TamaSobda msgavseba da misi Tanmxlebi cnebebi
kosmologiaSi, botanikaSi, zoologiaSi, XVI
saukunis filosofiaSi. simarTle, rom vTq-
vaT, dRevandeli gadasaxedidan XX saukunis
adamianisaTvis msgavsebaTa yvela am gadajaW-
vas aklia simwyobre da ar aris sakmarisad na-
Teli. sinamdvileSi ki msgavsebaTa es korpusi
uzadod iyo organizebuli XVI saukuneSi, vi-
naidan is emyareboda, sul cota xuT kargad
gansazRvrul cnebas.
konvergenciis anu misadagebis cneba. mag-
aliTad, sulisa sxeulTan, an sxeulTa seriisa
mcenareulTa seriasTan.
simpatiis cneba, anu cneba, romelic aRniS-
navs gansxvavebul substanciebSi aqciden-
26
ciebis identobas;
emulaciis cneba anu atributebis saoca-
ri paralelizmi gansxvavebul substanciebsa
da arsebebSi, imgvarad, rom erTi atributi
TiTqos meoris anareklia.
amrigad (rogorc porta2 miuTiTebs) ada-
mianis saxeSi gamoiyofa Svidi nawili, es aris
cisa da misi Svidi planetis emulacia.
Signatura-s, cneba romelic, individebs So-
ris, warmoadgens uxilavi da faruli Tvise-
bebis gamosaxulebas.
da bolos, ra Tqma unda, analogiis cneba,
rac warmoadgens or an ramdenime substancias
Soris mimarTebis identurobas.
amgvarad, niSnisa da interpretaciis te-
qnikis Teoria, im xanaSi, efuZneboda ms-
gavsebis yvela SesaZlo tipis sakmaod naTel
gansazRvrebas da ayalibebda Semecnebis or
gansxvavebul princips: kognicia, romelic iyo
sakmaod calmxrivi gadasvla erTi msgavsebi-
dan meoreze; da divinacia, anu siRrmeSi wa-
suli Semecneba, romelic zedapiruli msgavse-
bidan ufro Rrma msgavsebisaken midis. yvela
es msgavsebebi gamosaxavdnen koncensuss im sa-
myarosTan, romelic maT qmnis; isini upirisp-
irdebodnen simulakrums, e.i. cud msgavsebas,
romlis safuZvelia dapirispireba RmerTsa da
eSmaks Soris.
27
XVII _ XVIII saukuneebSi dasavluri azris
evoluciam SeaCera XVI saukunis sainterpre-
tacio xerxebis qmediToba. msavsebis principis
bekoniseulma da kartezianulma kritikam nam-
dvilad didi roli iTamaSa imaSi, rom isini
brWyalebSi Casmuli aRmoCndnen. XIX saukuneSi,
upirveles yovlisa marqsma, nicSem da froid-
ma Cvens winaSe gaxsnes interpretaciis axali
Tvalsawierebi, xelaxla daafuZnes hermenev-
tikis SesaZleblobebi.
iseTi Sromebi, rogoricaa marqsis `kapi-
talis~ pirveli wigni, nicSes `tragediis
dabadeba~ da `moralis genialogia~, an froi-
dis `sizmrebis ganmarteba~, kvlav sainterpre-
tacio teqnikebis pirispir gvayenebs. dasav-
lur azrovnebaSi am naSromebiT gamowveuli
marTlac Wrilobismagvari, Sokuri efeqti
ueWvelia iqidan momdinareobs, rom maT Cveni
xedvis areSi kvlav Semoitanes, is raRac, rasac
marqsi `ieroglifebs~ uwodebda, aman uxerxul
mdgomareobaSi Cagvayena, radan es sainterpre-
tacio teqnikebi Cven TviTon Segvexeba, vinaid-
an swored Cven, interpretatorebi, SevudeqiT
Cvenive Tavis interpretacias am teqnikebis
saSualebiT. axla swored am teqnikebis sa-
SualebiT xdeba Taviseburi mibruneba, Cvenve
unda gamovkiTxoT TviTon interpretatorebi
_ froidi, nicSe marqsi da amgvarad Cven urT-
28
ierT vireklebiT sarkeTa usasrulo TamaSSi.
froidi saubrobda evropul kulturaSi
momxdar sam did imedgacruebaze. pirveli da-
kavSirebulia kopernakTan, meore darvinTan,
romelic adamianis maimunisagan warmoSobas
amtkicebda, xolo mesame dartyma axla TviTon
foridma miayena kacobriobis narcisizms imiT,
rom gviTxra: adamianis cnobiereba gansaz-
Rvrulia aracnobieriT. da me Cems Tavs vusvam
kiTxvas: SeiZleba Tu ara CavTvaloT, rom mar-
qsi, nicSe da froidi, gvZiraven yovelTvis Ta-
visi Tavis amreklav interpretaciebSi, sadac
interpretacia interprtaciaSi irekleba. amiT
maT CvenTvis xom ar Seqmnes iseTi sarkeebi, sa-
dac aireklebian saxeebi, usazRvrod rom xe-
lyofen Cvens amJamindel narcisizms. swored
maT xom ar gansazRvres gagebis wesebi? yovel
SemTxvevaSi, minda swored am sakiTxTan daka-
vSirebiT gamovTqva ramdenime mosazreba. me
meCveneba, rom: dasavluri kulturis samyaro-
Si, marqss, nicSes da froids ar gauzrdiaT
niSaTa raodenoba. araviTari axali sazrisi ar
miuniWebiaT manamde uazro da sazrismokle-
buli sagnebisaTvis. oRond am moazrovneebma
Secvales TviT niSnis buneba, TviTon niSnis
interpretaciis wesi.
pirveli kiTxva, romelic minda davsva md-
gomareobs SemdegSi _ nuTu marqsma, nicSem da
29
froidma ase siRrmiseulad Secvales sivrce
sadac gabneulia niSnebi da sadac niSnebi Sei-
Zlba iyvnen niSnebi?
XVI saukuneSi, epoqaSi, romelic me aTvlis
wertilad aviRe, niSnebi yvela mimarTulebiT
homogenurad iyvnen ganlagebulni sivrceSi,
romelic TviTon iyo homogenuri. miwieri
niSnebi zecaze iseTive warmatebiT miemarTe-
bodnen, rogorc miwisqveSeTis samyaroze. niS-
nebs SeeZloT adamianidan cxovelebamde dav-
eyvaneT, xolo cxovelebidan mcenareebamde da
piriqiT. XIX saukunidan moyolebuli, froi-
didan, marqsidan da nicSedan dawyebuli, niS-
nebi ganlagdnen siRrmis TvalsazrisiT ufro
diferencirebul sivrceSi _ Tu ki siRrmes
gavigebT, rogorc raRac Sinagans, da ara priq-
iT, rogorc garegans.
kerZod vfiqrob, daucxromel kamaTze,
romelsac nicSe awarmoebda siRrmis ideasT-
an. nicSe akritikebda idealur siRrmes, cno-
bierebis siRmres, da mas filosofosTa gamo-
nagonad acxadebs. es siRrme Cveulebriv war-
mogvidgeba xolme, rogorc raRac, sadac xde-
ba WeSmaritebis wmindad Sinagani Zieba. magram
nicSe gviCvenebs, rom es siRrme arapirdapir
gulisxmobs farul TvalTmaqcobas, farisev-
lobas, SeniRbvas. ase rom, roca interpreta-
tori ganixilavs am siRmris niSnebs, raTa amxi-
30
los isini, is unda daeSvas dabla vertikalze
da aCvenos, rom Sinaganis es siRmre, sinamd-
vileSi sulac ar aris is, rogoradac Tavs
gviCvenebs. nicSes TqmiT, ganmmartebelma unda
`kargad gaTxaros safuZvlebi~.
magram interpretaciis dros sinamdvileSi
qveviT mimaval gzas mxolod imitom gadixar,
raTa aRdges damaluli da damarxuli brwy-
invale zedapiri. Tu ki interpretatori Ta-
vis `gaTxrebSi~ siRrmisken, yvelaze dabali
fenisaken unda moZraobdes, TviTon sainter-
pretacio moZraoba, piriqiT, Taviseburi sax-
is amaRlebaa, sul maRla da maRla swrafvaa,
gamoTxrili ares mzardi siRrmis mCenia. siR-
rme axla absoluturi zedapirulobis fa-
rul mxared warmogvidgeba, amgvaria arwivis
gadafrena, mTaze zeasvla, _ mTeli es verti-
kaloba, aseTi mniSvnelovani rom aris `zara-
tustraSi~, mkacrad rom vTqvaT, siRrmis re-
versiaa, misi moqceva im mxriv, romelSic aR-
moCndeba, rom is sxva araferia Tu ara TamaSi
anu zedapirulobis naoWi (de la Surface). rac
ufro Rrma gamoCndeba samyaro, miT ufro cxa-
di xdeba, rom is, rac adaminis siRrmed aris
miCneuli, mxolod bavSvuri TamaSia.
me Cems Tavs vusvam kiTxvas: ar SeiZleba
rom _ mTeli im ueWveli gansxvavebebis miuxe-
davad _ es sivrculoba (Spatalite)3, es TamaSi,
31
romelsac nicSe siRmresTan awarmoebs, Sevusa-
tyvisoT im TamaSs, romlsac marqsi eweva `si-
brtyis~ (Platitud) cnebasTan. es cneba Zalzed
mniSvnelovania marqsisTvis. kapitalis da-
sawyisSi is aCvenebs, rom persevsisgan gansx-
vavebiT, is unda CaiZiros nislSi, raTa aCve-
nos, rom mis ukan araviTari siRrmis gamocana,
araviTari urCxuli ar dgas; burJuaziis mier
Seqmnili fulis, kapitalis, Rirebulebis cne-
bebaTa miRma arsebuli siRrme, sxva araferia,
Tu ara `sibrtye~.
ra Tqma unda, aq gonivruli iqneboda
gagvxseneboda froidis mier Seqmnili sainter-
pretacio sivrce, da ara mxolod cnobierisa
da aracnobieris cnobili tipologia, aramed
mis mier dadgenili wesebi, romelebmac fsiqo-
analitikosis yuradReba unda warmarTon imis
gaSifrvaze, rac iTqmeva gabmuli metyvelebis
`jaWvSi~. Sesabamisad unda gavixsenoT _ sab-
oloo jamSi sruliad materialuri sivrco-
briobis Sesaxeb _ romelSic imyofeba fsiqo-
analitikosis zedamxedvelobis qveS myofi
avadmyofi. ramxela mniSvnelobas aniWebs amas
froidi.
meore Tema, romelic mindoda TqvnTvis Se-
momeTavazebina, nawilobriv wina TemasTan aris
dakavSirebuli. me imaze miTiTeba msurda, rom
marqsidan, nicSedan da froididan dawyebuli,
32
interpretacia gadaiqca usasrulo amocanad.
sinamdvileSi is XVI saukuneSic usasrulo
iyo, magram imJamad niSanTa urTierTmimarTeba
mxolod im farglebSi SeiZleboda damyare-
buliyo, ramdenadac msgavsebis mimarTeba
yovelTvis SezRudulia. dawyebuli XIX sau-
kunidan, niSnebi urTierTqmedebis aseve usas-
rulo, amouwurav qselSi eqceva, magram es gan-
pirobebulia ara imiT, rom viTareba emyareba
SeuzRudav msgavsebebs, aramed imis gamo, rom
Cndeba raRac gadaulaxavi RriWo.
interpretaciis dausrulebloba, misi
gaxleCiloba, misi mudmivi damokidebuleba
ganusazRvrelobaze, swored marqsis, nicSesa
da froidis mier aris aRmoCenili. me vfiqrob
es aRmoCena maT gaakeTes erTnairad: sawyisze
uaris Tqmis formiT. amas adasturebs `rob-
inzonadaze~ uaris Tqma marqsTan, aseTi arse-
biTi mniSvnelobis mqone gansxvaveba nicSesTan
`sawyissa~ da `warmomavlobas~ Soris, anali-
tikuri saqmianobis yovelTvis dausrulebeli
xasiaTi froidTan, nicSesTan, gansakuTrebiT
mkafiod froidTan, SedarebiT naklebad mar-
qsTan, Tavs iCens gamocdileba, romelsac Cemi
gagebiT, Tanamedrove hermenevtikisaTvis gad-
amwyveti mniSvnelooba eniWeba: rac ufro win
miviwevT interpretaciaSi, miT ufro vuax-
lovdebiT im absolutur saSiS sferos, sadac
33
intrpretacia ara marto iZulebuli xdeba
ukuiqces, aramed sadac is saerTod qreba ro-
gorc aseTi, rogorc interpretacia, SesaZloa
TviT interpretatoris srul gaqrobamde. ab-
solutis wertili, romliskenac yovelTvis
moiswrafvoda interpretacia, amave dros aris
garRvevis wertili. froidis Sromebidan kar-
gad Cans, Tu rogor TandaTanobiT vlindeba es
struqturuli Riaoba; Sefaruli da aluziuri
saxiT, pirvelad is gamoCnda `sizmrebis axs-
naSi~, ramdenadac froidi sakuTari sizmrebis
analizs awarmoebs, sircxvili karnaxobs Sea-
Ceros sakuTari Tavi, ar dauSvas saCumaTo am-
bebis gamomJRavneba.
doras SemTxvevis analizSi warmoiqmneba
azri imis Sesaxeb, rom interpretacia unda Se-
Cerdes, is ar SeiZleba bolomde iqnes miyvani-
li, im mizeziT, rasac, ramdenime wlis mogvi-
anebiT, froidi uwodebs transfers. analizis
amouwuravoba dasturdeba transferis mTeli
Semdgomi gamokvlevebiT, Semdeg mtkicdeba
analitikosisa da pacientis urTierTobis
dausrulebeli da problematuri xasiaTiT. es
is mimarTebaa, romelic, rogorc Cans, ganmsaz-
Rvrelia fsiqoanalitikosisaTvis. swored es
mimarTeba fsiqoanalizSi xsnis usasrulod
gaSlad vels. is verasodes dasruldeba.
nicSesTanac aseve TvalsaCinoa interpre-
34
taciis dausrulebloba. ra aris masTan fi-
losofia? is sxva araferia, Tu ara dausrule-
beli da haerSi gamokidebuli filologia, is
aris mudmivad gaSladi da iseTi, rom SeuZle-
belia srulad iqnes gansazRvruli. ratom?
imitom, rom nicSem `borotebisa da sikeTis
miRmaSi~ da turinSi, 1888 wlis Semodgomaze,
gamoaaSkarava ramdenad axlo iyo `absolutur
codnasTan~, romelic SeiZleba adamianuri yo-
fierebis daRupvas moaswavebdes.
Tu ki froidis piradi werilebis mixedviT
aRvadgenT imas, rac fsiqoanalizis aRmoCenis
dRidan mis avtors wuxilad eqca, SeiZleba
davsvaT kiTxva: Tu siRmriseulad Cavwvdeb-
iT, xom ar aris froidis es gamocdileba,
raRac nicSes gamocdilebis msgavsi? Sesa-
Zloa interpretaciis amosaval punqtSi sau-
baria im wertilisadmi konvrgenciaze, sadac
is ukve SeuZlebeli xdeba _ es raRac sigiJis
gamocdilebis msgavsia. es aris gamocdileba,
romelsac nicSe erTdroulad ebrZoda kidec
da Tanac misi xiblis qveSac iyo moqceuli. es
ukve gamocdilebaa, romelsac erTgvari SiSiT,
mTeli cxovreba ebrZoda TviTon froidi. Ses-
aZloa swored es sigiJis gamocdileba axdens
interpretaciis moZraobis sanqcirebas, sadac
is usasrulod uaxlovdeba Tavisive centrs
da miaxloebis zRvrul wertilSi daiwveba da
35
CamoiSleba.
interpretaciis arsebiTi Tvsebaa daus-
rulebloba, romelic me vfiqrob, dakavSire-
bulia or sxva, aranakleb fundamentur prin-
cipTan, isini or sxva pirncipTan erTad, rom-
lebzedac zemoT gvqonda saubari, Seadgenen
Tanamedrove hermenevtikis postulatebs. es
ukanaskneli ase SeiZleba CamovayaliboT:
Tu interpretacia arasodes ar SeiZleba
dasruldes, maSasadame araferia `sainterpre-
tacio~. araferi pirveladi ar arsebobs, ro-
melic SesaZlebelia interpretirebul iqnas.
es imitom, rom yvelaferi imTaviTve arsebi-
Tad ukve interpretaciaa, yoveli niSani (Signe)
Tavis TavSi aris ara sagani (La choce), romelic
sainterpretaciod gveZleva, aramed is sxva
araferia, Tu ara sxva niSanTa (sighe) interpre-
tacia. ar arsebobs araviTari interpretandum-i,
romelic Tavis mxriv, ukve aRar iqneboda inter-
pretans-i. interpretciaSi gamorkvevis mimarTe-
ba ki ar myardeba, aramed ufro Zalauflebis
neba realizdeba. interpretacia ar axdens
TiTqosda mis kuTvnilebaSi myofisa da pasiu-
rad minebebuli interpretirebulis gamorkve-
vas; mas mxolod winamorbedi interpretaciis
daufleba SeuZlia, romelic unda gadaatrial-
os da CaquCis dartymiT namsxvrevebad aqcios.
aseTi midgoma SeimCneoda ukve marqsTan,
36
romelic warmoebiTi urTierTobebis isto-
riis interpretacias ki ar eweva, aramed im
mimarTebebs ganmartavs, romlebic ukve in-
terpretaciebi arian, ramdenadac isini war-
modgebian rogorc arsni. aseve froidic, niS-
nebis naclvad ganmartavs intrpretaciebs. ras
gamoavlens froidi simptomebis miRma? ara
`tramvatizmebs~, romlebic gvawauxeben, ramed
SfoTis datvirTvis matarebel fantazmebs anu
iseT birTvs, romelic ukve Tavisive yofi-
erebis arsebis mixedviT aris interpretacia.
magaliTad, anoreqsia ar ukavSirdeba dedis
ZuZusagan mowyvetis moments, rogorc aRmniS-
vneli (Sighificint) _ aRsaniSns (Sighifie), romelic
unda interprertirdes niSnis an simptomis
saxiT. is gvagzavnis dedis ZuZusadmi mtro-
basTan dakavSirebul fantazmebTan, es ki ukve
interpretaciaa. misi arsi ukve molaparake
sxeulia (corps parlant), ai, ratom iyo, rom
frodi pacientebs maTive enaze ganumartavda
TviT maTganve mowodebul simptomebs. misi
ganmarteba garkveuli ganmartebis ganmatebaa,
Tanac maTsave sakuTar terminebSi. magaliTad,
cnobilia, rom froidma gamoigona termini
`ze-me~ (`Sur moia~) mas Semdeg, rac erT-erTma
avadmyofma uTxra mas: `me vgrZnob, rom Cems
zemoT (Sur moi) ZaRlia~.
nicSec eufleba interpretaciebs zus-
37
tad iseve, rogorc TviTon isini daeuflnen
erTmaneTs. nicSesTvis ar arsebobs pirveladi
aRmoCena. sityvebi TavisTavad sxva araferia,
Tu ara ganmartebebi, niSnebis statusis mop-
ovebamde; mTeli maTi arsebobis istoriis gan-
mavlobaSi isini ganmartavdnen sanam niSnebi
gaxdebodnen da mniSvneloba mxolod imdenad
hqondaT, ramdenadac sxva arafers warmoad-
gendnen Tu ara ZiriTad interpretaciebs.
amas gvidasturebs agaton-is etimologiis
cnobili magaliTi. swored amaze laparakobs
nicSe, roca ambobs, rom sityvebi yovelTvis
gabatonebuli klasebis gamonagoni iyo. isini
aRsaniSnze ki ar miuTiTebdnen, aramed Tavs
gvaxvevdnen interpretacias. aqedan gamomdin-
are, Cven dRes unda ganvmartoT ara imitom,
rom xelT gvipyria raRac pirveladi da enig-
muri niSnebi, aramed imitom, rom yovelive
imis miRma, rac iTqmis, SegviZlia misive uka-
na mxaris saxiT, aRmovaCinoT ZalmomreobiTi
ganmartebis didi qseli. am mizeziT arseboben
niSnebi, romelebic winaswar gvibiZgeben maTi
interpretaciisaken da amiT CamovarTvaT niS-
nebis statusi.
am azriT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom enas safuZ-
vlad udevs da win uswrebs allegoria da hi-
ponoia. oRond ise ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos
mogvianebiT Semocurdnen sityvaSi winaswar
38
Cadebuli sazrisebi, raTa gansazRvron maTi
gadanacvleba da vibracia. aq laparakia imaze,
rac sityvas warmoSobs da aniWebs naTebas,
romlis dafiqsireba SeuZlebelia. nicSesTan
interpretatori `WeSmaritebis mTqmelia~; ara
imitom, rom WeSmariteba ezmana, da man is gaas-
ajarova, aramed imitom, rom xmamaRla ganmar-
ta is, rasac nebismieri WeSmariteba malavs.
SesaZlebelia interpretaciis es primati ni-
SanTan mimarTebaSi Tanamedrove hermenevtikis
yvelaze arsebiTi Taviseburebad CaiTvalos.
interpretacia win uswrebs niSans. es idea
Tavis TavSi imasac gulisxmobs, rom niSani
ar aris martivi da keTilmosurne arsi, ro-
gorc es iyo XVI saukuneSi. maSin niSnis sru-
lyofileba faqti iyo, xolo sagnebis erT-
maneTisadmi msgavseba ganixileboda rogorc
RmerTis keTilmowyalebis martivi mtkiceb-
uleba. amasTan, niSani da aRsaniSni erTmane-
Tisgan gamoyofilni iyvnen gamWvirvale feniT.
amis sapirispirod, XIX saukunidan, _ dawyebu-
li froididan, marqsidan, da nicSedan, _ ni-
Sani, rogorc me meCveneba, arakeTilganwyo-
bili xdeba. amiT me minda vTqva, rom niSans
Tavis TavSi aRmoaCndeba orazrovani da saeWvo
mxare: im zomiT, ra zomiTac niSani ukve in-
terpretaciaa, is `borotmzraxvelobacaa~; is
raRacaa, rac sinamdvileSi sxvaa, magram sxva
39
ramed gviCvenebs Tavs. ganmartebebma, imis
nacvlad, rom niSnebi ganmarton, piriqiT, sa-
kuTari Tavis gamarTlebas cdiloben.
swored ase funqcionirebs `fuli~ marqsis
wignSi `politikuri ekonomiis kritikisaTvis~
da gansakuTrebiT `kapitalis~ I tomSi. swored
ase funqcionireben simptomebi froidTan;
nicSesTan _ sityvebic, sikeTisa da borotebis
binaruli opoziciac da maSasadame, niSnebic,
mxolod da mxolod niRbebia da sxva araferi.
mas Semdeg rac es axali funqcia SeiZina, _ dam-
alos ganmarteba, _ niSnebi kargaven Tavis mar-
tiv arss, _ aRmniSvnelad yofnas, romelsac
isini flobdnen jer kidev aRorZinebis epoqa-
Si. axla ukve niSans exsneba misi sakuTari siR-
rme da am xsnil areSi miizidebian is uaryofi-
Ti cnebebi, aqamde ucxo rom iyo niSnis Teori-
isaTvis. niSnis TeoriisaTvis codna Semoifar-
gleboda mxolod gamWvirvale feniT, magram
man araferi icoda niSnis uaryofiTi mxareebis
Sesaxeb. axla ukve SesaZlebelia, rom mis wi-
aRSi Camoyalibdes maTi opoziciebis TamaSi _
negatiuri konceptebis mTeli es TamaSi, ro-
melic ase warmatebiT gaanaliza deliozma Ta-
vis wignSi nicSes Sesaxeb.4
`Tavdayira mdgari dialeqtikis fexze day-
eneba~5 _ Tu ki am gamoTqmas raime azri aqvs,
maSin saqme xom ar exeba niSnis dabrunebas am
40
Ria, usasrulo sivrceSi, romelic moklebu-
lia realur Sinaarss. sadac ar xdeba Serigeba.
marqsi cdilobda dialeqtikisaTvis mieniWebi-
na pozitiuri xasiaTi, bolos da bolos man
gaauvnebelyo mTeli es negatiurobis TamaSi.
da bolos, hermenevtikis ukanaskneli
Tviseba: interpretacia dgas aucileblobis
winaSe usasrulod ganmartos Tavisi Tavi da
daubrundes Tavis Tavs. aqedan gamomdinare
unda aRiniSnos ori mniSvnelovani Sedegi.
pirveli: amieridan ganmarteba yovelTvis daay-
enebs sakiTxs: `vin?~ aRsaniSni ki ar ganmar-
tavs, aramed arsebiTad sxva sakiTxs arkves: sa-
kuTriv vin ganaxorciela interpretacia. mTa-
varia ganmmartebeli. SesaZloa nicSe swored
am azrs aniWebda sityva `fsiqologias~. meore
Sedegi: interpretacia yovelTvis iZulebulia
ganmartos sakuTari Tavi. mas ar SeuZlia gae-
qces sakuTar Tavs, ar SeuZlia sakuTar Tavs
ar daubrundes. niSnis drosagan gansxvave-
biT, romelsac sakuTari gansazRvruli vada
hqonda, aseve gansxvavebiT dialeqtikisagan,
romlis dro, miuxedavad yvelafrisa, sworxa-
zovania, interpretaciis dro ukve cikluria.
am drom isev iq unda gaiaros, sadac man ukve
gaiara. amitom erTaderTi realuri safrTxe,
oRond es uzenaesi safrTxea, ramdenadac
paradoqsaluri ar unda iyos, interpretacias
41
niSanTa mxridan emuqreba. interpretaciisaT-
vis sikvdili iqneboda niSanTa pirveladoba,
sawyisuroba da realuroba, maTi sistematuri
mauwyeblobiTi kavSirebi rom dagvejerebina.
amis sapiripirod ki misi sicocxle iqnebo-
da imis dajereba, rom araferi arsebobs garda
interpretaciisa. me mgonia kargad unda gves-
modes is, rasac dRes xSirad iviwyeben xolme.
hemenevtika da semiotika erTmaneTis mosisxle
mtrebi arian, _ hermenevtika, romelic semi-
ologiis sazRvrebSi iketeba, niSanTa abso-
lutur arsebobaSia darwmunebuli. igi uars
ambobs interpretaciis iseT Tvisebebze, ro-
goricaa Zalmomreoba, dausrulebloba da us-
asruloba, masSi myardeba niSanTa (indice) ter-
ori. amgvarad eWvis qveS dgeba ena. aq ukve Cven
SevicnobT iseT marqsizms, rogoric is marqsis
Semdeg gaxda. amis sapiripirod, hermenevtika,
romelmac Tavisi Tavi ipova, Sedis sakuTari
impliciturobis usasrulobaSi davanebul ena-
Ta samefoSi, romelic erTdroulad sigiJesac
ekuTvnis da enis wminda arsebasac. zustad aq
Cven SevicnobT nicSes.

42
diskusia

bemi
Tqven marTlac aCveneT, rom nicSesTan
interpretacia arasodes mTavrdeba da amiT
warmoadgens sinamdvilis arss, ufro metic,
nicSesTvis `axsna~ samyaro da `Secvalo~ sa-
myaro _ es erTi da igivea. magram gana es asea
marqsTanac? cnobil teqstSi is erTmaneTs up-
irispirebs samyaros gardaqmnas da samyaros
ganmartebas.6

fuko
marTlac, me velodi, rom marqsis am fra-
zas damipirispirebdnen. oRondac, Tu Tqven
daubrundebiT politikur ekonomias, Tqven
aRmoaCenT, rom marqsi mas yovelTvis ganixi-
lavs rogorc interpretaciis saSualebas. `in-
terpretaciis~ Sesaxeb cnobili teqsti, exeba
filosofias da filosofiis dasasruls. ma-

43
gram politikuri ekonomia, rogorc is marqss
esmis, SeiZleba ganimartos ise, rom filoso-
fiisagan gansxvavebiT dasasrulisTvis ar iyos
ganwiruli, es mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iqneba
SesaZlebeli, Tu igi angariSs uwevs samyaros
Secvlasac da amave dros, raRacnairad inter-
pretaciasac warmoadgens.

bemi
meore SekiTxva: xom ar warmoadgens marq-
sis, nicSesa da froidisaTvis saerTo mTavar
ideas cnobierebis avtomistifikacia? es xom
ar aris axali, XIX saukuneSi warmoSobili-
axali idea, romelic, rogorc me meCveneba,
hegelidan7 momdinareobs.

fuko
Cemi mxridan sisuste iqneboda meTqva, rom
es is problema ar aris, romlis wamoWrac me
msurda. me mindoda ganmexila interpretacia
rogorc aseTi. es ra, hegelis gavlenaa?
erTi ram ueWvelia: niSnis mniSvneloba an,
yovel SemTxvevaSi, cvlilebebi niSnis mniSvn-
elobis SefasebaSi, romelic damkvidrda XVIII
saukunis bolos an XIX saukunis dasawyisSi,
mravali mizeziT iyo ganpirobebuli. magali-
Tad, filologiis aRmoCena am sityvis klasi-
kuri azriT, indoevropul enaTa sistematikis
44
Seqmna, is faqti, rom klasifikaciis meTode-
bi uvargisi gaxdnen, yovelive aman ueWvelia
Cvens kulturas, anu niSanTa samyaros sru-
liad Seucvala saxe. iseTi movlena, rogoric
aris bunebis filosofia, yvelaze farTo az-
riT _ ara marto hegelTan, aramed mis yvela
TanamemamulesTan da TanamedrovesTan, _ gvi-
dasturebs, rom am periodis kulturaSi niS-
nisadmi mimarTeba cvlilebebs ganicdis.
me iseTi STabeWdileba meqmneba, rom Cvens
saubarSi iseTi problemebis ganxilvisaTvis,
romelic ar iqna gamokvleuli, ufro nayofi-
eri iqneboda rogorc Tema, gangvexila cno-
bierebis mistifikaciis idea, romelic war-
moiSva am niSnis fundamenturi cvlilebebis
reJimSi da TviTon masSi ar gveZebna interpre-
taciisadmi interesis wyaro.

tobi
xom ar aris batoni fukos analizi arasru-
li? is ar iTvaliswinebs religiuri egzegezis
teqnikebs, romlebic aq gadamwyvet rols Ta-
maSobdnen. garda amisa, ar aris damajerebeli
istoriis namdvili artikulacia, romelic
man warmoadgina. miuxedavad imisa, rac fukom
axla Tqva, me meCveneba, rom interpretacia XIX
saukuneSi hegeliT daiwyo.

45
fuko
me ar misaubria religiur interpretaci-
aze, romelic Zalze mniSvnelovania; ramdena-
dac me, istoriis Zalzed Semoklebul gadmo-
cemaSi aqcenti gavakeTe niSnebze da ara mniS-
vnelobaze. rac Seexeba saubars XIX saukunis
ambebze, ra Tqma unda, is SeiZleba daukav-
Sirdes hegelis saxels. magram rac Seexeba uki-
duresad farTo azriT gagebul niSnebs, indo-
evropuli enebis aRmoCenas, zogadi gramatikis
gauCinarebas, organizmis cnebis Canacvlebas
xasiTis cnebiT _ ara nakleb mniSvnelovani
movlenebia, vidre hegelis filosofia. erTma-
neTSi ar unda agverios filosofiis istoria
da azrovnebis arqeologia.

vatimo
me Tu kargad gagigeT, marqsi erT rigSi
unda davayenoT im moazrovneebTan, romlebmac
rogorc nicSem, aRmoaCines interpretaciis us-
asruloba. me Tqven sruliad geTanxmebiT nic-
SesTan dakavSirebiT, magram marqsTan, rogorc
me meCveneba, mainc saxeze gvaqvs ukanaskneli
punqti. ra aris `bazisi~,8 Tu ara raRac, rac
unda ganixilebodes rogorc safuZveli?

fuko
rac Seexeba marqss, me TiTqmis ver movas-
46
wari gameSala Cemi azrebi marqsze, da vSiSob,
rom axla ukve maT dasabuTebas veRar SevZleb.
magram aviRoT, magaliTad, `Tvrameti bri-
umeri lui bonapartisa~: marqsi arasodes ar
gvTavazobs Tavis interpretaciebs ukanaskne-
li instanciis saxiT: mas kargad esmis, _ da
TviTonac ambobs amis Sesaxeb, _ rom yovelT-
vis SeiZleba moiZebnos interpretaciis ufro
Rrma an ufro zogadi done, da rom amomwuravi
ganmarteba ar arsebobs.

vali
me vfiqrob, yvela analogiis miuxedavad,
saxezea marqssa da froids Soris omi, erTi
mxriv, da meore mxriv maTi brZola nicSesTan.
Tu marqsi marTalia, maSin nicSeSi ama Tu im
epoqis burJuaziis warmomadgeneli unda da-
vinaxoT. Tu froidia marTali, maSin nicSes
aracnobiers unda mivmarToT. swored amaSi
vxedav me Tavisebur sadaos nicSesa da danar-
Cen ors Soris.
gana marTali ar viqnebi, Tu vityvi, rom
dResdReobiT Cven erTob Warbad gvaxasiaTebs
interpretacionizmi? Cven `interpretaciebiT
davsneuldiT~. interpretaciebi ueWvelad
saWiroa, magram gana marTlac ar arsebobs
is, rasac ganvmartavT? SeiZleboda kiTxva
ase dagvesva: vin ganmartavs? da bolos: di-
47
axac, Cven mistificirebulni varT, magram vis
mier? Tu arsebobs macduri, maS, vin aris is?
ganmartebaTa simravle yovelTvis arsebob-
da: arsebobs marqsi, froidi, nicSe, magram
agreTve arsebobs gobino, arsebobs marqsizmi,
fsiqoanalizi, magram arsebobs rasobrivi in-
terpretaciebic...

fuko
ganmartebaTa simravlis problema, gansx-
vavebul interpretaciaTa Soris konfliqti,
struqturulad SesaZlebeli gaxda swored
interpretaciis im gansazRvrebis wyalobiT,
roca is usasrulobaSi gadadis, roca amas
ar gaaCnia absoluturi wertili. romelze
dayrdnobiTac Tavis Tavs gansjis da iRebs
gadawyvetilebas. ai, swored amdenad, Cven
aucileblad vxdebiT interpretaciis sagani;
es is momentia, roca Cven ganvmartavT _ amas
unda acnobierebdes yoveli ganmmartebeli,
esaa ganmartebis Tanamedrove dasavluri kul-
turis erT-erTi yvelaze Rrma maxasiaTebeli.

vali
magram, xom arian adamianebi, romlebic
ganmmarteblebi ar arian.

48
fuko
isini imeoreben, TviTon imeoreben am ena-
ze.

vali
ratom? ase ratom unda vambobdeT? ra Tqma
unda, Cven SegviZlia klodeli9 ganvmartoT
mravalnairad; SesaZlebelia froidistuli da
marqsistuli interpretaciebi, magram mTavari
mainc is aris, rom is klodelis nawarmoebebia.
rac Seexeba nicSes nawarmoebebs, amis Tqma Zne-
lia. maT SeiZleba ver gauZlon marqsistul an
froidistul interpretaciebs.

fuko
o, me ar vityodi, rom nicSe maT ver
gauZlebs. interpretaciis teqnikebSi nicSe
radikalurad gansxvavebulia, raRac iseTia,
rac saSualebas ar gvaZlevs im mkacr korpo-
ratiul warmonaqmnebSi CavweroT, rogorebic
arian dRevandeli komunistebi an fsiqoanali-
tikosebi. imasTan dakavSirebiT, rasac nicSea-
nelebi ganmartaven, maT ar gaaCniaT...

vali
ra, nicSeanelebic arseboben? es me Zalze
saeWvod meCveneba.

49
baroni
Tqven xom ar geCvenebaT, rom paraleli
marqssa, nicSesa da froids Soris SeiZleba
aseTi iyos: nicSe aanalizebs keTil grZnobebs
da cdilobs aCvenos Tu ras malaven isini si-
namdvileSi (rogorc es `moralis genialogi-
aSia~). froidi Tavisi fsiqoanaliziT avlens
farul Sinaarsebs; swored aq, interpretacia
damRupveli xdeba `keTili grZnobebisaTvis~.
da bolos, marqsi Tavs esxmis burJuaziis ke-
Tilgonierebas da imas aCvenebs, rac iq si-
namdvileSia. ganmartebis am samive wess sa-
fuZvlad erTi idea udevs: arseboben niSnebi,
romlebic ganmartebas eqvemdebarebian. saWi-
roa maTi mniSvnelobebis aRmoCena, Tundac es
ganmarteba ar iyos martivi da saWiro iyos
misi ganxorcieleba etapobrivad, Tundac us-
asrulobamde. magram me meCveneba, rom fsiqo-
logiaSi arsebobs ganmartebis sxva tipic, ro-
melic sruliad gansxvavebulia, da romelic
gvaiZulebs gavixsenoT XVI saukune, romelzec
Cven vsaubrobdiT. me mxedvelobaSi maqvs karl
iungi, man gailaSqra RirebulebaTa dakargvis
safrTxis winaaRmdeg, froidistuli inter-
pretaciebi rom Seicavs. iungi erTmaneTs upi-
rispirebs niSansa da simbolos: niSani moiTxo-
vs Tavis dafaruli Sinaarsis gamomJRavnebas.
simbolo ki TviTon laparakobs. miuxedavad
50
imisa, rom axla nicSe davayene froidisa da
marqsis gverdiT, am sakiTxSi SeiZleba davuax-
lovoT iungs. nicSesTvis, iseve rogorc iun-
gisaTvis `me~-sa da `igi~-s (Le ”moi” et Le ”soi”)
Soris arsebobs opozicia, arsebiTi sxvaoba
`did~ (Le grand reson) da mcire gonebebs Soris.
nicSe araCveulebrivad gonebamaxvili ganmmar-
tebelia, metic, is sastikia, magram masSi aris
raRac, rac saSualebas aZlevs miayurados
`diad gonebas~ da es mas iungTan aaxloebs.

fuko
Tqven ueWvelad marTali brZandebiT.

ramnu
me mindoda religiuri egzegezis sakiTxs
davbrunebodi. ratom ar laparakobT mis mniS-
vnelobaze? aris kidev erTi ram, rac, Cemis
azriT, ar unda gamogvrCes: TargmanTa isto-
ria. bibliis yoveli mTargmneli ambobs, rom
is gadmoscems RvTiur WeSmaritebas, da Sesaba-
misad, TargmanSi unda Caidos usasrulo sazri-
sebi, droTa ganmavlobaSi Targmanebi icvleba
da am evoluciaSi SeiZleba raRac gamoaSkarav-
des... magram es Zalzed rTuli sakiTxia.
kidev erTi Zalian rTuli sakiTxi. me ad-
rec mifiqria nicSesa da froidis urTierT-
damokidebulebaze. amis Sesaxeb Tqven TiTqmis
51
verafers SeityobT verc froidis TxzulebaTa
sruli krebulidan da verc jonsis wignidan.
maSin me Cems Tavs vuTxari: `iqneb problema pi-
riqiTaa; ratom dumda froidi nicSes Sesaxeb?~
aq ori momentia. jer erTi, 1908 wels froi-
dis mowafeebma, rankem da adlerma, CvenTvis
saintereso Temaze Caatares mcire seminari,
seminarze ganixileboda nicSesa (kerZod misi
`moralis genialogiis~) da froidis ideebis
msgavsebis an analogiis sakiTxi.
froidi amas erTob TavSekavebulad moe-
kida da mowafeebs saSualeba misca sakuTari
Sexedulebisamebr emoqmedaT, me vfiqrob, rom
mas SeeZlo eTqva daaxloebiT aseTi ram: `nicSe
erTbaSad qmnis metismetad bevr ideas ~.
meorec. dawyebuli 1910 wlidan, froidi
axloblobda lu salomesTan10. is rasakvir-
velia Cautarebda didaqtikur analizs. Sesa-
bamisad, SeiZleba vilaparakoT lu salomeTi
gaSualoebuli, Taviseburi xasiaTis Terapiul
damokidebulebaze nicSesa da froids Soris.
amitom froids ar SeeZlo amis Taobaze ela-
paraka. magram ueWvelia, rom is, rac Semdeg
lu salomem gamoaqveyna, Tavisi arsebiT ekuT-
vnis dausrulebel analizs. is swored aseT
perspeqtivaSi unda ganvixiloT. garda amisa,
froidis wignSi `mose da monoTeizmi~ SeiZleba
davinaxoT Taviseburi dialogi `moralis ge-
52
nialogiasTan~. xedavT, me Tqven problemebs
gTavazobT. Tqven kidev xom araferi iciT amis
Sesaxeb?

fuko
namdvilad araferi vici. me TviTonac SeZ-
ruli viyavi froidis am ucnauri dumilis gamo
_ is nicSeze arafers ambobs, TviT mimowera-
Sic ki, gamonaklisi mxolod ramdenime frazaa.
es namdvilad sakmaod mniSvnelovani gamoca-
naa. imis Tqma, rom lu salomesTan Catarebuli
fsiqoanalizis mixedviT faqtia, froids ar
SeeZlo amaze meti eTqva...

ramnu
mas ar surda amaze metis Tqma.

demonbini
Tqven nicSes Sesaxeb TqviT, rom SeSlilo-
bis gamocdileba axlos dgas mTel absolutur
codnasTan. SeiZleba Tu ara me Tqven gkiTxoT,
Tqveni azriT, ramdenad flobda nicSe am
SeSlilobis gamocdilebas? Tqven rom dro
gqonodaT, vfiqrob, Zalze saintereso iqne-
boda es sakiTxi dagveyenebina sxva did moaz-
rovneebTan dakavSirebiTac, iqnebodnen isini
poetebi Tu mwerlebi, rogorc holderlini,
nervali da mopasani, Tu musikosebi, rogorc
53
Sumani, anri diupari, moris raveli. magram
nicSes davubrundeT. sworad gavige? Tqven
am SeSlilobis gamocdilebaze arc bevri il-
aparakeT, arc cota. Tqven swored amis Tqma
gsurdaT?

fuko
diax.

demonbini
iqneb Tqven gsurdaT geTqvaT, SeSlilo-
bis `cnobiereba~ an `SeSlilobis winacodna~ an
`winaTgrZnoba~? Tqven marTlac miiCnevT, rom
did moazroneebs, iseTebs, rogorc nicSe iyo,
SeiZleba hqondeT `SeSlilobis gamocdileba~?

fuko
me Tqven getyodiT, `diax!~

demonbini
ar mesmis, es ras niSnavs. albaT imitom,
rom me didi moazrovne ara var!

fuko
me es ar miTqvams.

kelkeli
Cemi kiTxva iqneba mokle. is sakiTxis arss
54
exeba: `imas, rasac Tqven uwodeT `interpre-
taciebis teqnika~, romlebSiac Tqven, vgoneb,
Tu filosofiis Semcvlels ara, mis memkvid-
res mainc xedavT. xom ar TvliT, rom samyaros
interpretaciis teqnikebi, upirveles yovli-
sa, arian `Terapiis~, mkurnalobis teqnikebi,
am sityvebis yvelaze ufro farTo azriT: sa-
zogadoebis mkurnaloba marqsTan, individisa
froidTan, an kacobriobisa nicSesTan?

fuko
diax, me vfiqrob, rom XIX saukuneSi in-
terpretaciis sazrisi marTlac Zalzed axlo
iyo imasTan, rasac Tqvan Terapias uwodebT.
axla erTi istorikosis, gvarad garsias cita-
tas moviyvan: `Cvens droSi _ is amas werda 1860
wels _ xsna janmrTelobam Secvala~.

55
SeniSvnebi

1. `mrgvali magida~ (`Round table”) warmoadgen-


da saerTaSoriso filosofiur koloqvi-
ums nicSes Sesaxeb, romelic gaimarTa 1964
wlis 4-8 ivliss. moxsenebiT gamovidnen:
miSel fuko, gabriel marseli, Jil deli-
ozi, Jan bofreti, henri birolti, mazino
mintinari, pier kosovski da sxvebi.
2. J. porta _ XVII saukunis frangi avtori,
mTavari Txzulebebia `naturaluri magia~
da `adamianuri fiziologia~. es Sedare-
biT ucnobi avtori m. fukom warmoswia
wina planze. fuko am avtorze araerTgzis
apelirebs Tavis `sityvebsa da sagnebSi~ da
sxva SromebSi.
3. Spatalite _ SeiZleba iTargmnos rogorc gan-
zomileba, Wrili, sibrtye da a.S. aqvs sxva
leqsikonuri da konteqsturi mniSvnelobe-
bic.
4. Jiles Deleuse, `Nitzcshe et la philosophie”, P.U.F.
1962. am SromaSi nicSe gamocxadda simu-
lakrebis Teoriis winamorbedad da simu-
lakruli universumis pirvel aRmoCenad.
5. `Tavdayira mdgari dialeqtikis fexze daye-
neba~. _ k. marqsi Tvlida, rom hegelis sis-
temaSi azrTa Sejaxebis Sedegad warmoSo-
bili gonis TviTmoZraoba sakuTari srul-
56
qmnilebis mimarTulebiT da saboloo dava-
neba Tavis ganxorcielebul absoluturo-
baSi, iyo idealisturad gaukuRmarTebuli
realuri yofiereba. amitom is marqsma
`waikiTxa~ materialisturad, e.i. rogorc
socialur realobaSi gansaxorcielebeli
gonebis proeqti, anu dedamiwaze idealuri
sazogadoebis aSenebis proeqti. marqsi Tv-
lida, rom `istoria klasTa brZolaa~. amas
marqsistebi uwodeben `Tavadayira mdgari
dialeqtikis fexze dayenebas~.
6. igulisxmeba k. marqsis IX Tezisi foierba-
xis Sesaxeb: `filosofosebi sxvadasxvagva-
rad ganmartdnen samyaros, saqme is aris, is
Secvlili iqnes~.
7. georg vilhelm fridrix hegeli (1770-1830)
_ Seajama germanuli klasikuri filosofia
da Seqmna universaluri dialeqtikuri lo-
gikis sistema. hegelis sistema aRiqmeboda
rogorc klasikuri filosofiis dasasru-
li, misi SesaZleblobebis sruli amowur-
va. marqsi, kirkegori da XIX saukunis sxva
moazrovneni, romlebmac Semdeg postkla-
sikuri filosofiis saTaveebi moamzades,
Tavidan hegelianelebi iyvnen. kulturis
qmnilebaTa sazrisis restavraciis princi-
pi, hegelma Secvala integraciis princi-
piT. hegelis mixedviT, kulturis yoveli
57
movlena ganmartebis gziT erTveba obieq-
tivirebuli sulis (Geist) erTian msoflio
istoriul procesSi, sulis integralur
universumSi.
8. k. marqsis moZRvrebis mixedviT, yoveli
sazogadoebriv-ekonomiuri formaciis ba-
ziss Seadgens warmoebis wesi anu sawarmoo
Zalebisa da warmoebiTi urTierTobebis
SeerTebis wesi. am bazisiTaa gansazRvruli
mTeli kulturul-sulieri zednaSeni.
9. pol klodeli (1868-1955) _ frangi religi-
uri poeti da dramaturgi, safrangeTis
akademiis wevri. gavixsenoT galaktionis
cnobili strofi:
`varT poetebi saqarTvelosi,
romelTac gvaxsovs dRe uaresi,
Cven axlac viciT, sad dadgebian
klodeli, Jammi, siuaresi...~
10. lu salome (1861-1937) _ germaneli mwe-
rali qali. axlo megobroba akavSirebda
f. nicSesTan da rainer maria rilkesTan.
1894 wels gamosca nicSes biografia. 1911
wlidan daemowafa z. froids. ramdenime
statia gamoaqveyna fsiqoanalizis Sesaxeb.
mogvianebiT frangul enaze gamosca avto-
biografia da piradi mimowera nicSesTan,
rilkesTan da froidTan.

58
SeniSvnebisaTvis

_________________

59
miSel fuko

nicSe, froidi, marqsi

Tanamedrove hermenevtikis saTaveebTan

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa
daviT gogliZe

505 cali

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Tbilisi, al. yazbegis gamz., #47
239-15-22
E-mail: meridiani777@gmail.com

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